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Sample records for neoplastic transformation frequency

  1. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  2. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  3. Neoplastic transformation induced by carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Hessel, Petra; Stucchi, Claudio G; Weyrather, Wilma K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the oncogenic potential of carbon ion beams and conventional photon beams for use in radiotherapy. The HeLa X human skin fibroblast cell line CGL1 was irradiated with carbon ions of three different energies (270, 100, and 11.4 MeV/u). Inactivation and transformation data were compared with those for 15 MeV photons. Inactivation and transformation frequencies for the 270 MeV/u carbon ions were similar to those for 15-MeV photons. The maximal relative biologic effectiveness (RBE(alpha)) values for 100MeV/u and 11.4 MeV/u carbon ions, respectively, were as follows: inactivation, 1.6 +/- 0.2 and 6.7 +/- 0.7; and transformation per surviving cell, 2.5 +/- 0.6 and 12 +/- 3. The curve for dose-transformation per cell at risk exhibited a maximum that was shifted toward lower doses at lower energies. Transformation induction per cell at risk for carbon ions in the entrance channel was comparable to that for photons, whereas for the lower energies, 100 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u, which are representative of the energies delivered to the tumor margins and volume, respectively, the probability of transformation in a single cell was greater than it was for photons. In addition, at isoeffective doses with respect to cell killing, the 11.4-MeV/u beam was more oncogenic than were photons.

  4. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype.

  5. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Pain, C.; Mason, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that induction of neoplastic transformation in vitro by x-rays and neutrons has been reported, and the authors had previously found that transformation by x-rays could be detected at doses as low as 1 R and the rate of transformation increased with dose, reaching a peak of 1% between 150 and 300 R. This frequency of neoplastic transformation in vitro is much higher than the frequency of radiation induced tumors observed after exposing animals to similar doses of radiation. Studies are here reported showing that malignant transformed cells can be obtained from embryos irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro, and that the frequency of transformation is at least tenfold lower than when the irradiations are performed in vitro, and thus closer to the incidence in animals. Hamster embryo cells were used for the studies. Questions that arise are as follows: does the host mediate in modulating transformation by radiation; is there a repair of transforming events before they can be expressed; and how significant is the state of cells during irradiation in determining the rate of transformation. It is known from in vitro studies that cell replication is required for fixation of the transformation. With the in vitro technique cells are seeded as single cells with ample opportunity to divide. In addition they are not in contact with one another, and constitute a mixture of cell types from many tissues. In utero the situation is quite different; the embryonic cells are irradiated as tissues where there is cell to cell contact in tissue-specific arrangements, and where the rate of cell replication varies with the tissue. It remains to be seen which of these factors, if any, is responsible for the lowered yield of transformed cells characteristic of in utero as opposed to in vitro irradiation. (U.K.)

  6. X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation of human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have recently been developed to identify and score quantitatively neoplastic transformation caused by x-rays in cultured cells derived from rodents. The present report describes for the first time the neoplastic transformation in vitro of human diploid cells by x-ray irradiation into cells which can progress in vitro into advanced stages of neoplastic development, namely, to form colonies in agar and give rise to tumors when injected into nude mice

  7. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  8. Mechanisms of chemical modification of neoplastic cell transformation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts will be continuously exposed to ionizing radiation; therefore, it is necessary to minimize the radiation damage by all possible means. The authors' studies show that DMSO (when present during irradiation) can protect cells from being killed and transformed by X rays and that low concentration of DMSO can reduce the transformation frequency significantly when it is applied to cells, even many days after irradiation. The process of neoplastic cell transformation is a complicated one and includes at least two different stages: induction and expression. DMSO apparently can modify the radiation damage during both stages. There are several possible mechanisms for the DMSO effect: (1) changing the cell membrane structure and properties; (2) inducing cell differentiation by acting on DNA; and (3) scavanging free radicals in the cell. Recent studies with various chemical agents, e.g., 5-azacytidine, dexamethane, rhodamin-123, etc., indicate that the induction of cell differentiation by acting on DNA may be an important mechanism for the suppression of expression of neoplastic cell transformation by DMSO

  9. X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation of human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1980-01-01

    The neoplastic transformation, in vitro, of human diploid cells by x-ray irradiation into cells which can progress, in vitro, into advanced stages of neoplastic development is described. The cells are shown to form colonies in agar and to give rise to tumours when injected into nude mice. (U.K.)

  10. Adaptive Response Against Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation In Vitro Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J. Leslie

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a dose response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells in vitro under experimental conditions were an adaptive response, if it were induced, would have an opportunity to be expressed. During the first two years of the grant an exhaustive series of experiments were performed and the resulting data were reported at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society and then Subsequently published. The data showed that an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation was seen up to doses of 10cGy of Cs-137 gamma rays. At dose of 30, 50 and 100 cGy the transformation frequencies were above background. This indicated that for this system, under the specific experimental conditions used, there was a threshold of somewhere between 10 and 30 cGy. The results also indicated some unexpected, though very interesting, correlations with relative risk estimates made from human epidemiologic studies

  11. Characteristics of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented to support the hypothesis that the initial step in the morphologic transformation of irradiated rodent (BALB/3T3) cells is a frequent cellular event involving a large fraction of the irradiated population. This process appears to involve DNA damage, but not to represent a targeted mutation in specific structural gene(s). Morphologic transformation and immortalization appear to be distinct steps in the overall process of transformation. In contradistinction to rodent cells, immortalization is a very rare event in human diploid cells which is induced at extremely low frequencies. The hypothesis is presented that immortality develops among clones of cells bearing stable chromosomal rearrangements which emerge during the proliferation of a population of radiation damaged cells.

  12. Possible error-prone repair of neoplastic transformation induced by fission-spectrum neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C K; Han, A; Elkind, M M

    1948-01-01

    An examination was made of the effect of fission-spectrum neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, delivered either as acute or protracted irradiation, on the incidence of neoplastic transformation in the C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cell line. Acute exposures were delivered at 10-38 cGy min/sup -1/, protracted exposures at 0.086 or 0.43 cGy min/sup -1/. The total doses for both ranged from 2.4 to 350 cGy. In the low dose region (2.4-80 cGy), there was a large enhancement in transformation frequency when the neutrons were delivered at the low dose rates compared with the high dose rates, but the survival of the cells was not significantly different between the two exposures conditions. Analysis of the intial parts of the curves shows that the regression line for protracted doses is about 9 times steeper than that for single acute exposures. Finally, the possibility is discussed that an ''error-prone'' repair process may be causing the enhanced transformation frequency by protracted neutron exposures.

  13. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  14. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    of gestation. The brains of the treated fetuses were transferred to cell culture and underwent neoplastic transformation with a characteristic sequence of phenotypic alterations which could be divided into five different stages. During the first 40 days after explantation (stage I & II) BE induced...

  15. Some characteristics of neoplastic cell transformation in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvemberger, I N; Ermilov, A N

    1996-01-01

    The role of the expression of different cellular genes and viral oncogenes in malignant cell transformation is discussed. We pay special attention to the role of the genes for growth factors and their receptors and homeobox genes in oncogenesis. Based on both the literature and our own data, specific features of tumors developed in transgenic mice are discussed. All of these data are used to analyze current theories of multistep oncogenesis and the stochastic component in this process. We suggest that all known evidence about the mechanisms of oncogenesis be used in studying the problem at various structural and functional levels in an organism. The chapter shows that transgenic mice are a most suitable model for studying various aspects of malignant transformation from the molecular to the organismal and populational levels.

  16. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-10-07

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism.

  17. Speeding through cell cycle roadblocks: Nuclear cyclin D1-dependent kinase and neoplastic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diehl J Alan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitogenic induction of cyclin D1, the allosteric regulator of CDK4/6, is a key regulatory event contributing to G1 phase progression. Following the G1/S transition, cyclin D1 activation is antagonized by GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 (Thr-286 phosphorylation, triggering nuclear export and subsequent cytoplasmic degradation mediated by the SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin E3 ubiquitin ligase. Although cyclin D1 overexpression occurs in numerous malignancies, overexpression of cyclin D1 alone is insufficient to drive transformation. In contrast, cyclin D1 mutants refractory to phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export and degradation are acutely transforming. This raises the question of whether overexpression of cyclin D1 is a significant contributor to tumorigenesis or an effect of neoplastic transformation. Significantly, recent work strongly supports a model wherein nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-dependent kinase during S-phase is a critical event with regard to transformation. The identification of mutations within SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin ligase in primary tumors provides mechanistic insight into cyclin D1 accumulation in human cancer. Furthermore, analysis of mouse models expressing cyclin D1 mutants refractory to degradation indicate that nuclear cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase triggers DNA re-replication and genomic instability. Collectively, these new findings provide a mechanism whereby aberrations in post-translational regulation of cyclin D1 establish a cellular environment conducive to mutations that favor neoplastic growth.

  18. Prox1-Heterozygosis Sensitizes the Pancreas to Oncogenic Kras-Induced Neoplastic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Drosos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm of pancreatic neoplastic transformation proposes an initial step whereby acinar cells convert into acinar-to-ductal metaplasias, followed by progression of these lesions into neoplasias under sustained oncogenic activity and inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving these processes is crucial to the early diagnostic and prevention of pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that transcription factors that control exocrine pancreatic development could have either, protective or facilitating roles in the formation of preneoplasias and neoplasias in the pancreas. We previously identified that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a novel regulator of mouse exocrine pancreas development. Here we investigated whether Prox1 function participates in early neoplastic transformation using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. We found that Prox1 expression is transiently re-activated in acinar cells undergoing dedifferentiation and acinar-to-ductal metaplastic conversion. In contrast, Prox1 expression is largely absent in neoplasias and tumors in the pancreas of mice and humans. We also uncovered that Prox1-heterozygosis markedly increases the formation of acinar-to-ductal-metaplasias and early neoplasias, and enhances features associated with inflammation, in mouse pancreatic tissues expressing oncogenic Kras. Furthermore, we discovered that Prox1-heterozygosis increases tissue damage and delays recovery from inflammation in pancreata of mice injected with caerulein. These results are the first demonstration that Prox1 activity protects pancreatic cells from acute tissue damage and early neoplastic transformation. Additional data in our study indicate that this novel role of Prox1 involves suppression of pathways associated with inflammatory responses and cell invasiveness.

  19. Promoting effect of bile acids on neoplastic transformation of x-irradiated 10T1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, A.; Hill, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies have raised a concern about a role of bile acids in colo-rectal carcinogenesis. Studies in vivo suggest that bile acids may act as tumor promoters. Using 10T1/2 mouse cells as a model system, the authors explored the effects of cholic and cheno-deoxycholic acid on x-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in these cells. Addition of either cheno-deoxycholic acid or cholic acid to 10T1/2 cells, 24 hours after exposure to x-rays (50kv) increases significantly the frequencies of transformation. The compounds were present in the medium throughout the entire postirradiation refeeding period. At the concentrations used (0.5μg/ml), neither acid was cytotoxic and did not have any effect on cell survival. The enhancement of radiation-induced transformation seems to be greater in the presence of cholic acid, as compared to the effect of cheno-deoxycholic acid. Increase in transformation was relatively greater after low compared to high doses of radiation. The effect of bile acids on transformation of 10T1/2 cells is similar to that of a known tumor promoter TPA. The authors' observations support the conclusion that promotional effect of bile acids is not because of their specific effect on colonic epithelium, but rather due to their general properties as tumor promoters

  20. SV40 T antigen alone drives karyotype instability that precedes neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, F A; Peabody, D S; Cooper, J L; Cram, L S; Kraemer, P M

    1990-01-01

    To define the role of SV40 large T antigen in the transformation and immortalization of human cells, we have constructed a plasmid lacking most of the unique coding sequences of small t antigen as well as the SV40 origin of replication. The promoter for T antigen, which lies within the origin of replication, was deleted and replaced by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. This minimal construct was co-electroporated into normal human fibroblasts of neonatal origin along with a plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene (neo). Three G418-resistant, T antigen-positive clones were expanded and compared to three T antigen-positive clones that received the pSV3neo plasmid (capable of expressing large and small T proteins and having two origins of replication). Autonomous replication of plasmid DNA was observed in all three clones that received pSV3neo but not in any of the three origin minus clones. Immediately after clonal expansion, several parameters of neoplastic transformation were assayed. Low percentages of cells in T antigen-positive populations were anchorage independent or capable of forming colonies in 1% fetal bovine serum. The T antigen-positive clones generally exhibited an extended lifespan in culture but rarely became immortalized. Large numbers of dead cells were continually generated in all T antigen-positive, pre-crisis populations. Ninety-nine percent of all T antigen-positive cells had numerical or structural chromosome aberrations. Control cells that received the neo gene did not have an extended life span, did not have noticeable numbers of dead cells, and did not exhibit karyotype instability. We suggest that the role of T antigen protein in the transformation process is to generate genetic hypervariability, leading to various consequences including neoplastic transformation and cell death.

  1. Enhanced sensitivity to neoplastic transformation by 137Cs γ-rays of cells in the G2-/M-phase age interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, J.; Wells, R.L.; Elkind, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    C3H mouse 10T1/2 cells, exposed to low doses of fission-spectrum neutrons, have an enhanced frequency of neoplastic transformation if protracted exposures are used (Hill et al. 1982, 1984a, 1985). To explain this anormaly, a biophysical model was proposed (Elkind 1991 a,b). The unique shape and radiobiological properties of cells in and around mitosis, led to the proposal that the sensitive window is mitosis and possible cells just preceding or just following M phase (Elkind 1991a,b). This study was undertaken using 137 Cs γ-rays. The authors found that late G 2- to M-phase 10T1/2 cells have a maximal sensitivity to neoplastic transformation as well as to killing by 137 Cs γ-rays. (author)

  2. Ozone acts alone and synergistically with ionizing radiation to induce in vitro neoplastic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, C; Zaider, M; Ong, A; Mason, H; Witz, G

    1986-09-01

    Ozone, a major chemical oxidant in the atmosphere, is an environmental air pollutant whose ability to act as a direct carcinogen is unclear. Using in vitro transformation, a technique which permits the study of oncogenesis in the absence of host specific effects, it is reported for the first time that ozone (5 p.p.m. for 5 min) induces neoplastic transformation in vitro in both primary hamster embryo cells and mouse fibroblast cultures (C3H/10-1/2). Exposure of the hamster and mouse cells to ozone also results in enhanced levels of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products. The carcinogenic interaction between ozone and ionizing radiation is also reported. Exposure of the cells to 3 or 4 Gy of ..gamma..-rays, 2 h prior to O/sub 3/ treatment, results in markedly enhanced rates of transformation, statistically consistent with a synergistic interaction between the agents. The results demonstrate that O/sub 3/ acts as a direct carcinogen and co-carcinogen on susceptible cells, therefore having important consequences for public health.

  3. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  4. Focus formation and neoplastic transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2 inactivated intracellularly by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and near UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manak, M.M.; Aurelian, L.; Ts'o, P.O.

    1981-01-01

    The induction of focus formation in low serum and of neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells was examined after the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 functions. Syrian hamster embryo cells infected at a high multiplicity (5 PFU/cell) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled herpes simplex virus type 2 (11% substitution of thymidine residues) were exposed to near UV light irradiation at various times postinfection. This procedure specifically inactivated the viral genome, while having little, if any, effect on the unlabeled cellular DNA. Focus formation in 1% serum and neoplastic transformation were observed in cells exposed to virus inactivated before infection, but the frequency was enhanced (15- to 27-fold) in cells in which the virus was inactivated at 4 to 8 h postinfection. Only 2 to 45 independently isolated foci were capable of establishing tumorigenic lines. The established lines exhibited phenotypic alterations characteristic of a transformed state, including reduced serum requirement, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity. They retained viral DNA sequences and, even at relatively late passage, expressed viral antigens, including ICP 10

  5. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of ionizing radiation: Role of adaptive response and bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M.; Lao, X.-Y.; Kapadia, R.; Elmore, E.; Redpath, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction by low doses of ionizing radiation is of critical importance to the assessment of cancer risk at such doses. Epidemiologic analyses are limited by sensitivity to doses typically greater than 50-100 mGy for low LET radiation. Laboratory studies allow for the examination of lower doses using cancer-relevant endpoints. One such endpoint is neoplastic transformation in vitro. It is known that this endpoint is responsive to both adaptive response and bystander effects. The relative balance of these processes is likely to play an important role in determining the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses. A factor that may influence this balance is cell density at time of irradiation. The findings reported in this paper indicate that the transformation suppressive effect of low doses previously seen following irradiation of sub-confluent cultures, and attributed to an adaptive response, is reduced for irradiated confluent cultures. However, even under these conditions designed to optimize the role of bystander effects the data do not fit a linear no-threshold model and are still consistent with the notion of a threshold dose for neoplastic transformation in vitro by low LET radiation

  7. KRAS Mutation and Epithelial-Macrophage Interplay in Pancreatic Neoplastic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Zhang, Lijuan; Barlass, Usman; Preite, Nailliw; Turturro, Sanja; Najor, Matthew S; Shetuni, Brandon B; Zayas, Janet P; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Abukhdeir, Abde M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2018-05-14

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by epithelial mutations in KRAS and prominent tumor-associated inflammation, including macrophage infiltration. But knowledge of early interactions between neoplastic epithelium and macrophages in PDA carcinogenesis is limited. Using a pancreatic organoid model, we found that the expression of mutant KRAS in organoids increased i) ductal to acinar gene expression ratios, ii) epithelial cells proliferation, and iii) colony formation capacity in vitro, and endowed pancreatic cells with the ability to generate neoplastic tumors in vivo. KRAS mutations induced a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in macrophages. Altered macrophages decreased epithelial Pigment Epithelial Derived Factor (PEDF) expression and induced a cancerous phenotype. We validated our findings using annotated patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as well as in our human PDA specimens. Epithelium-macrophage cross talk occurs early in pancreatic carcinogenesis where KRAS directly induces cancer-related phenotypes in epithelium, and also promotes a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in macrophages, in turn augmenting neoplastic growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  8. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  9. Neoplastic progression of rat tracheal epithelial cells involves resistance to transforming growth factor beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Primary, transformed, and tumor-derived rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells were grown in serum-free medium containing 0 to 300 pg/mL transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited the growth of primary RTE cells with a 50% drop in the efficiency of colony formation seen at TGFβ concentrations between 10 and 30 pg/ mL. The effect of TGFβ on preneoplastic RTE cells was similar to the effect on normal primary RTE cells. Cell lines established from tumors produced by inoculation of transformed RTE cells into nude mice were relatively resistant to -TGFβ-induced growth inhibition. Resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition, therefore, appears to be a late event in the development of neoplasia. (author)

  10. In vitro neoplastic transformation of plant callus tissue by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.N.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tumours have been induced by γ-radiation in callus tissue derived from a monocotyledonous flowering plant, Haworthia mirabilis Haw. The transformed tissue exhibited compact texture, excessive cell proliferation and loss of capacity for organogenesis. Tumors were characterized by their ability to undergo continuous autonomous growth on minimal media in the subsequent 4 generations of subculture. In contrast, the nonirradiated control tissue grew with friable texture, required inositol or growth hormones and showed prolific differentiation of vegetative buds. (Auth.)

  11. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie L. Holmes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D. Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

  12. Frequency analysis of DC tolerant current transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlejnek, P; Kaspar, P

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with wide frequency range behaviour of DC tolerant current transformers that are usually used in modern static energy meters. In this application current transformers must comply with European and International Standards in their accuracy and DC tolerance. Therefore, the linear DC tolerant current transformers and double core current transformers are used in this field. More details about the problems of these particular types of transformers can be found in our previous works. Although these transformers are designed mainly for power distribution network frequency (50/60 Hz), it can be interesting to understand their behaviour in wider frequency range. Based on this knowledge the new generations of energy meters with measuring quality of electric energy will be produced. This solution brings better measurement of consumption of nonlinear loads or measurement of non-sinusoidal voltage and current sources such as solar cells or fuel cells. The determination of actual power consumption in such energy meters is done using particular harmonics component of current and voltage. We measured the phase and ratio errors that are the most important parameters of current transformers, to characterize several samples of current transformers of both types

  13. The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in gamma-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.; Mendonca, M.S.; Sun, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on cell growth, progression of cells through the cell cycle, and the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in γ-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells has been examined. Cell growth and cell cycle progression were essentially stopped at this reduced temperature. Cell survival was dramatically reduced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C, as opposed to 37 degrees C, after 7.5 Gy γ radiation delivered at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Return of the cells to 37 degrees C for 6 h after holding at 22 degrees C did not result in increased survival. A similar effect was obtained when the cells were held at 22 degrees C between split-dose irradiation of log-phase cultures where no increase in survival was observed over a split-dose interval of 4 h. In this case a partial increase in survival was observed upon returning the cells to 37 degrees C for 3 h after holding at 22 degrees C for the first 3 h of the split-dose interval. Neoplastic transformation frequency was not enhanced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C after 7.5 Gy γ radiation. This is consistent with previous observations that misrepair of potentially neoplastic transforming damage already occurs at 37 degrees C. The overall results are interpreted in terms of the reduced temperature favoring misrepair, rather than inhibition of repair, of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially transforming radiation damage. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. In vitro study of the influence of alpha particles irradiation on the pre-neoplastic transformation of rat trachea epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, C.

    2001-12-01

    Intern contamination by actinide oxide inhalation is potentially one health hazard during the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The aerosol particles can induce pulmonary lesions, such as epithelial cancers in particular. Their toxicity is mainly due to radiotoxicity of α irradiation. The aim of this work was to contribute, by an in vitro model, to the study of the apparition of pre-neoplastic states on epithelial cells after high LET irradiation. Primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells were used. Two rat strain cells, SD TR for Sprague Dawley rats and WF TR for Wistar Furth I Fischer F344 rats, were compared after exposure to a dose range from 0 to 5 Gy. Reproductive cell death, i.e. senescent death, seems to be the main lethal way induced by α and γ irradiations. The nuclear volume of WF TR cells is higher than that of SD TR ones, explaining the higher α radiation-induced lethality of these cells. These WF TR cells are also much sensitive to dose rate and α particles energy. In the same manner, pre-neoplastic transformation rate of the cells seems to depend on the physical parameters of irradiation. But, it mainly varies as a function of cell radiosensitivity, that means cell death. In fact, the transformation rate of sensitive WF TR cells is lower than that of SD TR ones. In term of transformation for SD TR cells, dose-effect relationship fits to a linear and infra linear function after α irradiation, whereas the curve fits to linear and quadratic function after γ irradiation. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) of α particles for lethality and pre-neoplastic transformation were determined for several levels of dose. A constant value of about 3 was found for RBE of lethality whatever the α dose. By contrast, the RBE of transformation has a value of about 10 up to 0.5 Gy and gradually decreases at higher doses to reach a value of 1 at 5 Gy. Similar shapes of dose-effect relationship can be observed for malignant lung tumour induction after

  15. Loss of a putative tumor suppressor locus after gamma-ray-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x Skin fibroblast human cell hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, M.S.; Redpath, J.L.; Fasching, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid cell line, CGL1, can be induced to re-express HeLa tumor-associated cell surface antigen, p75-IAP (intestinal alkaline phosphatase), with resulting neoplastic transformation, by exposure to γ radiation. This has allowed the human hybrid system to be developed into a quantitative in vitro model for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human cells. Recently, several γ-ray-induced IAP-expression mutants (GIMs) of the nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid CGL1 were isolated and all were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Control cell lines which were negative for p75-IAP (CONs) were also isolated from irradiated populations, and none were found to be tumorigenic. We have now begun to investigate the molecular basis of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in this system by studying the potential genetic linkage between p75/IAP expression, tumorigenicity and damage to a putative tumor suppressor locus on fibroblast chromosome 11. Previous analysis of rare spontaneous segregants has indicated that this locus is involved in the regulation of tumorigenicity and in the expression of the HeLa tumor-associated cell surface marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (p75-IAP) in this system. Therefore, analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and chromosome painting have been performed for chromosome 11, and for chromosome 13 as a control, for the p75/IAP-positive GIM and p75/IAP-negative CON cell lines. We report that in five of eight of the GIMs large-scale damage to the fibroblast chromosome 11's is evident (four GIMs have lost one complete copy of a fibroblast chromosome 11 heavily damaged). None of the CONs, however (0/5), have lost a complete copy of either fibroblast chromosome 11. No large-scale damage to the control chromosome 13's was detected in the GIMs or CONs. 49 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. [Neoplastic transformation of mouse fibroblasts under the influence of high-energy protons and gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh

    2004-01-01

    Oncoginic transformations of mouse fibroblasts C3H10T1/2 after exposure to proton energies 150 and 584 MeV were compared with fibroblast effects of gamma-radiation. Prior to exposure, cell populations (2.7 x 10(3) cells/cm2) were inoculated in plastic vials with the surface area of 75 cm2 and cultivated 11 days. Survivability was determined by comparing the number of cell colonies in irradiated and non-irradiated (control) vials. Transformation rate was calculated by dividing the total transformation focus number by the number of survived cells in a vial. Rate of oncogenic transformations after gamma- and proton (584 MeV) irradiation was essentially identical, i.e. the parameter grew rapidly at the doses 1 Gy. In the dose interval between 1 and 5 Gy, transformation rate for proton energy 150 MeV was found low compared with gamma-radiation and proton energy 584 MeV. It is hypothesized that the different transformation rate after exposure to proton energy 150 MeV is linked with the high linear energy transfer as compared with the proton energy of 584 MeV and gamma-radiation.

  17. A Microbiomic Analysis in African Americans with Colonic Lesions Reveals Streptococcus sp.VT162 as a Marker of Neoplastic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Brim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC. To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA and genomic content (metagenomics. Metagenomic functions with discriminative power between healthy and neoplastic specimens were established. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR using primers and probes specific to Streptococcus sp. VT_162 were used to validate this bacterium association with neoplastic transformation in stool samples from two independent cohorts of African Americans and Chinese patients with colorectal lesions. The metabolomic analysis of adenomas revealed low amino acids content. The microbiota in both cancer vs. normal tissues and adenoma vs. normal stool samples were different at the 16S rRNA gene level. Cross-mapping of metagenomic data led to 9 markers with significant discriminative power between normal and diseased specimens. These markers identified with Streptococcus sp. VT_162. Q-PCR data showed a statistically significant presence of this bacterium in advanced adenoma and cancer samples in an independent cohort of CRC patients. We defined metagenomic functions from Streptococcus sp. VT_162 with discriminative power among cancers vs. matched normal and adenomas vs. healthy subjects’ stools. Streptococcus sp. VT_162 specific 16S rDNA was validated in an independent cohort. These findings might facilitate non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer.

  18. Multistep process of neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts by 60Co gamma rays and Harvey sarcoma viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, M.; Nishitani, K.; Fukushima, F.; Kimoto, T.; Nose, K.

    1986-03-15

    As reported previously (Namba et al., 1985), normal human fibroblasts were transformed by 60Co gamma-ray irradiation into immortal cells with abnormal karyotypes. These transformed cells (KMST-6), however, showed a low cloning efficiency in soft agar and no transplantability. However, upon treatment with Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MSV), the cells acquired elevated clonability in soft agar and transplantability in nude mice. Ha-MSV alone, however, did not convert normal human fibroblasts into either immortal or tumorigenic cells. The Ha-MSV-transformed KMST-6 cells showed an enhanced expression of the ras oncogene, but normal and 60Co gamma-ray-transformed cells did not. Our current data suggest that gamma rays worked against normal human cells as an initiator, giving rise to chromosome aberrations and immortality, and that Ha-MSV, probably through its ras oncogene, played a role in the progression of the malignant cell population to a more malignant one showing enhanced colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice.

  19. Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.

  20. Formation of Shc-Grb2 complexes is necessary to induce neoplastic transformation by overexpression of Shc proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; McGlade, J; Pelicci, G

    1994-01-01

    The mammalian SHC gene encodes three overlapping proteins which all contain a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Shc proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine by a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylated Shc proteins form a complex with the SH2-SH3 containing Grb2 protein which...... of Grb2 to Shc proteins requires phosphorylation of Shc at Tyr317, which lies within the high affinity binding motif for the Grb2 SH2 domain, pYVNV, where Asn at the +2 position is crucial for complex formation. In vivo, Tyr317 is the major, but not the only, site for Shc phosphorylation, and is the sole...... aminoterminal deletion, but retain the Tyr317 site and the SH2 domain conserve the capacity to be phosphorylated, to bind to Grb2 and to induce cell transformation. These data indicate that the formation of the Shc-Grb2 complex is a crucial event in the transformation induced by overexpression of Shc...

  1. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueckle, Todd A.; Lu, Yongju; Davis, Mary E.; Wang, Liying; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Holaskova, Ida; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As 2 O 3

  2. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stueckle, Todd A., E-mail: tstueckle@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Lu, Yongju, E-mail: yongju6@hotmail.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Davis, Mary E., E-mail: mdavis@wvu.edu [Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Wang, Liying, E-mail: lmw6@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Holaskova, Ida, E-mail: iholaskova@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Schafer, Rosana, E-mail: rschafer@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon, E-mail: yrojan@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As{sub 2}O

  3. Mutation induction and neoplastic transformation in human and human-hamster hybrid cells: dependence on photon energy and modulation in the low-dose range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenberg, D.; Frankenberg-Schwager, M.; Garg, I.; Pralle, E. [Abt. Klin. Strahlenbiologie und Klin. Strahlenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Uthe, D.; Greve, B.; Severin, E.; Goehde, W. [Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, Universitaet Muenster, Munster (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Mutation induction in the HPRT gene of human fibroblasts after irradiation with mammography-like 29 kVp or 200 kVp x-rays shows radiohypersensitivity for doses smaller than {approx}0.5 Gy. Similarly, mutation induction in the CD 59 gene on human chromosome 11 in A{sub L} cells shows radiohypersensitivity for doses smaller than {approx}0.5 Gy after exposure to 200 kVp x-rays, but not after irradiation with low-filtered 30 kVp x-rays. The RBE values of 29 and 30 kVp x-rays relative to 200 kVp x-rays are strongly dose dependent. For neoplastic transformation of human hybrid (CGL1) cells after irradiation with 29 or 200 kVp x-rays or {sup 60}Co gamma rays a linear-quadratic dose relationship was observed with RBE values of approximately four and eight for mammography relative to 200 kVp x-rays and {sup 60}Co gamma rays, respectively. (author)

  4. Regulation of the pituitary tumor transforming gene by insulin-like-growth factor-I and insulin differs between malignant and non-neoplastic astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamaon, Kathrin; Kirches, Elmar; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Braeuninger, Stefan; Dietzmann, Knut; Mawrin, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The reasons for overexpression of the oncogene pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in tumors are still not fully understood. A possible influence of the insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) may be of interest, since enhanced Igf-I signalling was reported in various human tumors. We examined the influence of Igf-I and insulin on PTTG expression in human astrocytoma cells in comparison to proliferating non-neoplastic rat embryonal astrocytes. PTTG mRNA expression and protein levels were increased in malignant astrocytes treated with Igf-I or insulin, whereas in rat embryonic astrocytes PTTG expression and protein levels increased only when cells were exposed to Igf-I. Enhanced transcription did not occur after treatment with inhibitors of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), blocking the two basic signalling pathways of Igf-I and insulin. In addition to this transcriptional regulation, both kinases directly bind to PTTG, suggesting a second regulatory route by phosphorylation. However, the interaction of endogenous PTTG with MAPK and PI3K, as well as PTTG phosphorylation were independent from Igf-I or insulin. The latter results were also found in human testis, which contains high PTTG levels as well as in nonneoplastic astrocytes. This suggest, that PI3K and MAPK signalling is involved in PTTG regulation not only in malignant astrocytomas but also in non-tumorous cells

  5. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10 -9 and 3.4 x 10 -7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10 -8 to 1.3 x 10 -4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10 -5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [ 3 H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  6. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Cassinelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs.

  7. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, Giuliana; Favini, Enrica; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Salvi, Alessandro; De Petro, Giuseppina; Pierotti, Marco A; Zunino, Franco; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F) devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs. PMID:19107227

  8. Wideband FM Demodulation and Multirate Frequency Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Noble identities to extend the proposed approach to larger wideband to narrowband conversion factors and more practical implementations. We further...framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Block diagrams of the alternative MFT system for large conversion factors (a) and the Noble Identity ...of both MFT frameworks with conversion factor R = 128 and normalized radian frequency shift wd = 0.1π under the extreme senario with modulation index

  9. Enhanced neoplastic transformation by mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays: indication for a strong dependence on photon energy of the RBE(M) for various end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, D; Kelnhofer, K; Bär, K; Frankenberg-Schwager, M

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental assumption implicit in the use of the atomic bomb survivor data to derive risk estimates is that the gamma rays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are considered to have biological efficiencies equal to those of other low-LET radiations up to 10 keV/microm, including mammography X rays. Microdosimetric and radiobiological data contradict this assumption. It is therefore of scientific and public interest to evaluate the efficiency of mammography X rays (25-30 kVp) to induce cancer. In this study, the efficiency of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays to induce neoplastic cell transformation was evaluated using cells of a human hybrid cell line (CGL1). For both radiations, a linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship was observed for neoplastic transformation of CGL1 cells; there was a strong linear component for the 29 kVp X rays. The RBE(M) of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays was determined to be about 4 for doses energies of transformation of CGL1 cells. Both the data available in the literature and the results of the present study strongly suggest an increase of RBE(M) for carcinogenesis in animals, neoplastic cell transformation, and clastogenic effects with decreasing photon energy or increasing LET to an RBE(M) approximately 8 for mammography X rays relative to 60Co gamma rays.

  10. Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Jeremy; Windmill, James; Agbeze-Onuma, Maduka; Kalin, Robert M; Argondizza, Peter; Knapp, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-enhanced gene transfer (UEGT) is continuing to gain interest across many disciplines; however, very few studies investigate UEGT efficiency across a range of frequencies. Using a variable frequency generator, UEGT was tested in E. coli at six ultrasonic frequencies. Results indicate frequency can significantly influence UEGT efficiency positively and negatively. A frequency of 61 kHz improved UEGT efficiency by ~70 % higher, but 99 kHz impeded UEGT to an extent worse than no ultrasound exposure. The other four frequencies (26, 133, 174, and 190 kHz) enhanced transformation compared to no ultrasound, but efficiencies did not vary. The influence of frequency on UEGT efficiency was observed across a range of operating frequencies. It is plausible that frequency-dependent dynamics of mechanical and chemical energies released during cavitational-bubble collapse (CBC) are responsible for observed UEGT efficiencies.

  11. Reduced temperature (22 degrees C) results in enhancement of cell killing and neoplastic transformation in noncycling HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells irradiated with low-dose-rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of reduced temperature (22 degrees C) or serum deprivation during low-dose-rate (0.66 cGy/min) γ irradiation on cell killing and neoplastic transformation has been examined using the HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cell system. The reduced temperature stops progression of these cells through the cell cycle while serum deprivation slows down cell turnover markedly. The data demonstrate an enhancement in both of the end points when cells are held at 22 degrees C compared to parallel experiments done at 37 degrees C. In operational terms, the decreased survival and increased neoplastic transformation are consistent with our earlier hypothesis of a higher probability of misrepair at reduced temperature. The interpretation that this damage enhancement was associated with the reduced temperature, and not the fact that the cells were noncycling, was supported by the results of experiments performed with cells cultured at 37 degrees C in serum-free medium for 35 h prior to and then during the 12.24 h low-dose-rate radiation exposure. Under these conditions, cell cycle progression, as shown by reduction in growth rate and dual-parameter flow cytometric analysis, was considerable inhibited (cell cycle time increased from 20 h to 40 h), and there was no significant enhancement of cell killing or neoplastic transformation. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy M. Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT, comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA. In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  13. Dual-Frequency Impedance Transformer Using Coupled-Line For Ultra-High Transforming Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Barik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of dual-frequency impedance transformer is presented for ultra-high transforming ratio. The proposed configuration consists of parallel coupled-line, series transmission lines and short-ended stubs. The even and odd-mode analysis is applied to obtain the design equations and hence to provide an accurate solution. Three examples of the dual-frequency transformer with load impedance of 500, 1000 and 1500 Ω are designed to study the matching capability and bandwidth property. To prove the frequency agility of the proposed network, three prototypes of dual-frequency impedance transformer with transforming ratio of 10, 20 and 30 are fabricated and tested. The measured return loss is greater than 15 dB at two operating frequencies for all the prototypes. Also, the bandwidth is more than 60 MHz at each frequency band for all the prototypes. The measured return loss is found in good agreement with the circuit and full-wave simulations.

  14. Evaluation and Analysis of Frequency of Transformer Failures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The frequency of failed distribution transformers in Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc, Akpakpava Business Unit network, Benin City, for a period of two years have been investigated in this work. The frequent power outages recorded in our communities resulting in customers dissatisfactions, economic losses, ...

  15. Frequency Correction for MIRO Chirp Transformation Spectroscopy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    This software processes the flyby spectra of the Chirp Transform Spectrometer (CTS) of the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO). The tool corrects the effect of Doppler shift and local-oscillator (LO) frequency shift during the flyby mode of MIRO operations. The frequency correction for CTS flyby spectra is performed and is integrated with multiple spectra into a high signal-to-noise averaged spectrum at the rest-frame RF frequency. This innovation also generates the 8 molecular line spectra by dividing continuous 4,096-channel CTS spectra. The 8 line spectra can then be readily used for scientific investigations. A spectral line that is at its rest frequency in the frame of the Earth or an asteroid will be observed with a time-varying Doppler shift as seen by MIRO. The frequency shift is toward the higher RF frequencies on approach, and toward lower RF frequencies on departure. The magnitude of the shift depends on the flyby velocity. The result of time-varying Doppler shift is that of an observed spectral line will be seen to move from channel to channel in the CTS spectrometer. The direction (higher or lower frequency) in the spectrometer depends on the spectral line frequency under consideration. In order to analyze the flyby spectra, two steps are required. First, individual spectra must be corrected for the Doppler shift so that individual spectra can be superimposed at the same rest frequency for integration purposes. Second, a correction needs to be applied to the CTS spectra to account for the LO frequency shifts that are applied to asteroid mode.

  16. Frequency and determinants for hemorrhagic transformation of posterior cerebral stroke : Posterior ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Francesca; Gentile, Luana; Terruso, Valeria; Mastrilli, Sergio; Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Sarno, Caterina; Savettieri, Giovanni; D'Amelio, Marco

    2017-11-13

    hemorrhagic transformation is a threatening ischemic stroke complication. Frequency of hemorrhagic transformation differs greatly among studies, and its risk factors have been usually studied in patients with anterior ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated, in a hospital-based series of patients with posterior ischemic stroke not treated with thrombolysis, frequency and risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation. Patients with posterior circulation stroke were seen in our Department during the period January 2004 to December 2009. Demographic and clinical information were collected. We estimated risk for spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation by means of uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. 119 consecutive patients were included (73 males, 61.3%). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7 patients (5.9%). Only clinical worsening was significantly associated with hemorrhagic transformation (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.3-34.5). Our findings indicate that patients with posterior have a low risk of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation, suggesting that these patients might have greater advantage from intravenous thrombolysis.

  17. High frequency modeling of power transformers. Stresses and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerkan, Eilert

    2005-05-15

    In this thesis a reliable, versatile and rigorous method for high frequency power transformer modeling is searched and established. The purpose is to apply this model to sensitivity analysis of FRA (Frequency Response Analysis) which is a quite new diagnostic method for assessing the mechanical integrity of power transformer windings on-site. The method should be versatile in terms of being able to estimate internal and external over voltages and resonances. Another important aspect is that the method chosen is suitable for real transformer geometries. In order to verify the suitability of the model for real transformers, a specific test-object is used. This is a 20MVA transformer, and details are given in chapter 1.4. The high frequency power transformer model is established from geometrical and constructional information from the manufacturer, together with available material characteristics. All circuit parameters in the lumped circuit representation are calculated based on these data. No empirical modifications need to be performed. Comparison shows capability of reasonable accuracy in the range from 10 khz to 1 MHz utilizing a disc-to-disc representation. A compromise between accuracy of model due to discretization and complexity of the model in a turn-to-turn representation is inevitable. The importance of the iron core is emphasized through a comparison of representations with/without the core included. Frequency-dependent phenomena are accurately represented using an isotropic equivalent for windings and core, even with a coarse mesh for the FEM-model. This is achieved through a frequency-dependent complex permeability representation of the materials. This permeability is deduced from an analytical solution of the frequency-dependent magnetic field inside the conductors and the core. The importance of dielectric losses in a transformer model is also assessed. Since published data on the high frequency properties of press board are limited, some initial

  18. Late biological effects of ionizing radiation as influenced by dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic sensitivity to neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Prine, J.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A most comprehensive investigation is in progress at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to study the late biological effects of whole-body exposure to gamma irradiation as they may be influenced by total dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic background. Strain C57B1/6J mice of four age groups (newborn, 2, 6 and l5 months) were given five doses (20, 60, 180, 540, and 1620 rads) of gamma rays, with each dose being delivered at six dose rates (0.7, 2.1, 6.3, 18.9, 56.7 rads/day and 25 rads/min). Forty to sixty mice were used in each of the approximately 119 dose/dose-rate and age combinations. The study was done in two replications with an equal number of mice per replicaton. Strain RF/J mice were used in a companion study to investigate the influence of genetic background on the type and magnitude of effect. Results of the first and second replications of the l5-month-old age group and data on the influence of genetic background on biological response have been completed, and the results show no significant life shortening within the dose and dose-rate range used. It was also concluded that radiaton-induced neoplastic transformaton was significantly greater in mice with a known genetic sensitivity to neoplastic disease than in mammals which do not normally have a significant incidence of tumours. (author)

  19. Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-16

    We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/tc)2 e-t/t$_c$, where tc = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.

  20. STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 promotes angiogenesis and is involved in neoplastic processes of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Huiqiao; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Xu, Wenchao; Lu, Lu; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Quanyong; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-01-01

    Although microRNA (miRNA) enclosed in exosomes can mediate intercellular communication, the roles of exosomal miRNA and angiogenesis in lung cancer remain unclear. We investigated functions of STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 derived from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in the angiogenesis of CSE-induced carcinogenesis. miR-21 levels in serum were higher in smokers than those in non-smokers. The medium from transformed HBE cells promoted miR-21 levels in normal HBE cells and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Transformed cells transferred miR-21 into normal HBE cells via exosomes. Knockdown of STAT3 reduced miR-21 levels in exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells, which blocked the angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HBE cells and thereby promoted angiogenesis in HUVEC cells. Inhibition of exosomal miR-21, however, decreased VEGF levels in recipient cells, which blocked exosome-induced angiogenesis. Thus, miR-21 in exosomes leads to STAT3 activation, which increases VEGF levels in recipient cells, a process involved in angiogenesis and malignant transformation of HBE cells. These results, demonstrating the function of exosomal miR-21 from transformed HBE cells, provide a new perspective for intervention strategies to prevent carcinogenesis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of neoplastic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Patrick; Weller, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of tumor cells, also referred to as neoplastic meningitis, is most frequently seen in patients with late-stage cancer and mostly associated with a poor prognosis. Basically, neoplastic meningitis may affect all patients with a malignant tumor but is most common in patients affected by lung cancer, breast carcinoma, melanoma or hematologic neoplasms such as lymphoma and leukemia. Controlled clinical trials are largely lacking which results in various non-standardized treatment regimens. The presence of solid tumor manifestations in the CNS as well as the extracranial tumor load defines the most appropriate treatment approach. Radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal treatment must be considered. For each patient, the individual situation needs to be carefully evaluated to determine the potential benefit as well as putative side effects associated with any therapy. A moderate survival benefit and particularly relief from pain and neurological deficits are the main treatment goals. Here, we summarize the management of patients with neoplastic meningitis and review the available treatment options.

  2. Frequency response variation of two offshore wind park transformers with different tap changer positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) measurements performed on two identical offshore wind farm transformers. A comparison is made between the transformers based on different recommended measurements and procedures, different measurement systems...

  3. The human T-lymphotropic virus type I tax gene can cooperate with the ras oncogene to induce neoplastic transformation of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzatti, R; Vogel, J; Jay, G

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked infection by the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) with the development of adult T-cell leukemia. The low penetrance of the virus and the long latency for disease manifestation are factors that obscure the role of HTLV-I infection in oncogenesis. We have used an in vitro transformation assay system to determine directly whether the HTLV-I tax gene has transformation potential. Transfection of the tax gene alone into early-passage rat embryo fibroblasts did not induce morphological alterations. However, cotransfection of tax with the selectable marker plasmid pRSVneo gave rise to G418-resistant colonies that could be established as immortalized cell lines. Cotransfection of tax with the ras oncogene into rat embryo fibroblasts gave rise to foci of transformed cells that were highly tumorigenic in nude mice. These data represent a direct demonstration of the oncogenic potential of the tax gene in nonlymphoid cells and establish HTLV-I as a transforming virus.

  4. Snail family members unequally trigger EMT and thereby differ in their ability to promote the neoplastic transformation of mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Gras

    Full Text Available By fostering cell commitment to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, SNAIL proteins endow cells with motility, thereby favoring the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Whether the phenotypic change additionally facilitates tumor initiation has never been addressed. Here we demonstrate that when a SNAIL protein is ectopically produced in non-transformed mammary epithelial cells, the cells are protected from anoikis and proliferate under low-adherence conditions: a hallmark of cancer cells. The three SNAIL proteins show unequal oncogenic potential, strictly correlating with their ability to promote EMT. SNAIL3 especially behaves as a poor EMT-inducer comforting the concept that the transcription factor functionally diverges from its two related proteins.

  5. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  6. Design and development of high voltage and high frequency center tapped transformer for HVDC test generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Urmil; Saurabh Kumar; Amal, S.; Baruah, U.K.; Bhatt, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage center tapped transformer for high frequency application had been designed, fabricated, and tested. It was designed as a part of 200 kV HVDC Test Generator. The High Frequency operation of transformer increases power density. Therefore it is possible to reduce power supply volume. The step up ratio in High Voltage transformer is limited due to stray capacitance and leakage inductance. The limit was overcome by winding multi secondary outputs. Switching frequency of transformer was 15.8 kHz. Input and output voltages of transformer were 270V and 16.5kV-0V-16.5kV respectively. Power rating of transformer is 7kVA. High Voltage transformer with various winding and core arrangement was fabricated to check variation in electrical characteristics. The transformer used a ferrite core (E Type) and nylon insulated primary and secondary bobbins. Two set of E-E geometry cores had been stacked in order to achieve the estimated core volume. Compared with traditional high voltage transformer, this transformer had good thermal behavior, good line insulation properties and a high power density. In this poster, design procedures, development stages and test results of high voltage and high frequency transformer are presented. Results of various parameters such as transformer loss, temperature rise, insulation properties, impedance of primary and secondary winding, and voltage regulation are discussed. (author)

  7. State of art survey for design of medium frequency high power transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisambhayana, Sriram; Dincan, Catalin; Shuyu, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Medium and high frequency, high power transformers play an important role in footprint reduction along with their functions of galvanic isolation, and voltage transformation in all high power converters typically used in traction power systems, offshore wind plant power converters, and solid state...... transformer based distribution system grids. This state of art report analysis the various materials and design tradeoffs that govern the electromagnetic behavior and loss mechanisms of the medium frequency transformer applications. Typical winding and core geometries that have been reported extensively...

  8. Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ambuj Kumar; Sunil Kumar Singh; Shrikant Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented fo...

  9. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion’s endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies. PMID:18785274

  10. High Frequency LLC Resonant Converter with Magnetic Shunt Integrated Planar Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingxiao; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2018-01-01

    High Frequency LLC requires a smaller resonant inductance which is usually implemented by transformer leakage inductance. However, this small resonant inductance is difficult to deal with a wide input voltage range. This paper proposes a new method to implement a larger resonant inductance by using...... a magnetic shunt integrated into planar transformer. The switching frequency can be greatly narrowed by designing a smaller inductance ratio of magnetizing inductance to resonant inductance. Since this method can well deal with a wide input voltage range without adding extra inductor and increasing the size...... of the transformer, the power density can be improved. The precise leakage inductance calculation method for this transformer and detailed LLC converter design procedure are presented. A 280-380V and 48V-100W half bridge LLC resonant converter with 1 MHz resonant frequency is built to verify the design methodology....

  11. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  12. Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-09-19

    The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.

  13. Analysis of Energy Overshoot of High Frequency Waves with Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fan

    2000-01-01

    A study is made on the overshoot phenomena in wind-generated waves. The surface displace ments of time-growing waves are measured at four fetches in a wind wave channel. The evolution of high frequency waves is displayed with wavelet transform. The results are compared with Sutherland's. It is found that high frequency wave components experience much stronger energy overshoot in the evolution.The energy of high frequency waves decreases greatly after overshoot

  14. 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR1065) is anti-neoplastic and anti-mutagenic when given during 60Coγ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.K.; Nagy, B.; Peraino, C.; Grdina, D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 2[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR1065) has been studied on the induction of neoplastic transformation using 10T1/2 cells and on mutation of the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus using Chinese hamster V79 cells. The first observations that treatment of 10T1/2 cells with 1 mM WR1065 for a total of 35 min during irradiation with 60 C γ-rays significantly reduces the incidence of neoplastic transformation while having no effect on cell viability are reported. In a similar experiment with V79 cells in which 4mM WR1065 was used, a significant reduction in mutation frequency at the HGPRT locus and significant protection against cell killing was found. These results suggest that WR1965 acts to modulate both acute damage and sub-lethal processes that lead to mutation and neoplastic transformation. Beyond the purely mechanistic approach of these studies, the potential application of these agents to minimizing the long-term neoplastic effects of radiation or chemotherapeutic agents currently in use for treating potentially curable cancer patients should be further investigated. (author)

  15. Design and Measurement of Planar Toroidal Transformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pejtersen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The quest for higher power density has led to research of very high frequency (30-300 MHz) power converters. Magnetic components based on ferrite cores have limited application within this frequency range due to increased core loss. Air-core magnetics is a viable alternative as they do not exhibit...... core loss. The drawback of most air-core magnetics is that the magnetic field is not contained within a closed shape, and it is thus prone to cause electro magnetic interference. A toroidal air-core inductor configuration can be used to contain the magnetic field. This work presents a novel air......-core toroidal transformer configuration for use in very high frequency power conversion applications. Two prototype transformers (10:10 and 12:12) have been implemented using conventional four layer printed circuit board technology. The transformers have been characterized by two port Z-parameters, which have...

  16. Application of Time-Frequency Domain Transform to Three-Dimensional Interpolation of Medical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shengqing; Chen, Yimin; Li, Zeyu; Lu, Jiahui; Gao, Mingke; Lu, Rongrong

    2017-11-01

    Medical image three-dimensional (3D) interpolation is an important means to improve the image effect in 3D reconstruction. In image processing, the time-frequency domain transform is an efficient method. In this article, several time-frequency domain transform methods are applied and compared in 3D interpolation. And a Sobel edge detection and 3D matching interpolation method based on wavelet transform is proposed. We combine wavelet transform, traditional matching interpolation methods, and Sobel edge detection together in our algorithm. What is more, the characteristics of wavelet transform and Sobel operator are used. They deal with the sub-images of wavelet decomposition separately. Sobel edge detection 3D matching interpolation method is used in low-frequency sub-images under the circumstances of ensuring high frequency undistorted. Through wavelet reconstruction, it can get the target interpolation image. In this article, we make 3D interpolation of the real computed tomography (CT) images. Compared with other interpolation methods, our proposed method is verified to be effective and superior.

  17. A study on thermal characteristics analysis model of high frequency switching transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyung; Jung, Tae-Uk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, interest has been shown in research on the module-integrated converter (MIC) in small-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation. In an MIC, the voltage boosting high frequency transformer should be designed to be compact in size and have high efficiency. In response to the need to satisfy these requirements, this paper presents a coupled electromagnetic analysis model of a transformer connected with a high frequency switching DC-DC converter circuit while considering thermal characteristics due to the copper and core losses. A design optimization procedure for high efficiency is also presented using this design analysis method, and it is verified by the experimental result.

  18. Building Modern Vibration Diagnostics Systems Based on the Frequency-Time Transformations of A Measured Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasoveev Vasikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic methods of analysis of vibration transducers signals were reviewed. Continuous wavelet transform, being a time-frequency transform, was found to be an advanced mathematical tool for analysis of vibration signals. Experimental studies revealed obvious changes in the continuous wavelet transform spectrum depending on the existing defects. A method for detection and identification of technological violations based on the analysis of CWT spectrum components and normalized correlation coefficient was suggested. In accordance with the suggested method software for vibration diagnostics was developed.

  19. The Simulation of the Traction Drive with Middle-Frequency Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research motivated by industrial demand for special traction drive topology devoted to minimization of traction transformer weight against topology with classical 50Hz traction transformer. The special traction drive topology for AC power systems consists of input high voltage trolley converter (single phase matrix converter –middle frequency transformer - output converter - traction motor has been described. The main attention has been given tothe control algorithm of the traction topology (inserting of NULL vector of matrix converter and Two-value control ofsecondary active rectifier.

  20. A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsuhaibani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.

  1. Non-neoplastic gliotic cerebellar cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and CT findings in 3 patients with non-neoplastic gliotic cerebellar cyst are described. CT does not permit accurate preoperative differentiation of these lesions from neoplastic disorders. (orig.)

  2. Frequency hopping signal detection based on wavelet decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Chen, Xihao; Zhu, Rui

    2017-07-01

    Frequency hopping (FH) signal is widely adopted by military communications as a kind of low probability interception signal. Therefore, it is very important to research the FH signal detection algorithm. The existing detection algorithm of FH signals based on the time-frequency analysis cannot satisfy the time and frequency resolution requirement at the same time due to the influence of window function. In order to solve this problem, an algorithm based on wavelet decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The proposed algorithm removes the noise of the received signals by wavelet decomposition and detects the FH signals by Hilbert-Huang transform. Simulation results show the proposed algorithm takes into account both the time resolution and the frequency resolution. Correspondingly, the accuracy of FH signals detection can be improved.

  3. The determination of frequency response function of the RSG Gas by laplace transform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiran, S.; Surian, P.; Jujuratisbela, U.

    1997-01-01

    The response function of the RSG-GAS reactor system to the reactivity perturbations is necessary to be analyzed due to the interrelation with reliability and safety of reactor operation. the response depends on the power frequency response function H(s), while H(s) depends on the zero power frequency response function Z(s) and dynamic power coefficient of reactivity Kp(s) determination of the frequency response function of the RSG-GAS reactor was done by Fourier transform analysis method. Z(s) was obtained by fourier transform of P(t) and Cj(t) became P(S) and Cj(s) in point kinetic equations. Second order of simpson rule was used for completion of its numerical integration. then. LYMPR (Laplace transform for multipurpose reactor) code was made with fortran 77 computer language in vax 8550 system. the LTMPR code is able to determine the frequency response function and period-reactivity relation of RSG-GAS reactor by rod drop method. Profile of power as rod drop, zero power (without reactivity feedback) was used for determination frequency response of RSG-GAS reactor. The results of calculations are in a good agreement with experiment result, so the LTMPR code can be used for analysis response frequency of the RSG-GAS reactor

  4. Matrix attachment regions (MARs) enhance transformation frequencies and reduce variance of transgene expression in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.; Leah, R.; Knudsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    -MAR from petunia revealed that only the P1-MAR had specific binding affinity for barley nuclear matrices. The barley transformation frequency with the uidA reporter gene was increased 2-fold when the gene was flanked with either the P1-MAR or TBS-MAR, while the gene copy number was strongly reduced...

  5. Corrections for frequency domain transformations of Winfrith binary cross correlator responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1968-04-01

    This report considers the corrections for frequency domain transformations of Winfrith binary cross correlator responses; (i) for the finite bandwidth of the equivalent input signal; (2) for the finite time required for the actuator to move between the two positions appropriate to the two levels of the periodic binary chain code input and (3) for the averaging of experimental determinations of the system frequency response and calculations of the standard deviations of the modulus and phase of the frequency responses determined from the cross correlator responses. (author)

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN FREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Batura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of orthogonal transformations application in the frequency algorithms of the digital watermarking of still images is examined. Discrete Hadamard transform, discrete cosine transform and discrete Haar transform are selected. Their effectiveness is determined by the invisibility of embedded in digital image watermark and its resistance to the most common image processing operations: JPEG-compression, noising, changing of the brightness and image size, histogram equalization. The algorithm for digital watermarking and its embedding parameters remain unchanged at these orthogonal transformations. Imperceptibility of embedding is defined by the peak signal to noise ratio, watermark stability– by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Embedding is considered to be invisible, if the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is not less than 43 dB. Embedded watermark is considered to be resistant to a specific attack, if the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is not less than 0.5. Elham algorithm based on the image entropy is chosen for computing experiment. Computing experiment is carried out according to the following algorithm: embedding of a digital watermark in low-frequency area of the image (container by Elham algorithm, exposure to a harmful influence on the protected image (cover image, extraction of a digital watermark. These actions are followed by quality assessment of cover image and watermark on the basis of which efficiency of orthogonal transformation is defined. As a result of computing experiment it was determined that the choice of the specified orthogonal transformations at identical algorithm and parameters of embedding doesn't influence the degree of imperceptibility for a watermark. Efficiency of discrete Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transformation in relation to the attacks chosen for experiment was established based on the correlation indicators. Application of discrete Hadamard transform increases

  7. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  8. Frequency-Domain Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer Model Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Martins, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an offline frequency-domain nonlinear and stochastic identification method for equivalent model parameter estimation of high-voltage pulse transformers. Such kinds of transformers are widely used in the pulsed-power domain, and the difficulty in deriving pulsed-power converter optimal control strategies is directly linked to the accuracy of the equivalent circuit parameters. These components require models which take into account electric fields energies represented by stray capacitance in the equivalent circuit. These capacitive elements must be accurately identified, since they greatly influence the general converter performances. A nonlinear frequency-based identification method, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, is presented, and a sensitivity analysis of the best experimental test to be considered is carried out. The procedure takes into account magnetic saturation and skin effects occurring in the windings during the frequency tests. The presented method is validated by experim...

  9. Single-trial log transformation is optimal in frequency analysis of resting EEG alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Fren T Y; Ten Oever, Sanne; Donkers, Franc C L; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; van de Ven, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    The appropriate definition and scaling of the magnitude of electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations is an underdeveloped area. The aim of this study was to optimize the analysis of resting EEG alpha magnitude, focusing on alpha peak frequency and nonlinear transformation of alpha power. A family of nonlinear transforms, Box-Cox transforms, were applied to find the transform that (a) maximized a non-disputed effect: the increase in alpha magnitude when the eyes are closed (Berger effect), and (b) made the distribution of alpha magnitude closest to normal across epochs within each participant, or across participants. The transformations were performed either at the single epoch level or at the epoch-average level. Alpha peak frequency showed large individual differences, yet good correspondence between various ways to estimate it in 2 min of eyes-closed and 2 min of eyes-open resting EEG data. Both alpha magnitude and the Berger effect were larger for individual alpha than for a generic (8-12 Hz) alpha band. The log-transform on single epochs (a) maximized the t-value of the contrast between the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions when tested within each participant, and (b) rendered near-normally distributed alpha power across epochs and participants, thereby making further transformation of epoch averages superfluous. The results suggest that the log-normal distribution is a fundamental property of variations in alpha power across time in the order of seconds. Moreover, effects on alpha power appear to be multiplicative rather than additive. These findings support the use of the log-transform on single epochs to achieve appropriate scaling of alpha magnitude. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Jenni, Daniela; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an exposure assessment method that classifies apartments in three exposure categories of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room. We completed measurements in 39 apartments in 18 buildings. In each room of the apartments ELF-MF was concurrently measured with 5 to 6 EMDEX II meters for 10 min. Measured arithmetic mean ELF-MF was 0.59 μT in 8 apartments that were fully adjacent to a transformer room, either directly above the transformer or touching the transformer room wall-to-wall. In apartments that only partly touched the transformer room at corners or edges, average ELF-MF level was 0.14 μT. Average exposure in the remaining apartments was 0.10 μT. Kappa coefficient for exposure classification was 0.64 (95%-CI: 0.45-0.82) if only fully adjacent apartments were considered as highly exposed (>0.4 μT). We found a distinct ELF-MF exposure gradient in buildings with transformer. Exposure classification based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room appears feasible. Such an approach considerably reduces effort for exposure assessment and may be used to eliminate selection bias in future epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. FREQUENCY COMPONENT EXTRACTION OF HEARTBEAT CUES WITH SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (STFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna Sumarna

    2017-01-01

      Electro-acoustic human heartbeat detector have been made with the main parts : (a stetoscope (piece chest, (b mic condenser, (c transistor amplifier, and (d cues analysis program with MATLAB. The frequency components that contained in heartbeat. cues have also been extracted with Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT from 9 volunteers. The results of the analysis showed that heart rate appeared in every cue frequency spectrum with their harmony. The steps of the research were including detector instrument design, test and instrument repair, cues heartbeat recording with Sound Forge 10 program and stored in wav file ; cues breaking at the start and the end, and extraction/cues analysis using MATLAB. The MATLAB program included filter (bandpass filter with bandwidth between 0.01 – 110 Hz, cues breaking with hamming window and every part was calculated using Fourier Transform (STFT mechanism and the result were shown in frequency spectrum graph.   Keywords: frequency components extraction, heartbeat cues, Short Time Fourier Transform

  12. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  13. Recent progress in synchrotron-based frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrkorn, Joscha; Holldack, Karsten; Bittl, Robert; Schnegg, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    We describe frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR as a method to assign spin-coupling parameters of high-spin (S>1/2) systems with very large zero-field splittings. The instrumental foundations of synchrotron-based FD-FT THz-EPR are presented, alongside with a discussion of frequency-domain EPR simulation routines. The capabilities of this approach is demonstrated for selected mono- and multinuclear HS systems. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges and give an outlook on the future prospects of the technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  15. A Novel Comb-Pilot Transform Domain Frequency Diversity Channel Estimation for OFDM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to implementation complexity, the transform domain channel estimation based on training symbols or comb-type pilots has been paid more attention because of its efficient algorithm FFT/IFFT. However, in a comb-type OFDM system, the length of the channel impulse response is much smaller than the pilot number. In this case, the comb-pilot transform domain channel estimation only works as interpolation like the Least Squares (LS algorithm, but loses the noise suppression function. In this paper, we propose a novel frequency diversity channel estimation method via grouped pilots combining. With this estimator, not only the channel frequency response on non-pilot subcarriers can be interpolated, but also the noise can be better suppressed. Moreover, it does not need prior statistical characteristics of the wireless channel.

  16. Evaluation of the high-voltage high-frequency transformer insulating materials for satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Taketoshi; Hirasawa, Eiichi; Gonai, Toshio; Ohsuga, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Environment resistance evaluation was made of the insulating materials of impregnated injection type for high-voltage high-frequency transformers mounted in satellites. (1) The stress occurring in the impregnated injection type resin is small in silicon resin and urethane resin and large in epoxy resin. (2) The dielectric characteristic at high frequency is good in silicone resin. In epoxy resin, when the transformer is operated at high temperature, its thermal runaway may take place. (3) The radiation deterioration at 1 Mrad - 10 Mrad is slight in urethane resin. (4) The degassing is not good in silicone resin. (5) The adhesive power is good in urethane resin. (6) From the above results, in silicone resin there is problem in degassing and adhesive power. In epoxy resin there is problem in stress and dielectric characteristic. (Mori, K.)

  17. Experiences with non-intrusive monitoring of distribution transformers based on the on-line frequency response

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Gomez Luna

    2015-01-01

    The following article presents the results obtained in experiences that use the Impulse Frequency Response Analysis (IFRA) method with a transformer in service. The IFRA method has been implemented in order to transform the transient signals to the frequency domain using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). However, it can be considered that the DFT is not the most suitable tool for this type of analysis, since, by definition, this tool is useful for processing stationary signals. Taking that in...

  18. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Reference Beam Pattern Design for Frequency Invariant Beamforming Based on Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of fast Fourier transform (FFT-based frequency invariant beamforming (FIB, there is still an unsolved problem. That is the selection of the reference beam to make the designed wideband pattern frequency invariant (FI over a given frequency range. This problem is studied in this paper. The research shows that for a given array, the selection of the reference beam pattern is determined by the number of sensors and the ratio of the highest frequency to the lowest frequency of the signal (RHL. The length of the weight vector corresponding to a given reference beam pattern depends on the reference frequency. In addition, the upper bound of the weight length to ensure the FI property over the whole frequency band of interest is also given. When the constraints are added to the reference beam, it does not affect the FI property of the designed wideband beam as long as the symmetry of the reference beam is ensured. Based on this conclusion, a scheme for reference beam design is proposed.

  20. An Intelligent Sensor for the Ultra-High-Frequency Partial Discharge Online Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF partial discharge (PD online monitoring is an effective way to inspect potential faults and insulation defects in power transformers. The construction of UHF PD online monitoring system is a challenge because of the high-frequency and wide-frequency band of the UHF PD signal. This paper presents a novel, intelligent sensor for UHF PD online monitoring based on a new method, namely a level scanning method. The intelligent sensor can directly acquire the statistical characteristic quantities and is characterized by low cost, few data to output and transmit, Ethernet functionality, and small size for easy installation. The prototype of an intelligent sensor was made. Actual UHF PD experiments with three typical artificial defect models of power transformers were carried out in a laboratory, and the waveform recording method and intelligent sensor proposed were simultaneously used for UHF PD measurement for comparison. The results show that the proposed intelligent sensor is qualified for the UHF PD online monitoring of power transformers. Additionally, three methods to improve the performance of intelligent sensors were proposed according to the principle of the level scanning method.

  1. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P.; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. PMID:26217054

  2. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-08-28

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-01-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided

  4. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  5. Additive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality: the influence of trial history and data transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, David A; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Yap, Melvin J

    2013-09-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear mixed effects modeling to provide evidence that the additive effects were actually being driven by previous trial history. Because Masson and Kliegl also included semantic priming as a factor in their study and recent evidence has shown that semantic priming can moderate the additivity of word frequency and stimulus quality (Scaltritti, Balota, & Peressotti, 2012), we reanalyzed data from 3 published studies to determine if previous trial history moderated the additive pattern when semantic priming was not also manipulated. The results indicated that previous trial history did not influence the joint influence of word frequency and stimulus quality. More important, and independent of Masson and Kliegl's conclusions, we also show how a common transformation used in linear mixed effects analyses to normalize the residuals can systematically alter the way in which two variables combine to influence performance. Specifically, using transformed, rather than raw reaction times, consistently produces more underadditive patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Frequency Transform Based Block Classification of Compound Image Segmentation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Ebenezer Juliet; Florinabel, D. Jemi

    2018-04-01

    Compound image segmentation plays a vital role in the compression of computer screen images. Computer screen images are images which are mixed with textual, graphical, or pictorial contents. In this paper, we present a comparison of two transform based block classification of compound images based on metrics like speed of classification, precision and recall rate. Block based classification approaches normally divide the compound images into fixed size blocks of non-overlapping in nature. Then frequency transform like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied over each block. Mean and standard deviation are computed for each 8 × 8 block and are used as features set to classify the compound images into text/graphics and picture/background block. The classification accuracy of block classification based segmentation techniques are measured by evaluation metrics like precision and recall rate. Compound images of smooth background and complex background images containing text of varying size, colour and orientation are considered for testing. Experimental evidence shows that the DWT based segmentation provides significant improvement in recall rate and precision rate approximately 2.3% than DCT based segmentation with an increase in block classification time for both smooth and complex background images.

  7. Warped frequency transform analysis of ultrasonic guided waves in long bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, L.; Baravelli, E.; Xu, K.; Ta, D.; Speciale, N.; Marzani, A.; Viola, E.

    2010-03-01

    Long bones can be seen as irregular hollow tubes, in which, for a given excitation frequency, many ultrasonic Guided Waves (GWs) can propagate. The analysis of GWs is potential to reflect more information on both geometry and material properties of the bone than any other method (such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or quantitative computed tomography), and can be used in the assessment of osteoporosis and in the evaluation of fracture healing. In this study, time frequency representations (TFRs) were used to gain insights into the expected behavior of GWs in bones. To this aim, we implemented a dedicated Warped Frequency Transform (WFT) which decomposes the spectrotemporal components of the different propagating modes by selecting an appropriate warping map to reshape the frequency axis. The map can be designed once the GWs group velocity dispersion curves can be predicted. To this purpose, the bone is considered as a hollow cylinder with inner and outer diameter of 16.6 and 24.7 mm, respectively, and linear poroelastic material properties in agreement with the low level of stresses induced by the waves. Timetransient events obtained experimentally, via a piezoelectric ultrasonic set-up applied to bovine tibiae, are analyzed. The results show that WFT limits interference patterns which appear with others TFRs (such as scalograms or warpograms) and produces a sparse representation suitable for characterization purposes. In particular, the mode-frequency combinations propagating with minimal losses are identified.

  8. Time-frequency analysis of phonocardiogram signals using wavelet transform: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Burhan; Tatar, Yetkin; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of phonocardiogram (PCG) signals provides a non-invasive means to determine the abnormalities caused by cardiovascular system pathology. In general, time-frequency representation (TFR) methods are used to study the PCG signal because it is one of the non-stationary bio-signals. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is especially suitable for the analysis of non-stationary signals and to obtain the TFR, due to its high resolution, both in time and in frequency and has recently become a favourite tool. It decomposes a signal in terms of elementary contributions called wavelets, which are shifted and dilated copies of a fixed mother wavelet function, and yields a joint TFR. Although the basic characteristics of the wavelets are similar, each type of the wavelets produces a different TFR. In this study, eight real types of the most known wavelets are examined on typical PCG signals indicating heart abnormalities in order to determine the best wavelet to obtain a reliable TFR. For this purpose, the wavelet energy and frequency spectrum estimations based on the CWT and the spectra of the chosen wavelets were compared with the energy distribution and the autoregressive frequency spectra in order to determine the most suitable wavelet. The results show that Morlet wavelet is the most reliable wavelet for the time-frequency analysis of PCG signals.

  9. Wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry for reduction of blind spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sin Ho; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry (WTFDR) is proposed to reduce the blind spot in reflectometry. TFDR has a blind spot problem when the time delay between the reference signal and the reflected signal is short enough compared with the time duration of the reference signal. To solve the blind spot problem, the wavelet transform (WT) is used because the WT has linearity. Using the characteristics of the WT, the overlapped reference signal at the measured signal can be separated and the blind spot is reduced by obtaining the difference of the wavelet coefficients for the reference and reflected signals. In the proposed method, the complex wavelet is utilized as a mother wavelet because the reference signal in WTFDR has a complex form. Finally, the computer simulations and the real experiments are carried out to confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. (paper)

  10. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  11. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  12. Modelling the effect of non-uniform radon progeny activities on transformation frequencies in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, H.; Hofmann, W.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiological and morphological source heterogeneities in straight and Y-shaped bronchial airways on hit frequencies and Micro-dosimetric quantities in epithelial cells have been investigated previously. The goal of the present study is to relate these physical quantities to transformation frequencies in sensitive target cells and to radon-induced lung cancer risk. Based on an effect-specific track length model, computed linear energy transfer (LET) spectra were converted to corresponding transformation frequencies for different activity distributions and source - target configurations. Average transformation probabilities were considerably enhanced for radon progeny accumulations and target cells at the carinal ridge, relative to uniform activity distributions and target cells located along the curved and straight airway portions at the same exposure level. Although uncorrelated transformation probabilities produce a linear dose - effect relationship, correlated transformations first increase depending on the LET, but then decrease significantly when exceeding a defined number of hits or cumulative exposure level. (authors)

  13. Uncovering the Connection Between Low-Frequency Dynamics and Phase Transformation Phenomena in Molecular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T.; Zhang, Wei; Bond, Andrew D.; Mittleman, Daniel M.; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2018-05-01

    The low-frequency motions of molecules in the condensed phase have been shown to be vital to a large number of physical properties and processes. However, in the case of disordered systems, it is often difficult to elucidate the atomic-level details surrounding these phenomena. In this work, we have performed an extensive experimental and computational study on the molecular solid camphor, which exhibits a rich and complex structure-dynamics relationship, and undergoes an order-disorder transition near ambient conditions. The combination of x-ray diffraction, variable temperature and pressure terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics, and periodic density functional theory calculations enables a complete picture of the phase transition to be obtained, inclusive of mechanistic, structural, and thermodynamic phenomena. Additionally, the low-frequency vibrations of a disordered solid are characterized for the first time with atomic-level precision, uncovering a clear link between such motions and the phase transformation. Overall, this combination of methods allows for significant details to be obtained for disordered solids and the associated transformations, providing a framework that can be directly applied for a wide range of similar systems.

  14. Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-11-14

    Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.

  15. Neoplastic causes of abnormal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Susanne; Shelso, John; Wright, Karen; Furman, Wayne

    2014-04-01

    Neoplasm-related precocious puberty (PP) is a rare presenting feature of childhood cancer. Moreover, evaluation of suspected PP in a child is complex, and cancer is often not considered. We characterized the clinicopathologic features of patients presenting with PP at a large pediatric cancer center, reviewed the relevant literature, and developed an algorithm for the diagnostic work-up of these patients. We examined the records of all patients with a neoplasm and concomitant PP treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from January 1975 through October 2011, reviewed the available literature, and analyzed the demographic, clinical, endocrine, and neoplasm-related features. Twenty-four of 13,615 children and adolescents (0.18%) were diagnosed with PP within 60 days of presentation. Primary diagnoses included brain tumor (12), adrenocortical carcinoma (5), hepatoblastoma (4), and others (3). PP was observed 0-48 months before diagnosis of neoplasm; 17 patients had peripheral PP and 7 had central PP. Neoplasm-related PP is rare and takes the form of a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumor production of hormones or by alteration of physiologic gonadotropin production. PP can precede diagnosis of malignancy by months or years, and neoplastic causes should be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis. Treatment of the primary malignancy resolved or diminished PP in surviving patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus include esophagitis, esophageal diverticulum, esophageal injury, foreign body, fistulous formation between the esophagus and the surrounding structures and mucocele. Since these disorders have variable symptoms and radiologic findings, it needs to differentiated from other disorders other than esophageal diseases. Being knowledgeable of CT findings suggest that these disorders can help diagnose non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus.

  17. Broadband W-band Rapid Frequency Sweep Considerations for Fourier Transform EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeway, Robert A; Hyde, James S; Camenisch, Theodore G; Sidabras, Jason W; Mett, Richard R; Anderson, James R; Ratke, Joseph J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2017-12-01

    A multi-arm W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer that incorporates a loop-gap resonator with high bandwidth is described. A goal of the instrumental development is detection of free induction decay following rapid sweep of the microwave frequency across the spectrum of a nitroxide radical at physiological temperature, which is expected to lead to a capability for Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance. Progress toward this goal is a theme of the paper. Because of the low Q-value of the loop-gap resonator, it was found necessary to develop a new type of automatic frequency control, which is described in an appendix. Path-length equalization, which is accomplished at the intermediate frequency of 59 GHz, is analyzed. A directional coupler is favored for separation of incident and reflected power between the bridge and the loop-gap resonator. Microwave leakage of this coupler is analyzed. An oversize waveguide with hyperbolic-cosine tapers couples the bridge to the loop-gap resonator, which results in reduced microwave power and signal loss. Benchmark sensitivity data are provided. The most extensive application of the instrument to date has been the measurement of T 1 values using pulse saturation recovery. An overview of that work is provided.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  19. Total gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorn, Niels; Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to describe patients who had total gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases within a well-defined geographical area. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of patients who had gastrectomy for a non-neoplastic disease at the Department of Surgery, Odense...... University Hospital from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014. Results: A total of 268 gastrectomies were performed with the 10-year period. Of these, ten (4%) were done for non-neoplastic diseases. Two were men and eight women with a median age of 51 years (range 31 to 96 years). Six had emergency surgery...... of 10 and 2 of 10, respectively. Histology of the resected specimens showed: Oedema, inflammation and/or necrosis (n=6), Menetrier's disease (n=2) and perforation (n=2). Conclusions: Gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases accounts for less than 5% of all gastrectomies. The majority of these cases...

  20. Vector frequency-comb Fourier-transform spectroscopy for characterizing metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, T; Brehm, M; Von Ribbeck, H G; Keilmann, F; Van der Weide, D W

    2008-01-01

    We determine infrared transmission amplitude and phase spectra of metamaterial samples at well-defined incidence and polarization with a vector ('asymmetric') frequency-comb Fourier-transform spectrometer (c-FTS) that uses no moving elements. The metamaterials are free-standing metallic hole arrays; we study their resonances in the 7-13 μm and 100-1000 μm wavelength regions due both to interaction with bulk waves (Wood anomaly) and with leaky surface plasmon polaritons (near-unity transmittance, coupling features and dispersion). Such complex-valued transmission and reflection spectra could be used to compute a metamaterial's complex dielectric function directly, as well as its magnetic and magneto-optical permeability functions.

  1. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensor for gravitational wave interferometer low-frequency controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Hareem E-mail: htariq@ligo.caltech.edu; Takamori, Akiteru; Vetrano, Flavio; Wang Chenyang; Bertolini, Alessandro; Calamai, Giovanni; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Gennai, Alberto; Holloway, Lee; Losurdo, Giovanni; Marka, Szabolcs; Mazzoni, Massimo; Paoletti, Federico; Passuello, Diego; Sannibale, Virginio; Stanga, Ruggero

    2002-08-21

    Low-power, ultra-high-vacuum compatible, non-contacting position sensors with nanometer resolution and centimeter dynamic range have been developed, built and tested. They have been designed at Virgo as the sensors for low-frequency modal damping of Seismic Attenuation System chains in Gravitational Wave interferometers and sub-micron absolute mirror positioning. One type of these linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been designed to be also insensitive to transversal displacement thus allowing 3D movement of the sensor head while still precisely reading its position along the sensitivity axis. A second LVDT geometry has been designed to measure the displacement of the vertical seismic attenuation filters from their nominal position. Unlike the commercial LVDTs, mostly based on magnetic cores, the LVDTs described here exert no force on the measured structure.

  2. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K.; DeLong, Caroline M.; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin’s (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin’s ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin’s acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519

  3. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Branstetter

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A in response to a specific sound (sound A for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin's ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin's acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition.

  4. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  5. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields of transformers and possible biological and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Sezgin, Gaye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-12-01

    Physiological processes in organisms can be influenced by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic energy. Biological effect studies have great importance; as well as measurement studies since they provide information on the real exposure situations. In this study, the leakage magnetic fields around a transformer were measured in an apartment building in Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, and the measurement results were evaluated with respect to the international exposure standards. The transformer station was on the bottom floor of a three-floor building. It was found that people living and working in the building were exposed to ELF magnetic fields higher than the threshold magnetic field value of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many people living in this building reported health complaints such as immunological problems of their children. There were child-workers working in the textile factories located in the building. Safe distances or areas for these people should be recommended. Protective measures could be implemented to minimize these exposures. Further residential exposure studies are needed to demonstrate the exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields. Precautions should, therefore, be taken either to reduce leakage or minimize the exposed fields. Shielding techniques should be used to minimize the leakage magnetic fields in such cases.

  6. Experiences with non-intrusive monitoring of distribution transformers based on the on-line frequency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomez Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the results obtained in experiences that use the Impulse Frequency Response Analysis (IFRA method with a transformer in service. The IFRA method has been implemented in order to transform the transient signals to the frequency domain using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. However, it can be considered that the DFT is not the most suitable tool for this type of analysis, since, by definition, this tool is useful for processing stationary signals. Taking that into consideration, the analysis of transient signals could be hypothetically improved by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT, given their variable time/frequency resolution. The analysis of transient signals in Wavelet domain has improved the repeatability of the frequency response curves, as it has been ob-served in experimental results. The proposed on-line IFRA method, based on Wavelet transform, was validated under load and no-load conditions on a 150 kVA three-phase transformer 13200/225 Volts, in the Campus of the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

  7. Low- and high-frequency Raman investigations on caffeine: polymorphism, disorder and phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hédoux, Alain; Decroix, Anne-Amandine; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Derollez, Patrick; Descamps, Marc

    2011-05-19

    Raman investigations are carried out both in crystalline forms of caffeine and during the isothermal transformation of the orientationally disordered form I into the stable form II at 363 K. The time dependence of the Raman spectrum exhibits no significant change in the intramolecular regime (above 100 cm(-1)), resembling the spectrum of the liquid state. By contrast, significant changes are observed below 100 cm(-1), and the low-frequency spectra of forms I and II are observed to be different from that of the liquid. The temperature dependence of the 5-600 cm(-1) spectrum gives information on the static disorder through the analysis of collective motions, while information on dynamic disorder are obtained from the study of the 555 cm(-1) band corresponding to internal vibrations in the pyrimidine ring. This analysis indubitably reveals that form II is also orientationally disordered with a local molecular arrangement that mimics that in form I and the liquid state. The comparison of the low-frequency spectra recorded in theophylline and form II of caffeine allows one to describe the stable form of caffeine from the packing arrangement of anhydrous theophylline with the consideration of reorientational molecular disorder. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Serial CT and MRI of ischaemic cerebral infarcts: frequency and clinical impact of haemorrhagic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.E.; Brueckmann, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G. [Dept. of Radiology/Neuroradiology, University Medical School of Luebeck (Germany); Droste, D.W. [Dept. of Neurology, University Medical School of Luebeck (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The frequency, predisposing factors and clinical consequences of haemorrhagic infarcts and damaged blood-brain barrier as shown by contrast enhancement (CE) in ischaemic cerebral infarcts are controversial. We prospectively compared the sensitivity of CT and MRI to haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and CE. We also wished to investigate the clinical significance of HT and factors possibly associated with it. We studied 36 patients with acute ischaemic infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory during the first 2 weeks after the ictus. After CT and rating of the neurological deficit on admission, serial examinations with clinical neuromonitoring, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were done on the same day. The occurrence and severity of HT were correlated with CE, stroke mechanism, infarct size, development of neurological deficits and antithrombotic treatment. The frequency of HT detected by MRI was 80 %. CE usually preceded HT or was seen simultaneously. MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT to HT and CE. Severity of HT was positively correlated with infarct size (P < 0.01). HT had no influence on patient's neurological status. Neither the type of antithrombotic treatment nor the stroke mechanism was associated with the severity of HT. No parenchymal haemorrhage occurred. (orig.)

  9. Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses during verbal transformations due to word repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, G C; Jhaveri, S P; Kuo, J

    1997-01-01

    Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were recorded to repeated presentations of the same stimulus word. Word repetition results in illusory verbal transformations (VTs) in which word perceptions can differ markedly from the actual stimulus. Previous behavioral studies support an explanation of VTs based on changes in arousal or attention. Horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs were recorded to assess responses with putative origins in the auditory nerve and central brainstem, respectively. FFRs were recorded from 18 subjects when they correctly heard the stimulus and when they reported VTs. Although horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs showed different frequency response patterns, dipoles did not differentiate between perceptual conditions. However, when subjects were divided into low- and high-VT groups (based on percentage of VT trials), a significant Condition x Group interaction resulted. This interaction showed the largest difference in FFR amplitudes during VT trials, with the low-VT group showing increased amplitudes, and the high-VT group showing decreased amplitudes, relative to trials in which the stimulus was correctly perceived. These results demonstrate measurable subject differences in the early processing of complex signals, due to possible effects of attention on the brainstem FFR. The present research shows that the FFR is useful in understanding human language as it is coded and processed in the brainstem auditory pathway.

  10. Repair-dependent cell radiation survival and transformation: an integrated theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, John C

    2014-01-01

    The repair-dependent model of cell radiation survival is extended to include radiation-induced transformations. The probability of transformation is presumed to scale with the number of potentially lethal damages that are repaired in a surviving cell or the interactions of such damages. The theory predicts that at doses corresponding to high survival, the transformation frequency is the sum of simple polynomial functions of dose; linear, quadratic, etc, essentially as described in widely used linear-quadratic expressions. At high doses, corresponding to low survival, the ratio of transformed to surviving cells asymptotically approaches an upper limit. The low dose fundamental- and high dose plateau domains are separated by a downwardly concave transition region. Published transformation data for mammalian cells show the high-dose plateaus predicted by the repair-dependent model for both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. For the neoplastic transformation experiments that were analyzed, the data can be fit with only the repair-dependent quadratic function. At low doses, the transformation frequency is strictly quadratic, but becomes sigmodial over a wider range of doses. Inclusion of data from the transition region in a traditional linear-quadratic analysis of neoplastic transformation frequency data can exaggerate the magnitude of, or create the appearance of, a linear component. Quantitative analysis of survival and transformation data shows good agreement for ultraviolet radiation; the shapes of the transformation components can be predicted from survival data. For ionizing radiations, both neutrons and x-rays, survival data overestimate the transforming ability for low to moderate doses. The presumed cause of this difference is that, unlike UV photons, a single x-ray or neutron may generate more than one lethal damage in a cell, so the distribution of such damages in the population is not accurately described by Poisson statistics. However, the complete

  11. Time-frequency analysis of non-stationary fusion plasma signals using an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangqing; Tan, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    An improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is developed to the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals in tokamak plasmas. Maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform rather than wavelet packet transform is proposed as a preprocessor to decompose a signal into various narrow-band components. Then, a correlation coefficient based selection method is utilized to eliminate the irrelevant intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition of those narrow-band components. Subsequently, a time varying vector autoregressive moving average model instead of Hilbert spectral analysis is performed to compute the Hilbert spectrum, i.e., a three-dimensional time-frequency distribution of the signal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is demonstrated by analyzing a non-stationary simulated signal and actual experimental signals in fusion plasmas

  12. Transformer modeling for low- and mid-frequency electromagnetic transients simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Mathieu

    In this work, new models are developed for single-phase and three-phase shell-type transformers for the simulation of low-frequency transients, with the use of the coupled leakage model. This approach has the advantage that it avoids the use of fictitious windings to connect the leakage model to a topological core model, while giving the same response in short-circuit as the indefinite admittance matrix (BCTRAN) model. To further increase the model sophistication, it is proposed to divide windings into coils in the new models. However, short-circuit measurements between coils are never available. Therefore, a novel analytical method is elaborated for this purpose, which allows the calculation in 2-D of short-circuit inductances between coils of rectangular cross-section. The results of this new method are in agreement with the results obtained from the finite element method in 2-D. Furthermore, the assumption that the leakage field is approximately 2-D in shell-type transformers is validated with a 3-D simulation. The outcome of this method is used to calculate the self and mutual inductances between the coils of the coupled leakage model and the results are showing good correspondence with terminal short-circuit measurements. Typically, leakage inductances in transformers are calculated from short-circuit measurements and the magnetizing branch is calculated from no-load measurements, assuming that leakages are unimportant for the unloaded transformer and that magnetizing current is negligible during a short-circuit. While the core is assumed to have an infinite permeability to calculate short-circuit inductances, and it is a reasonable assumption since the core's magnetomotive force is negligible during a short-circuit, the same reasoning does not necessarily hold true for leakage fluxes in no-load conditions. This is because the core starts to saturate when the transformer is unloaded. To take this into account, a new analytical method is developed in this

  13. A time-frequency analysis method to obtain stable estimates of magnetotelluric response function based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    The time-frequency analysis method represents signal as a function of time and frequency, and it is considered a powerful tool for handling arbitrary non-stationary time series by using instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude. It also provides a possible alternative to the analysis of the non-stationary magnetotelluric (MT) signal. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. In contrast to conventional methods, the response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency. The theory of the method is presented and the mathematical model and calculation procedure, which are used to estimate response function based on HHT time-frequency spectrum, are discussed. To evaluate the results, response function estimates are compared with estimates from a standard MT data processing method based on the Fourier transform. All results show that apparent resistivities and phases, which are calculated from the HHT time-frequency method, are generally more stable and reliable than those determined from the simple Fourier analysis. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional Fourier methods, and the resulting parameter minimises the estimation bias caused by the non-stationary characteristics of the MT data.

  14. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umapathy Karthikeyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  15. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Umapathy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  16. Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2013-03-01

    A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Human Cells Change during Neoplastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthold, Martin; Guo, Xinyi; Bonin, Keith; Scarpinato, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Using an AFM with a spherical probe of 5.3 μm, we determined mechanical properties of individual human mammary epithelial cells that have progressed through four stages of neoplastic transformation: normal, immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic. Measurements on cells in all four stages were taken over both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Moreover, the measurements were made for cells outside of a colony (isolated), on the periphery of a colony, and inside a colony. By fitting the AFM force vs. indentation curves to a Hertz model, we determined the Young's modulus, E. We found a distinct contrast in the influence a cell's colony environment has on its stiffness depending on whether the cells are normal or cancer cells. We also found that cells become softer as they advance to the tumorigenic stage and then stiffen somewhat in the final step to metastatic cells. For cells averaged over all locations the stiffness values of the nuclear region for normal, immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic cells were (mean +/- sem) 880 +/- 50, 940+/-50, 400 +/- 20, and 600 +/-20 Pa respectively. Cytoplasmic regions followed a similar trend. These results point to a complex picture of the mechanical changes that occur as cells undergo neoplastic transformation. This work is supported by NSF Materials and Surface Engineering grant CMMI-1152781.

  18. The value of the indirect immunoradiometric assay of serum alpha - fetoprotein in detecting liver regeneration and neoplastic transformation in chronic liver disease. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voiculetz, N.

    1979-07-01

    To investigate the concentration of alphafetoprotein AFP in different liver diseases and above all in liver cancer the immunoradiometric assay was utilized. The results of AFP studies were compared with regeneration index, blastic T lymphocytes transformation as well as other morphological and biochemical data. The results of the investigations indicated that: 38% of chronic benign hepatopathies displayed the values of serum AFP in normal ranges, 54% were in the range of 41 - 200ng/ml, and 8% showed 200 and more ng/ml. The most important conclusion from the work performed was that the elevation of serum AFP level in the evaluation of chronic hepatopathies, especially in cirrhoses, appears as an index of malignancy

  19. Genetic biomarkers for neoplastic colorectal cancer in peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Ionescu, Cristina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gologan, Serban; Teiusanu, Adriana; Arbanas, Tudor; Mircea, Diculescu

    2011-04-01

    Loss of genomic stability appears as a key step in colorectal carcinogenesis. Micronucleus (MN) designates a chromosome fragment or an entire chromosme which lags behind mitosis. MN may be noticed as an additional nucleus within the cytoplasm cell during the intermediate mitosis phases. We tested the hypothesis that MN and its related anomalies may be associated with the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and microscopically examined. The frequency of micronuclei (FMN) and the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) in binucleated cells were compared in patients with of without colorectal neoplastic lesions. We included 45 patients undergoing colonoscopy, 23 males and 22 females, with a median age of 59. 17 patients had polyps, 11 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 17 had a normal colonoscopy. The FMN was significantly higher in women than in men (8.14 vs 4.17, p=0.008); NPB were significantly less frequent in patients with advanced adenomas (>10mm or vilous) or CRC (p=0.044) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy, hiperplastic polyps or non-advanced adenomas. Micronuclei are more frequent in women, but its frequency was not significantly different in patients with advanced adenomas or CRC. Null or low frequency values for nucleoplasmic bridges presence in peripheral lymphocyte may be predictive for advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer.

  20. Neoplastic pericardial disease. Analysis of 26 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Nogueira Soufen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize patients with neoplastic pericardial disease diagnosed by clinical presentation, complementary test findings, and the histological type of tumor. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with neoplastic pericardial disease were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations and abnormalities in chest roentgenograms and electrocardiograms were frequent, but were not specific. Most patients underwent surgery. There was a high positivity of the pericardial biopsy when associated with the cytological analysis of the pericardial liquid used to determine the histological type of the tumor, particularly when the procedure was performed with the aid of pericardioscopy. CONCLUSION: The correct diagnosis of neoplastic pericardial disease involves suspicious but nonspecific findings during clinical examination and in screen tests. The suspicious findings must be confirmed through more invasive diagnostic approaches, in particular pericardioscopy with biopsy and cytological study.

  1. A High-Precision Time-Frequency Entropy Based on Synchrosqueezing Generalized S-Transform Applied in Reservoir Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the fact that high frequency will be abnormally attenuated when seismic signals travel across reservoirs, a new method, which is named high-precision time-frequency entropy based on synchrosqueezing generalized S-transform, is proposed for hydrocarbon reservoir detection in this paper. First, the proposed method obtains the time-frequency spectra by synchrosqueezing generalized S-transform (SSGST, which are concentrated around the real instantaneous frequency of the signals. Then, considering the characteristics and effects of noises, we give a frequency constraint condition to calculate the entropy based on time-frequency spectra. The synthetic example verifies that the entropy will be abnormally high when seismic signals have an abnormal attenuation. Besides, comparing with the GST time-frequency entropy and the original SSGST time-frequency entropy in field data, the results of the proposed method show higher precision. Moreover, the proposed method can not only accurately detect and locate hydrocarbon reservoirs, but also effectively suppress the impact of random noises.

  2. Development of high frequency spice models for ferrite core inductors and transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, G. Patrick; Portnoy, William M.

    In this work high frequency SPICE models were developed to simulate the hysteresis and saturation effects of toroidal shaped ferrite core inductors and transformers. The models include the nonlinear, multi-valued B-H characteristic of the core material, leakage flux, stray capacitances, and core losses. The saturation effects were modeled using two diode clamping arrangements in conjunction with nonlinear dependent sources. Two possible controlling schemes were developed for the saturation switch. One of the arrangements used the current flowing through a series RC branch to control the switch, while the other used a NAND gate. The NAND gate implementation of the switch proved to be simpler and the parameters associated with it were easier to determine from the measurements and the B-H characteristics of the material. Lumped parameters were used to simulate the parasitic effects. Techniques for measuring these effects are described. The models were verified using manganese-zinc ferrite-type toroidal cores and they have general applicability to all circuit analysis codes equivalent function blocks such as multipliers, adders, and logic components.

  3. The Impact of Increasing Fire Frequency on Forest Transformations in the Zabaikal Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Shvetsov, E.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Zabaikal region of southern Siberia is characterized by some of the highest fire activity in Russia. There has been a significant increase of fire frequency and burned area in the region over the last two decades due to a combination of high anthropogenic pressure, decreased funding to the forestry sector, and increased fire danger, which was associated with higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Central and southern parts of the Zabaikal region where population density is higher and road network is relatively more developed are the most disturbed by fires. Larch stands cover the largest proportion of fire-disturbed lands in the region, while the less common pine and birch stands are characterized by higher fire frequency. About 13% (3.9 M ha) of the total forest area in the Zabaikal region was burned more than once in the 20 years from 1996 to 2015, with many sites burned multiple times. Repeat disturbances led to inadequate tree regeneration on all but the moistest sites. Pine stands on dry soils, which are common in the forest-steppe zone, were the most vulnerable. After repeat burns and over large burned sites we observed transformation of the forests to steppe ecosystems. The most likely causes of insufficient forest regeneration are soil overheating, dominance of tall grasses, and lack of nearby seed sources. Extensive tree plantations have potential to mitigate negative fire impacts; however, due to high fire hazard in the recent decade about half of the plantation area has been burned. Changes in the SWVI index were used to assess postfire reforestation based on a combination of satellite and field data. In the southwestern part of the Zabaikal region, we estimated that reforestation had been hampered over 11% of the forest land area. Regional climate models project increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation across Siberia by the end of the 21st century, with changes in the Zabaikal region projected to be more than twice the

  4. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  5. Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis:II. Cell Genome and Interactome, Neoplastic Non-random Transformation Models in Topoi with Lukasiewicz-Logic and MV Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative Biology, abstract q-bio.OT/0406045 From: I.C. Baianu Dr. [view email] Date (v1): Thu, 24 Jun 2004 02:45:13 GMT (164kb) Date (revised v2): Fri, 2 Jul 2004 00:58:06 GMT (160kb) Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: II. Authors: I.C. Baianu Comments: 23 pages, 1 Figure Report-no: CC04 Subj-class: Other Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected modular sub-networks that evolve under the influence of micro-environmentally induced perturbations, in non-random, pseudo-Markov chain processes. An appropriate n-stage model of carcinogenesis involves therefore n-valued Logic treatments of nonlinear dynamic transformations of complex functional genomes and cell interactomes. Lukasiewicz Algebraic Logic models of genetic networks and signaling pathways in cells are formulated in terms of nonlinear dynamic systems with n-state components that allow for the generalization of previous, Boolean or "fuzzy", logic models of genetic activities in vivo....

  6. An improved partially interleaved transformer structure for high-voltage high-frequency multiple-output applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    . The proposed structure features lower leakage inductance, smaller AC capacitance and lower rate of AC-DC resistance, which is suitable for high-frequency high-efficiency applications. A planar transformer with the proposed structure was built and tested in an LCLC resonant converter, where the input voltage...

  7. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  8. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  9. Quasi-static analysis of flexible pavements based on predicted frequencies using Fast Fourier Transform and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New trend in design of flexible pavements is mechanistic-empirical approach. The first step for applying this method is analyzing the pavement structure for several times and computation of critical stresses and strains, which needs a fast analysis method with good accuracy. This paper aims to introduce a new rapid pavement analysis approach, which can consider the history of loading and rate effect. To this end, 1200 flexible pavement sections were analyzed, and equivalent frequencies (EF were calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method at various depths of asphalt layer. A nonlinear regression equation has been presented for determining EF at different depths of asphalt layer. For more accurate predicting of EF at low frequencies, a feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed, which allows accurate prediction of EF. The frequencies obtained by the proposed regression equation and ANN were compared with frequencies observed in Virginia Smart Road project, and it was found that there is a good agreement between observed and predicted frequencies. Comparison of quasi-static analysis of flexible pavements by frequencies obtained using FFT method and full dynamic analysis by 3D-Move program approves that the critical responses of pavement computed by proposed quasi-static analysis approach are comparable to critical responses computed using full dynamic analysis. Keywords: Equivalent frequency, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Pavement quasi-static analysis, Dynamic modulus, Artificial Neural Network (ANN

  10. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  11. Leader identity as an antecedent of the frequency and consistency of transformational, consideration, and abusive leadership behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Venus, Merlijn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Mao, Changguo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Drawing from identity-based theories of leadership, we examined relations of leader identity with leader behavior and perceived effectiveness. To do so, we employed multiwave methodology to examine the differential impact of leaders' chronic collective, relational, and individual identities on the frequency and consistency of their subsequent transformational, consideration, and abusive behaviors over a 3-week period. We also examined the relative importance of these leadership behaviors for predicting perceived leader effectiveness as rated by subordinates and peers. Results indicated that leaders' collective and individual identities were uniquely related to transformational and abusive behaviors, respectively. We also observed a significant collective by individual identity interaction, such that abusive behaviors were most frequent when a strong individual identity was paired with a weak collective identity. Frequency of transformational behaviors accounted for the largest proportion of variance in perceived leader effectiveness, followed by frequency of abusive behaviors and consistency of transformational behaviors. We discuss the implications of these findings for leadership theory and development. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Pilot study of extremely low frequency magnetic fields emitted by transformers in dwellings. Social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Shalamanova, Tsvetelina; Israel, Michel

    2013-06-01

    A large number of epidemiologic studies examining the potential effect of residential exposure to extremely-low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and childhood leukemia have been published. Two pooled analyses [Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M, Roman E, Skinner J, Dockerty J, Linet M, et al. (2000). A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer. 83(5):692-698; Greenland S, Sheppard AR, Kaune WT, Poole C, Kelsh AM (2000). A pooled analysis of magnetic fields, wire codes, and childhood leukemia. Epidemiology. 11(6):624-634], which included the major epidemiologic studies on ELF magnetic fields and childhood leukemia showed twofold increase in childhood leukemia risk in association with residential ELF exposure above 0.3-0.4 μT. Based on "limited" epidemiologic evidence linking ELF exposure to childhood leukemia and "inadequate evidence" for carcinogenicity of ELF in rodent bioassays, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified ELF magnetic fields as a possible human carcinogen (2B classification) [International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2002). Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 80. IARC Press: Lyon], confirmed by WHO on the basis of studies published after 2000 [World Health Organization. Extremely low frequency fields. In: 238 Environmental health criteria, Geneva: WHO; 2007]. The analysis of more recent studies of ELF magnetic fields and childhood leukemia had small findings and propose methodological improvements concerning the uncertainties in epidemiological approaches and exposure assessment, bias in selection of controls [Kheifets L, Oksuzyan S (2008). Exposure assessment and other challenges in non-ionizing radiation studies of childhood leukaemia. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 132(2):139-147]. By the end of 2010, 37 countries had been identified for possible participation

  13. Infrared and visual image fusion method based on discrete cosine transform and local spatial frequency in discrete stationary wavelet transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Lee, Shin-Jye; He, Kangjian

    2018-01-01

    In order to promote the performance of infrared and visual image fusion and provide better visual effects, this paper proposes a hybrid fusion method for infrared and visual image by the combination of discrete stationary wavelet transform (DSWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and local spatial frequency (LSF). The proposed method has three key processing steps. Firstly, DSWT is employed to decompose the important features of the source image into a series of sub-images with different levels and spatial frequencies. Secondly, DCT is used to separate the significant details of the sub-images according to the energy of different frequencies. Thirdly, LSF is applied to enhance the regional features of DCT coefficients, and it can be helpful and useful for image feature extraction. Some frequently-used image fusion methods and evaluation metrics are employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The experiments indicate that the proposed method can achieve good fusion effect, and it is more efficient than other conventional image fusion methods.

  14. Multi-Beam Radio Frequency (RF) Aperture Arrays Using Multiplierless Approximate Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, digital array processing , antenna beamformers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...125 3.7 Simulation of 2-D Beams Cross Sections .................................................................... 125 3.7.1 8...unlimited. List of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: N-beam Array Processing System using a Linear Array

  15. Time-frequency analysis of fusion plasma signals beyond the short-time Fourier transform paradigm: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, Joao P.S.; Figueiredo, Antonio C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Performing a time-frequency (t-f) analysis on actual magnetic pick-up coil data from the JET tokamak, a comparison is presented between the spectrogram and the Wigner and Choi-Williams distributions. Whereas the former, which stems from the short-time Fourier transform and has been the work-horse for t-f signal processing, implies an unavoidable trade-off between time and frequency resolutions, the latter two belong to a later generation of distributions that yield better, if not optimal joint t-f localization. Topics addressed include signal representation in the t-f plane, frequency identification and evolution, instantaneous-frequency estimation, and amplitude tracking

  16. Morphological spectrum of non‑neoplastic lesions of the uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The uterine cervix is a gateway to several non‑neoplastic and neoplastic gynecological lesions. Most of these non‑neoplastic lesions are commonly found in women of reproductive age. These lesions constitute a source of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide hence the need to analyze them to provide ...

  17. Multistep change in epidermal growth factor receptors during spontaneous neoplastic progression in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakshull, E.; Kraemer, P.M.; Wharton, W.

    1985-01-01

    Whole Chinese hamster embryo lineages have been shown to undergo multistep spontaneous neoplastic progression during serial passage in culture. The authors have studied the binding, internalization, and degradation of 125 I-labeled epidermal growth factor at four different stages of transformation. The whole Chinese hamster embryo cells lost cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors gradually during the course of neoplastic progression until only 10% of the receptor number present in the early-passage cells (precrisis) were retained in the late-passage cells (tumorigenic). No differences in internalization rates, chloroquine sensitivity, or ability to degrade hormone between the various passage levels were seen. No evidence for the presence in conditioned medium of transforming growth factors which might mask or down-regulate epidermal growth factor receptor was obtained. These results suggest that a reduction in cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor might be an early event during spontaneous transformation in whole Chinese hamster embryo cells

  18. Digital signals processing using non-linear orthogonal transformation in frequency domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanichenko E.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress of computer technology in recent decades led to a wide introduction of methods of digital information processing practically in all fields of scientific research. In this case, among various applications of computing one of the most important places is occupied by digital processing systems signals (DSP that are used in data processing remote solution tasks of navigation of aerospace and marine objects, communications, radiophysics, digital optics and in a number of other applications. Digital Signal Processing (DSP is a dynamically developing an area that covers both technical and software tools. Related areas for digital signal processing are theory information, in particular, the theory of optimal signal reception and theory pattern recognition. In the first case, the main problem is signal extraction against a background of noise and interference of a different physical nature, and in the second - automatic recognition, i.e. classification and signal identification. In the digital processing of signals under a signal, we mean its mathematical description, i.e. a certain real function, containing information on the state or behavior of a physical system under an event that can be defined on a continuous or discrete space of time variation or spatial coordinates. In the broad sense, DSP systems mean a complex algorithmic, hardware and software. As a rule, systems contain specialized technical means of preliminary (or primary signal processing and special technical means for secondary processing of signals. Means of pretreatment are designed to process the original signals observed in general case against a background of random noise and interference of a different physical nature and represented in the form of discrete digital samples, for the purpose of detecting and selection (selection of the useful signal and evaluation characteristics of the detected signal. A new method of digital signal processing in the frequency

  19. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for generating sequences for zero-tail discrete fourier transform (DFT)-spread-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (ZT DFT-s-OFDM) reference signals. One method includes adding a zero vector to an input sequence...... of each of the elements, converting the sequence to time domain, generating a zero-padded sequence by forcing a zero head and tail of the sequence, and repeating the steps until a final sequence with zero-tail and flat frequency response is obtained....

  20. A new time-frequency method to reveal quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen in intense laser pulses: Synchrosqueezing transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Yae-lin; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Hau-tieng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a new adaptive time-frequency (TF) analysis technique, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), to explore the dynamics of a laser-driven hydrogen atom at an ab initio level, upon which we have demonstrated its versatility as a new viable venue for further exploring quantum dynamics. For a signal composed of oscillatory components which can be characterized by instantaneous frequency, the SST enables rendering the decomposed signal based on the phase information inherited in the linear TF representation with mathematical support. Compared with the classical type of TF methods, the SST clearly depicts several intrinsic quantum dynamical processes such as selection rules, AC Stark effects, and high harmonic generation

  1. Calculation of core loss and copper loss in amorphous/nanocrystalline core-based high-frequency transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys are now widely used for the cores of high-frequency transformers, and Litz-wire is commonly used as the windings, while it is difficult to calculate the resistance accurately. In order to design a high-frequency transformer, it is important to accurately calculate the core loss and copper loss. To calculate the core loss accurately, the additional core loss by the effect of end stripe should be considered. It is difficult to simulate the whole stripes in the core due to the limit of computation, so a scale down model with 5 stripes of amorphous alloy is simulated by the 2D finite element method (FEM. An analytical model is presented to calculate the copper loss in the Litz-wire, and the results are compared with the calculations by FEM.

  2. A study on mast cell variation in neoplastic and non neoplastic disease of uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mainali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mast cells are heterogeneous group of immune cells involved in multiple biological events. The significance of mast cells in uterine tumor surveillance has been studied with conflicting results. The presence of mast cell in tumor has been described as evidence of a host immunologic anti tumor response and if they are abundant the prognosis is good. However in other studies, with the help of different granules of mast cell, it is said to be very closely related with angiogenesis and tumor invasion. The study aims to analyze the histomorphologic changes with special reference to mast cells in different neoplastic and non neoplastic disease of uterine cervix, and also the relationship of the mast cell population with degree of anaplasia and mitotic figures.Materials and methods: Cervical biopsies received in the department of Pathology for HPE were stained with H& E stain and toludine blue for the identification of mast cellResult: Out of a total of 100 cases, 82 were non neoplastic cases with the mean mast cell count of 83.73 and mean age of patient being 44.30 year. Eighteen neoplastic cases were included which had mean mast cell count of 13.5 and mean age of 49.5 year.Conclusion: Mast cell was found to be highest in non Neoplastic lesion with increase count in polypoidal cervicitis. There was a statistical significance variation between mast cell count in neoplastic and non Neoplastic disease of the cervix. However,role of age in mast cell count was least significant.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11594 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 658-662

  3. Organoids as Models for Neoplastic Transformation | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer models strive to recapitulate the incredible diversity inherent in human tumors. A key challenge in accurate tumor modeling lies in capturing the panoply of homo- and heterotypic cellular interactions within the context of a three-dimensional tissue microenvironment. To address this challenge, researchers have developed organotypic cancer models (organoids) that combine the 3D architecture of in vivo tissues with the experimental facility of 2D cell lines.

  4. Somatic mutation and cell differentiation in neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Collart, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    In brief, the authors suggest that tumor formation may result from continuous expression of growth facilitating genes that, as a result of irreversible changes during the initiation step, are placed under the control of genes expressed during normal differentiation. Thus, to understand carcinogenesis, we must decipher the processes that lead to the acquisition of a mature phenotype in both normal and tumor cells and characterize the growth dependency of tumor cells to inducers of cell differentiation. Furthermore, the growth of a variety of tumors may be controlled through the use of inducers of maturation that activate genes located beyond the gene that is altered during tumor initiation. 22 refs., 3 figs

  5. Mechanistic studies of neoplastic cell transformation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Craise, L.M.; Tobias, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the Biology and Medicine heavy-ion radiation program, we are systematically investigating the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of high- and low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation at the cellular level. From these studies, we anticipate additional insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Such results should provide quantitative information useful for assessing the undesirable biological effects of cosmic rays in space. Some of our recent experimental results are presented here

  6. Damages to DNA that result in neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: correlation between carcinogens and mutagens; defective DNA repair in uv-damaged xeroderma pigmentosum cells; analysis of nucleotide damage to DNA following exposure to chemicals or radiations; photoreactivation in uv-irradiated Escherichia coli; tumor development in fish; excision repair as an aid in identifying damage; detection of excision repair; role of endonucleases in repair of uv damage; and alkylation products and tumors

  7. [The risk of neoplastic processes transformation in cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, V I; Krikunova, L I; Mkrtchian, L S; Liubina, L V; Beziaeva, G P; Panarina, L V; Zamuliaeva, I A

    2014-01-01

    There was performed a comparative analysis of quantitative load and physical status of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 in groups of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)--25 people and cervical cancer (CC)--85 people. According to the analysis there were selected criteria appropriate to a combination of adverse factors that characterized HPV- infection and at the same time estimated both quantitative load and physical status of the virus: high viral load (> 6,5 lg copies of HPV DNA per 100000 cells) in episomal form or low load (< 6,5 lg copies of HPV DNA per 100000 cells) in integrated form of the virus. According to calculations a relative chance of appearing of CC in CIN patients with unfavorable combination of factors was 7,5 times higher than in other patients.

  8. The Zak transform and some counterexamples in time-frequency analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown how the Zak transform can be used to find nontrivial examples of functions f, g e L2(R) with f × g ¿ 0 ¿ F × G, where F, G are the Fourier transforms of f, g, respectively. This is then used to exhibit a nontrivial pair of functions h, k e L2(R), h ¿ k, such that |h| = |k|, |H| = |K|. A

  9. [Research of dual-photoelastic-modulator-based beat frequency modulation and Fourier-Bessel transform imaging spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yao-Li; Huang, Yan-Fei; Chen, You-Hua; Wang, Li-Fu; Yang, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    As the existing photoelastic-modulator(PEM) modulating frequency in the tens of kHz to hundreds of kHz between, leading to frequency of modulated interference signal is higher, so ordinary array detector cannot effectively caprure interference signal..A new beat frequency modulation method based on dual-photoelastic-modulator (Dual-PEM) and Fourier-Bessel transform is proposed as an key component of dual-photoelastic-modulator-based imaging spectrometer (Dual-PEM-IS) combined with charge coupled device (CCD). The dual-PEM are operated as an electro-optic circular retardance modulator, Operating the PEMs at slightly different resonant frequencies w1 and w2 respectively, generates a differential signal at a much lower heterodyne frequency that modulates the incident light. This method not only retains the advantages of the existing PEM, but also the frequency of modulated photocurrent decreased by 2-3 orders of magnitude (10-500 Hz) and can be detected by common array detector, and the incident light spectra can be obtained by Fourier-Bessel transform of low frequency component in the modulated signal. The method makes the PEM has the dual capability of imaging and spectral measurement. The basic principle is introduced, the basic equations is derived, and the feasibility is verified through the corresponding numerical simulation and experiment. This method has' potential applications in imaging spectrometer technology, and analysis of the effect of deviation of the optical path difference. This work provides the necessary theoretical basis for remote sensing of new Dual-PEM-IS and for engineering implementation of spectra inversion.

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells of osteosarcoma patients do not show evidence of neoplastic changes during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh, Emilie P; Ruslan, S Eriaty N; Reijnders, Christianne M A; Szuhai, Karoly; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Roelofs, Helene; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Maarten Egeler, R; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Lankester, Arjan C

    2015-01-01

    In vitro expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as experimental cellular therapy. However, there have been concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly with regard to possible oncogenic transformation. MSCs are the hypothesized precursor cells of high-grade osteosarcoma, a tumor with often complex karyotypes occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. To determine if MSCs from osteosarcoma patients could be predisposed to malignant transformation we cultured MSCs of nine osteosarcoma patients and five healthy donors for an average of 649 days (range 601-679 days). Also, we compared MSCs derived from osteosarcoma patients at diagnosis and from healthy donors using genome wide gene expression profiling. Upon increasing passage, increasing frequencies of binucleate cells were detected, but no increase in proliferation suggestive of malignant transformation occurred in MSCs from either patients or donors. Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate 1 (HLCS1) was differentially expressed (fold change 0.25, P value 0.0005) between MSCs of osteosarcoma patients (n = 14) and healthy donors (n = 9). This study shows that although HCLS1 expression was downregulated in MSCs of osteosarcoma patients and binucleate cells were present in both patient and donor derived MSCs, there was no evidence of neoplastic changes to occur during long-term culture.

  11. Transformation of potential energy surfaces for estimating isotopic shifts in anharmonic vibrational frequency calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Patrick; Oschetzki, Dominik; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, Robert [Clemens-Schöpf Institut für Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 22, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    A transformation of potential energy surfaces (PES) being represented by multi-mode expansions is introduced, which allows for the calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra of any isotopologue from a single PES. This simplifies the analysis of infrared spectra due to significant CPU-time savings. An investigation of remaining deviations due to truncations and the so-called multi-level approximation is provided. The importance of vibrational-rotational couplings for small molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is proposed, which provides information about the quality of the transformation prior to its execution. Benchmark calculations are provided for a set of small molecules.

  12. Dual Transformer Model based on Standard Circuit Elements for the Study of Low- and Mid-frequency Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebi, Saeed

    This thesis is a step forward toward achieving the final objective of creating a fully dual model for transformers including eddy currents and nonlinearities of the iron core using the fundamental electrical components already available in the EMTP-type programs. The model is effective for the study of the performance of transformers during power system transients. This is very important for transformer designers, because the insulation of transformers is determined with the overvoltages caused by lightning or switching operations. There are also internally induced transients that occur when a switch is actuated. For example switching actions for reconfiguration of distribution systems that offers economic advantages, or protective actions to clear faults and large short-circuit currents. Many of the smart grid concepts currently under development by many utilities rely heavily on switching to optimize resources that produce transients in the system. On the other hand, inrush currents produce mechanical forces which deform transformer windings and cause malfunction of the differential protection. Also, transformer performance under ferroresonance and geomagnetic induced currents are necessary to study. In this thesis, a physically consistent dual model applicable to single-phase two-winding transformers is proposed. First, the topology of a dual electrical equivalent circuit is obtained from the direct application of the principle of duality. Then, the model parameters are computed considering the variations of the transformer electromagnetic behavior under various operating conditions. Current modeling techniques use different topological models to represent diverse transient situations. The reversible model proposed in this thesis unifies the terminal and topological equivalent circuits. The model remains invariable for all low-frequency transients including deep saturation conditions driven from any of the two windings. The very high saturation region of the

  13. Phase information of time-frequency transforms as a key feature for classification of atrial fibrillation episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Fernández, Carmen; Galbis, Antonio; Cano, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from atrial fibrillation can be classified into different subtypes, according to the temporal pattern of the arrhythmia and its recurrence. Nowadays, clinicians cannot differentiate a priori between the different subtypes, and patient classification is done afterwards, when its clinical course is available. In this paper we present a comparison of classification performances when differentiating paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation episodes by means of support vector machines. We analyze short surface electrocardiogram recordings by extracting modulus and phase features from several time-frequency transforms: short-time Fourier transform, Wigner–Ville, Choi–Williams, Stockwell transform, and general Fourier-family transform. Overall, accuracy higher than 81% is obtained when classifying phase information features of real test ECGs from a heterogeneous cohort of patients (in terms of progression of the arrhythmia and antiarrhythmic treatment) recorded in a tertiary center. Therefore, phase features can facilitate the clinicians’ choice of the most appropriate treatment for each patient by means of a non-invasive technique (the surface ECG). (paper)

  14. Experimental control of neoplastic progression in cell populations: Foulds' rules revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, H

    1994-01-01

    Foulds introduced six rules of tumor progression based on his observations of spontaneous mammary cancer in mice and generalized them to all forms of neoplasia [Foulds, L. (1954) Cancer Res. 14, 327-339 and Foulds, L. (1969) Neoplastic Development (Academic, New York), Vol. 1, preface and pp. 72-74.] Rules III, IV, and V are considered controversial, and research in animals seems inadequate to resolve the controversies. A subline of NIH 3T3 cells undergoes progressive transformation to produc...

  15. Detailed High Frequency Models of Various Winding Types in Power Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Lunow, Morten Erlandsson; Holbøll, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Abstract--In this paper, techniques are described which demonstrate how a highly detailed internal transformer model can be obtained systematically with Matlab and how it can be prepared for subsequent transient analysis. The input of such a model will mainly be the description of the cross secti...... equivalent circuit. Finally a new circuit extraction technique is proposed for vector fitted impedance matrices for more efficient computation....

  16. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D'Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 .

  17. Devil’s Vortex Phase Structure as Frequency Plane Mask for Image Encryption Using the Fractional Mellin Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Vashisth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency plane phase mask based on Devil’s vortex structure has been used for image encryption using the fractional Mellin transform. The phase key for decryption is obtained by an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. The proposed scheme has been validated for grayscale secret target images, by numerical simulation. The efficacy of the scheme has been evaluated by computing mean-squared-error between the secret target image and the decrypted image. Sensitivity analysis of the decryption process to variations in various encryption parameters has been carried out. The proposed encryption scheme has been seen to exhibit reasonable robustness against occlusion attack.

  18. Enhancement of stereoscopic comfort by fast control of frequency content with wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Nicolas; Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    As the scope of virtual reality applications including stereoscopic imaging becomes wider, it is quite clear that not every designer of a VR application thinks of its constraints in order to make a correct use of stereo. Stereoscopic imagery though not required can be a useful tool for depth perception. It is possible to limit the depth of field as shown by Perrin who has also undertaken research on the link between the ability of fusing stereoscopic images (stereopsis) and local disparity and spatial frequency content. We will show how we can extend and enhance this work especially on the computational complexity point of view. The wavelet theory allows us to define a local spatial frequency and then a local measure of stereoscopic comfort. This measure is based on local spatial frequency and disparity as well as on the observations made by Woepking. Local comfort estimation allows us to propose several filtering methods to enhance this comfort. The idea to modify the images such as they check a "stereoscopic comfort condition" defined as a threshold for the stereoscopic comfort condition. More technically, we seek to limit high spatial frequency content when disparity is high thanks to the use of fast algorithms.

  19. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  20. Matching synchrosqueezing transform: A useful tool for characterizing signals with fast varying instantaneous frequency and application to machine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Chen, Xuefeng; Selesnick, Ivan W.; Guo, Yanjie; Tong, Chaowei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2018-02-01

    Synchrosqueezing transform (SST) can effectively improve the readability of the time-frequency (TF) representation (TFR) of nonstationary signals composed of multiple components with slow varying instantaneous frequency (IF). However, for signals composed of multiple components with fast varying IF, SST still suffers from TF blurs. In this paper, we introduce a time-frequency analysis (TFA) method called matching synchrosqueezing transform (MSST) that achieves a highly concentrated TF representation comparable to the standard TF reassignment methods (STFRM), even for signals with fast varying IF, and furthermore, MSST retains the reconstruction benefit of SST. MSST captures the philosophy of STFRM to simultaneously consider time and frequency variables, and incorporates three estimators (i.e., the IF estimator, the group delay estimator, and a chirp-rate estimator) into a comprehensive and accurate IF estimator. In this paper, we first introduce the motivation of MSST with three heuristic examples. Then we introduce a precise mathematical definition of a class of chirp-like intrinsic-mode-type functions that locally can be viewed as a sum of a reasonably small number of approximate chirp signals, and we prove that MSST does indeed succeed in estimating chirp-rate and IF of arbitrary functions in this class and succeed in decomposing these functions. Furthermore, we describe an efficient numerical algorithm for the practical implementation of the MSST, and we provide an adaptive IF extraction method for MSST reconstruction. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of the MSST in practical applications for machine fault diagnosis, including gearbox fault diagnosis for a wind turbine in variable speed conditions and rotor rub-impact fault diagnosis for a dual-rotor turbofan engine.

  1. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  2. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  3. Modelado del transformador para eventos de alta frecuencia; Transformer model for high frequency events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Adriana Galván Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La función de un transformador es cambiar el nivel de tensión a través de un acoplamiento magnético. Debido a su construcción física, su representación como un circuito y su modelo matemático son muy complejos. El comportamiento electromagnético del transformador, al igual que todos los elementos de la red eléctrica de potencia, depende de la frecuencia involucrada. Por esta razón cuando se tienen fenómenos de alta frecuencia su modelo debe ser muy detallado para que reproduzca el comportamientodel estado transitorio. En este trabajo se analiza cómo se pasa de un modelo muy simple, a un modelo muy detallado para hacer simulación de eventos de alta frecuencia. Los eventos que se simulan son la operación de un interruptor por una falla en el sistema y el impacto de una descarga atmosférica sobre la línea de transmisión a una distancia de 5 km de una subestación de potencia. The transformer’s function is to change the voltage level through a magnetic coupling. Due to its physical construction, its representation as a circuit and its mathematical model are very complex. The electromagnetic behavior and all the elements in the power network depend on the involved frequency. So, for high frequency events, its model needs to be very detailed to reproduce the electromagnetic transient behavior. This work analyzes how to pass from a simple model to a very detailed model to simulated high frequency events. The simulated events are the switch operation due to a fault in the system and the impact of an atmospheric discharge (direct stroke in the transmission line, five km far away from the substation.

  4. A Study of the Pathomorphology of Non-Neoplastic Changes in Canine Mammary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Knauer, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Whilst neoplasia in canine mammae has been the subject of a considerable number of studies, little is known about non-neoplastic changes of the mammae. The aim of the present study was therefore to conduct pathological anatomical and histopathological examinations of mammary glands in order to draw up a survey of the type and frequency of non-tumorous changes in the lactiferous tissues. The material under examination consis...

  5. Expression of a fms-related oncogene in carcinogen-induced neoplastic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.; Nettesheim, P.; Barrett, J.C.; Gilmer, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Following carcinogen exposure in vitro, normal rat tracheal epithelial cells are transformed in a multistage process in which the cultured cells become immortal and ultimately, neoplastic. Five cell lines derived from tumors produced by neoplastically transformed rat tracheal epithelial cells were examined for the expression of 11 cellular oncogenes previously implicated in pulmonary or epithelial carcinogenesis. RNA homologous to fms was expressed at a level 5-19 times higher than normal tracheal epithelial cells in three of five of the tumor-derived lines. All three lines expressing high levels of fms-related RNA gave rise to invasive tumors of epithelial origin when injected into nude mice. Increased expression of the fms-related mRNA was not due to gene amplification, and no gene rearrangement was detected by Southern analyses. RNA blot analysis using a 3' v-fms probe detected a 9.5-kilobase message in the three tumor-derived lines, whereas both normal rat aveolar macrophages and the human choriocarcinoma line BeWo expressed a fms transcript of ≅ 4 kilobases. The authors conclude from these data that the gene expressed as a 9.5-kilobase transcript in these neoplastic epithelial cells is a member of a fms-related gene family but may be distinct from the gene that encodes the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) receptor

  6. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 12000 new cases of laryngeal carcinoma are reported yearly in the united States. Early carcinomas of the larynx (Tis, T1 and T2) are presently treated with either radiation therapy or surgery alone. Five year cure rates achieved with this therapy are 75-85%. Radiation therapy has the advantage of preserving physical integrity of the larynx, thereby preserving voice. Radiation therapy, however, has significant disadvantages even when small laryngeal fields of radiation are used. These disadvantages include discomfort and mucositis during and for potential prolonged periods after therapy, permanently altered voice quality, dysphagia, chondroradionecrosis of the larynx and trachea, and the prolonged length of therapy (6-7 weeks). This report presents the results of 10 patients treated with PDT for neo-plastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the larynx and tracheobronchial tree. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  7. Modelado del transformador para eventos de alta frecuencia ;Transformer model for high frequency events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Adriana – Galván Sanchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La función de un transformador es cambiar el nivel de tensión a través de un acoplamiento magnético.Debido a su construcción física, su representación como un circuito y su modelo matemático son muycomplejos. El comportamiento electromagnético del transformador, al igual que todos los elementos de lared eléctrica de potencia, depende de la frecuencia involucrada. Por esta razón cuando se tienenfenómenos de alta frecuencia su modelo debe ser muy detallado para que reproduzca el comportamientodel estado transitorio. En este trabajo se analiza cómo se pasa de un modelo muy simple, a un modelo muydetallado para hacer simulación de eventos de alta frecuencia. Los eventos que se simulan son la operaciónde un interruptor por una falla en el sistema y el impacto de una descarga atmosférica sobre la línea detransmisión a una distancia de 5 km de una subestación de potencia.The transformer’s function is to change the voltage level through a magnetic coupling. Due to its physicalconstruction, its representation as a circuit and its mathematical model are very complex. Theelectromagnetic behavior and all the elements in the power network depend on the involved frequency. So,for high frequency events, its model needs to be very detailed to reproduce the electromagnetic transientbehavior. This work analyzes how to pass from a simple model to a very detailed model to simulated highfrequency events. The simulated events are the switch operation due to a fault in the system and the impactof an atmospheric discharge (direct stroke in the transmission line, five km far away from the substation.

  8. A nine - year retrospective study of avian neoplastic diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian neoplastic diseases have been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and production losses in commercial chickens in Nigeria. Although available reports described the trend of Marek's disease in Zaria, Kaduna state, they did not take cognizance of other neoplastic diseases of poultry hence the need for ...

  9. Image secure transmission for optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing visible light communication systems using chaotic discrete cosine transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Zhang, Shaozhong; Chen, Fangni; Wu, Ming-Wei; Qiu, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    A physical encryption scheme for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) visible light communication (VLC) systems using chaotic discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. In the scheme, the row of the DCT matrix is permutated by a scrambling sequence generated by a three-dimensional (3-D) Arnold chaos map. Furthermore, two scrambling sequences, which are also generated from a 3-D Arnold map, are employed to encrypt the real and imaginary parts of the transmitted OFDM signal before the chaotic DCT operation. The proposed scheme enhances the physical layer security and improves the bit error rate (BER) performance for OFDM-based VLC. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme not only protects image data from eavesdroppers but also keeps the good BER and peak-to-average power ratio performances for image-based OFDM-VLC systems.

  10. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  11. In vitro transformation: interactions of chemical carcinogens and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPaolo, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of reproducible quantitative in vitro procedures resulting in neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells has made possible the separation of events related to the process leading to transformation from secondary events that interfere with the early recognition of transformation. The use of chemical carcinogens on Syrian hamster cell strains results in a dose-response relation consistent with a Poisson distribution, indicating that the transformation phenomenon is inductive. In some circumstances, the joint action or interaction of chemical carcinogens with other agents results in an increased incidence of transformation. The pretreatment of Syrian hamster cells with ionizing radiation (250 R) or alkylating chemicals enhances the frequency of transformation on a cell or colony basis ordinarily obtained with known chemical carcinogens. Pretreatment with non-ionizing irradiation (uv, 254 nm) did not have a similar effect. The two types of irradiation and the alkylating agents reduced the cloning efficiency of the cells. X ray alone produced no transformation; the alkylating chemicals produced transformations infrequently, whereas uv produced a significant number of transformations. The number of transformations associated with uv is increased by pretreatment of the cells by x-irradiation. The enhancement of transformation by x-ray or x-ray-type agents appears to be independent of the type of second carcinogen used

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Non-Neoplastic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokito, Akinori; Jougasaki, Michihisa

    2016-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. There are at least 23 members of MMPs ever reported in human, and they and their substrates are widely expressed in many tissues. Recent growing evidence has established that MMP not only can degrade a variety of components of extracellular matrix, but also can cleave and activate various non-matrix proteins, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, contributing to both physiological and pathological processes. In normal conditions, MMP expression and activity are tightly regulated via interactions between their activators and inhibitors. Imbalance among these factors, however, results in dysregulated MMP activity, which causes tissue destruction and functional alteration or local inflammation, leading to the development of diverse diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, neurodegenerative disease, as well as cancer. This article focuses on the accumulated evidence supporting a wide range of roles of MMPs in various non-neoplastic diseases and provides an outlook on the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP action. PMID:27455234

  13. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Because roller element bearings (REBs failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT. In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs. Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines. The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU. The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault

  14. On the determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid in the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannin, P.C.; Vekas, L.; Marin, C.N.; Malaescu, I.

    2017-01-01

    Complex susceptibility measurements provide a unique and efficient means for the investigation and determination of the dynamic properties of magnetic fluids. In particular, measurement of the frequency, f(Hz), and field, H(kA/m), dependent, complex susceptibility, χ(ω, Η)= χ′(ω, Η)−iχ″(ω, Η), of magnetic fluids has proven to be a valuable and reliable technique for investigating such properties. The experimental data presented here was obtained from measurements of a transformer oil based ferrofluid, with measurements being performed over the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz and polarising fields 0–168 kA/m. In the case of transformer oil magnetic fluids, the normal measurement emphasis has been on the investigation of their dielectric properties, including the effects which lightning may have on these properties. Little has been reported on the measurement of the corresponding magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω), of such fluids and in this paper we address this fact. Thus we consider it worthwhile, in the case of a transformer with magnetic fluid transformer oil, being affected as a result of a lightening occurrence, to have knowledge of the fluids dynamic properties, at the microwave frequencies. In the process of determining the sample susceptibility profiles, it was found that the peak value of the χ″(ω) component, was approximately constant over the frequency range 2.4–6.3 GHz. From this it was determined that the fluid was effectively operating as a wideband absorber over a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz. - Highlights: • Complex magnetic susceptibility measurements in the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz. • Determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid. • Wideband attenuator ( Absorber) in the frequency range 2.4–6.3 GHz.

  15. Simulation of beam-splitter made of metamaterials with angle spatial distribution of constitutive parameters based on transformation optics for THz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, E A; Vozianova, A V; Khodzitsky, M K

    2014-01-01

    New approach to design beam splitter on basis of the transformation optics using angle constitutive parameters distribution of medium was proposed. The beam splitter was numerically simulated by COMSOL Multiphysics for terahertz frequency range. The numerical simulations were carried out for ideal and reduced constitutive parameters of medium for the case of TM plane wave

  16. Melanocytic nevi and non-neoplastic hyperpigmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, C

    2017-06-01

    This is the first of three chapters that will be progressively published on Pathologica as updating activity of the Italian Study Group of Dermatopathology (GISD), Italian Society of Pathology and Cytology (SIAPeC IAP). The first chapter concerns non-neoplastic hyperpigmented skin lesions and nevi, the second will address the topics of dysplastic nevus, borderline and low malignant potential melanocytic proliferations and the third melanoma in its variants and differential diagnoses with a supplement on the immunohistochemistry and molecular support to diagnostic and prognostic definition of nevi and melanomas. Although we believe that great advances were made in the application of ancillary genetic, immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, for the diagnosis and biological characterization of melanocytic tumors the morphology still remains the gold standard. These chapters are not intended as substitutes or even claim to be compared to the numerous and valuable texts that are also recently published, but they want to present, concisely and quickly available, all of those traits that we believe essential to the histopathological evaluation of a melanocytic lesion. No morphological parameter is exclusive and individually sufficient to make the correct diagnosis of nevus or melanoma but to reach a final conclusive and appropriate interpretation a set of morphological characters must be evaluated and compared. I was lucky enough to be able to examine several thousand cases and to draw lessons from each of these increasing my diagnostic experience. I had a great lesson by my teacher and good friend Prof. Martin C. Mihm Jr of Boston, dermato-pathologist with undisputed international reputation, who, with great passion, patience and friendship, transferred me much of his experience and knowledge and for which I always thank him. Special thanks I would like to address Dr. Agostino Crupi, dermatologist, skin-oncologist and brilliant dermatoscopist who taught me how the

  17. A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF NON-NEOPLASTIC AND NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF KIDNEY FOR A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswari Suvvari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nephrectomy is a common procedure in surgical practice. There are many indications for nephrectomy, non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions. The common conditions being chronic pyelonephritis and renal tumours. A detailed and meticulous histopathological examination is essential to establish the diagnosis of lesions of kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study for a period of two years from January 2015 to December 2016 at a tertiary care centre. 34 cases of nephrectomy specimens were analysed and data recorded. RESULTS Non-neoplastic lesions were constituting 47.05% (16 of cases and 52.94% (18 cases were neoplastic lesions. Lesions were more common in females with male:female ratio of 1:1.4. Both the lesions were common in age group of 41-50 years. CONCLUSION The prevalence of neoplastic lesions was more common than non-neoplastic lesions. The commonest indication for nephrectomy was chronic pyelonephritis followed by renal tumours. Histopathological examination in correlation with clinical and radiological features plays a great role in subcategorisation of lesions accurately to ensure better therapy.

  18. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  19. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as...

  20. Early-enhancing non-neoplastic lesions on gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, M. E-mail: masa-gif@umin.ac.jp; Kondo, H.; Semelka, R.C.; Matsuo, M.; Goshima, S.; Hoshi, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itai, Y

    2003-10-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency, cause, and significance of early-enhancing, non-neoplastic (EN) lesions on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver performed for the detection of malignant hepatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1997 to September 2000, we reviewed the images of 125 patients, suspected of having hepatic tumours, in whom (1) gadolinium-enhanced triphasic dynamic gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) imaging in addition to unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted MRI was performed, (2) conventional angiography and combination computed tomography (CT) hepatic arteriography and CT during arterial portography were performed within 2 weeks of the MRI, and (3) definitive surgery within 2 weeks of the MRI or follow-up study by means of intravenously contrast-enhanced CT or MRI in 10 months or more was performed. Angiographic studies were correlated to determine the underlying causes of the EN lesions. RESULTS: We found 78 EN lesions in 36 patients (29%), ranging in size from 4 and 50 mm (mean, 12.2 mm). From the MR reports, our radiologists had prospectively diagnosed EN lesions as probable malignant tumours in eight (10%), possible malignant tumours in 36 (46%), and probable non-neoplastic lesion in 34 (44%). EN lesions were found in 27 of 81 (33%) cirrhotic patients and in nine of 44 (20%) non-cirrhotic patients. Fifty-one EN lesions (65%) were located along the liver edge. The shape was circular in 42 (54%), oval in 14 (18%), irregular in 12 (15%), wedge-shaped in seven (9%), and fan-shaped in three (4%). Twenty EN lesions (26%) appeared slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The causes were non-neoplastic arterio-portal shunting in 48 (62%), cystic venous drainage in four (5%), rib compression in four (5%), aberrant right gastric venous drainage in two (3%), and unknown in 20 (26%). CONCLUSION: Over half the number of EN lesions were caused by non-neoplastic arterio-portal shunting, occasionally showing slight hyperintensity on

  1. On the determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid in the frequency range 0.1-20 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, P. C.; Vekas, L.; Marin, C. N.; Malaescu, I.

    2017-02-01

    Complex susceptibility measurements provide a unique and efficient means for the investigation and determination of the dynamic properties of magnetic fluids. In particular, measurement of the frequency, f(Hz), and field, H(kA/m), dependent, complex susceptibility, χ(ω, Η)= χ‧(ω, Η)-iχ″(ω, Η), of magnetic fluids has proven to be a valuable and reliable technique for investigating such properties. The experimental data presented here was obtained from measurements of a transformer oil based ferrofluid, with measurements being performed over the frequency range 0.1-20 GHz and polarising fields 0-168 kA/m. In the case of transformer oil magnetic fluids, the normal measurement emphasis has been on the investigation of their dielectric properties, including the effects which lightning may have on these properties. Little has been reported on the measurement of the corresponding magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω), of such fluids and in this paper we address this fact. Thus we consider it worthwhile, in the case of a transformer with magnetic fluid transformer oil, being affected as a result of a lightening occurrence, to have knowledge of the fluids dynamic properties, at the microwave frequencies. In the process of determining the sample susceptibility profiles, it was found that the peak value of the χ″(ω) component, was approximately constant over the frequency range 2.4-6.3 GHz. From this it was determined that the fluid was effectively operating as a wideband absorber over a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz.

  2. Design of fixed frequency controlled radial-mode stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformers for DC/DC converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Costa, François; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) for DC/DC converter applications. We examined several parameters, which allows us to produce a piezoelectric transformer with optimal efficiency and which has an optimal range for regulating voltage. The characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converter applications, it requires the presence of a rectifier circuit block. A rectifier is usually a nonlinear device which does not act like a pure resistor. We began by modeling a full-wave rectifier directly in order to understand the design constraint variables such as the maximum mechanical current, the piezoelectric transformer configuration, and the energy balance of the PT configuration. In our final design, a stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformer with radial-mode vibration was chosen due to the large number of design parameters required. In our new design procedure, instead of just looking at the typical optimal loading condition of the PT, we used the concept of a maximum mechanical current to determine the new optimal efficiency which is suitable for voltage regulation. From our results we found that the size of the piezoelectric transformer and efficiency are trade-offs which means that they have an inverse relationship. In summary, we developed a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer, which we found to be small but with high efficiency so as to provide an optimal range for regulating voltage

  3. Immunogenetical study of the atomic-bombed patients of neoplastic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takashige; Tomonaga, Akimitsu; Hara, Kohei; Hirose, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    The immunogenetical backgrounds of 30 patients with neoplastic diseases (group I) and 30 with non-neoplastic diseases (group II) who were exposed to the A-bomb within 30 km of the center of explosion were studied using human leucocyte antigen (HLA), whose gene combines with Ir-gene, as an index. Eighty-four healthy, non-exposed persons (group III) were selected as controls. Regarding phenotype and genotype frequency, type A9 showed Aw24 and type A10 showed A26 in all cases. Except for Bw40, there was no significant difference among the groups (frequency of A9, I>II; that of A10, II< III). Bw40 was frequently observed in group I although it had racial specificity. There were 16 cases of Bw40 in group I (53.3%), 10 cases in group II (33.3%), and 23 cases in group III (27.3%). Further analysis of Bw40 revealed that Bw40.1 and Bw40.2 were more frequent in group I than in the control group. Bw40.3 was not observed in any of the groups. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Glycaemic adverse drug reactions from anti-neoplastics used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    235625 records ... Glycaemic adverse drug reactions from anti-neoplastics used in treating pancreatic cancer. ... Based on the emphasized nine antineoplastic drugs with high hyperglycemic ADR incidence, we found: fluorouracil, sorafenib and pemetrexed with high ADR record of metabolism and nutrition disorders; ...

  5. Corneal Structural Changes in Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Pasquale; Allegra, Alessandro; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Rania, Laura; Innao, Vanessa; Wylegala, Edward; Nowinska, Anna; Ieni, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Musolino, Caterina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To investigate corneal confocal microscopic changes in nonneoplastic and neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies. Three groups of subjects were considered: group 1, twenty normal subjects; group 2, fifteen patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); group 3, eight patients with smoldering multiple myeloma and eight patients with untreated multiple myeloma. After hematologic diagnosis, patients underwent ophthalmologic exam and in vivo confocal microscopic study. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Epithelial cells of gammopathic patients showed significantly higher reflectivity than controls, demonstrated by optical density (P < 0.001). Subbasal nerve density, branching, and beading were significantly altered in gammopathic patients (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively). The number of keratocytes was significantly reduced in neoplastic patients (P < 0.001 versus both normal and MGUS) in the anterior, medium, and posterior stroma. The ROC curve analysis showed good sensitivity and specificity for this parameter. Group 2 and 3 keratocytes showed higher nuclear and cytoplasmatic reflectivity in the medium and posterior stroma. Endothelial cells were not affected. Patients with neoplastic gammopathies showed peculiar alterations of the keratocyte number, which appeared significantly reduced. A follow-up with corneal confocal microscopy of patients with MGUS is suggested as a useful tool to identify peripheral tissue alterations linked to possible neoplastic disease development.

  6. Non-neoplastic surgical diseases of the lung and pleura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Non-neoplastic diseases of the bronchi, pulmonary parenchyma, mediastinum, and pleura that are amenable to surgical management represent a wide range of unrelated etiopathogenic conditions that usually have a focal distribution. The author discusses the presurgical clinical, radiographic, and laboratory assessment and prognoses, and addresses therapeutic recommendations

  7. Enteroclysis of non-neoplastic disorders of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Enteroclysis is now widely used for examining the jejunum and ileum. The technique is ideal for demonstrating the extent and severity of disorders that cause morphological changes to the small intestine. In this review many non-neoplastic small intestinal disorders as demonstrated by enteroclysis are described and illustrated. (orig.)

  8. Knowledge on neoplastic diseases among young rural inhabitants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-09-01

    According to self-assessment, every third respondent stated having a low or average level of knowledge. The most frequently used source of knowledge was the Internet, and much more rarely a doctor or a nurse. Very few of the respondents could enumerate the tests applied in the early detection of neoplastic diseases.

  9. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , and performing an iterative manipulation of the input sequence. The performing of the iterative manipulation of the input sequence may include, for example: computing frequency domain response of the sequence, normalizing elements of the computed frequency domain sequence to unitary power while maintaining phase...

  10. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  11. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  12. Modelling, simulation and measurements of fast transients in transformer windings with consideration of frequency-dependent losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Sluis, van der L.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Lopez Roldan, J.; Terzija, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    For the specification of winding insulation of transformers, it is important to know the electrical stresses to which the winding can be exposed during fast transient oscillations. These oscillations occur during switching operations performed by circuit breakers, or when gas-insulated substations

  13. Behavior of the wood to impulses of high frequency and their relationship with failures in distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Umana, Antonio; Paez Riano, Orlando Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The paper tries about the causes of the failures of the transformers in the rural sector in Colombia and their solutions, an alternative is presented with base in the studies of isolation, which allows an effective and economic solution of easy application

  14. Non-stationary signal analysis based on general parameterized time-frequency transform and its application in the feature extraction of a rotary machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Peng, Zhike; Chen, Shiqian; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wenming

    2018-06-01

    With the development of large rotary machines for faster and more integrated performance, the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for them are becoming more challenging. Since the time-frequency (TF) pattern of the vibration signal from the rotary machine often contains condition information and fault feature, the methods based on TF analysis have been widely-used to solve these two problems in the industrial community. This article introduces an effective non-stationary signal analysis method based on the general parameterized time-frequency transform (GPTFT). The GPTFT is achieved by inserting a rotation operator and a shift operator in the short-time Fourier transform. This method can produce a high-concentrated TF pattern with a general kernel. A multi-component instantaneous frequency (IF) extraction method is proposed based on it. The estimation for the IF of every component is accomplished by defining a spectrum concentration index (SCI). Moreover, such an IF estimation process is iteratively operated until all the components are extracted. The tests on three simulation examples and a real vibration signal demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our method.

  15. Analysis of the High-Frequency Content in Human QRS Complexes by the Continuous Wavelet Transform: An Automatized Analysis for the Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iglesias, Daniel; Roqueñi Gutiérrez, Nieves; De Cos, Francisco Javier; Calvo, David

    2018-02-12

    Fragmentation and delayed potentials in the QRS signal of patients have been postulated as risk markers for Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). The analysis of the high-frequency spectral content may be useful for quantification. Forty-two consecutive patients with prior history of SCD or malignant arrhythmias (patients) where compared with 120 healthy individuals (controls). The QRS complexes were extracted with a modified Pan-Tompkins algorithm and processed with the Continuous Wavelet Transform to analyze the high-frequency content (85-130 Hz). Overall, the power of the high-frequency content was higher in patients compared with controls (170.9 vs. 47.3 10³nV²Hz -1 ; p = 0.007), with a prolonged time to reach the maximal power (68.9 vs. 64.8 ms; p = 0.002). An analysis of the signal intensity (instantaneous average of cumulative power), revealed a distinct function between patients and controls. The total intensity was higher in patients compared with controls (137.1 vs. 39 10³nV²Hz -1 s -1 ; p = 0.001) and the time to reach the maximal intensity was also prolonged (88.7 vs. 82.1 ms; p content of the QRS complexes was distinct between patients at risk of SCD and healthy controls. The wavelet transform is an efficient tool for spectral analysis of the QRS complexes that may contribute to stratification of risk.

  16. Effects of irradiation treatment on shoot regeneration and transformation frequency of chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris SSP. Chinensis L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhengqi; Cui Hairui

    2003-01-01

    Cotyledons with petiole were cultured on MS basic medium containing 5 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 5 mg/L AgNO 3 , and produced adventitious buds with higher frequency. Induction frequency of adventitious buds could be increased by irradiation treatment of γ-rays with the lower dose of 1-2.5 Gy to seedlings and explants in culture, but decreased dramatically when the dose was higher than 10 Gy. Irradiation treatment in co-culture with lower dose of 1-7.5 Gy also promote transient expression frequency of gus gene, while irradiation treatment in pre-culture did not show obvious effect on transient expression of gus gene

  17. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crundwell, N. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed.

  18. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crundwell, N.; O'Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed

  19. The influence of theosophy on Mondrian's neoplastic work

    OpenAIRE

    Bris Marino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    (ENG)The influence of Theosophy in the symbolist painting of Mondrian (1908-1911) has been unanimously recognized. There is not, however, the same consensus with respect to the influence of theosophy in his neoplastic period. There is a relationship between Mondrian’s theoretical writing and his practical work, but no proportionality. Mondrian’s theoretical discourse is not limited to painting and touches on other arts and disciplines (architecture,...

  20. Neoplastic stem cells: current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Axel; Brämswig, Kira; Herrmann, Harald; Karlic, Heidrun; Mirkina, Irina; Hubmann, Rainer; Laffer, Sylvia; Marian, Brigitte; Shehata, Medhat; Krepler, Clemens; Pehamberger, Hubert; Grunt, Thomas; Jäger, Ulrich; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Neoplastic stem cells have initially been characterized in myeloid leukemias where NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating progenitors supposedly reside within a CD34+/Lin- subset of the malignant clone. These progenitors are considered to be self-renewing cells responsible for the in vivo long-term growth of neoplastic cells in leukemic patients. Therefore, these cells represent an attractive target of therapy. In some lymphoid leukemias, NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating cells were also reported to reside within the CD34+/Lin- subfraction of the clone. More recently, several attempts have been made to transfer the cancer stem cell concept to solid tumors and other non-hematopoietic neoplasms. In several of these tumors, the cell surface antigens AC133 (CD133) and CD44 are considered to indicate the potential of a cell to initiate permanent tumor formation in vivo. However, several questions concerning the phenotype, self-renewal capacity, stroma-dependence, and other properties of cancer- or leukemia-initiating cells remain to be solved. The current article provides a summary of our current knowledge on neoplastic (cancer) stem cells, with special emphasis on clinical implications and therapeutic options as well as a discussion about conceptual and technical limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum amyloid A protein in amyloidosis, rheumatic, and neoplastic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, M.D.; Cohen, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of amyloid protein A (SAA) have been shown to be elevated in different types of amyloidosis and in rheumatic diseases by radioimmunoassay using 125 iodine labeled AA and anti-AA. SAA levels were elevated in both primary and secondary amyloidosis, but there were highly significant differences between these levels. In heredofamilial amyloid, SAA levels were within normal limits. While the mean SAA level was elevated in persons over 70 years, the fact that some persons in this age group had normal levels suggested that marked elevation after age 70 may be due to occult inflammatory or neoplastic disease. High SAA levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis correlated, in most cases, with physician evaluation of disease activity and Westergren ESR. SAA levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were lower than those in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and most patients with degenerative joint disease had normal levels. Very high levels of SAA were found in patients with neoplastic diseases. Patients with carcinoma of the lung and bowel had much higher levels than patients with carcinoma of the breast. Determination of SAA levels may be of value in evaluating different forms of systemic amyloidosis, assessing the activity of rheumatic disease, and screening for occult inflammatory or neoplastic disease

  2. A novel joint timing/frequency synchronization scheme based on Radon-Wigner transform of LFM signals in CO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Wei, Ying; Zeng, Xiangye; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Mengjun

    2018-03-01

    A joint timing and frequency synchronization method has been proposed for coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system in this paper. The timing offset (TO), integer frequency offset (FO) and the fractional FO can be realized by only one training symbol, which consists of two linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals with opposite chirp rates. By detecting the peak of LFM signals after Radon-Wigner transform (RWT), the TO and the integer FO can be estimated at the same time, moreover, the fractional FO can be acquired correspondingly through the self-correlation characteristic of the same training symbol. Simulation results show that the proposed method can give a more accurate TO estimation than the existing methods, especially at poor OSNR conditions; for the FO estimation, both the fractional and the integer FO can be estimated through the proposed training symbol with no extra overhead, a more accurate estimation and a large FO estimation range of [ - 5 GHz, 5GHz] can be acquired.

  3. Active frequency tuning of the cantilever nanoresonator utilizing a phase transformation of NiTi thin film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachiv, Ivo; Šittner, Petr; Jeng, Y.-R.; Vokoun, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2017), s. 5161-5169 ISSN 1392-8716 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-13174J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoresonator * resonant frequency * thin film * smart memory alloys * NiTi film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.398, year: 2016

  4. Cell density dependence of transformation frequencies in C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettega, D; Calzolari, P; Ottolenghi, A; Lombardi, L T [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Rimoldi, E [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia Veterinaria

    1989-12-01

    The effects of cell density on transformation frequencies were studied in C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to 0.5 and 7 Gy of 200 kVp X-rays. Initial cell density strongly influenced transformation frequency; this decreased by a factor of between 4 and 10 when the initial seeding density was changed from 50 to 2500 cells/10 cm diameter Petri dish. The data were fitted with two equations: (a) an allometric function represented on a log-log scale by a straight line and (b) a sigmoidal function with plateaux between 50 and 250 cells/dish and above 600. The two curves are compared and their probabilities discussed. Our data indicate that the region between 50 and 250 cells/dish would be the most suitable region for dose-effect measurements. A study of the growth curves at 0.5 and 8.5 Gy shows that cell growth rates are not influenced by initial cell density. (author).

  5. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as in monomeric forms in C. boidinii cells. The C. boidinii URA3 gene was overexpressed in C. boidinii on these CARS vectors. CARS1 and CARS2 were found to function as an autonomous replicating element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well. Different portions of the CARS1 sequence were needed for autonomous replicating activity in C. boidinii and S. cerevisiae. C. boidinii could also be transformed with vectors harboring a CARS fragment and the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene.

  6. Epileptic Seizure Detection based on Wavelet Transform Statistics Map and EMD Method for Hilbert-Huang Spectral Analyzing in Gamma Frequency Band of EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behnam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seizure detection using brain signal (EEG analysis is the important clinical methods in drug therapy and the decisions before brain surgery. In this paper, after signal conditioning using suitable filtering, the Gamma frequency band has been extracted and the other brain rhythms, ambient noises and the other bio-signal are canceled. Then, the wavelet transform of brain signal and the map of wavelet transform in multi levels are computed. By dividing the color map to different epochs, the histogram of each sub-image is obtained and the statistics of it based on statistical momentums and Negentropy values are calculated. Statistical feature vector using Principle Component Analysis (PCA is reduced to one dimension. By EMD algorithm and sifting procedure for analyzing the data by Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF and computing the residues of brain signal using spectrum of Hilbert transform and Hilbert – Huang spectrum forming, one spatial feature based on the Euclidian distance for signal classification is obtained. By K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifier and by considering the optimal neighbor parameter, EEG signals are classified in two classes, seizure and non-seizure signal, with the rate of accuracy 76.54% and with variance of error 0.3685 in the different tests.

  7. A Fast Hartley Transform based novel optical OFDM system for VLC indoor application with constant envelope PAPR reduction technique using frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this research literature we present a unique optical OFDM system for Visible Light Communication (VLC) intended for indoor application which uses a non conventional transform-Fast Hartley Transform and an effective method to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signal based on frequency modulation leading to a constant envelope (CE) signal. The proposed system is analyzed by a complete mathematical model and verified by the concurrent simulations results. The use of the non conventional transform makes the system computationally more desirable as it does not require the Hermitian symmetry constraint to yield real signals. The frequency modulation of the baseband signal converge random peaks into a CE signal. This leads to alleviation of the non linearity effects of the LED used in the link for electrical to optical conversion. The PAPR is reduced to 2 dB by this technique in this work. The impact of the modulation index on the performance of the system is also investigated. An optimum modulation depth of 30% gives better results. The additional phase discontinuity incurring on the demodulated signal at the receiver is also significantly reduced. A comparison of the improvement in phase discontinuity of the proposed technique of combating the PAPR with the previously known phase modulation technique is also presented in this work. Based on the channel metrics we evaluate the system performance and report an improvement of 1.2 dB at the FEC threshold. The proposed system is simple in design and computationally efficient and this can be incorporated into the present VLC system without much alteration thereby making it a cost effective solution.

  8. Neoplastic Meningitis from Solid Tumors: A Prospective Clinical Study in Lombardia and a Literature Review on Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic dissemination to the leptomeninges is an increasingly common occurrence in patients with both haematological and solid tumors arising outside the central nervous system. Both refinement of diagnostic techniques (Magnetic resonance imaging and increased survival in patients treated with targeted therapies for systemic tumors account for this increased frequency. Cerebrospinal fluid cytological analysis and MRI confirm clinical diagnosis based on multifocal central nervous system signs/symptoms in a patient with known malignancy. Overall survival in patients with leptomeningeal neoplastic dissemination from solid tumors is short, rarely exceeding 3-4 months. However, selected patients may benefit from aggressive therapies, Apart from symptomatic treatment, intrathecal chemotherapy is used, with both free (methotrexate, Thiotepa, AraC and liposomal antitumor agents (liposomal AraC. Palliative radiotherapy is indicated only in cases of symptomatic bulky disease, surgery is limited to positioning of Ommaya recervoirs or C5F shunting. We report clinical data on a cohort of 26 prospectively followed patients with neoplastic leptomeningitis followed in Lombardia, Italy, in 2011. Prognostic factors and pattern of care are reported.

  9. Screening colonoscopy for the detection of neoplastic lesions in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, E J; Green, B; Poles, M A

    2009-08-01

    Although non-AIDS defining malignancies are rapidly increasing as HIV-infected subjects live longer, little is know about the results of screening for colonic neoplasms (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinomas) in this population. We conducted a screening colonoscopy study to determine the prevalence of colonic neoplasms in 136 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects >or=50 years of age and 272 asymptomatic uninfected control subjects matched for age, sex, and family history of colorectal cancer. Advanced neoplasms were defined as adenomas >or=10 mm or any adenoma, regardless of size, with villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of neoplastic lesions was significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects than in control subjects (62.5% vs 41.2%, pscreening colonoscopy should be offered to HIV-infected subjects, but the age of initiation and the optimal frequency of screening require further study.

  10. submitter Development of a 100 kW, 12.5 kV, 22 kHz and 30 kV insulated medium frequency transformer for compact and reliable medium voltage power conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Isler, Stephane; Aguglia, Davide; Bonnin, Xavier Abel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the critical design aspects addressed during the development of a 100 kW, 12.5 kV, 22 kHz, and 30 kV insulated medium frequency transformer used in a power converter. The transformers are used in a resonant multilevel converter topology producing HV DC voltage from a three phase 400 V AC industrial grid. The power converter is used to supply radio frequency systems in particle accelerators. Considerations about material selection, dielectric, magnetic and thermal design are discussed and experimental results on the full scale transformer and power converter are presented.

  11. A study of the chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance frequency spectrum in potassium hexachloro-osmate by Fourier transform methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, D.J.; Armstrong, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of K 2 OsCl 6 in the vicinity of the structural phase transition using Fourier transform techniques is reported. At high temperatures a single symmetric line spectrum is observed as expected from the high temperature cubic antifluorite structure. Below T(sub)c = 45 K the two symmetric line spectrum characteristic of a tetragonal distortion is seen. At intermediate temperatures, 45< T<150 K the spectrum consists of a single asymmetric line. A detailed analysis reveals that for the single crystal sample the asymmetric line is composed of two symmetric components, a main line, and a weak satellite shifted - 1.5 kHz relative to the main line. This feature is unaffected by changes in temperature near T(sub)c. It is attributed to the influence of interstitial impurities on neighbouring chlorine ions. For the powder sample, the asymmetry is qualitatively different. A detailed analysis shows that the line is a superposition of three components. In addition to the two components present in the single crystal, a third, broad component develops as the temperature approaches T(sub)c. This feature of the spectrum is the cluster induced order-disorder manifestation of the local dynamics. The most probable reason that this third component is not observed in the single crystal spectrum is because it is too broad due to a difference in the detailed dynamics of two samples. (auth)

  12. FRA-1 protein overexpression is a feature of hyperplastic and neoplastic breast disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Fusco, Alfredo; Ferraro, Angelo; Botti, Gerardo; Monaco, Mario; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Vuttariello, Emilia; Arnaldi, Liliane; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) is an immediate early gene encoding a member of AP-1 family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. fra-1 gene overexpression has an important role in the process of cellular transformation, and our previous studies suggest FRA-1 protein detection as a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasias. Here we investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in benign and malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis, to evaluate its possible help in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast neoplastic diseases. We investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in 70 breast carcinomas and 30 benign breast diseases by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis. FRA-1 protein was present in all of the carcinoma samples with an intense staining in the nucleus. Positive staining was also found in most of fibroadenomas, but in this case the staining was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and the number of positive cells was lower than in carcinomas. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of breast hyperplasias, with no differences in FRA-1 expression level between typical and atypical breast lesions; however the FRA-1 protein localization is mainly nuclear in the atypical hyperplasias. In situ breast carcinomas showed a pattern of FRA-1 protein expression very similar to that observed in atypical hyperplasias. Conversely, no FRA-1 protein was detectable in 6 normal breast tissue samples used as controls. RT-PCR and qPCR analysis confirmed these results. Similar results were obtained analysing FRA-1 expression in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples. The data shown here suggest that FRA-1 expression, including its intracellular localization, may be considered a useful marker for hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferative breast disorders

  13. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Hans G; Schwarz, Michael; Poch, Bertram

    2012-11-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are diagnosed frequently due to early use of abdominal imaging techniques. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, mucinous cystic neoplasm, and serous pseudopapillary neoplasia are considered pre-cancerous lesions because of frequent transformation to cancer. Complete surgical resection of the benign lesion is a pancreatic cancer preventive treatment. The application for a limited surgical resection for the benign lesions is increasingly used to reduce the surgical trauma with a short- and long-term benefit compared to major surgical procedures. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection introduced for inflammatory tumors in the pancreatic head transfers to the patient with a benign cystic lesion located in the pancreatic head, the advantages of a minimalized surgical treatment. Based on the experience of 17 patients treated for cystic neoplastic lesions with duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection, the surgical technique of total pancreatic head resection for adenoma, borderline tumors, and carcinoma in situ of cystic neoplasm is presented. A segmental resection of the peripapillary duodenum is recommended in case of suspected tissue ischemia of the peripapillary duodenum. In 305 patients, collected from the literature by PubMed search, in about 40% of the patients a segmental resection of the duodenum and 60% a duodenum and common bile duct-preserving total pancreatic head resection has been performed. Hospital mortality of the 17 patients was 0%. In 305 patients collected, the hospital mortality was 0.65%, 13.2% experienced a delay of gastric emptying and a pancreatic fistula in 18.2%. Recurrence of the disease was 1.5%. Thirty-two of 175 patients had carcinoma in situ. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions is a safe surgical procedure with low post-operative morbidity and mortality.

  14. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  15. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. Approach. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. Main results. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. Significance. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  16. Magnetic model for Mn{sub 2}La{sub 2} developed from spectroscopic studies with inelastic neutron scattering and frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, R.; Nehrkorn, J.; Stuiber, S.; Waldmann, O. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Akhtar, M.N.; Lan, Y.; Powell, A.K. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, KIT (Germany); Mutka, H. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Dreiser, J. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Schnegg, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institut fuer Silizium-Photovoltaik (Germany); Holldack, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institut fuer Synchrotonstrahlung (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Molecular nanomagnets which contain several magnetic centers with a large single-ion magnetic anisotropy are of general interest, because they could lead to interesting phenomena such as single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. We performed spectroscopic experiments on Mn{sub 2}La{sub 2} using inelastic neutron scattering at the direct time-of-flight disc chopper spectrometer IN5 at ILL and the newly developed frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz EPR at BESSY. Based on the experimental results a magnetic model has been developed. It is discussed why no SMM behavior was observed, even though Mn{sub 2}La{sub 2} exhibits a remarkably high energy barrier of about 37 K for spin relaxation. Furthermore our results can be applied to analogous clusters, with the diamagnetic La{sup I}II ions replaced by magnetic rare earth ions.

  17. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  18. Design and implementation in VHDL code of the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for frequency filtering, convolution and correlation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Giacometto, F.; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.

    2011-01-01

    The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.

  19. Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.T.; Haarer, K.A.; Thomas, E.; Thaete, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    The perinephric space is a well-marginated central compartment of the retroperitoneum, located between the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. Various neoplastic and proliferative disorders can affect the perinephric space, and there is a wide array of imaging findings. Although many perinephric lesions may extend directly from the kidney and adrenal gland, other lesions occur in the perinephric space due to haematogenous spread, as part of a systemic disease, or by extension from an adjacent retroperitoneal compartment. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of perinephric diseases, as many of the disease processes affecting this space will not result in clinical signs or symptoms until the disease is at an advanced stage. Despite the often shared non-specific clinical and imaging findings among these disease processes, application of a categorical differential diagnosis based on the imaging characteristics will serve to narrow the differential diagnosis and direct further evaluation and treatment. In this article, the lesions have been categorized as soft-tissue rind [nephroblastomatosis, fibrosis, Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD), extramedullary haematopoiesis, lymphoma, infiltrating metastases], focal solid lesions (extension of renal or adrenal malignancies, melanoma metastases, treated lymphoma), fat-containing lesions (angiomyolipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma), and cystic lesions (lymphangiomas, abscesses). The aim of this article is to demonstrate and describe the key imaging features of several neoplastic and proliferative disorders that affect the perinephric space.

  20. Collaborating with the Enemy: Function of Macrophages in the Development of Neoplastic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Eljaszewicz; Małgorzata Wiese; Anna Helmin-Basa; Michal Jankowski; Lidia Gackowska; Izabela Kubiszewska; Wojciech Kaszewski; Jacek Michalkiewicz; Wojciech Zegarski

    2013-01-01

    Due to the profile of released mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, etc.), neoplastic cells modulate the activity of immune system, directly affecting its components both locally and peripherally. This is reflected by the limited antineoplastic activity of the immune system (immunosuppressive effect), induction of tolerance to neoplastic antigens, and the promotion of processes associated with the proliferation of neoplastic tissue. Most of these responses are macrophages...

  1. AEP's selection of GE Energy's variable frequency transformer (VFT) for their grid interconnection project between the United States and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, M.; O' Keefe, R. [American Electric Power, Gahanna, OH (United States); Kidd, D. [American Electric Power, Tulsa, OK (United States); Larsen, E. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Roedel, J. [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Bodo, R. [GE Energy, Carrolton, TX (United States); Marken, P. [GE Energy, Columbia City, IN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Variable frequency transformers (VFTs) are controllable, bi-directional transmission devices capable of allowing power transfer between asynchronous networks. The VFT uses a rotary transformer with 3-phase windings on both the rotor and the stator. A motor and drive system is also used to manipulate the rotational position of the rotor in order to control the magnitude and direction of the power flow. The VFT was recently selected by American Electric Power (AEP) for its new asynchronous transmission link between the United States and Mexico. This paper provided details of the feasibility studies conducted to select the technology. Three categories of asynchronous interconnection devices were evaluated: (1) a VFT; (2) a voltage source converter; and (3) a conventional high voltage direct current (HVDC) back-to-back system. Stability performance system studies were conducted for all options. The overall reliability benefits of the options were reviewed, as well as their ability to meet steady-state system requirements. Dynamic models were used to conduct the comparative evaluation. Results of the feasibility study indicated that both the VFT and the voltage source converter performed better than the HVDC system. However, the VFT was more stable than the voltage source converter. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  2. [Microsatellite instability and human papilloma virus genotypes in preneoplastic and neoplastic uterine cervix lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa S, Juan Carlos; Martínez S, Ricardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Roa E, Iván; Capurro V, Italo; Ibacache S, Gilda; Melo A, Angélica

    2007-01-01

    The association between some specific human papilloma virus (HPV) types and cervix cancer is well known. However, the genetic conditions that favor the development of cervical cancer are less well known. To determine the presence of satellite instability (MSI) in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix and correlate these findings with HPV genotypes. Biopsy samples of cervical lesions were studied. Sixteen had low grade lesions, 22 had high grade lesions and 28 had an epidermoid cancer. Viral types were identified with polymerase chain reaction, dot-blot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism. MSI was determined using a panel of eight highly informative microsatellites. Microsatellite instability in at least one locus was observed in 91, 56 and 69% of low grade lesions, high grade lesions and epidermoid carcinomas, respectively. MSI-High grade, MSI-Low grade instability and microsatellite stability were observed in 5, 60 and 46% of samples, respectively. Two of three samples with high grade instability had HPV 52 genotype. Other viral subtypes had frequencies that ranged from 78% to 100%, with the exception of HPV16 that was present in only 53% of samples with low grade instability. Two thirds of biopsy samples from cervical lesions had MSI, mechanism that can be involved in the first stages of cervical carcinogenesis. The low frequency of high grade instability, its association with HPV52 and the low frequency of HPV16 in samples with low grade instability, suggest different coadjutant mechanisms in cervical carcinogenesis.

  3. Transformers: analysis, design, and measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Fernández, Xose M; Ertan, H. Bülent; Turowski, J

    2013-01-01

    "This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations...

  4. HLA‐G modulates the radiosensitivity of human neoplastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino; Gallegos, Cristina; Baffa Trasci, Sofía; Dubner, Diana; Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show a very broad range of radiosensitivities. The differential radiosensitivity may depend on many factors, being the efficiency to recognize and/or repair the DNA lesion, and the cell cycle control mechanisms, the most important (Jeggo and Lavin, 2009; Kumala et al., 2003). Human leukocyte antigen‐G (HLA‐G) is a non‐classical HLA class I molecule involved in fetus protection form the maternal immune system, transplant tolerance, and viral and tumoral immune escape (Carosella et al., 2008). It has been determined that gamma radiation modulates HLA‐G expression at the plasma membrane of human melanoma cells. However, its role in tumoral radiosensitivity has not been demonstrated yet. The objective of this work was to determine if the radiosensitivity of human neoplastic cell lines cultured in vitro was mediated by HLA‐G expression. (authors)

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in the Federal District of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camara, Geni NL; Cerqueira, Daniela M; Oliveira, Ana PG; Silva, Evandro O; Carvalho, Luciano GS; Martins, Cláudia RF

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the public health authorities in planning prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, we describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women presenting abnormal cytological results in Pap smear screening tests in the Federal District, Central Brazil. We studied 129 cervical scraping samples from women whose cytological tests showed either pre-neoplastic or neoplastic lesions. Amplification of HPV DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction using c...

  6. Nuclear Division Index may Predict Neoplastic Colorectal Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela E; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Becheanu, Gabriel; Nicolaie, Tudor; Ditescu, Cristina; Teiusanu, Adriana G; Gologan, Serban I; Arbanas, Tudor; Diculescu, Mircea M

    2011-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops by accumulation of multiple genetic damages leading to genetic instability that can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods. In the current study we used Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) technique to assess the behavior of Nuclear Division Index(NDI) in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with CRC and polyps versus patients with normal colonoscopy. Blood samples were collected from patients after informed consent. By CBMN technique we assessed the proportion of mono-nucleated, bi-nucleated, tri-nucleated and tetra-nucleated cells/500 cells, to calculate NDI. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 11.0 package. 45 patients were available for analysis, 23 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 58.7±13.5. 17 had normal colonoscopy, 17 colonic polyps and 11 CRC. The mean NDI values were significantly smaller for patients with CRC or polyps than in patients with normal colonoscopy (1.57 vs 1.73, p=0.013). The difference persisted for patients with neoplastic lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy or non neoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps (1.56 vs.1.71, p=0.018). The NDI cut-off value to predict the presence of adenomas or carcinomas was equal to 1.55 with a 54.2% sensitivity and 81% specificity of lower values (p=0.019). The NDI cut off value to predict the presence of advanced adenomas or cancer was 1.525 for a sensitivity of 56.3% and a specificity of 82.8% (p=0.048). NDI may be useful in screening strategies for colorectal cancer as simple, noninvasive, inexpensive cytogenetic biomarker.

  7. The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Agarwal, Rachana; Morin, Patrice J

    2006-01-01

    The claudin (CLDN) genes encode a family of proteins important in tight junction formation and function. Recently, it has become apparent that CLDN gene expression is frequently altered in several human cancers. However, the exact patterns of CLDN expression in various cancers is unknown, as only a limited number of CLDN genes have been investigated in a few tumors. We identified all the human CLDN genes from Genbank and we used the large public SAGE database to ascertain the gene expression of all 21 CLDN in 266 normal and neoplastic tissues. Using real-time RT-PCR, we also surveyed a subset of 13 CLDN genes in 24 normal and 24 neoplastic tissues. We show that claudins represent a family of highly related proteins, with claudin-16, and -23 being the most different from the others. From in silico analysis and RT-PCR data, we find that most claudin genes appear decreased in cancer, while CLDN3, CLDN4, and CLDN7 are elevated in several malignancies such as those originating from the pancreas, bladder, thyroid, fallopian tubes, ovary, stomach, colon, breast, uterus, and the prostate. Interestingly, CLDN5 is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, providing a possible target for antiangiogenic therapy. CLDN18 might represent a biomarker for gastric cancer. Our study confirms previously known CLDN gene expression patterns and identifies new ones, which may have applications in the detection, prognosis and therapy of several human cancers. In particular we identify several malignancies that express CLDN3 and CLDN4. These cancers may represent ideal candidates for a novel therapy being developed based on CPE, a toxin that specifically binds claudin-3 and claudin-4

  8. The spectrum of non- neoplastic skin lesions in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other common specific skin lesions were lichen planus/lichenoid dermatitis 27(12.9% of 209 cases), verruca vulgaris 25 (12% of 209 cases). Conclusion: The number of histologically diagnosed non-neoplastic skin lesions is relatively small. There is a very wide spectrum of non-neoplastic skin lesions diagnosed within ...

  9. Collaborating with the enemy: function of macrophages in the development of neoplastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Wiese, Małgorzata; Helmin-Basa, Anna; Jankowski, Michal; Gackowska, Lidia; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Kaszewski, Wojciech; Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Due to the profile of released mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, etc.), neoplastic cells modulate the activity of immune system, directly affecting its components both locally and peripherally. This is reflected by the limited antineoplastic activity of the immune system (immunosuppressive effect), induction of tolerance to neoplastic antigens, and the promotion of processes associated with the proliferation of neoplastic tissue. Most of these responses are macrophages dependent, since these cells show proangiogenic properties, attenuate the adaptive response (anergization of naïve T lymphocytes, induction of Treg cell formation, polarization of immune response towards Th2, etc.), and support invasion and metastases formation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), a predominant component of leukocytic infiltrate, "cooperate" with the neoplastic tissue, leading to the intensified proliferation and the immune escape of the latter. This paper characterizes the function of macrophages in the development of neoplastic disease.

  10. Collaborating with the Enemy: Function of Macrophages in the Development of Neoplastic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Eljaszewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the profile of released mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, etc., neoplastic cells modulate the activity of immune system, directly affecting its components both locally and peripherally. This is reflected by the limited antineoplastic activity of the immune system (immunosuppressive effect, induction of tolerance to neoplastic antigens, and the promotion of processes associated with the proliferation of neoplastic tissue. Most of these responses are macrophages dependent, since these cells show proangiogenic properties, attenuate the adaptive response (anergization of naïve T lymphocytes, induction of Treg cell formation, polarization of immune response towards Th2, etc., and support invasion and metastases formation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, a predominant component of leukocytic infiltrate, “cooperate” with the neoplastic tissue, leading to the intensified proliferation and the immune escape of the latter. This paper characterizes the function of macrophages in the development of neoplastic disease.

  11. Joint approach based on clinical and imaging features to distinguish non-neoplastic from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ye Lee

    Full Text Available Distinguishing non-neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (non-NPSLs from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (NPSLs is a major concern in guiding treatment for a thickened pituitary stalk. Our study aimed to aid provide preoperative diagnostic assistance by combining clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings to distinguish non-NPSLs from NPSLs.We recruited 158 patients with thickened pituitary stalk lesions visible on MRI. Laboratory findings included hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus (DI, and hyperprolactinemia. MR images were assessed for anterior-posterior thickness (mm, diffuse pituitary stalk thickening, cystic changes, a high T1 signal, and glandular or extrasellar involvement. A diagnostic model was developed using a recursive partitioning logistic regression analysis. The model was validated in an independent dataset comprising 63 patients, and its diagnostic performance was compared with that of the original radiological reports.A univariate analysis found significant associations of DI (P = 0.006, absence of extrasellar involvement (P = 0.002, and lower stalk thickness (P = 0.031 with non-NPSLs. A diagnostic model was created using the following parameters (in order of priority: 1 lack of extrasellar involvement, 2 stalk thickness < 5.3 mm, and 3 presence of DI. The diagnostic performance (area under the curve; AUC of this model in the independent set was 0.813, representing a significant improvement over the original radiological reports (AUC: 0.713, P = 0.029.The joint diagnostic approach based on clinical and imaging-based factors robustly distinguished non-NPSLs from NPSLs. This approach could guide treatment strategies and prevent unnecessary surgery in patients with non-NPSL.

  12. Ultraviolet-x-ray interaction: mutation and transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, A.; Elkind, M.M.; Suzuki, F.; Dainko, J.L.; Buess, E.

    1981-01-01

    The overall long-range objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) determine whether ionizing and nonionizing radiations interact in the induction of mutation and neoplastic transformation; (2) identify the nature of the interaction; (3) establish the possible relationship between the repair processes and the expression of interactive damage related to mutation and neoplastic transformation. Principal methods were used to assess survival, mutation, and neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells in culture. Cells were exposed to the following radiations: 50-kV x-rays; light from a germicidal lamp, uv-C (254 nm); light from unfiltered sun lamps, uv-B (290 to 345 nm); and light from sun lamps filtered by polystyrene dish covers

  13. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Induce Tumor Progression of Neoplastic Hepatocytes in a TGF-β Dependent Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKULA, M.; PROELL, V.; FISCHER, A.N.M.; MIKULITS, W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinomas from malignant hepatocytes is frequently associated with intra- and peritumoral accumulation of connective tissue arising from activated hepatic stellate cells. For both tumorigenesis and hepatic fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling executes key roles and therefore is considered as a hallmark of these pathological events. By employing cellular transplantation we show that the interaction of neoplastic MIM-R hepatocytes with the tumor microenvironment, containing either activated hepatic stellate cells (M1-4HSCs) or myofibroblasts derived thereof (M-HTs), induces progression in malignancy. Cotransplantation of MIM-R hepatocytes with M-HTs yielded strongest MIM-R generated tumor formation accompanied by nuclear localization of Smad2/3 as well as of β-catenin. Genetic interference with TGF-β signaling by gain of antagonistic Smad7 in MIM-R hepatocytes diminished epithelial dedifferentiation and tumor progression upon interaction with M1-4HSCs or M-HTs. Further analysis showed that tumors harboring disrupted Smad signaling are devoid of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, indicating a crosstalk between TGF-β and β-catenin signaling. Together, these data demonstrate that activated HSCs and myofibroblasts directly govern hepatocarcinogenesis in a TGF-β dependent fashion by inducing autocrine TGF-β signaling and nuclear β-catenin accumulation in neoplastic hepatocytes. These results indicate that intervention with TGF-β signaling is highly promising in liver cancer therapy. PMID:16883581

  14. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  15. Genetic Dissociation of Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle Affects Neither Normal nor Neoplastic Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura E; Kulkarni, Sucheta; Wang, Huabo; Lu, Jie; Dolezal, James M; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Patel, Mulchand S; Deshpande, Rahul; Alencastro, Frances; Wendell, Stacy G; Goetzman, Eric S; Duncan, Andrew W; Prochownik, Edward V

    2017-11-01

    Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic, and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation. In PDC "knockout" (KO) animals, the long-term regenerative potential of hepatocytes was unimpaired, and growth of aggressive experimental hepatoblastomas was only modestly slowed in the face of 80%-90% reductions in AcCoA and significant alterations in the levels of key tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids. Overall, oxphos activity in KO livers and hepatoblastoma was comparable with that of control counterparts, with evidence that metabolic substrate abnormalities were compensated for by increased mitochondrial mass. These findings demonstrate that the biochemical link between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can be completely severed without affecting normal or neoplastic proliferation, even under the most demanding circumstances. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5795-807. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. SMAD family proteins: the current knowledge on their expression and potential role in neoplastic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Witkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β plays a crucial role and takes part in many processes in the human body both in physiology and pathology. This cytokine is involved in angiogenesis, regulates apoptosis and stimulates divisions of cells, such as hepatocytes, lymphocytes or hematopoietic cells. SMAD proteins family is a unique group of particles responsible for transducting the signal induced by TGF-β into the nucleus. This molecules, after receiving a signal from activated TGF-β, act on transcription factors in the nucleus, leading directly to the expression of the corresponding genes. According to current knowledge, disturbances in the functioning of SMAD proteins are present in a number of diseases. The reduced expression was observed, for example in cardiovascular diseases such as primary pulmonary hypertension or myocardial infarction, autoimmune diseases for instance systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease or osteoporosis. The latest clinical data showed the presence of mutations in SMAD proteins in cancerogenesis. Mutation of SMAD-4 protein can be detected in half of the patients with pancreatic cancer, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer and 10% of patients with lung cancer. However, mutation in SMAD-2 protein was observed in 7% of both patients with colorectal cancer and lung cancer. On the basis of numerous works, SMAD protein expression would be valuable prognostic factor in some of neoplastic diseases.

  17. Age-Related DNA Methylation Changes and Neoplastic Transformation of the Human Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Toyota M, Ho C, Ahuja N, et al. Identification of differentially methylated sequences in colorectal cancer by methylated CpG island amplification...hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact. Received 12/23/2009; revised 05/07/2010; accepted 05...Esteller M, Sparks A, Toyota M, Sanchez-Cespedes M, Capella G, Peinado MA, Gonzalez S, Tarafa G, Sidransky D, Meltzer SJ, Baylin SB, Herman JG (2000

  18. Age-Related DNA Methylation Changes and Neoplastic Transformation of the Human Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    associated CpG island to be d ifferentially hyp ermethylated in th e L NCaP cell line and 25 unique promoter associated CpG island s to b e dif ferentially h...ypomethylated in the L NCaP cell line . Several of these differentially m ethylated genes have been previously reported. Novel methylated genes of

  19. Expression profiling identifies genes involved in neoplastic transformation of serous ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, Melissa A; Parsons, Peter G; Newton, Tanya R; Martyn, Adam C; Webb, Penelope M; Green, Adèle C; Papadimos, David J; Boyle, Glen M

    2009-01-01

    The malignant potential of serous ovarian tumors, the most common ovarian tumor subtype, varies from benign to low malignant potential (LMP) tumors to frankly invasive cancers. Given the uncertainty about the relationship between these different forms, we compared their patterns of gene expression. Expression profiling was carried out on samples of 7 benign, 7 LMP and 28 invasive (moderate and poorly differentiated) serous tumors and four whole normal ovaries using oligonucleotide microarrays representing over 21,000 genes. We identified 311 transcripts that distinguished invasive from benign tumors, and 20 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between invasive and LMP tumors at p < 0.01 (with multiple testing correction). Five genes that were differentially expressed between invasive and either benign or normal tissues were validated by real time PCR in an independent panel of 46 serous tumors (4 benign, 7 LMP, 35 invasive). Overexpression of SLPI and WNT7A and down-regulation of C6orf31, PDGFRA and GLTSCR2 were measured in invasive and LMP compared with benign and normal tissues. Over-expression of WNT7A in an ovarian cancer cell line led to increased migration and invasive capacity. These results highlight several genes that may play an important role across the spectrum of serous ovarian tumorigenesis

  20. Overexpression of Pax5 is not sufficient for neoplastic transformation of mouse neuroectoderm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbach, P. J.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Pfeffer, P.; Aguzzi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2001), s. 459-467 ISSN 0020-7136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Pax5 * retrovirus * transgenic mice Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.233, year: 2001

  1. Mechanism of Integrim-Mediated Growth Control in Normal, Transformed, and Neoplastic Breast Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wayner, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    .... The primary cell adhesion receptors that mediate binding to extracellular matrix proteins are integrins Our data suggest that alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4 are the primary integrins responsible...

  2. Transcription profiling of human MCF10A cells subjected to ionizing radiation and treatment with transforming growth factor beta-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic...

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Differentiation of pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) from physiologic/non-neoplastic hypercortisolism (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, James W; Raff, Hershel

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) usually implies the presence of a pathologic condition caused by either an ACTH-secreting neoplasm or autonomous cortisol secretion from a benign or malignant adrenal neoplasm. However, sustained or intermittent hypercortisolism may also accompany many medical disorders that stimulate physiologic/non-neoplastic activation of the HPA axis (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome); these two entities may share indistinguishable clinical and biochemical features. A thorough history and physical examination is often the best (and sometimes only) way to exclude pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism. The presence of alcoholism, renal failure, poorly controlled diabetes and severe neuropsychiatric disorders should always raise suspicion that the presence of hypercortisolism may be related to physiologic/non-neoplastic Cushing's syndrome. As late-night salivary cortisol and low-dose dexamethasone suppression have good sensitivity and negative predictive value, normal studies exclude Cushing's syndrome of any form. However, these tests have imperfect specificity and additional testing over time with clinical follow-up is often needed. When there is persistent diagnostic uncertainty, secondary tests such as the DDAVP stimulation test and the dexamethasone-CRH test may provide evidence for the presence or absence of an ACTH-secreting tumor. This review will define and characterize the numerous causes of physiologic/non-neoplastic hypercortisolism and provide a rational clinical and biochemical approach to distinguish it from pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism (true Cushing's syndrome). © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Morphologic alterations in normal and neoplastic tissues following hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badylak, S.F.; Babbs, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 0 C and 45 0 for 20 minutes) were studied by light and electron microscopy. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed vascular damage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and by regeneration and repair at 7 days PH. Endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive ischemic injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments, separated by a 30 or 60 minute cooling interval, were applied to rats implanted with Walker 256 tumors. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results characterized the sequential morphologic alterations following hyperthermia treatment and showed that: 1) vascular damage contributed to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, 2) selective heating occurred in the neoplastic tissue disrupted by prior heat treatment, and 3) not all neoplasms are responsive to hyperthermia treatment

  5. Neoplastic changes in freshwater fishes: Correlation with oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrander, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented

  6. Fatal haemorrhage and neoplastic thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo) with metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Viera, Omar Antonio; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Fernandes, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Ressio, Rodrigo Albergaria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-10-13

    The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses. Encapsulated haemorrhage was present in the retroperitoneum around the kidneys. Neoplastic thrombosis was found at the renal veins opening into the caudal vena cava. Metastases were observed in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Histology revealed a poorly differentiated pleomorphic neoplasm comprised of round to polygonal cells and scattered spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. An immunohistochemistry panel of inhibin-α, Ki-67, human placental alkaline phosphatase, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cKit, vimentin and S100 was conducted. Positive cytoplasmic immunolabeling was obtained for vimentin and S100. The gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical findings of the neoplasm were compatible with a poorly differentiated pleomorphic sex cord-stromal tumour. Cause of death was hypovolemic shock from extensive retroperitoneal haemorrhage and neoplastic thrombosis may have contributed to the fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex cord-stromal tumour in non-domestic felids.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of CT in Paediatric Intracranial Neoplastic Lesions - Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of paediatric tumours in developing countries could be attributed to the increased percentage (39% of total population of children) in the overall population. Therefore, extensive researches should be under taken in the field of Paediatric Oncology in the third world. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT by comparing the pre-operative radiological findings of paediatric brain tumours with post-operative histopathological findings on the basis of characteristic radiological features of various tumours. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out in Radiology Dept, KEMU / Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Study was conducted over a period of 3 years from June 2005 till June 2008 and comprised of 100 cases of paediatric brain tumours up to 12 years of age. Cases were also collected from Mayo and Children Hospital, Lahore. Results: Topographically, supratentorial tumours were found more than infratentorial 55 : 45. Low grade were more common than high grade 73 : 27. The most common tumour was astrocytoma with 52 cases. Medulloblastoma ranked the second with 16 cases followed by craniopharyngioma with 12 cases. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of CT scan was found to be 83% when correlated with histopathology. CT proved fairly accurate in detection of paediatric intracranial neoplastic lesions. As CT is relatively commonly available inexpensive modality than MRI so it can be used as non invasive imaging modality. (author)

  8. Role of thyroid in x-ray-induced oncogenic transformation in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the role of thyroid hormones in x-ray-induced neoplastic transformation of C3H/10 T 1/2 cells. In addition, the delineation of the time when transformation is sensitive to T3, the dependence of transformation on T3 concentration, and the involvement of protein synthesis are studied. The results indicate that thyroid hormone plays a key role in the initiation of x-ray-induced neoplastic transformation and that induction of protein synthesis may mediate this response

  9. Telomere length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadile, Casey D; Kitchell, Barbara E; Newman, Rebecca G; Biller, Barbara J; Hetler, Elizabeth R

    2007-12-01

    To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. 57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs. Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length. Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human anti-telomerase strategies.

  10. Role of nuclear medicine in pulmonary neoplastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the single most important factor in determining survival in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma is the extent of spread of metastasis from the primary lesion. This explains the extensive efforts in developing accurate staging tests for pulmonary tumors, both primary and metastatic, with special emphasis on the determination of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal spread of disease. Continued improvements in nuclear medicine instrumentation along with the development of tumor specific radiopharmaceuticals, as well as agents that have the capability of tracking tumor viability, have changed the orientation of scintigraphic techniques in the evaluation of pulmonary neoplastic processes. Gallium scintigraphy is no longer considered as a primary imaging modality in the staging of pulmonary tumors, and in most institutions has been replaced by computed tomography (CT) for this purpose. It has been demonstrated that gallium, relative to other imaging modalities, is a sensitive indicator of hilar spread of tumor. However, because of the normally high background activity within the sternum and spine, mediastinal abnormalities are poorly detected. Since most pulmonary tumors metastasize via regional nodes to the pulmonary hilum and then to the mediastinum, the high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar abnormalities and the high specificity for mediastinal lesion detection suggest that gallium scintigraphy is a valuable adjunctive test when used appropriately. Thallium 201 as a tumor agent is being studied by several institutions. Preliminary results indicate a high degree of sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lesions and there are early indications that thallium is a promising agent to evaluate tumor viability. 52 references

  11. Evaluation of Neoplastic Nature of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALIFA, Gh.A.; SMOKIER, H.M.; ABO-HAGER, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Although most of odontogenic tumors are benign, some of them will show locally destructive behavior, as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is now known as a benign but aggressive odontogenic neoplasm. The neoplastic characteristics in KCOT have been suggested from clinical as well as pathologic aspects. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a gelatinase form of the MMPs family, which is a group of proteolytic enzymes that degrade many types of collagen. Cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease-3 (caspase-3) is the most downstream enzyme in the apoptosis-inducing protease pathway and is probably the most clearly associated with cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the extracellular degradation potentiality (MMP-2) and apoptosis (caspase-3) of the epithelial lining in KCOT versus radicular cysts and ameloblastoma, in order to reinforce its classification as an odontogenic tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-six surgical specimens including keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT; n=l 1), ameloblastoma (AB; n=8) and radicular cysts (RC; n=7) were examined for expression of MMP-2 and caspase-3 using the immunohistochemical method. Results: For MMP-2 immuno expression, AB showed the statistically significant highest mean area percentage, followed by KCOT, while RC showed the statistically significant lowest mean area percentage. As for caspase-3, there was no statistically significant difference between KCOT and AB, while RC showed the statistically significantly lowest mean area percentage. Conclusion: Overexpression of MMP-2 protein related to growth and progression of lesions analyzed and may be one of the factors enhancing the recurrence of KCOT and invasion of AB. In addition, the epithelial lining of KCOT showed a high cell turnover reinforcing its classification as an odontogenic tumor

  12. 78 FR 76507 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... include updating the medical terminology in the listings. For example, we would replace the term ``Hodgkin... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases); Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  13. Chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma : disentangling the neoplastic chondrogenesis of two rare cartilaginous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeo, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this study was to disentangle neoplastic chondrogenesis in two rare cartilaginous tumours: chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. It was addressed: 1 The spectrum of phenotypic differentiation in chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma, 2 The signalling pathways driving

  14. Uptake of iodine-123-α-methyl tyrosine by gliomas and non-neoplastic brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwert, T.; Morgenroth, C.; Woesler, B.; Matheja, P.; Palkovic, S.; Vollet, B.; Samnick, S.; Maasjosthusmann, U.; Lerch, H.; Gildehaus, F.J.; Wassmann, H.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Using single-photon emission tomography (SPET), the radiopharmaceutical L-3-iodine-123-α-methyl tyrosine (IMT) has been applied to the imaging of amino acid transport into brain tumours. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether IMT SPET is capable of differentiating between high-grade gliomas, low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic brain lesions. To this end, IMT uptake was determined in 53 patients using the triple-headed SPET camera MULTISPECT 3. Twenty-eight of these subjects suffered from high-grade gliomas (WHO grade III or IV), 12 from low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II), and 13 from non-neoplastic brain lesions, including lesions after effective therapy of a glioma (five cases), infarctions (four cases), inflammatory lesions (three cases), infarctions (four cases), inflammatory lesions (three cases) and traumatic haematoma (one case). IMT uptake was significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. IMT uptake by low-grade gliomas was not significantly different from that by non-neoplastic lesions. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 83% for differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas, 82% and 100% for distinguishing high-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic lesions, and 50% and 100% for discriminating low-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic lesions. Analogously to positron emission tomography with radioactively labelled amino acids and fluorine-18 deoxyglucose, IMT SPET may aid in differentiating higc-grade gliomas from histologically benign brain tumours and non-neoplastic brain lesions; it is of only limited value in differentiating between non-neoplastic lesions and histologically benign brain tumours. (orig.)

  15. Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cleto Marolla

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The expression of HA was found to be slightly lower in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa, although this difference was not statistically significant. This finding probably influenced the lower expression of HA in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa. Compared to normal tissues, HA levels are significantly increased in the tumor tissues unless they exhibit lymph node metastasis. Otherwise, the expression of HA in tumor tissue did not correlated with the other clinicopathological parameters.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging in inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions: Focusing on fiber tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Sung Gon; Kang, Yu Suhn; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions have overlapping clinical features, and it is occasionally difficult to distinguish one from the other on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. We aimed to compare diffusion tensor imaging findings between inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions, with a specific focus on patterns of fiber tracking. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in patients with either inflammatory or neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions. The fiber tracking patterns (categorized as “intact,” “displaced,” or “interrupted”) were compared between these two groups. Eight patients were included in the study: 5 patients with pathologically or clinically confirmed inflammatory lesions and 3 patients with pathologically or clinically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Among the 5 patients with inflammatory lesions, 2 patients exhibited the displaced pattern and 3 patients exhibited the intact pattern. Among the 3 patients with neoplastic lesions, 1 patient exhibited the intact pattern, 1 patient exhibited the displaced pattern, and 1 patient exhibited the interrupted pattern. In this study, inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions were not clearly differentiated by fiber tracking; both conditions can present with overlapping features such as displaced fibers. The exclusion of inflammatory conditions based on the presence of displaced fibers in fiber tracking images should be avoided.

  17. Onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies in patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic pulmonary pathologies and suspected for paraneoplastic neurological syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Onconeuronal antibodies are important diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS. However, their role in PNS pathophysiology and specificity for particular neurological manifestation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies in patients with pulmonary pathologies and suspected for PNS. Materials and methods Twenty one patients with pulmonary pathologies were selected from the database of 525 consecutive patients with suspicion of PNS. Patients' sera were screened for the presence of onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies by means of indirect immunofluorescence; the presence was confirmed by Western blotting. Clinical data were obtained from medical records, hospital data base, and questionnaire-based direct telephone contact with patients. Results Among 21 patients, aged 54 ± 11, with pulmonary pathologies, the most frequent neurological manifestations were neuropathies. Typical PNS included paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD and limbic encephalitis (LE. We found cases with multiple onconeuronal antibodies (anti-Ri and anti-Yo and coexisting PNS (PCD/LE. Well-defined onconeuronal antibodies were identified in 23.8% of patients. Among antineuronal antibodies, the most frequent were anti-MAG (23.8%. ROC curves analysis revealed high sensitivity of onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies for typical PNS and lower for pulmonary malignancies. Conclusions Tests for antibodies are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of typical paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Anti-myelin and anti-MAG antibodies are associated with non-neoplastic pulmonary diseases. Patients with well-defined onconeuronal antibodies require careful screening and follow-up, because the PNS diagnosis indicates a high probability of an underlying malignancy.

  18. Large contribution of human papillomavirus in vaginal neoplastic lesions: a worldwide study in 597 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Tinoco, L; Quirós, B; Alvarado-Cabrero, I; Alejo, M; Joura, E A; Maldonado, P; Klaustermeier, J; Salmerón, J; Bergeron, C; Petry, K U; Guimerà, N; Clavero, O; Murillo, R; Clavel, C; Wain, V; Geraets, D T; Jach, R; Cross, P; Carrilho, C; Molina, C; Shin, H R; Mandys, V; Nowakowski, A M; Vidal, A; Lombardi, L; Kitchener, H; Sica, A R; Magaña-León, C; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Bravo, I G; Muñoz, N; de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the HPV type distribution in a large series of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) grades 2/3 and vaginal cancer worldwide. We analysed 189 VAIN 2/3 and 408 invasive vaginal cancer cases collected from 31 countries from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using the SPF-10/DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 146 vaginal cancers was tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. HPV DNA was detected in 74% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70-78%) of invasive cancers and in 96% (95% CI: 92-98%) of VAIN 2/3. Among cancers, the highest detection rates were observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, and in younger ages. Concerning the type-specific distribution, HPV16 was the most frequently type detected in both precancerous and cancerous lesions (59%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 87% of HPV DNA positive vaginal cancer cases. HPV was identified in a large proportion of invasive vaginal cancers and in almost all VAIN 2/3. HPV16 was the most common type detected. A large impact in the reduction of the burden of vaginal neoplastic lesions is expected among vaccinated cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calibration and fluctuation of the secular frequency peak amplitude versus initial condition distribution of the ion cloud confined into a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap using a fourier transform operating mode and a steady ion flow injection mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Carette, M.; Mercury, M.; Reynard, C; Zerega, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A specific Fourier transform operating mode is applied to a 3-dimensional quadrupolar ion trap for mass analysis (Fourier Transform Quadrupolar Ion Trap (FTQIT) Operating Mode or Mass Spectrometer). With this operating mode, an image signal, which is representative of the collective motion of simultaneously confined ions, is made up from a set of recorded time-of-flight histograms. In an ion trap, the secular frequency of ion motion depends on m/Z ratio of the ion. By Fourier transformation of the image signal, one observes the frequency peak of each confined ionic species. When only one ionic species is confined, the peak amplitude is proportional to the maximal amplitude of the image signal. The maximal amplitude of the image signal is expressed according to the operating parameters, the initial conditions of the ions and the number of ions. Simulation tools lead to fluctuation calculation of the maximal amplitude of the image signal. Two origins are explored: (1) the fluctuation of the numbers of ions according to the steady ion flow injection mode (SIFIM) used with this operating mode and (2) the distribution fluctuation of the initial positions and velocities. Initial confinement conditions, obtained with SIFIM injection mode, lead to optimal detection with small fluctuations of the peak amplitude for Fourier transform operating mode applied to an ion trap. (authors)

  20. Knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to people with neoplastic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Ferreira Gomes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to patients with neoplastic wound. Method: This is an exploratory research of a qualitative nature, which was attended by 15 students of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from the Center of Education and Health of the Federal University of Campina Grande, campus Cuité - PB, in the period from October to November 2015. For data collection, we used a form for an interview. The data were analyzed through the Technique of Thematic Analysis of Minayo. Results: From the analysis of the empirical material emerged the following thematic categories: Category 1 - Defining neoplastic wounds; Category 2 - Knowledge incipient on ‘neoplastic wounds’ for academic and professional practice; Category 3 - Envisioning the theme "neoplastic wound" in the Academy; Category 4 - Knowledge about methods of evaluation of neoplastic wounds and Category 5 - Knowledge of therapeutic modalities of neoplastic wounds. Conclusions: The academics know the evaluative method of a patient with neoplastic wound as integralizadora unit of care process; recognize palliative care as the best therapeutic modality for these customers, especially when they are in completion and indicate the products contraindicated in the treatment of these lesions; however, do not mention the covers and recommended substances for the control of the signs and symptoms of these injuries. In this context, it is believed that the creation of academic projects of extension, with the aim of creating opportunities for integration between theory and practice, is one of the ways to improve the knowledge.   Keywords: Knowledge; Students of Nursing; Skin Neoplasms.

  1. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  2. The gene expression program of prostate fibroblast senescence modulates neoplastic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavik, Claes; Coleman, Ilsa; Dean, James P; Knudsen, Beatrice; Plymate, Steven; Nelson, Peter S

    2006-01-15

    The greatest risk factor for developing carcinoma of the prostate is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of cancer occurrence in older individuals include the accumulation of somatic mutations through defects in genome maintenance, epigenetic gene silencing, oxidative stress, loss of immune surveillance, telomere dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. In this context, the process of prostate carcinogenesis can be influenced through interactions between intrinsic cellular alterations and the extrinsic microenvironment and macroenvironment, both of which change substantially as a consequence of aging. In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. We evaluated three mechanisms leading to cell senescence: oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. We identified a consistent program of gene expression that includes a subset of paracrine factors capable of influencing adjacent prostate epithelial growth. Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The paracrine-acting proteins fibroblast growth factor 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and amphiregulin (AREG) were elevated in the extracellular environment of senescent prostate fibroblasts. Exogenous AREG alone stimulated prostate epithelial cell growth, and neutralizing antibodies and small interfering RNA targeting AREG attenuated, but did not completely abrogate the growth-promoting effects of senescent fibroblast conditioned medium. These results support the concept that aging-related changes in the prostate microenvironment may contribute to the progression of prostate

  3. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, K.; Thomas, C.; Sandritter, W.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain. (author)

  4. Neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): diagnosis, differential diagnosis and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Abolmaali, N.; Schedel, H.; Bergh, B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and interventional radiological techniques for neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods. Modern diagnosis of the TMJ is based on the clinical use of conventional X-ray techniques, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional techniques like biopsies, vascular occlusion and ablation. Results. Conventional X-ray still forms the basic diagnostic procedure applied in open and closed mouth position. CT improves the diagnostic information and serves as the standard diagnostical instrument for cartaliganeous or osseous neoplastic lesions. MRI evaluates soft tissue infiltration in multiplanar techniques and high spatial resolution. Interventional vascular and ablative techniques improve the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (orig.) [de

  5. Treatment of non-neoplastic renal hemorrhage with segmental embolization of renal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of segmental embolization of renal artery in dealing with non- neoplastic renal hemorrhage. Methods: Four cases of non-neoplastic hemorrhage, including 2 with bleeding after renal acupuncture biopsy, 2 with bleeding after nephrolithotomy and 1 with congenital renal arteriovenous malformation, were treated with superselective segmental embolization of renal artery. 2 were embolized with coil, 1 with alcohol plus coil and 1 with PVA parcels. Results: Hematuria disappeared in 1-3 days. There was no recurrence in 7-45 months follow up and no complications induced by embolization. Conclusion: It is a safe and reliable therapy to treat non-neoplastic renal hemorrhage with segmental embolization of renal artery. (authors)

  6. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, K [National Center of Oncology, Academy of Medicine, Sofia-56 (Bulgaria); Thomas, C; Sandritter, W [Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Pathologisches Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain.

  7. Value of the biological data in the sonographic diagnosis of neoplastic biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Rappuoli, G; Guercia, M; Terrosi Vagnoli, P

    1988-01-01

    The authors' purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of improving US reliability in the diagnosis of neoplastic obstructions of the bile ducts, basing their study on the hematic alkaline phosphates level (AP), wich is an earlier sign of obstruction than bilirubine values. All 368 patients observed had AP levels above the threshold of 270 IU/l. The 34 patients with neoplastic obstruction (including 13 without jaundice) had more than twice the normal level of AP, and presented with at least one dilated bile duct in the biliary tree. Coronal scans of the main bile duct are fundamental in the diagnosis of the level of obstruction. It seems thus possible to affirm that US diagnosis of the biliary obstruction, together with high AP values (more than twice the normal), provides with reliable information as to the neoplastic nature of the biliary obstruction, even if jaundice is not present.

  8. Value of the biological data in the sonographic diagnosis of neoplastic biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, F.; Fagioli Zucchi, A.; Rappuoli, G.; Guercia, M.; Terrosi Vagnoli, P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors' purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of improving US reliability in the diagnosis of neoplastic obstructions of the bile ducts, basing their study on the hematic alkaline phosphates level (AP), wich is an earlier sign of obstruction than bilirubine values. All 368 patients observed had AP levels above the threshold of 270 IU/l. The 34 patients with neoplastic obstruction (including 13 without jaundice) had more than twice the normal level of AP, and presented with at least one dilated bile duct in the biliary tree. Coronal scans of the main bile duct are fundamental in the diagnosis of the level of obstruction. It seems thus possible to affirm that US diagnosis of the biliary obstruction, together with high AP values (more than twice the normal), provides with reliable information as to the neoplastic nature of the biliary obstruction, even if jaundice is not present

  9. Importance of Absent Neoplastic Epithelium in Patients Treated With Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblad, Malin; Birgisson, Helgi; Wanders, Alkwin; Sköldberg, Filip; Ghanipour, Lana; Graf, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The importance of absent neoplastic epithelium in specimens from cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of histopathology without neoplastic epithelium in patients treated with CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Data were extracted from medical records and histopathology reports for patients treated with initial CRS and HIPEC at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, between 2004 and 2012. Patients with inoperable disease and patients undergoing palliative non-CRS surgery were excluded from the study. Patients lacking neoplastic epithelium in surgical specimens from CRS, with or without mucin, were classified as "neoplastic epithelium absent" (NEA), and patients with neoplastic epithelium were classified as "neoplastic epithelium present" (NEP). The study observed NEA in 78 of 353 patients (22 %). Mucin was found in 28 of the patients with NEA. For low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and adenomas, the 5-year overall survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 84 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 59 % for NEP. For appendiceal/colorectal adenocarcinomas (including tumors of the small intestine), the 5-year overall survival rate was 61 % for NEA and 38 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 60 % for NEA and 14 % for NEP. Carcinoembryonic antigen level, peritoneal cancer index, and completeness of the cytoreduction score were lower in patients with NEA. A substantial proportion of patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC have NEA. These patients have a favorable prognosis and a decreased risk of recurrence. Differences in patient selection can affect the proportion of NEA and hence explain differences in survival rates between reported series.

  10. A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF UTERINE CERVIX OF PERI AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogesh Kakati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neoplastic lesions of uterine cervix is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in women. The tremendous success in giving a confirmed diagnosis of the disease by doing histopathological examination is of prime importance in giving the most appropriate treatment and to understand the prognosis. The aim of the study is to study the incidence and age-wise distribution of the neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix in peri and postmenopausal women by doing histopathological examination of neoplastic lesions and by doing correlation of clinical findings with histopathological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 803 cases of total cervical specimens, out of which 180 cases of neoplastic cervical lesions were found, out of which 150 cases were found in the peri and postmenopausal age groups, i.e. above 40 years of age. The study was done in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, from the period 1 st June, 2013, to 1 st June, 2014. The specimens that were included in the study were punch biopsies, hysterectomies and polypectomies and cervical specimens were studied by doing histopathological examinations. RESULTS Out of the 150 cases of neoplastic lesions in the peri and postmenopausal women, the most common neoplastic lesion was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, i.e. CIN (8.3% of the cervix, followed by malignant (5.6% and benign (4.7% lesions of the cervix in this study group of patients. CONCLUSION Histopathological examination of the cervix is an effective method of giving a confirmed diagnosis of all the noncancerous, precancerous and cancerous lesions of uterine cervix, which helps in giving the most appropriate treatment and also helps in understanding the prognosis.

  11. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  12. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  13. Atypical focal non-neoplastic brain changes in neurofibromatosis type 1: mass effect and contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raininko, R.; Thelin, L.; Eeg-Olofsson, O.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 often have small high-signal foci on T2-weighted images of the brain. We describe follow-up of two patients in whom one of the foci had atypical features, commonly regarded as signs of a neoplasm. In the first, one lesion showed temporary contrast enhancement and decreasing mass effect. The second developed an expanding lesion that increased minimally in size over 4.5 year's follow-up. The borderline between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions seems to be indistinct. (orig.)

  14. Transformation frequency of γ irradiated plasmid DNA and the enzymatic double strand break formation by incubation in a protein extract of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, D.; Mark, F.; Ventur, Y.

    1994-01-01

    It was found that incubation of γ-irradiated or DNaseI-treated plasmid DNA in a protein extract of Escherichia coli leads to enzyme-induced formation of double strand breaks (dsb) in competition with repair of precursors of these dsb. A survival curve of the plasmid DNA (as determined by transformation of E. coli) was calculated on the basis of enzyme-induced dsb as well as those produced by irradiation assuming that they are lethal. The calculated D O value was the same as that measured directly by transformation of irradiated plasmid DNA. Two models are presented that fit the experimental survival data as a function of dose. One is based on damage formation in the plasmid DNA including enzymatic conversion of single strand damage into dsb (U-model), the other is an enzymatic repair saturation model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. (Author)

  15. The A-myb transcription factor in neoplastic and normal B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, J; Facchinetti, V; Ying, G; Introna, M

    1997-07-01

    The myb family of transcription factors has been strongly implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation in the haematopoietic system. The v-myb oncogene, carried by avian defective retroviruses, causes leukaemias in the chicken and transforms haematopoietic cells in vitro. Its normal cellular equivalent c-myb, has been shown to promote the proliferation and block the differentiation of haematopoietic cells in several experimental models and is required for fetal haematopoiesis. Two other members of the family have been cloned more recently, A-myb and B-myb, which show sequence homology with c-myb in several domains, of which the DNA binding domain as well as other regulatory domains. Both have been shown to be transcription factors. B-myb is also involved in the control of proliferation and differentiation, but, unlike c-myb, it is expressed in many cell types. The third member of the family, A-myb, shows the most restricted pattern of expression, suggesting a very specific role for this transcription factor. A-myb is expressed in a subpopulation of normal B lymphocytes activated in vivo and localised in the germinal center of peripheral lymphoid organs and is not detected at significant levels in all other mature or immature haematopoietic populations studied, including bone marrow cells, T lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, either at rest or after in vitro activation. These studies indicate that A-myb plays a role during a narrow window of normal B cell differentiation. A-myb expression has also been studied in a wide range of neoplastic B cells, representing the whole spectrum of B cell differentiation. A-myb is strongly expressed in Burkitt's lymphomas (BL) and slg+ B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (B-ALL) and not in all other leukaemias/lymphomas tested, with the exception of a subset of CLL (about 25% of cases). It is intriguing that the A-myb genome has been localised relatively close to the c-myc gene on chromosome 8, suggesting that

  16. The role of nutritional factors in cellular protection against DNA damage, altered gene expression and malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years data from epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments have revealed numerous links between diet and cancer. The complex role of nutritional factors in modifying cancer incidence may be attributed in part to dietary agents acting as potentiators or promoters of cancer, serving as auxilliary agents to other environmental factors; as causes of cancer, or as cancer preventive agents. Studies can be carried on in vitro, in cell culture systems, where malignant transformation serves as an end point. These systems afford the opportunity to study the direct effect of nutrition in oncogenesis and the role of dietary factors in modulating the frequency and course of neoplastic development in its various stages. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase CKII (i.e. casein kinase II, CKII, NII) is expressed at a higher level in rapidly proliferating tissues and in solid human tumours (e.g. colorectal carcinomas) when compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. This could be shown by (a) Western blotting of cellular...

  18. Arising podosomal structures are associated with neoplastic cell morphological phenotype induced by the microenvironment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Pavel; Blase, C.; Matoušková, Eva; Bereiter-Hahn, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 967-972 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : podosomes * neoplastic cell morphotype * phenotypic plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.479, year: 2006

  19. Superficial inflammatory and primary neoplastic lymphadenopathy: diagnostic accuracy of power-doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magarelli, N.; Guglielmi, G.; Savastano, M.; Toro, V.; Sborgia, M.; Fioritoni, G.; Mattei, P.A.; Steinbach, L.; Bonomo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of a cut-off of the resistive index of 0.5 for the differentiation between inflammatory and neoplastic primary lymphadenopathies. Subjects and methods: We measured the resistive index of superficial enlarged lymph nodes in a total of 50 patients (29 males and 21 females; age range 12-72 years, mean age 41.6 year) using an ATL 5000 HDI. A resistive index greater than or equal to 0.5 indicated an inflammatory lymph node and a resistive index <0.5 was consistent with neoplastic primary lymphadenopathies. The gold standard was either surgical biopsy or lymph-node reduction seen with ultrasound examination after antibiotic therapy. Results: The sensitivity of the resistive index for distinguishing inflammatory from neoplastic lymphadenopathy was 84.6%, the specificity 100% and the diagnostic accuracy 95.7% (P<0.001, statistically significant). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that power-Doppler using a resistive index cut-off of 0.5 was a valid technique for distinguising between inflammatory and primary neoplastic lymph nodes in patients with superficial lymphadenopathies

  20. KIT polymorphisms and mutations determine responses of neoplastic mast cells to bafetinib (INNO-406).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Barbara; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Blatt, Katharina; Gleixner, Karoline V; Pickl, Winfried F; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by uncontrolled growth of neoplastic mast cells (MC) and drug resistance. The tyrosine kinase receptor KIT is often mutated and activated and thus contributes to malignant growth of MC. Therefore, KIT-targeting drugs are currently tested for their ability to block growth of malignant MC. We determined the effects of the multikinase inhibitor INNO-406 (bafetinib) on primary neoplastic MC, the canine mastocytoma cell line C2, the human MC leukemia cell line HMC-1.1 bearing the KIT mutant V560G, and HMC-1.2 cells harboring KIT V560G and KIT D816V. INNO-406 was found to inhibit proliferation in HMC-1.1 cells (IC(50): 30-40 nM), but not in HMC-1.2 cells or primary neoplastic cells in patients with KIT D816V-positive SM. In canines, growth-inhibitory effects of INNO-406 were seen in C2 cells (IC(50): 50-100 nM) exhibiting a KIT exon 11 internal tandem-duplication and in primary neoplastic MC harboring wild-type exon 11, whereas no effects were seen in MC exhibiting a polymorphism at amino acid 581 in exon 11. INNO-406 was found to block KIT phosphorylation and expression in HMC-1.1 cells and C2 cells, but not in HMC-1.2 cells, whereas Lyn-phosphorylation was blocked by INNO-406 in all types of MC. In neoplastic MC, the major target of INNO-406 appears to be KIT. Drug responses may depend on the presence and type of KIT mutation. In human MC, the KIT D816V mutant introduces resistance, and in canine mastocytomas, an exon 11 polymorphism may be indicative of resistance against INNO-406.

  1. DNA mismatch repair protein deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts: a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Rish K; Dudley, Beth; Karloski, Eve; Brand, Randall E; O'Callaghan, Neil; Rosty, Christophe; Buchanan, Daniel D; Jenkins, Mark A; Thibodeau, Stephen N; French, Amy J; Lindor, Noralane M; Pai, Reetesh K

    2018-06-08

    Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. However, establishing the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome is challenging, and ancillary studies that distinguish between sporadic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency and Lynch syndrome are needed, particularly when germline mutation studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine if MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic intestinal crypts can help distinguish between patients with and without Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the expression of MMR proteins in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa obtained from colorectal surgical resection specimens from patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n = 52) and patients with colorectal carcinoma without evidence of Lynch syndrome (n = 70), including sporadic MMR protein-deficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), and "Lynch-like" syndrome (n = 10). MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were identified in 19 of 122 (16%) patients. MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts were identified in 18 of 52 (35%) patients with Lynch syndrome compared to only 1 of 70 (1%) patients without Lynch syndrome (p Lynch-like" syndrome and harbored two MSH2-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts. MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were not identified in patients with sporadic MMR protein-deficient or MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts are a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome, and evaluation for MMR protein-deficient crypts may be a helpful addition to Lynch syndrome diagnostics.

  2. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04–0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004–0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  3. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2016-05-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04-0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004-0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  4. Wave Transformation over a Fringing Coral Reef and the Importance of Low-Frequency Waves and Offshore Water Levels to Runup and Island Overtopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, O. M.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Rosenberger, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    Low-lying, reef-fringed islands are susceptible to sea-level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, wave gauges and a current meter were deployed for 5 months across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur, an atoll island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had maximum wave heights greater than 6 m and peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly-skewed infragravity (0.04-0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004-0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, exceeded 3.7 m at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3-hr time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along atoll and fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash. These observations lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of both extreme shoreline runup and island overwash, threatening the sustainability of these islands.

  5. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni NL Camara

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the public health authorities in planning prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, we describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types in women presenting abnormal cytological results in Pap smear screening tests in the Federal District, Central Brazil. We studied 129 cervical scraping samples from women whose cytological tests showed either pre-neoplastic or neoplastic lesions. Amplification of HPV DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers MY09 and MY11 followed by identification of isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism. We detected HPV DNA in 62% of the samples, including HPV-16 in 43.8%, HPV-58 in 12.5%, HPV-31 in 10%, HPV-53 in 6.3%, each of HPV-18 and HPV-33 in 3.8% of the isolates. Other types (HPV-35, -52, -66, -CP8304, -6, -11, and -CP8061 were less frequent (= or < 2.5% each. The prevalence of HPV-58 was relatively higher in this population than in data in South America, but similar to results obtained in other studies in Latin America, Europe, and Eastern Asia. Case-control studies need to be carried out to establish the association between the prevalence of HPV types specially the less frequent high-risk types and cervical cancer.

  7. a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte I; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Hernández Areu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cada día cobra más importancia en el tema de los transformadores de potencia, la necesidad del diagnósticode los mismos y la detección de averías o anomalías que pudieran surgir durante su explotación. Existenmétodos para el diagnóstico de estos equipos, a través del llamado: Análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia(FRA; en Cuba, aún no se ha introducido ninguna técnica de esta naturaleza, pero se comienzan ainvestigar sus potencialidades y posibilidades de introducción. Inicialmente se ha realizado un estudio delas fuentes que abordan este tema. En este artículo, se presenta la primera parte de un análisis que se harealizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de surespuesta  en  el  dominio  de  la  frecuencia,  específicamente  sobre  los  métodos  de  diagnóstico  detransformadores mediante el análisis de su respuesta en frecuencia, empleando la transformada rápida defourier (FFT.  Every day it gets paid more importance in the topic of the power transformers, the necessity of the diagnosisand the failures or anomalies detection than they could arise during their exploitation.  Methods exist for thediagnosis of these equipments, through the called frequency response analysis (FRA; in Cuba, techniquesof this nature has not still been introduced, but begins to investigate its potentialities and introductionpossibilities. As beginning of this investigation process, has been carried out a study of the sources thatapproach this topic. In this article, is presented the first part of an analysis that has been carried out aboutthe state of the world art on techniques of diagnostic of transformers from its frequency domain response.This part is about those methods of diagnostic of transformers by means of the analysis of their frequencyresponse, using the fast fourier transformed (FFT.

  8. Some growth factors in neoplastic tissues of brain tumors of different histological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pathologic angiogenesis is typical for angiogenic diseases including tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, transforming growth factor alpha and beta (which are also known as “triggers” of angiogenesis, and other factors (Gacche, Meshram, 2013; Nijaguna et al., 2015 play a special role in its development. Evaluation of the important mechanisms of angiogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions remains to be a subject of heightened interest for the past 30 years. It is known that VEGF A is the main trigger of growing blood vessels into the tumor tissue. This is specific mitogen signal for endothelial cells that triggers the mechanisms of cell division and migration. VEGF-induced tumor vasculature has a number of structural and functional features that provide growth and progression of tumors, including increased permeability of blood vessels and their chaotic arrangement.Objective: to study in comparative aspect the level of certain growth factors in the following tissues: glioblastomas, brain metastasis of the breast cancer, meningiomas as well as corresponding peritumoral areas.Materials and methods. Tissue samples were obtained from 56 patients admitted to the surgical treatment in Rostov Research Institute of Oncology: 24 patients had glioblastomas, 19 patients had brain metastasis of the breast cancer, 13 patients with meningiomas without peritumoral edema. Histological control was carried out in all cases. Age of patients ranged from 35 to 72 years. The level of growth factor was detected in the samples of tumor tissue and regions immediately adjacent to the tumor foci (peritumoral area by the method of immunoassay and using standard test systems. The following growth factor were detected: VEGF-A and its receptors VEGF-R1 (BenderMedSystem, Austria, VEGF-C and its receptor VEGF-R3 (BenderMedSystem, Austria, EGF (Biosource, USA, IFR-1 and IFR-2 (Mediagnost, USA, TGF

  9. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates.

  10. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Patrícia F.; Fantoni, Denise T.; Miranda, Bruna C.; Matera, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates. PMID:26981315

  11. Early neuroimaging findings of glioblastoma mimicking non-neoplastic cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin

    2007-09-01

    A 54-year-old man and a 63-year-old woman presented with glioblastoma manifesting as seizure and headache, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging of the two patients revealed hypointense area on T(1)-weighted imaging, and hyperintense area on T(2)-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, with no enhancement after gadolinium administration. Both patients underwent conservative therapy under diagnoses of non-neoplastic cerebral lesion. Six months later, they suffered aggravated symptoms and new neurological deficits. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypointense area on diffusion-weighted imaging and ring enhancement on T(1)-weighted imaging with gadolinium at the site of the previously detected lesions. The tumors showed growth pattern of superficial origin. The large enhanced masses were totally removed through craniotomy under neuronavigator guidance. The histological diagnoses were glioblastoma. Glioblastoma may mimic non-neoplastic conditions on neuroimaging in the early stages. Close follow up of such patients is essential.

  12. Gallium SPECT detection of neoplastic intravascular obstruction of the superior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.; Kaplan, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    A rare case of an intravascular neoplastic obstruction of the superior vena cava is discussed. The lesion was detected with gallium single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) despite a normal appearance on a concurrent radiographic CT study. A computer-generated composite SPECT-CT image confirmed the intravascular localization of the radioisotope, and a subsequent CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma

  13. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  14. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  15. The induction and regulation of radiogenic transformation in vitro: Cellular and molecular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1987-01-01

    Rodent and human cells in culture, transformed in vitro by ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, or chemicals into malignant cells afford us the opportunity to probe into early and late events in the neoplastic process at a cellular and molecular level. Transformation can be regarded as an abnormal expression of cellular genes. The initiating agents disrupt the integrity of the genetic apparatus altering DNA in ways that result in the activation of cellular transforming genes (oncogenes) during some stage of the neoplastic process. Events associated with initiation and promotion may overlap to some degree, but in order for them to occur, cellular permissive conditions must prevail. Permissive factors include thyroid and steroid hormones, specific states of differentiation, certain stages in the cell cycle, specific genetic impairment, and inadequate antioxidants. Genetically susceptible cells require physiological states conducive to transformation. These may differ with age, tissue, and species and in part may be responsible for the observed lower sensitivity of human cells to transformation

  16. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  17. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and Fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, John Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of ∼ 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm -1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach

  18. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, John Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm-1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  19. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Jaques [Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Saba, Gabriela Tognini [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Daniel Reis [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  20. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student'st test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  1. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues

  2. Pitfalls of improperly procured adjacent non-neoplastic tissue for somatic mutation analysis using next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing provides an efficient system for detecting somatic alterations in neoplasms. The detection of such alterations requires a matched non-neoplastic sample for adequate filtering of non-somatic events such as germline polymorphisms. Non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to the excised neoplasm is often used for this purpose as it is simultaneously collected and generally contains the same tissue type as the neoplasm. Following NGS analysis, we and others have frequently observed low-level somatic mutations in these non-neoplastic tissues, which may impose additional challenges to somatic mutation detection as it complicates germline variant filtering. Methods We hypothesized that the low-level somatic mutation observed in non-neoplastic tissues may be entirely or partially caused by inadvertent contamination by neoplastic cells during the surgical pathology gross assessment or tissue procurement process. To test this hypothesis, we applied a systematic protocol designed to collect multiple grossly non-neoplastic tissues using different methods surrounding each single neoplasm. The procedure was applied in two breast cancer lumpectomy specimens. In each case, all samples were first sequenced by whole-exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in the neoplasm and determine their presence in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. We then generated ultra-deep coverage using targeted sequencing to assess the levels of contamination in non-neoplastic tissue samples collected under different conditions. Results Contamination levels in non-neoplastic tissues ranged up to 3.5 and 20.9 % respectively in the two cases tested, with consistent pattern correlated with the manner of grossing and procurement. By carefully controlling the conditions of various steps during this process, we were able to eliminate any detectable contamination in both patients. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the

  3. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ATC 17 ULR IHQ OCLI CPCTR ULTRA HIGH "OQS" UP TO 4X HIGHER THAN BEST INDUS- TRY STANDARD (ATC 100). MICROWAVE POWER, CURRENT. AND 0 RATINGS5...Q"W were assigned to element (FigC-2); which will be modelled into the transformer previously ment td . The center frequencies, "Q", frequency range...of the TD 1288 system. Temperature stability, change with time or storage. Flexure Frequency, or non-linear change over bandwidth. * Humidity

  4. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  5. Increased radiation-induced transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells after transfer of an exogenous c-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, V.; Drozdoff, V.; Zeitz, L.; Fleissner, E.

    1987-01-01

    C3H/10T 1/2 cells were infected with a retroviral vector expressing a mouse c-myc oncogene and a drug-selection marker. The resulting cells, morphologically indistinguishable from C3H/10T l/1, displayed a greatly enhanced sensitivity to neoplastic transformation by ionizing radiation or by a chemical carcinogen. Constitutive expression of myc therefore appears to synergize with an initial carcinogenic event, providing a function analogous to a subsequent event that apparently is required for the neoplastic transformation of these cells. This cell system should prove useful in exploring early stages in radiation-induced transformation

  6. Fourier transform NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenga, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs

  7. Persistence of sister chromatid exchanges and in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster fetal cells by chemical and physical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, N.C.; Amsbaugh, S.C.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of neoplastic cell transformation is closely associated with DNA alterations which occur shortly after carcinogen exposure. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation is a sensitive indicator of carcinogen-DNA interaction and correlates with the induction of morphological cell transformation. The persistence of lesions generating SCE produced by chemical and physical carcinogens and its relevance to the induction of morphologic transformation was evaluated in coordinated experiments with cultured Syrian hamster fetal cells (HFC). Exponentially growing HFC were exposed for 1 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platinum (II) diaminedichloride (cis Pt II), N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea (MNU), mitomycin C (MMC), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (AcAAF) or u.v. light irradiated. SCE analysis demonstrates that for a period of 48 h after carcinogen exposure, during which time the cells undergo at least four replicative cycles, DNA damage generating SCE induced by all chemical carcinogens either persisted or was partially removed, whereas u.v.-induced lesions were completely removed. An elevated SCE frequency persisted after two additional cell cycles after treatment with BP, AcAAF or MMC without increased cell lethality as compared to other carcinogens whose lesions were completely eliminated during the same period

  8. Dasatinib inhibits the growth and survival of neoplastic human eosinophils (EOL-1) through targeting of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christian; Gleixner, Karoline V; Peter, Barbara; Ferenc, Veronika; Gruze, Alexander; Remsing Rix, Lily L; Bennett, Keiryn L; Samorapoompichit, Puchit; Lee, Francis Y; Pickl, Winfried F; Esterbauer, Harald; Sillaber, Christian; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Valent, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by molecular and/or cytogenetic evidence of clonality of eosinophils, marked eosinophilia, and organ damage. In many patients, the transforming mutation FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and the related CHIC2 deletion are found. The respective oncoprotein, FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha, is considered to play a major role in malignant cell growth in CEL. The tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor imatinib (STI571) has been described to counteract the TK activity of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha in most patients. However, not all patients with CEL show a response to imatinib. Therefore, several attempts have been made to identify other TK inhibitors that counteract growth of neoplastic eosinophils. We provide evidence that dasatinib, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, blocks the growth and survival of EOL-1, an eosinophil leukemia cell line carrying FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha. The effects of dasatinib on proliferation of EOL-1 cells were dose-dependent, with an IC50 of 0.5 to 1 nM, which was found to be in the same range when compared to IC50 values produced with imatinib. Dasatinib was also found to induce apoptosis in EOL-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 1-10 nM). The apoptosis-inducing effects of dasatinib on EOL-1 cells were demonstrable by light microscopy, flow cytometry, and in a TUNEL assay. In Western blot experiments, dasatinib completely blocked the phosphorylation of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha in EOL-1 cells. Dasatinib inhibits the growth of leukemic eosinophils through targeting of the disease-related oncoprotein FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha. Based on this observation, dasatinib may be considered as a new interesting treatment option for patients with CEL.

  9. CDNA Microarray Based Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Primary Breast Tumors Versus In Vitro Transformed Neoplastic Breast Epithelium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szallasi, Zoltan

    2001-01-01

    .... The first group of clones is being sorted by their ability to form tumors. We are currently performing cDNA microarray analysis quantifying the expression level of about 15,000 genes in these cell lines...

  10. Neoplastic meningitis: a retrospective review of clinical presentations, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearanaisilp, Sorrawit; Sangruji, Tumthip; Danchaivijitr, Chotipat; Danchaivijitr, Nasuda

    2014-08-01

    To review the clinical, radiological, and laboratory presentations of patients with neoplastic meningitis. Patients with neoplastic meningitis were recruited by a retrospective search of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytopathological report database of Siriraj Hospital between 1997 and 2006. Clinical information and CSF result of these patients were extracted from their medical records. Neuroimagings were reviewed by a neuroradiologist. The present study revealed 40 cases of neoplastic meningitis, which comprised of 17 cases with carcinomatous meningitis (CM) and 23 lymphoma/leukemia meningitis (LM) cases. In patients with CM, the majority (70%) had adenocarcinoma of lung or breast. Three of 17 cases with unknown primary tumor had carcinomatous meningitis as an initial presentation. In LM most of the cases (70%) were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The most common symptom among patients with CM and LM was headache follow by cranial nerve palsy. In CM cases, CSF cytology was positive in the first specimen in 15 cases (82.35%) and in 22 from 23 cases (95.7%) in LM cases. Overall CSF showed pleocytosis in 36 cases (90%), most of which were lymphocyte predominant. The most common findings from brain imagings were leptomeningeal enhancement and hydrocephalus. The common primary sites were lung and breast cancer in the CM group and ALL and NHL in the LM group. The common symptoms were headache and cranial nerve palsy. Routine CSF examination was abnormal in virtually all cases. Positive CSF cytology was a gold standard for a diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. High index of suspicious and awareness were required to avoid miss diagnosis.

  11. Immunoelectron microscopic localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigens in normal and neoplastic urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Nathrath, W B; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscope cytochemistry was carried out on 2% paraformaldehyde fixed, 50 mu sections of normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma cells in culture using antisera raised in rabbits to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal "broad spectrum" keratin and calf urothelial "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) Both the unconjugated and indirect immunoperoxidase-DAB techniques were used before routine embedding. The localisation of both keratin and luminal epithelial antigen (LEA) was similar in normal and neoplastic cells and reaction product was associated not only with tonofilaments but also lining membrane vesicles and on fine filaments in the cytoplasmic ground substance.

  12. Comparison of the circadian variation in cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1985-09-15

    Circadian variations in cell proliferation in normal tissues have been recognised for many years but comparable phenomena in neoplastic tissues appear not to have been reported. Adenomas and carcinomas were induced in mouse colon by injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and cell proliferation in these tumors was measured stathmokinetically. In normal intestine cell proliferation is fastest at night whereas in both adenomas and carcinomas it was found to be slower at night than in the middle of the day. Chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the circadian variation in tumor cell proliferation.

  13. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  14. In vitro study of the effects of radio frequency generated for plasma in neoplastic cells HT-29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrighetto, Daniela; Dornelles, Eduardo Bortoluzzi; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Manica da; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an in vitro irradiation cell system with controllable irradiation intensities of 27 MHz produced by an argon plasma column with variable amplitude modulation in the 100-700 kHz range. This paper presents and discusses a proposed experiment, with toxicity analysis (DNA Picogreen®) and cell viability (MTT assay) in the radiation-induced HT-29 cell line (colon adenocarcinoma). The data allow us to observe that cellular toxicity effects may occur with exposure to fields produced by argon plasma with intensities on the order of at least 3.2 W / cm2 and exposure times above 3.5 hours continuously. An analysis of cell populations for cell toxicity tests using the Student's t-test did not show significant changes (p 0.34). Cytotoxic effects due to the destruction of cell wall by heating the samples were not detected in any of the tests

  15. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  16. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  17. A new fractional wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a potent tool to analyze the time-varying signal. However, it fails in locating the fractional Fourier domain (FRFD)-frequency contents which is required in some applications. A novel fractional wavelet transform (FRWT) is proposed to solve this problem. It displays the time and FRFD-frequency information jointly in the time-FRFD-frequency plane. The definition, basic properties, inverse transform and reproducing kernel of the proposed FRWT are considered. It has been shown that an FRWT with proper order corresponds to the classical wavelet transform (WT). The multiresolution analysis (MRA) associated with the developed FRWT, together with the construction of the orthogonal fractional wavelets are also presented. Three applications are discussed: the analysis of signal with time-varying frequency content, the FRFD spectrum estimation of signals that involving noise, and the construction of fractional Harr wavelet. Simulations verify the validity of the proposed FRWT.

  18. Sirtuin 1 stimulates the proliferation and the expression of glycolysis genes in pancreatic neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Gill, Anthony; Arshi, Mehreen; Warmerdam, Max; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Eling, Nils; Lie, Triyana; Kuster, Evelyne; Camargo, Simone; Biankin, Andrew V; Wu, Jianmin; Rooman, Ilse

    2016-11-15

    Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of neoplasia and tumor growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a lysine deacetylase of multiple targets including metabolic regulators such as p53. SIRT1 regulates metaplasia in the pancreas. Nevertheless, it is unclear if SIRT1 affects the development of neoplastic lesions and whether metabolic gene expression is altered.To assess neoplastic lesion development, mice with a pancreas-specific loss of Sirt1 (Pdx1-Cre;Sirt1-lox) were bred into a KrasG12D mutant background (KC) that predisposes to the development of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Similar grade PanIN lesions developed in KC and KC;Sirt1-lox mice but specifically early mucinous PanINs occupied 40% less area in the KC;Sirt1-lox line, attributed to reduced proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced expression of proteins in the glycolysis pathway, such as GLUT1 and GAPDH.The stimulatory effect of SIRT1 on proliferation and glycolysis gene expression was confirmed in a human PDAC cell line. In resected PDAC samples, higher proliferation and expression of glycolysis genes correlated with poor patient survival. SIRT1 expression per se was not prognostic but low expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator 2 (CCAR2), a reported SIRT1 inhibitor, corresponded to poor patient survival.These findings open perspectives for novel targeted therapies in pancreatic cancer.

  19. [Non-neoplastic enlargement of salivary glands: clinico-histologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Torres Tejero, Marco Antonio; Martínez Mata, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study on non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands at the Oral Histopathology Diagnostic Center of the Autonomous Metropolitan University at Xochimilco (UAM-Xochimilco) in Mexico during a period of 24 years (1979-2003). From 5,625 biopsies received and analyzed, a total of 461 (8.2%) were non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands; for each case, we registered demographic data as well as clinic characteristics. These lesions were characterized as a heterogeneous group of pathologic entities among which we included local, obstructive, infectious, and immunopathologic lesions. The most frequent lesion was the extravasation cyst in 341 (74%) cases, followed by chronic sialoadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome with 54 (11.7%) and 41 (8.8%) cases, respectively, and at a lesser percentage mucous retention cyst, sialosis, benign lymphoepithelial lesions and those related with sialolytes. Females were affected more frequently; mean age was second to third life decades. These lesions were most frequently localized on inferior labial mucosa.

  20. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, Toshio; Kopecky, K.J.; Nakamura, Nori; Jones, M.P.; Ito, Toshio; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-09-01

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and X-irradiated to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5 %, the average mean lethal dose D 0 was 97.6 cGy for HY cells, and 96.7 cGy and 94.3 cGy, respectively, for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average D 0 of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly (p = .001) lower average D 0 of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery (p = .82) or sex (p = .10). These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive. (author)

  1. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS. The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17. The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  2. Alcohol consumption and the neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Lou

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In the developed countries, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is increasing over recent decades. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to arrive at quantitative conclusions about the contribution of alcohol intakes and the progression of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: A comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature published up to Oct 2013 was conducted to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was conducted for alcohol consumption on the Barrett's esophagus progression. RESULTS: A total of 882 cases in 6,867 individuals from 14 observational studies were indemnified in this meta-analysis. The result of this current meta-analysis, including 10 case-control and 4 cohort studies, indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with the neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48. When stratified by the study designs, no significant association was detected in either high vs low group or ever vs never group. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol drinking is not associated with risk of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus. Further well designed studies are needed in this area.

  3. Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L

    1982-11-01

    Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. Electron transport from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time courses of CM-induced electron transport inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.

  4. Sirtuin 1 stimulates the proliferation and the expression of glycolysis genes in pancreatic neoplastic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Andreia V.; Mawson, Amanda; Gill, Anthony; Arshi, Mehreen; Warmerdam, Max; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Eling, Nils; Lie, Triyana; Kuster, Evelyne; Camargo, Simone; Biankin, Andrew V.; Wu, Jianmin; Rooman, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of neoplasia and tumor growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a lysine deacetylase of multiple targets including metabolic regulators such as p53. SIRT1 regulates metaplasia in the pancreas. Nevertheless, it is unclear if SIRT1 affects the development of neoplastic lesions and whether metabolic gene expression is altered. To assess neoplastic lesion development, mice with a pancreas-specific loss of Sirt1 (Pdx1-Cre;Sirt1-lox) were bred into a KrasG12D mutant background (KC) that predisposes to the development of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Similar grade PanIN lesions developed in KC and KC;Sirt1-lox mice but specifically early mucinous PanINs occupied 40% less area in the KC;Sirt1-lox line, attributed to reduced proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced expression of proteins in the glycolysis pathway, such as GLUT1 and GAPDH. The stimulatory effect of SIRT1 on proliferation and glycolysis gene expression was confirmed in a human PDAC cell line. In resected PDAC samples, higher proliferation and expression of glycolysis genes correlated with poor patient survival. SIRT1 expression per se was not prognostic but low expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator 2 (CCAR2), a reported SIRT1 inhibitor, corresponded to poor patient survival. These findings open perspectives for novel targeted therapies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27494892

  5. Immunohistochemistry expression of TCF4 protein on carcinoma, adenoma and non neoplastic colorectal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Huber Tauil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect and quantify the immunoreactivity of TCF4 protein in colorectal carci- noma, colorectal adenoma and non-neoplasic colorectal epithelium. Methods: We studied 129 individuals: 40 with colorectal cancer, 52 with colorectal ad- enoma and 37 with non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium. The colorectal adenoma and carcinoma samples were obtained from patients who underwent surgical procedures, and colonoscopies and samples of non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium were taken from patients who died from cardiovascular diseases, without diseases of the large intestine. Samples of different tissues were included in paraffin blocks, and the immunohistochem- ical expression of protein TCF4 was analyzed using the technique of tissue microarray (TMA with polyclonal antibody TCF4. The immunoreactivity was analyzed and classified as positive and negative. Results: The immunohistochemical expression of TCF4 protein was significantly higher (p < 0.01 in colorectal carcinoma than in the non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium and adenoma. There was no difference (p = 0.76 between TCF4 protein immunohistochemical expression in colorectal adenoma and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Conclusions: TCF4 protein showed a more intense expression in colorectal carcinoma than in non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium and adenoma, indicating that this protein is in- volved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Resumo: Objetivos: Detectar e quantificar a imunoexpressão da proteína TCF4 no carcinoma e no adenoma colorretal e no epitélio colorretal não neoplásico. Método: Foram estudados 129 indivíduos: 40 com carcinoma colorretal, 52 com adenoma colorretal e 37 com epitélio colorretal não neoplásico. Os tecidos de adenoma e carcinoma colorretais foram representados por amostras da lesão retirada de doentes submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos e colonoscópicos, e as amostras de epitélio colorretal não neo- plásico foram retiradas de doentes falecidos por

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using 111In-DTPA ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by 111 In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 111 In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that 111 In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis

  7. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  8. Gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as para neoplastic cerebellar degeneration: Case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmaiah, K.C.; Viveka, B.K.; Kumar, N.A.; Saini, M.L.; Sinha, S.; Saini, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Para neoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a type of para neoplastic neurological disorder (PND) that is associated with many solid tumors, Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) and very rarely with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report a case of PCD associated with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a patient who presented with acute onset of giddiness and double vision and had complete remission of the gastric lesion and marked improvement of cerebellar syndrome with rituximab-based combination chemotherapy. A brief review of the literature is also presented.

  9. Biogenic amines as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1987-01-01

    The role of extracellular amines such as noradrenaline and serotonin and their interaction with cyclic nucleotides and intracellular polyamines in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is reviewed with particular reference to the differences between normal and neoplastic cells. In respect to the normal epithelium of the small intestine there is a strong case to support the notion that cell proliferation is controlled by, amongst other things, sympathetic nerves. In colonic carcinomas, antagonists for certain serotonin receptors, for histamine H2 receptors and for dopamine D2 receptors inhibit both cell division and tumour growth. Because of the reproducible variations between tumour lines in the response to these antagonists, this inhibition appears to be due to a direct effect on the tumour cells rather than an indirect effect via the tumour host or stroma. This conclusion is supported by the cytocidal effects of toxic congeners of serotonin on the tumour cells. The most salient difference between the amine responses of normal and neoplastic cells relates to the issue of amine uptake. Proliferation of crypt cells is promoted by amine uptake inhibitors, presumably because they block amine re-uptake by the amine secreting cells--sympathetic neurones and enteroendocrine cells. However, tumour cell proliferation is strongly inhibited by amine uptake inhibitors, suggesting that neoplastic cells can, and need to take up the amine before being stimulated by it. Recent revelations in the field of oncogenes also support an important association between amines, cyclic nucleotides and cell division. The ras oncogenes code for a protein that is a member of a family of molecules which relay information from extracellular regulators, such as biogenic amines, to the intracellular regulators, including cyclic nucleotides. Evidence is presented suggesting that enteroendocrine cells, enterocytes, carcinoid tumour cells and adenocarcinoma cells all have the same

  10. Review Article: The Role of Molecular Pathological Epidemiology in the Study of Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Diseases in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Nishihara, Reiko; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Wang, Molin; Nishi, Akihiro; Lochhead, Paul; Qian, Zhi Rong; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Nan, Hongmei; Yoshida, Kazuki; Milner, Danny A; Chan, Andrew T; Field, Alison E; Camargo, Carlos A; Williams, Michelle A; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-07-01

    Molecular pathology diagnostics to subclassify diseases based on pathogenesis are increasingly common in clinical translational medicine. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative transdisciplinary science based on the unique disease principle and the disease continuum theory. While it has been most commonly applied to research on breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, MPE can investigate etiologic heterogeneity in non-neoplastic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, drug toxicity, and immunity-related and infectious diseases. This science can enhance causal inference by linking putative etiologic factors to specific molecular biomarkers as outcomes. Technological advances increasingly enable analyses of various -omics, including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, microbiome, immunomics, interactomics, etc. Challenges in MPE include sample size limitations (depending on availability of biospecimens or biomedical/radiological imaging), need for rigorous validation of molecular assays and study findings, and paucities of interdisciplinary experts, education programs, international forums, and standardized guidelines. To address these challenges, there are ongoing efforts such as multidisciplinary consortium pooling projects, the International Molecular Pathological Epidemiology Meeting Series, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-MPE guideline project. Efforts should be made to build biorepository and biobank networks, and worldwide population-based MPE databases. These activities match with the purposes of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K), Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON), and Precision Medicine Initiatives of the United States National Institute of Health. Given advances in biotechnology, bioinformatics, and computational/systems biology, there are wide open opportunities in MPE to contribute to public

  11. Pancreatic endocrine tumor with neoplastic venous thrombus and bilobar liver metastasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, L; Turrini, O; Sarran, A; Delpero, J-R

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 56-year-old woman with a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumor, fortuitously discovered by abdominal imaging. A CT-scan showed a large mass in the pancreatic tail invading the spleen and stomach; in addition, there was neoplastic thrombus within the spleno-mesentericoportal venous confluence and bilobar liver metastases. Surgical resection was performed in two stages. The first procedure was an extended left pancreatectomy with venous thrombectomy and "clearance" of the left hepatic lobe. During the interval, embolization of the right portal vein was carried out. Right hepatectomy and radiofrequency destruction of residual metastases was then performed. On the basis of completeness of the resection and the histopathological data, the patient did not undergo any adjuvant therapy, in accordance with French guidelines. At 1 year of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Expression of the α2-macroglobulin receptor on human neoplastic fibroblastoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grofova, M.; Matoska, J.; Bies, J.; Bizik, J.; Vaheri, A.

    1995-01-01

    The α 2 -macroglobulin membrane-associated receptor ( α 2 MR) has been previously detected on hepatocytes, fibroblast, macrophages, syncytiotrophoblasts and recently on human malignant blood cells of myelomonocytic leukemia. In cells growing in vitro from human germ cell tumors α 2 MR mRNA was detected by Northern blotting. Endocytosis of α 2 MR from culture medium was detected in these cells by indirect immunofluorescence. In cell extracts α 2 MR and its degradation products were detected by immunoblotting. The cells expressing α 2 MR and internalizing α 2 MR were identified as fibroblast both by their morphology and expression of vimentin intermediate filaments. The role and function of α 2 MR receptor in the analyzed neoplastic cells of teratomatous origin is discussed. (author)

  14. Compact energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer for diagnosis of neoplastic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C.; Malezan, A.; Poletti, M. E.; Perez, R. D.

    2017-08-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer with capillary optics has been developed for characterizing breast cancer. The employment of low divergence capillary optics helps to reduce the setup size to a few centimeters, while providing a lateral spatial resolution of 100 μm. The system angular calibration and momentum transfer resolution were assessed by a detailed study of a polycrystalline reference material. The performance of the system was tested by means of the analysis of tissue-equivalent samples previously characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction. In addition, a simplified correction model for an appropriate comparison of the diffraction spectra was developed and validated. Finally, the system was employed to evaluate normal and neoplastic human breast samples, in order to determine their X-ray scatter signatures. The initial results indicate that the use of this compact energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer combined with a simplified correction procedure is able to provide additional information to breast cancer diagnosis.

  15. Comparison of radiosensitivities of human autologous normal and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Hiraoka, T.; Ezaki, H.; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine differences between the radiosensitivities of normal and neoplastic epithelial cells of the human thyroid. Freshly excised thyroid tissues from the tumours of eight patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) and five with follicular adenoma (FA) were cultured in vitro separately from normal thyroid tissue obtained from the surgical margins of the same patients. Plating efficiency of unirradiated control tissue was lower, on average for tumour tissue compared with normal tissue. Radiosensitivity, measured by the 37% inactivation dose D 0 , was greater for carcinoma tissue than for normal tissue in seven out of eight PC cases. Adenomatous tissue was less radiosensitive than normal tissue in four out of five FA cases. This is the first report comparing the radiosensitivity of autologous normal and abnormal epithelial tissue from the human thyroid. (author)

  16. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  17. Quantitative evaluation of RASSF1A methylation in the non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laghi Luigi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic changes during ageing and their relationship with cancer are under the focus of intense research. RASSF1A and NORE1A are novel genes acting in concert in the proapoptotic pathway of the RAS signalling. While NORE1A has not been previously investigated in the human liver, recent reports have suggested that RASSF1A is frequently epigenetically methylated not only in HCC but also in the cirrhotic liver. Methods To address whether epigenetic changes take place in connection to age and/or to the underlying disease, we investigated RASSF1A and NORE1A gene promoter methylation by conventional methylation specific PCR and Real-Time MSP in a series of hepatitic and non-hepatitic livers harboring regenerative/hyperplastic (cirrhosis/focal nodular hyperplasia, dysplastic (large regenerative, low and high grade dysplastic nodules and neoplastic (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma growths. Results In the hepatitic liver (chronic hepatitic/cirrhosis, hepatocellular nodules and HCC we found widespread RASSF1A gene promoter methylation with a methylation index that increased from regenerative conditions (cirrhosis to hepatocellular nodules (p RASSF1A gene promoter methylation, NORE1A gene was never found epigenetically alterated in both hepatitic and non-hepatitic liver. Conclusion We have shown that in non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver the RASSF1A gene is increasingly methylated, that this condition takes place as an age-related phenomenon and that the early setting and spreading over time of an epigenetically methylated hepatocyte subpopulation, might be related to liver tumorigenesis.

  18. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas: A study of the immunoprofile of neoplastic stromal component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Desanka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Central nervous system hemangioblastomas (HBs are uncommon highly vascularized tumors that are predominantly found in the cerebellum. They occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. HBs are of unknown histogenesis, and the origin of stromal cells is still a subject of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoprofile of neoplastic stromal component, and to determine whether the profile of the expression of immunomarkers used can contribute to the elucidation of the histogenesis of HBs. Methods. A series of eight cerebellar HBs were histochemically examined for the detection of mast cells and immunohistochemically for the expression of factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg, CD34, vimentin, factor XIIIa (FXIIIa, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, neuron-specific enolase (NSE neurofilaments (NF, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and somatostatin. Results. Mast cells were present in all hemangioblastomas, and were particularly abundant in one tumor. Immunohistochemically, intense reactivity for vimentin and NSE in the stromal cells was constantly seen. Immunoreactivity with S-100 protein and FXIIIa was variable, but generally many HBs stromal cells were negative for these markers. However, stromal cells were uniformly negative for FVIII-RAg in all HBs investigated. They were negative for CD34 GFAP, NF, synaptophysin, chromogranin, as well as somatostatin. GFAP-positivity of the occasional stromal type cells, located only peripherally, was interpreted as "pseudopositivity". Conclusion. The immunoprofile of neoplastic stromal component in this study suggested a possible origin from undifferentiated multipotential mesenchymal cells. High expression of NSE (glycolytic and hypoxia-inducible enzyme in the HBs stromal cells might be related to the loss of the VHL protein function.

  19. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena M; Zaganelli, Fabricia L; Almeida, Bernardo G L; Goes, Joao Carlos Sampaio; Baracat, Edmund C; Carvalho, Jesus P

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2‐40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6%) cases, with 29/31 (93.5%) of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node‐positive cases was lower than that of node‐negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively). Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8%) cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively), although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host‐tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas. PMID:21340215

  20. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena M Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2-40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6% cases, with 29/31 (93.5% of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node-positive cases was lower than that of node-negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8% cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively, although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host-tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas.

  1. Nanodiamond modified copolymer scaffolds affects tumour progression of early neoplastic oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Salwa; Mustafa, Kamal; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Osdal, Tereza; Hamza, Amani O; Sun, Yang; Parajuli, Himalaya; Waag, Thilo; Nickel, Joachim; Johannessen, Anne Christine; McCormack, Emmet; Costea, Daniela Elena

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of functionalising poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds. The copolymer scaffolds were functionalised with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP and physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP-PHY) to enhance osteoinductivity. Culturing early neoplastic dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK(Luc)) on nDP modified scaffolds reduced significantly their subsequent sphere formation ability and decreased significantly the cells' proliferation in the supra-basal layers of in vitro 3D oral neoplastic mucosa (3D-OT) when compared to DOK(Luc) previously cultured on nDP-PHY scaffolds. Using an in vivo non-invasive environmentally-induced oral carcinogenesis model, nDP scaffolds were observed to reduce bioluminescence intensity of tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF). nDP modification was also found to promote differentiation of DOK(Luc) both in vitro in 3D-OT and in vivo in xenografts formed by DOK(Luc) alone. The nDP-PHY scaffold had the highest number of invasive tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + CAF outside the scaffold area compared to the nDP and control scaffolds. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results presented here demonstrate that nDP modified copolymer scaffolds are able to decrease the tumorigenic potential of DOK(Luc), while confirming concerns for the therapeutic use of BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects in oral cancer patients due to its tumour promoting capabilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Generalized field-transforming metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A; Nefedov, Igor S; Alitalo, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

  3. Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haycock, P.C.; Burgess, S.; Nounu, A.; Zheng, J.; Okoli, G.N.; Bowden, J.; Wade, K.H.; Timpson, N.J.; Evans, D.M.; Willeit, P.; Aviv, A.; Gaunt, T.R.; Hemani, G.; Mangino, M.; Ellis, H.P.; Kurian, K.M.; Pooley, K.A.; Eeles, R.A.; Lee, J.E.; Fang, S.; Chen, W.V.; Law, M.H.; Bowdler, L.M.; Iles, M.M.; Yang, Q.; Worrall, B.B.; Markus, H.S.; Hung, R.J.; Amos, C.I.; Spurdle, A.B.; Thompson, D.J.; O'Mara, T.A.; Wolpin, B.; Amundadottir, L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; Lund, E.; Duell, E.J.; Canzian, F.; Severi, G.; Overvad, K.; Gunter, M.J.; Tumino, R.; Svenson, U.; Rij, A. van; Baas, A.F.; Bown, M.J.; Samani, N.J.; t'Hof, F.N.G. van; Tromp, G.; Jones, G.T.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Elmore, J.R.; Johansson, M.; McKay, J.; Scelo, G.; Carreras-Torres, R.; Gaborieau, V.; Brennan, P.; Bracci, P.M.; Neale, R.E.; Olson, S.H.; Gallinger, S.; Li, D.; Petersen, G.M.; Risch, H.A.; Klein, A.P.; Han, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Freedman, N.D.; Taylor, P.R.; Maris, J.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Wiencke, J.K.; Walsh, K.M.; Wrensch, M.; Rice, T.; Turnbull, C.; Litchfield, K.; Paternoster, L.; Standl, M.; Abecasis, G.R.; SanGiovanni, J.P.; Li, Y.; Mijatovic, V.; Sapkota, Y.; Low, S.K.; Zondervan, K.T.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nyholt, D.R.; Heel, D.A. van; Hunt, K.; Arking, D.E.; Ashar, F.N.; Sotoodehnia, N.; Woo, D.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. Objective: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study,

  4. Detection of immune complexes in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases by 125I-Clq binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.S.; Moore, D.; Collins, J.; Johnston, B.; Person, D.; Templeton, J.; Poser, R.; Quinby, F.

    1979-01-01

    Some canine rheumatic and neoplastic diseases bear a striking clinical and serological resemblance to their counterparts in man. In the present study, human 125 I-Clq was employed in a radioimmunoassay for detection of immune complexes in sera of normal dogs and those with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. Human 125 I-Clq showed binding of 16.7 +- 5.73% in a group of normal dog sera with binding of 32.5 +- 17.3% and 43.0 +- 16.0% in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. respectively. Human 125 I-Clq bound similar quantities of heat-aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin over a broad range of concentrations and human 125 I-Clq binding in canine sera was effectively inhibited by similar quantities of heat aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin. Seven of 12 dogs with elevated levels of Clq binding had active clinical and serological rheumatic disease (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis), while none of 7 dogs with values within the normal range had active clinical disease. All 5 dogs with widespread osteogenic sarcoma and all 4 dogs with high grade adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland had elevated Clq binding values while 2 animals with low grade malignancies without evident metastases did not. Thus, it appears that human 125 I-Clq may be employed to assay immune complexes in canine sera and may be a valuable technique for the study of dogs with various rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. (author)

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  6. Case of a rare type of non-neoplastic mucinous pancreatic cyst – likely new pathological entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilendarov, A.; Nedeva, M.; Belovejdov, V.; Aleksieva, D.; Sirakov, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full text:Introduction: The cystic lesions of the pancreas consists of a range of pathologies which may be broadly divided into neoplastic, non- neoplastic and cysts. Recently a new non-neoplastic cystic lesions, called mucinous non-neoplastic cysts, have been described. Materials and Methods: The imaging methods (ultrasound and CT ) were used as well as invasive imaging methods under image control with a view of the histological verification of the diagnosis. A case of pancreatic cystic lesion is described, accidentally detected by ultrasound and CT scan made for different purpose. Results : The finding was a 28/32 mm cyst in the body of the pancreas, apparently communicating with the pancreatic duct . The Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and laboratory tests of liver function, serum CEA and carbohydrate antigen C19 -9 were within normal limits. After the distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy the lasting histological specimen showed a simple cyst, lined with mucinous epithelium. Conclusion: The presented case guides the imaging diagnosticians and surgeons towards seeking a thorough preoperative clarification of pancreatic cystic lesions. It is recommended that patients diagnosed with 'benign' mucinous neoplasm are closely monitored due to the inability to completely confirm the benign nature of the lesion

  7. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Analysis of Infiltrating Neoplastic Cells at the Migrating Front of Human Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Darmanis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and is notoriously difficult to treat because of its diffuse nature. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq on 3,589 cells in a cohort of four patients. We obtained cells from the tumor core as well as surrounding peripheral tissue. Our analysis revealed cellular variation in the tumor’s genome and transcriptome. We were also able to identify infiltrating neoplastic cells in regions peripheral to the core lesions. Despite the existence of significant heterogeneity among neoplastic cells, we found that infiltrating GBM cells share a consistent gene signature between patients, suggesting a common mechanism of infiltration. Additionally, in investigating the immunological response to the tumors, we found transcriptionally distinct myeloid cell populations residing in the tumor core and the surrounding peritumoral space. Our data provide a detailed dissection of GBM cell types, revealing an abundance of information about tumor formation and migration. : Darmanis et al. perform single-cell transcriptomic analyses of neoplastic and stromal cells within and proximal to primary glioblastomas. The authors describe a population of neoplastic-infiltrating glioblastoma cells as well as a putative role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in supporting tumor growth. Keywords: single cell, RNA-seq, glioma, glioblastoma, GBM, brain, heterogeneity, infiltrating, diffuse, checkpoint

  8. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  9. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  10. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  11. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  12. Quantitative evaluation of RASSF1A methylation in the non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Sonia; Bianchi, Paolo; Destro, Annarita; Grizzi, Fabio; Malesci, Alberto; Laghi, Luigi; Levrero, Massimo; Morabito, Alberto; Roncalli, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Background Epigenetic changes during ageing and their relationship with cancer are under the focus of intense research. RASSF1A and NORE1A are novel genes acting in concert in the proapoptotic pathway of the RAS signalling. While NORE1A has not been previously investigated in the human liver, recent reports have suggested that RASSF1A is frequently epigenetically methylated not only in HCC but also in the cirrhotic liver. Methods To address whether epigenetic changes take place in connection to age and/or to the underlying disease, we investigated RASSF1A and NORE1A gene promoter methylation by conventional methylation specific PCR and Real-Time MSP in a series of hepatitic and non-hepatitic livers harboring regenerative/hyperplastic (cirrhosis/focal nodular hyperplasia), dysplastic (large regenerative, low and high grade dysplastic nodules) and neoplastic (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) growths. Results In the hepatitic liver (chronic hepatitic/cirrhosis, hepatocellular nodules and HCC) we found widespread RASSF1A gene promoter methylation with a methylation index that increased from regenerative conditions (cirrhosis) to hepatocellular nodules (p < 0.01) to HCC (p < 0.001). In the non-hepatitic liver a consistent pattern of gene methylation was also found in both lesional (focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma) and non-lesional tissue. Specifically, hepatocellular adenomas (HA) showed a methylation index significantly higher than that detected in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) (p < 0.01) and in non-lesional tissue (p < 0.001). In non-lesional liver also the methylation index gradually increased by ageing (p = 0.002), suggesting a progressive spreading of methylated cells over time. As opposed to RASSF1A gene promoter methylation, NORE1A gene was never found epigenetically alterated in both hepatitic and non-hepatitic liver. Conclusion We have shown that in non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver the RASSF1A gene is increasingly

  13. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  14. Induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shu'ai; Wang Hui

    1992-01-01

    The induction of neoplastic transformation in CHL-1 cells by low-dose-rate exposure to tritiated water was reported. CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 - 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/mL) for 24-96 hours and the accumulated doses were estimated to be 0.055-0.88 Gy, respectively. Neoplastic transformation was found in all exposed cell groups. The morphological study and transplantation test was carried out for demonstration malignancy of the transformed cells and the results show that they are with the morphology and behaviour for malignant tumour cells. For CHL-1 cells exposed to various doses of tritiated water, transformation rates were found to be from 3.28% to 13.0% at dose of 0.055-0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to 137 Cs gamma-rays was carried out at dose rates of 0.359 Gy/24 hr and transformation rates for irradiated CHL-1 cells were found to be from 2.59% to 13.4%. Based on these data, RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6

  15. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Active vitamin D potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of calcium in the colon: A cross talk through the calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Höbaus, Julia; Tennakoon, Samawansha; Prinz-Wohlgenannt, Maximilian; Graça, João; Price, Sally A; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Kállay, Enikö

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between dietary calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D intake and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been shown in vitro that the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) can upregulate expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). In the colon, CaSR has been suggested to regulate proliferation of colonocytes. However, during tumorigenesis colonic CaSR expression is downregulated and we hypothesized that the loss of CaSR could influence the anti-tumorigenic effects of Ca(2+) and vitamin D. Our aim was to assess the impact of CaSR expression and function on the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 in colon cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that in the healthy colon of mice, high vitamin D diet (2500 IU/kg diet) increased expression of differentiation and apoptosis markers, decreased expression of proliferation markers and significantly upregulated CaSR mRNA expression, compared with low vitamin D diet (100 IU/kg diet). To determine the role of CaSR in this process, we transfected Caco2-15 and HT29 CRC cells with wild type CaSR (CaSR-WT) or a dominant negative CaSR mutant (CaSR-DN) and treated them with 1,25-D3 alone, or in combination with CaSR activators (Ca(2+) and NPS R-568). 1,25-D3 enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of Ca(2+) and induced differentiation and apoptosis only in cells with a functional CaSR, which were further enhanced in the presence of NPS R-568, a positive allosteric modulator of CaSR. The mutant CaSR inhibited the anti-tumorigenic effects of 1,25-D3 suggesting that the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 are, at least in part, mediated by the CaSR. Taken together, our data provides molecular evidence to support the epidemiological observation that both, vitamin D and calcium are needed for protection against malignant transformation of the colon and that their effect is modulated by the presence of a functional CaSR. This article is part of a Special Issue

  18. Técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte II; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Hernández Areu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los métodos para el diagnóstico de transformadores de potencia se encuentran los métodos de detecciónde averías a través del llamado análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia (FRA. En un artículo anterior, sepresentó la primera parte del estudio que se ha realizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas dediagnóstico de transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia y empleando latransformada rápida de Fourier (FFT. Esta segunda parte, trata específicamente, sobre los métodos dediagnóstico de transformadores mediante el análisis de la respuesta a un barrido de frecuencia (SFRA, sin lautilización de  la transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT.  In the methods for the diagnosis of power transformers there are the failure detection methods called frequencyresponse analysis (FRA. In a previous article, the first part of a study that has been carried out about theworld art state on the techniques of diagnostic in transformers from its response in the frequency domain andusing the fast Fourier transformed (FFT, was presented.This second part, tries specifically about the methodsof diagnostic of transformers by means of the sweeping frequency response analysis (SFRA, without usingthe fast Fourier tansformed (FFT.

  19. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  20. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  1. Proposed Terminology and Classification of Pre-Malignant Neoplastic Conditions: A Consensus Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Valent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer evolution is a step-wise non-linear process that may start early in life or later in adulthood, and includes pre-malignant (indolent and malignant phases. Early somatic changes may not be detectable or are found by chance in apparently healthy individuals. The same lesions may be detected in pre-malignant clonal conditions. In some patients, these lesions may never become relevant clinically whereas in others, they act together with additional pro-oncogenic hits and thereby contribute to the formation of an overt malignancy. Although some pre-malignant stages of a malignancy have been characterized, no global system to define and to classify these conditions is available. To discuss open issues related to pre-malignant phases of neoplastic disorders, a working conference was organized in Vienna in August 2015. The outcomes of this conference are summarized herein and include a basic proposal for a nomenclature and classification of pre-malignant conditions. This proposal should assist in the communication among patients, physicians and scientists, which is critical as genome-sequencing will soon be offered widely for early cancer-detection.

  2. Proposed Terminology and Classification of Pre-Malignant Neoplastic Conditions: A Consensus Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem; Arock, Michel; Bock, Christoph; George, Tracy I; Galli, Stephen J; Gotlib, Jason; Haferlach, Torsten; Hoermann, Gregor; Hermine, Olivier; Jäger, Ulrich; Kenner, Lukas; Kreipe, Hans; Majeti, Ravindra; Metcalfe, Dean D; Orfao, Alberto; Reiter, Andreas; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staber, Philipp B; Sotlar, Karl; Schiffer, Charles; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Cancer evolution is a step-wise non-linear process that may start early in life or later in adulthood, and includes pre-malignant (indolent) and malignant phases. Early somatic changes may not be detectable or are found by chance in apparently healthy individuals. The same lesions may be detected in pre-malignant clonal conditions. In some patients, these lesions may never become relevant clinically whereas in others, they act together with additional pro-oncogenic hits and thereby contribute to the formation of an overt malignancy. Although some pre-malignant stages of a malignancy have been characterized, no global system to define and to classify these conditions is available. To discuss open issues related to pre-malignant phases of neoplastic disorders, a working conference was organized in Vienna in August 2015. The outcomes of this conference are summarized herein and include a basic proposal for a nomenclature and classification of pre-malignant conditions. This proposal should assist in the communication among patients, physicians and scientists, which is critical as genome-sequencing will soon be offered widely for early cancer-detection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on the measurement of serum thymidine kinase and its clinical significance in hematological neoplastic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Yamada, Ryusaku; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tsujimoto, Masato; Tsuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1988-06-01

    A 'Prolifigen TK-REA' kit for measuring serum thymidine kinase (TK) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. Laboratory findings for recovery, dilution, and reproducibility were satisfactory. There was no correlation between serum TK activity and serum lactic dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein. The serum concentration of TK in normal volunteers ranged from 1.6 to 6.5 U/L. It was extremely high for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as compared to the normal value. In the AML group, higher incidence of blasts in peripheral blood tended to be associated with higher serum concentration of TK. A similar tendency was seen in the case of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS). A positive correlation between serum TK activity and the absolute counts of myeloblasts in peripheral blood existed in CML and AML patients. Since patients with hematological neoplastic disorders, who have abnormality in DNA metabolism, tended to have higher serum TK activity than did normal volunteers, serum TK activity may have a potential marker for abnormal DNA metabolism. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Paul S.; Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  5. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  6. Osteogenic tumour in Australopithecus sediba: Earliest hominin evidence for neoplastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Randolph-Quinney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the earliest evidence for neoplastic disease in the hominin lineage. This is reported from the type specimen of the extinct hominin Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, dated to 1.98 million years ago. The affected individual was male and developmentally equivalent to a human child of 12 to 13 years of age. A penetrating lytic lesion affected the sixth thoracic vertebra. The lesion was macroscopically evaluated and internally imaged through phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. A comprehensive differential diagnosis was undertaken based on gross- and micro-morphology of the lesion, leading to a probable diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. These neoplasms are solitary, benign, osteoid and bone-forming tumours, formed from well-vascularised connective tissue within which there is active production of osteoid and woven bone. Tumours of any kind are rare in archaeological populations, and are all but unknown in the hominin record, highlighting the importance of this discovery. The presence of this disease at Malapa predates the earliest evidence of malignant neoplasia in the hominin fossil record by perhaps 200 000 years.

  7. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2007-01-01

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  8. The effects of environmental deuterium on normal and neoplastic cultured cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bild, W.; Schuller, T.; Zhihai, Qin; Blankenstein, T.; Nastasa, V.; Haulica, I.

    2000-01-01

    The powdered culture media (RPMI - 1640) were reconstituted either with normal distilled water (150 ppm deuterium) either with deuterium - depleted water (DDW) in various concentrations (30, 60, 90 ppm) and sterilized by filtration with 0.2 μm filters. The cell lines used were NIH (normal mouse fibroblasts), RAG (mouse renal carcinoma) and TS/A (mouse mammary adenocarcinoma). In auxiliary tests, BAIBC mouse splenocytes in direct culture were used, stimulated for growth with concanavalin A or LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide). The estimation of the growth was made using the MTT assay or direct counting with trypan blue exclusion. The following results were obtained: Deuterium - depleted water had a stimulating effect on cell growth, the most important stimulating action being from the 90 ppm deuterium-water. The growth curves show, in a first phase, a stimulation of the rapid -growing neoplastic cells, followed by a slower growth of the normal cells. Amiloride 100 mM blocking of the Na + /K + membrane pump did not affect the cell growth curves, while the lansoprazole 100 mM blocking of the K + /H + ATP-ase brought the growth curves at the level of those with normal water. This might show an eventual involvement of the K + /H + antiport in the stimulating effects of the DDW. (authors)

  9. The difficulties of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome (or "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, Olivier

    2018-06-01

    Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome covers different pathological conditions responsible for mild-to-moderate ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, related not to an ACTH-secreting tumor but rather to CRH and/or AVP hypothalamic secretion through activation of various neural pathways, in patients generally displaying excess central adiposity. It is better termed "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism" (NNH). The main conditions implicated in NNH comprise: neuropsychiatric disorder, alcohol abuse, insulin-resistant obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, and end-stage kidney disease. Glucocorticoid resistance is one differential diagnosis, as are some cases of primary adrenal disease with incompletely suppressed ACTH. Differentiating between NNH and mild-to-moderate Cushing's disease can be a real challenge. Clinical analysis, based on thorough history taking and screening for catabolic signs is essential; useful explorations include midnight serum or salivary cortisol and Dex/CRH and ddAVP stimulation response. Pituitary MRI suffers from limitations regarding both sensitivity and specificity, while bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling cannot distinguish between pituitary ACTH secretion by a tumor or by normal cells stimulated by endogenous CRH. Definitive diagnosis of functional etiology requires demonstrating that treatment of the underlying condition restores normal secretion of ACTH and cortisol, but this is not always possible. Lingering diagnostic uncertainty has to be accepted in certain patients, who will have to be followed up for some time before diagnosis can be considered more or less definitive. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Complications after tracheal and cricotracheal resection and anastomosis for inflammatory and neoplastic stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Del Bon, Francesca; Paderno, Alberto; Grazioli, Paola; Mangili, Stefano; Lombardi, Davide; Nicolai, Piero; Peretti, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate complications and success rates of tracheal resection and anastomosis (TRA) and cricotracheal resection and anastomosis (CTRA) in patients treated in 2 academic institutions. Retrospective charts review of 137 patients submitted to TRA/CTRA. Fifty (36.5%) had neoplastic (group A) and 87 (63.5%) benign (group B) stenoses. Using univariate analysis, age, medical comorbidities, previous radiotherapy, type of TRA/CTRA, association with neck dissection and thyroidectomy, length of resected airway, and preoperative tracheotomy were evaluated to identify factors predictive of complications and outcomes. The mean length of resected airway was 2.7 and 3 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Overall decannulation and complication rates for group A were 96% and 36%, and 99% and 46% for group B, respectively. Length of airway resected and presence of preoperative tracheotomy had a statistically significant effect on major surgical complications. Age older than 70 and cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbidities were significantly associated with the incidence of major medical complications. No statistically significant difference was found considering the complication rates of group A versus group B. Even though the overall success rate of TRA/CTRA is high, it should always be regarded as a major surgical procedure with a non-negligible incidence of complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Is there an association with constitutional structural chromosomal abnormalities and hematologic neoplastic process? A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panani, Anna D

    2009-04-01

    The occasional observation of constitutional chromosomal abnormalities in patients with a malignant disease has led to a number of studies on their potential role in cancer development. Investigations of families with hereditary cancers and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities have been key observations leading to the molecular identification of specific genes implicated in tumorigenesis. Large studies have been reported on the incidence of constitutional chromosomal aberrations in patients with hematologic malignancies, but they could not confirm an increased risk for hematologic malignancy among carriers of structural chromosomal changes. However, it is of particular interest that constitutional structural aberrations with breakpoints similar to leukemia-associated specific breakpoints have been reported in patients with hematologic malignancies. Because of insufficient data, it remains still unclear if these aberrations represent random events or are associated with malignancy. There has been a substantial discussion about mechanisms involved in constitutional structural chromosomal changes in the literature. The documentation of more patients with constitutional structural chromosomal changes could be of major importance. Most importantly, the molecular investigation of chromosomal regions involved in rearrangements could give useful information on the genetic events underlying constitutional anomalies, contributing to isolation of genes important in the development of the neoplastic process. Regarding constitutional anomalies in patients with hematologic disorders, a survey of the cytogenetic data of our cytogenetics unit is herein also presented.

  12. Biochemical aspects of the neoplastic cell in relation to positive indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.

    1975-01-01

    In scintigraphic diagnoses with positive indicators, the capacity of these indicators to fix themselves or to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic tissue is utilized. This selectivity could be due to several biochemical peculiarities of the tumor cells in relation to surrounding cells: the presence on the membrane of particular chemical groups which allow these cells to invade adjacent tissue without being subject to contact inhibition; the presence on these same membranes of antigenic determinants which are particular to these cells and which can be revealed with specific antibodies; a high concentration of nucleic acid in tumor cells, with the associated possibility of fixing substances having a particular tropism for nucleic acids or for their chemical constituents; an elevated rate of nucleic acid synthesis, with an associated increase in the incorporation of precursors and also of substances which specifically interfere with this biochemical pathway; in numerous cases, tumor cells produce high quantities of acidic metabolites which must be neutralized by equivalent quantities of anions, the latter entering the cells by active transport phenomena; in tumors which develop particularly rapidly, there is a development of degenerative processes with an accumulation of degradation products; in metastatic tumors, the cells have metabolic and biosynthetic activities which are a function of the original tissue, with the possiblity of a clear metabolic difference in relation to adjacent tissues [fr

  13. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to evaluate biological effects induced by photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cassio A; Goulart, Viviane P; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M

    2016-07-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic methods associated with multivariate statistical techniques have been succeeded in discriminating skin lesions from normal tissues. However, there is no study exploring the potential of these techniques to assess the alterations promoted by photodynamic effect in tissue. The present study aims to demonstrate the ability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on Attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling mode associated with principal component-linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) to evaluate the biochemical changes caused by photodynamic therapy (PDT) in skin neoplastic tissue. Cutaneous neoplastic lesions, precursors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), were chemically induced in Swiss mice and submitted to a single session of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated PDT. Tissue sections with 5 μm thickness were obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and processed prior to the histopathological analysis and spectroscopic measurements. Spectra were collected in mid-infrared region using a FTIR spectrometer on ATR sampling mode. Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) was applied on preprocessed second derivatives spectra. Biochemical changes were assessed using PCA-loadings and accuracy of classification was obtained from PC-LDA . Sub-bands of Amide I (1,624 and 1,650 cm(-1) ) and Amide II (1,517 cm(-1) ) indicated a protein overexpression in non-treated and post-PDT neoplastic tissue compared with healthy skin, as well as a decrease in collagen fibers (1,204, 1,236, 1,282, and 1,338 cm(-1) ) and glycogen (1,028, 1,082, and 1,151 cm(-1) ) content. Photosensitized neoplastic tissue revealed shifted peak position and decreased β-sheet secondary structure of proteins (1,624 cm(-1) ) amount in comparison to non-treated neoplastic lesions. PC-LDA score plots discriminated non-treated neoplastic skin spectra from post-PDT cutaneous lesions with accuracy of 92.8%, whereas non-treated neoplastic

  14. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  15. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  16. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  17. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  18. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  19. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  20. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  1. Incidental Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Conditions of the Fallopian Tubes in Grossly Normal Adnexa: A Clinicopathologic Study of 388 Completely Embedded Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Jeffrey D; Krishnan, Jayashree; Yemelyanova, Anna; Vang, Russell

    2016-09-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the putative precursor of the majority of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas, has been reported in both high-risk women (those with a germline BRCA mutation, a personal history of breast carcinoma, and/or family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma) and average risk women from the general population. We reviewed grossly normal adnexal specimens from 388 consecutive, unselected women undergoing surgery, including those with germline BRCA mutation (37 patients), personal history of breast cancer or family history of breast/ovarian cancer (74 patients), endometrial cancer (175 patients), and a variety of other conditions (102 patients). Among 111 high-risk cases and 277 non-high-risk cases, 3 STICs were identified (0.8%), all in non-high-risk women (high risk vs. non-high risk: P=not significant). STIC was found in 2 women with nonserous endometrial carcinoma and 1 with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Salpingoliths (mucosal calcifications), found in 9% of high-risk cases, and fimbrial adenofibromas in 9.9% of high-risk cases, were significantly more common in high-risk as compared with non-high-risk women (1.8% and 2.5%, respectively; PSTIC and endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, and clarify the frequency of non-neoplastic tubal findings in grossly normal fallopian tubes.

  2. Age and Spatial Peculiarities of Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue in Kazakhstan, 2003–2015

    OpenAIRE

    IGISSINOV, Nurbek; KULMIRZAYEVA, Dariyana; BILYALOVA, Zarina; AKPOLATOVA, Gulnur; MAMYRBAYEVA, Marzya; ZHUMAGALIYEVA, Galina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arrangement of effective management aimed at improving dermatological services and consistent care of patients with skin diseases depends on understanding the epidemiological situation. Methods: This retrospective study presents an epidemiological assessment of non-neoplastic skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases in Kazakhstan registered in 2003–2015. Results: The yearly incidence rate of the diseases among the whole population was in average 3,341.8±121.1 per 100000 population. T...

  3. Para neoplastic syndromes: Usefulness of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F.D.G.) positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banayan, S.; Janier, M.; Guillerma-Zucchi, N.; Billotey, C.; Ninet, J.; Delmas, P.; Thivolet, C.; Pellet, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the performance of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F.D.G.) positron emission tomography (PET) in the diagnosis of underlying malignancy in cases of suspected para neoplastic syndrome (P.S.). Methods 18 F.D.G.-PET was performed in 31 patients, clinically suspected to have P.S.. The P.S. were 34, among which 12 neurological diseases, eight endocrine, seven rheumatological, one dermatological and six vascular. We compared computed tomography (CT), iodine-enhanced most of the time, and 18 F.D.G.-PET reports to clinicians definitive conclusion at the end of the work-up and a follow-up period of, at least, two months. Results We obtained a histological diagnosis of cancer for ten patients, but could only identify the primary site of malignancy for nine of them. 18 F.D.G.-PET showed six primary sites among which three were not seen on CT. CT disclosed four primary sites, among which one was not seen on 18 F.D.G.-PET. In one case, 18 F.D.G.-PET disclosed regional lymph node metastases whereas these were not identified by CT. Eleven non-neoplastic causes were evidenced, among which 18 F.D.G.-PET played a major role in three cases. Ten causes were still undetermined at the end of the study. Conclusion Whole-body 18 F.D.G.-PET study plays an important role in the identification of underlying malignancy in clinically suspected para neoplastic syndromes; either by identifying the primary tumor or by directing biopsy of metastases. Furthermore, it can identify non-neoplastic causes. (authors)

  4. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  5. Differentiation of osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral fractures by chemical shift {in-phase and out-of phase} MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, Yasser; Emad, Yasser; Gheita, Tamer; Mansour, Maged; Abou-Zeid, A.; Ferrari, Serge; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the cut-off value of the signal intensity drop on chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with appropriate sensitivity and specificity to differentiate osteoporotic from neoplastic wedging of the spine. Patients and methods: All patients with wedging of vertebral bodies were included consecutively between February 2006 and January 2007. A chemical shift MRI was performed and signal intensity after (in-phase and out-phase) images were obtained. A DXA was performed in all. Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 20 with osteoporotic wedging (group 1) and 20 neoplastic (group 2). They were 21 males and 19 females. Acute vertebral collapse was observed in 15 patients in group 1 and subacute collapse in another 5 patients, while in group 2, 11 patients showed acute collapse and 9 patients (45%) showed subacute vertebral collapse. On the chemical shift MRI a substantial reduction in signal intensity was found in all lesions in both groups. The proportional changes observed in signal intensity of bone marrow lesions on in-phase compared with out-of-phase images showed significant differences in both groups (P < 0.05). At a cut-off value of 35%, the observed sensitivity of out-of-phase images was 95%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 95.2%. Conclusion: A chemical shift MRI is useful in order to differentiate patients with vertebral collapse due to underlying osteoporosis or neoplastic process.

  6. Neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): diagnosis, differential diagnosis and intervention; Neoplasien des Temporomandibulargelenks (TMG). Diagnostik, Differenzialdiagnostik und Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Abolmaali, N.; Schedel, H.; Bergh, B. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Maeurer, J. [Radiologische Praxis am Prinzregentenplatz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and interventional radiological techniques for neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods. Modern diagnosis of the TMJ is based on the clinical use of conventional X-ray techniques, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional techniques like biopsies, vascular occlusion and ablation. Results. Conventional X-ray still forms the basic diagnostic procedure applied in open and closed mouth position. CT improves the diagnostic information and serves as the standard diagnostical instrument for cartaliganeous or osseous neoplastic lesions. MRI evaluates soft tissue infiltration in multiplanar techniques and high spatial resolution. Interventional vascular and ablative techniques improve the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung. Vorstellung der Wertigkeit bildgebender Verfahren fuer die diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie des Temporomandibulargelenks (TMG). Material und Methodik. Die moderne Radiologie des TMG basiert auf dem Einsatz der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik, der Computertomographie (CT) und der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), sowie interventioneller Verfahren wie der Biopsie, vaskulaerer Embolisationsverfahren und tumorablativer Verfahren. Ergebnisse. Als Basisdiagnostik dient die konventionelle Diagnostik in offener und geschlossener Mundposition der Erfassung von Funktionsstoerungen sowie ossaerer Destruktionen. Die CT erweitert das diagnostische Spektrum und verbessert die Differenzialdiagnostik fuer ossifizierende Prozesse. Der Einsatz der MRT erlaubt die Erfassung der Weichteilinfiltration sowie der Gelenkstrukturen. Vaskulaere interventionelle Verfahren dienen der praetherapeutischen Okklusion bzw. der palliativen Tumortherapie in Form der okklusiven Embolisation, der Chemoembolisation, oder auch der Tumorablation. (orig.)

  7. Biological Characteristics of Caspase-14 and Its Expression in Neoplastic Diseases in the View of Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-sheng LIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caspase-14, a member of caspase family, only exists in mammals. As the most divergent member in the family of mammalian caspases, caspase-14 displays a variety of unique characteristics. It is expressed in a limited number of tissues and has the shortest amino acid sequence within the caspase protein family. At present, it has been found that caspase-14 is functionally different from the inflammatory reaction group of typical caspase family members. It exerts a certain effect in the promotion of final differentiation of epidermal cells and hydration of stratum corneum so as to maintain the steady state of skin barrier. In recent years, caspase-14 expression has been discovered in neoplastic diseases. Translational medicine integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Via human genomics and molecular biology, translational medicine offers a possibility of screening molecular markers so that it can be used to diagnose the neoplastic diseases. In this article, the biological characteristics and substrates of caspase-14 as well as its expression in embryonic period and neoplastic diseases were reviewed.

  8. Embedded Solenoid Transformer for Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A resonant power converter for operation in the radio frequency range, preferably in the VHF, comprises at least one PCB-embedded transformer. The transformer is configured for radio frequency operation and comprises a printed circuit board defining a horizontal plane, the printed circuit board...... comprising at least two horizontal conductive layers separated by an isolating layer, a first embedded solenoid forming a primary winding of the transformer and a second embedded solenoid being arranged parallel to the first solenoid and forming a secondary winding of the transformer, wherein the first...

  9. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  10. Radiobiological studies on the importance of tumor oxygenation for anti-neoplastic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the twelve studies included in the present thesis was to determine the importance of hypoxia for various anti-neoplastic treatment modalities, and to evaluate possible ways of overcoming the hypoxia problem by combined modality therapy. The murine tumor systems were the C3H mammary carcinoma with 5-12% hypoxic cells, and the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma with 2% hypoxic cells. The radiation response was significantly improved by the use of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers such as nimorazole or misonidazole, or by allowing the mice to breathe oxygen or carbogen during irradiation. In contrast, the radiation response was significantly impaired by carbon monoxide breathing at a level comparable to what has been observed in heavy smokers. The clamped TCD 50 assay was used to classify cancer chemotherapeutic drugs according to their preferential cytotoxicity towards the different tumor subpopulations. Methotrexate had no effect on hypoxic cells and was only borderline toxic towards aerobic cells. Three drugs had significant effect against oxic cells only (5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatin). Similarly, three drugs were toxic towards hypoxic cells only (etoposide, carmustine, and mitomycin c). Three drugs were effective towards both cell types (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide). Hypoxic cells in areas with insufficient blood supply, poor nutrition and increased acidity is known to be highly sensitive to hyperthermia. In a study where cisplatin, heat and x-rays were given together, the local tumor control was not improved when compared to radiation + heat, apparently due to a lack of enhancement in the killing of hypoxic cells. These studies have demonstrated the influence of tumor oxygenation on tumor response to treatment with drugs, hyperthermia and irradiation. New strategies targeted also against perfusion-limited hypoxia is needed. One of the most important conclusions from the present thesis can be implemented without expensive trials or

  11. YAP expression in normal and neoplastic breast tissue: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; López-Márquez, Francisco C; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura

    2014-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional factor involved in normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis; however, its contribution to breast cancer (BC) is still controversial. We undertook this study to compare the expression of YAP by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal breast tissue of women without breast cancer (BC) (controls), non-neoplastic breast tissue in women with cancer (internal controls) and in four different subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma. There were 17 controls and 105 tumor cases (53 luminal A, 15 luminal B, 20 overexpression of HER2 and 17 triple negative cases) studied by IHC. Statistical analysis included χ(2) for linear trend (Extended Mantel-Haenszel). There were 40% of internal controls that showed expression of YAP in myoepithelial cells, whereas in controls expression was 100%. In controls, 3/17 (17.6%) showed cytoplasmic staining in luminal cells. There was a significant difference in nuclear expression between the ductal BC subtypes. Luminal A had 4% of positive cases with <10% of cells affected in each case; in contrast, there were 17-20% of positive cases in the other groups with 50% or more of stained cells. YAP expression in stromal cells was not observed in controls or in triple-negative cases, and luminal B pattern had the highest YAP nuclear expression (20%). YAP showed decreased expression in tumor cells compared with normal breast tissue. These findings are consistent with a role of YAP as a suppressor gene in BC and show differences in YAP expression in different patterns of ductal BC. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body Composition and Anti-Neoplastic Treatment in Adult and Older Subjects - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, S; Bréchemier, D; Lefort, A; Lozano, S; Abellan Van Kan, G; Filleron, T; Mourey, L; Bernard-Marty, C; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Soler, V; Vellas, B; Cesari, M; Rolland, Y; Balardy, L

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the risk of poor tolerance and overdose of antineoplastic agents protocols represents a major challenge in oncology, particularly in older patients. We hypothesize that age-related modifications of body composition (i.e. increased fat mass and decreased lean mass) may significantly affect tolerance to chemotherapy. We conducted a systematic review for the last 25 years (between 1990 and 2015), using US National library of Medicine Medline electronic bibliographic database and Embase database of cohorts or clinical trials exploring (i) the interactions of body composition (assessed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses, or Computerized Tomography) with pharmacokinetics parameters, (ii) the tolerance to chemotherapy, and (iii) the consequences of chemotherapies or targeted therapies on body composition. Our search identified 1504 articles. After a selection (using pre-established criteria) on titles and abstract, 24 original articles were selected with 3 domains of interest: impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics (7 articles), relationship between body composition and chemotoxicity (14 articles), and effect of anti-cancer chemotherapy on body composition (11 articles). The selected studies suggested that pharmacokinetic was influenced by lean mass, that lower lean mass could be correlated with toxicity, and that sarcopenic patients experienced more toxicities that non-sarcopenic patients. Regarding fat mass, results were less conclusive. No studies specifically explored the topic of body composition in older cancer patients. Plausible pathophysiological pathways linking body composition, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics are sustained by the actual review. However, despite the growing number of older cancer patients, our review highlighted the lack of specific studies in the field of anti-neoplastic agents toxicity regarding body composition conducted in elderly.

  13. Chest wall – a structure underestimated in ultrasonography. Part III: Neoplastic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall neoplasms mainly include malignancies, metastatic in particular. Differential diagnosis should include clinical data; tumor location, extent, delineation; the degree of homogeneity; the presence of calcifications; the nature of bone destruction and the degree of vascularization. The aim of the paper is to present both the benefits and limitations of ultrasound for the diagnosis of chest wall neoplasms. The neoplastic process may be limited to the chest wall; it may spread from the chest wall into the intrathoracic structures or spread from the inside of the chest towards the chest wall. Benign tumors basically originate from vessels, nerves, bones, cartilage and soft tissues. In this paper, we briefly discuss malformations of blood and lymphatic vessels, glomus tumor as well as neurogenic tumors originating in the thoracic branches of the spinal nerves and the autonomic visceral system. Metastases, particularly lung, breast, kidney cancer, melanoma and prostate cancer, are predominant tumors of the osteocartilaginous structures of the chest wall. Plasma cell myeloma is also relatively common. The vast majority of these lesions are osteolytic, which is reflected in ultrasound as irregular cortical defects. Osteoblastic foci result only in irregular outline of the bone surface. Lipomas are the most common neoplasms of the chest wall soft tissue. Elastofibroma is another tumor with characteristic echostructure. Desmoid fibromatosis, which is considered to be a benign lesion with local aggressivity and recurrences after surgical resection, represents an interesting tumor form the clinical point of view. Ultrasonography represents an optimal tool for the monitoring of different biopsies of pathological lesions located in the chest wall. Based on our experiences and literature data, this method should be considered as a preliminary diagnosis of patients with chest wall tumors.

  14. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäki Markku

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human gastrointestinal mucosa regenerates vigorously throughout life, but the factors controlling cell fate in mature mucosa are poorly understood. GATA transcription factors direct cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs, and are implicated in tumorigenesis. GATA-4 and GATA-6 are considered crucial for the formation of murine gastrointestinal mucosa, but their role in human gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. We studied in detail the expression patterns of these two GATA factors and a GATA-6 down-stream target, Indian hedgehog (Ihh, in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. Since these factors are considered important for proliferation and differentiation, we also explored the possible alterations in their expression in gastrointestinal neoplasias. The expression of the carcinogenesis-related protein Indian hedgehog was also investigated in comparison to GATA factors. Methods Samples of normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal tract from children and adults were subjected to RNA in situ hybridization with 33P labelled probes and immunohistochemistry, using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase system. The pathological tissues examined included samples of chronic and atrophic gastritis as well as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum. Results GATA-4 was abundant in the differentiated epithelial cells of the proximal parts of the gastrointestinal tract but was absent from the distal parts. In contrast, GATA-6 was expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium, and in the distal gut its expression was most intense at the bottom of the crypts, i.e. cells with proliferative capacity. Both factors were also present in Barrett's esophagus and metaplasia of the stomach. GATA-6 expression was reduced in colon carcinoma. Ihh expression overlapped with that of GATA-6 especially in benign gastrointestinal neoplasias. Conclusion The results suggest differential but overlapping functions for GATA-4 and

  16. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  17. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  18. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  19. Genes that cooperate with tumor promoters in transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, N.H.; Smith, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Tumor-promoting phorbol esters, like growth factors, elicit pleiotropic responses involving biochemical pathways that lead to different biological responses. Genetic variant cell lines that are resistant to mitogenic, differentiation, or transformation responses to tumor promoters have been valuable tools for understanding the molecular bases of these responses. Studies using the mouse epidermal JB6 cell lines that are sensitive or resistant to tumor promoter-induced transformation have yielded new understanding of genetic and signal transduction events involved in neoplastic transformation. The isolation and characterization of cloned mouse promotion sensitivity genes pro-1 and pro-2 is reviewed. A new activity of pro-1 has been identified: when transfected into human cancer prone basal cell nevus syndrome fibroblasts but not normal fibroblasts mouse pro-1 confers lifespan extension of these cells. Recently, we have found tat a pro-1 homolog from a library of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but not the homolog from a normal human library, is activated for transferring promotion sensitivity. The many genetic variants for responses to tumor promoters have also proved valuable for signal transduction studies. JPB P- cells fail to show the 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced syntheses of two proteins of 15 and 16 kD seen in P+ cells. P-, P+, and TPA transformed cells show a progressive decrease in both basal and TPA-inducible levels of a protein kinase C substrate of 80 kD. P- cells are relatively resistant both to anchorage-independent transformation and to a protein band shift induced by the calcium analog lanthanum. It appears that one or more calcium-binding proteins and one or more pro genes may be critical determinants of tumor promoter-induced neoplastic transformation

  20. Non-neoplastic cystic and cystic-like lesions of the pancreas: may mimic pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Brian K P; Tan, Yu-Meng; Chung, Yaw-Fui A; Chow, Pierce K H; Ong, Hock-Soo; Lim, Dennis T H; Wong, Wai-Keong; Ooi, London L P J

    2006-05-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas consist of a broad range of pathological entities. With the exception of the pancreatic pseudocyst, these are usually caused by pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic and cystic-like lesions are extremely rare. In the present article, the surgical experience with these unusual entities over a 14-year period is reported. Between 1991 and 2004, all patients who underwent surgical exploration for a cystic lesion of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were excluded. There were 106 patients of whom 8 (7.5%) had a final pathological diagnosis consistent with a non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic or cystic-like lesion, including 3 patients with a benign epithelial cyst, 2 with a pancreatic abscess (one tuberculous and one foreign body), 2 with mucous retention cysts and 1 with a mucinous non-neoplastic cyst. These eight patients are the focus of this study. There were six female and two male patients with a median age of 61.5 years (range, 41-71 years). All the patients were of Asian origin including seven Chinese and one Indian. Four of the patients were asymptomatic and their pancreatic cysts were discovered incidentally on radiological imaging for other indications. All the patients underwent preoperative radiological investigations, including ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a cystic lesion of the pancreas. Three patients, all of whom were symptomatic, were diagnosed preoperatively with a malignant cystic neoplasm on the basis of radiological imaging. Two patients were eventually found to have a pancreatic abscess, one tuberculous and the other, secondary to foreign body perforation. The third patient was found on final histology to have chronic pancreatitis with retention cysts. The remaining five patients had a preoperative diagnosis of an indeterminate cyst; on pathological examination, they were found to have a benign

  1. HPV genotype distribution and anomalous association of HPV33 to cervical neoplastic lesions in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelaRosa-Martínez, Raúl; Sánchez-Garza, Mireya; López-Revilla, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to neoplastic lesions increase as a function of their oncogenicity and the duration of the infection since lesion severity progresses from low-grade to high-grade and cancer. In an outbreak, the prevalence of the HPV type involved would increase and the proportion of the associated low-grade lesions would predominate over severe lesions. In this study, the prevalence of HPV types and their association to neoplastic lesions was determined in women subjected to colposcopy in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. DNA from high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV types was identified by E6 nested multiplex PCR in cervical scrapes from 700 women with normal cytology, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or invasive cervical cancer (CC). Overall HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.7 %, that of HR-HPV was 63.1 %, and that of LR-HPV was 21.3 %. The highest prevalence (78.2 %) occurred in the 15-24 year group, whereas that of single infections was 52 % and that of multiple infections (i.e., by 2-6 HPV types) was 48 %. The most prevalent HR types were HPV33 (33.1 %), HPV16 (16.6 %), HPV18 and HPV51 (6.7 % each). HR-HPV prevalence was 29.6 % in normal cytology, 26.7 % in ASCUS, 63.3 % in LSIL, 68.2 % in HSIL, and 90.5 % in CC. Three prevalence trends for HR-HPV types were found in neoplastic lesions of increasing severity: increasing (LSIL  CC) for HPV33. Two-thirds of the women subjected to colposcopy from 2007 to 2010 in San Luis Potosí have HPV infections which predominate in the 15-24 years group. Around half of the infections are by one viral type and the rest by 2-6 types. HPV33 is the most prevalent type, followed by HPV16. Overall HR-HPV prevalence increases with the severity of neoplastic lesions. HPV33 prevalence is highest in LSIL and its U-shaped trend with progressing neoplastic lesions

  2. M-COPA suppresses endolysosomal Kit-Akt oncogenic signalling through inhibiting the secretory pathway in neoplastic mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Hara

    Full Text Available Gain-of-function mutations in Kit receptor tyrosine kinase result in the development of a variety of cancers, such as mast cell tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs, acute myeloid leukemia, and melanomas. The drug imatinib, a selective inhibitor of Kit, is used for treatment of mutant Kit-positive cancers. However, mutations in the Kit kinase domain, which are frequently found in neoplastic mast cells, confer an imatinib resistance, and cancers expressing the mutants can proliferate in the presence of imatinib. Recently, we showed that in neoplastic mast cells that endogenously express an imatinib-resistant Kit mutant, Kit causes oncogenic activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 but only on endolysosomes and on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, respectively. Here, we show a strategy for inhibition of the Kit-PI3K-Akt pathway in neoplastic mast cells by M-COPA (2-methylcoprophilinamide, an inhibitor of this secretory pathway. In M-COPA-treated cells, Kit localization in the ER is significantly increased, whereas endolysosomal Kit disappears, indicating that M-COPA blocks the biosynthetic transport of Kit from the ER. The drug greatly inhibits oncogenic Akt activation without affecting the association of Kit with PI3K, indicating that ER-localized Kit-PI3K complex is unable to activate Akt. Importantly, M-COPA but not imatinib suppresses neoplastic mast cell proliferation through inhibiting anti-apoptotic Akt activation. Results of our M-COPA treatment assay show that Kit can activate Erk not only on the ER but also on other compartments. Furthermore, Tyr568/570, Tyr703, Tyr721, and Tyr936 in Kit are phosphorylated on the ER, indicating that these five tyrosine residues are all phosphorylated before mutant Kit reaches the plasma membrane (PM. Our study provides evidence that Kit is tyrosine-phosphorylated soon after synthesis on the ER but is

  3. M-COPA suppresses endolysosomal Kit-Akt oncogenic signalling through inhibiting the secretory pathway in neoplastic mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yasushi; Obata, Yuuki; Horikawa, Keita; Tasaki, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Kyohei; Murata, Takatsugu; Shiina, Isamu; Abe, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in Kit receptor tyrosine kinase result in the development of a variety of cancers, such as mast cell tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), acute myeloid leukemia, and melanomas. The drug imatinib, a selective inhibitor of Kit, is used for treatment of mutant Kit-positive cancers. However, mutations in the Kit kinase domain, which are frequently found in neoplastic mast cells, confer an imatinib resistance, and cancers expressing the mutants can proliferate in the presence of imatinib. Recently, we showed that in neoplastic mast cells that endogenously express an imatinib-resistant Kit mutant, Kit causes oncogenic activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) but only on endolysosomes and on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Here, we show a strategy for inhibition of the Kit-PI3K-Akt pathway in neoplastic mast cells by M-COPA (2-methylcoprophilinamide), an inhibitor of this secretory pathway. In M-COPA-treated cells, Kit localization in the ER is significantly increased, whereas endolysosomal Kit disappears, indicating that M-COPA blocks the biosynthetic transport of Kit from the ER. The drug greatly inhibits oncogenic Akt activation without affecting the association of Kit with PI3K, indicating that ER-localized Kit-PI3K complex is unable to activate Akt. Importantly, M-COPA but not imatinib suppresses neoplastic mast cell proliferation through inhibiting anti-apoptotic Akt activation. Results of our M-COPA treatment assay show that Kit can activate Erk not only on the ER but also on other compartments. Furthermore, Tyr568/570, Tyr703, Tyr721, and Tyr936 in Kit are phosphorylated on the ER, indicating that these five tyrosine residues are all phosphorylated before mutant Kit reaches the plasma membrane (PM). Our study provides evidence that Kit is tyrosine-phosphorylated soon after synthesis on the ER but is unable to

  4. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  5. Frequency Synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; Breems, Lucien J.; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  6. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, S.; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  7. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei; Fomel, Sergey; Demanet, Laurent; Ying, Lexing

    2013-01-01

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm

  9. Efficient Plastid Transformation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiguo; Lutz, Kerry Ann; Maliga, Pal

    2017-09-01

    Plastid transformation is routine in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) but 100-fold less frequent in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), preventing its use in plastid biology. A recent study revealed that null mutations in ACC2 , encoding a plastid-targeted acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, cause hypersensitivity to spectinomycin. We hypothesized that plastid transformation efficiency should increase in the acc2 background, because when ACC2 is absent, fatty acid biosynthesis becomes dependent on translation of the plastid-encoded ACC β-carboxylase subunit. We bombarded ACC2 -defective Arabidopsis leaves with a vector carrying a selectable spectinomycin resistance ( aadA ) gene and gfp , encoding the green fluorescence protein GFP. Spectinomycin-resistant clones were identified as green cell clusters on a spectinomycin medium. Plastid transformation was confirmed by GFP accumulation from the second open reading frame of a polycistronic messenger RNA, which would not be translated in the cytoplasm. We obtained one to two plastid transformation events per bombarded sample in spectinomycin-hypersensitive Slavice and Columbia acc2 knockout backgrounds, an approximately 100-fold enhanced plastid transformation frequency. Slavice and Columbia are accessions in which plant regeneration is uncharacterized or difficult to obtain. A practical system for Arabidopsis plastid transformation will be obtained by creating an ACC2 null background in a regenerable Arabidopsis accession. The recognition that the duplicated ACCase in Arabidopsis is an impediment to plastid transformation provides a rational template to implement plastid transformation in related recalcitrant crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  11. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  12. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  13. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  14. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mohr

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1, progesterone receptor (PGR, prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

  15. Spine Instability Neoplastic Score: agreement across different medical and surgical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Kovacs, Francisco M; Royuela, Ana; Asenjo, Beatriz; Pérez-Ramírez, Úrsula; Zamora, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Spinal instability is an acknowledged complication of spinal metastases; in spite of recent suggested criteria, it is not clearly defined in the literature. This study aimed to assess intra and interobserver agreement when using the Spine Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) by all physicians involved in its management. Independent multicenter reliability study for the recently created SINS, undertaken with a panel of medical oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and radiation oncologists, was carried out. Ninety patients with biopsy-proven spinal metastases and magnetic resonance imaging, reviewed at the multidisciplinary tumor board of our institution, were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for SINS score agreement. Fleiss kappa statistic was used to assess agreement on the location of the most affected vertebral level; agreement on the SINS category ("stable," "potentially stable," or "unstable"); and overall agreement with the classification established by tumor board. Clinical data and imaging were provided to 83 specialists in 44 hospitals across 14 Spanish regions. No assessment criteria were pre-established. Each clinician assessed the SINS score twice, with a minimum 6-week interval. Clinicians were blinded to assessments made by other specialists and to their own previous assessment. Subgroup analyses were performed by clinicians' specialty, experience (≤7, 8-13, ≥14 years), and hospital category (four levels according to size and complexity). This study was supported by Kovacs Foundation. Intra and interobserver agreement on the location of the most affected levels was "almost perfect" (κ>0.94). Intra-observer agreement on the SINS score was "excellent" (ICC=0.77), whereas interobserver agreement was "moderate" (ICC=0.55). Intra-observer agreement in SINS category was "substantial" (k=0.61), whereas interobserver agreement was "moderate" (k=0.42). Overall agreement with the tumor board classification

  16. Acute erythroid neoplastic proliferations. A biological study based on 62 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Claros, Alicia; Larriba, Itziar; Rozman, Maruja; Irriguible, Dolors; Vallespí, Teresa; Aventin, Anna; Ayats, Ramon; Millá, Fuensanta; Solé, Francesc; Florensa, Lourdes; Gallart, Miquel; Tuset, Esperanza; Lopez, Carmen; Woessner, Soledad

    2002-02-01

    The terms acute erythroleukemia and AML-M6 are defined in the FAB classification as proliferations of dysplastic erythroid elements mixed with blasts of myeloid origin, but pure erythroid leukemias are not included. The recent WHO classification has a category of acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise categorized, which includes acute erythroid leukemia (M6) of two subtypes: M6a-erythroleukemia (erythroid/myeloid) and M6b-pure erythroid leukemia. The aims of this co-operative study were to discover the incidences of these different subtypes, and pay special attention to the morphology of these entities. We reviewed a series of 62 patients with erythroid neoplastic proliferations. Previous medical history, age, sex, peripheral blood and bone marrow cell counts, cytochemical stains, immunophenotype, and cytogenetics were evaluated at presentation. We analyzed the incidence of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet abnormalities in the peripheral blood. In bone marrow we analyzed dysplastic features of erythroblasts, granulocytic elements and the megakaryocytic lineage. Fifty-three patients met the criteria of M6a subtype of the WHO classification, and 2 were classified as having pure erythremia (M6b); 7 cases could not be classified according to the WHO criteria. Fifty-five patients presented with de novo acute leukemia, and seven patients had secondary acute leukemia. The most frequent dysplastic features in blood smears were: schistocytes, tear-drop and pincered cells in erythrocytes; hypogranulation and hyposegmentation in leukocytes; gigantism and hypogranulation in platelets. In bone marrow, megaloblastic changes, multinuclearity, karyorrhexis and basophilic stippling in erythroblasts; hypogranulation and gigantism in granulocytic series, and micromegakaryocytes and unconnected nuclei in megakarocytes were the most dysplastic features. A positive PAS reaction and increase of bone marrow iron with ring sideroblasts were common features. Trilineage dysplasia was

  17. Critical role of CCDC6 in the neoplastic growth of testicular germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staibano, Stefania; Fusco, Alfredo; Chieffi, Paolo; Celetti, Angela; Ilardi, Gennaro; Leone, Vincenza; Luise, Chiara; Merolla, Francesco; Esposito, Francesco; Morra, Francesco; Siano, Maria; Franco, Renato

    2013-01-01

    be part of a pro-survival pathway that helps to evade the toxic effects of endogenous oxidants and contributes to testicular neoplastic growth

  18. One-parameter Darboux transformations in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Haret C.

    2002-01-01

    The quantum oscillator thermodynamic actions are the conjugate intensive parameters for the frequency in any frequency changing process. These oscillator actions fulfill simple Riccati equations. Interesting Darboux transformations of the fundamental Planck and pure vacuum actions are discussed here in some detail. It is shown that the one-parameter 'Darboux-Transformed-Thermodynamics' refers to superpositions of boson and fermion excitations of positive and negative absolute temperature, respectively. A Darboux generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also briefly sketched

  19. Cytological and oncogene alterations in radiation-transformed Syrian hamster embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutschler, K.; Hieber, L.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were neoplastically transformed by different types of ionizing radiation (γ-rays, α-particles or carbon ions). Transformed and tumor cell lines (derived from nude mice tumors) were analysed for alterations of the oncogenes c-Ha-ras and c-myc, i.e. RFLPs, gene amplifications, activation by point mutation, gene expression, and for cytological changes. In addition, the chromosome number and the numbers of micronuclei per cell have been determined in a series of cell lines. (author)

  20. Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Marco; Scarpa, Melania; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Erroi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Basato, Silvia; Brun, Paola; D'Incà, Renata; Rugge, Massimo; Angriman, Imerio; Castoro, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND PROMOTER: hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in the colonic mucosa without dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at the different steps of sporadic and UC-related carcinogenesis and to investigate the possible role of genomic methylation as a marker of CRC. The expression of Dnmts 1 and 3A was significantly increased in UC-related carcinogenesis compared to non inflammatory colorectal carcinogenesis. In non-neoplastic colonic mucosa, the number of methylated genes resulted significantly higher in patients with CRC and in those with UC-related CRC compared to the HC and UC patients and patients with dysplastic lesion of the colon. The number of methylated genes in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa predicted the presence of CRC with good accuracy either in non inflammatory and inflammatory related CRC. Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (HC) (n = 30) and from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 29), UC and dysplasia (n = 14), UC and cancer (n = 10), dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b, mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Methylation status of APC, CDH13, MGMT, MLH1 and RUNX3 in the non-neoplastic mucosa may be used as a marker of CRC: these preliminary results could allow for the adjustment of a patient's surveillance interval and to select UC patients who should undergo intensive surveillance.

  1. Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The connection between the Wigner distribution and the squared modulus of the fractional Fourier transform - which are both well-known time-frequency representations of a signal - is established. In particular the Radon-Wigner transform is used, which relates projections of the Wigner distribution

  2. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  3. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  4. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  5. The Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue Activity and Neoplastic Status: an 18F-FDG PET/CT Study in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT has thermogenic potential. For its activation, cold exposure is considered a critical factor though other determinants have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between neoplastic status and BAT activity by 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in people living in the tropics, where the influence of outdoor temperature was low. Methods 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were reviewed and the total metabolic activity (TMA of identified activated BAT quantified. The distribution and TMA of activated BAT were compared between patients with and without a cancer history. The neoplastic status of patients was scored according to their cancer history and 18F-FDG PET/CT findings. We evaluated the relationships between the TMA of BAT and neoplastic status along with other factors: age, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, gender, and outdoor temperature. Results Thirty of 1740 patients had activated BAT. Those with a cancer history had wider BAT distribution (p = 0.043 and a higher TMA (p = 0.028 than those without. A higher neoplastic status score was associated with a higher average TMA. Multivariate analyses showed that neoplastic status was the only factor significantly associated with the TMA of activated BAT (p = 0.016. Conclusions Neoplastic status is a critical determinant of BAT activity in patients living in the tropics. More active neoplastic status was associated with more vigorous TMA of BAT.

  6. Selenium, selenoenzymes, oxidative stress and risk of neoplastic progression from Barrett's esophagus: results from biomarkers and genetic variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Clinical trials have suggested a protective effect of selenium supplementation on the risk of esophageal cancer, which may be mediated through the antioxidant activity of selenoenzymes. We investigated whether serum selenium concentrations, selenoenzyme activity, oxidative stress and genetic variation in selenoenzymes were associated with the risk of neoplastic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA and two intermediate endpoints, aneuploidy and tetraploidy. In this prospective cohort study, during an average follow-up of 7.3 years, 47 EA cases, 41 aneuploidy cases and 51 tetraploidy cases accrued among 361 participants from the Seattle Barrett's Esophagus Research Study who were free of EA at the time of blood draw and had at least one follow-up visit. Development to EA was assessed histologically and aneuploidy and tetraploidy by DNA content flow cytometry. Serum selenium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX 1 and GPX3 by substrate-specific coupled test procedures, selenoprotein P (SEPP1 concentrations and protein carbonyl content by ELISA method and malondialdehyde concentrations by HPLC. Genetic variants in GPX1-4 and SEPP1 were genotyped. Serum selenium was not associated with the risk of neoplastic progression to EA, aneuploidy or tetraploidy (P for trend = 0.25 to 0.85. SEPP1 concentrations were positively associated with the risk of EA [hazard ratio (HR = 3.95, 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.42-10.97 comparing the third tertile with the first] and with aneuploidy (HR = 6.53, 95% CI = 1.31-32.58, but not selenoenzyme activity or oxidative stress markers. No genetic variants, overall, were associated with the risk of neoplastic progression to EA (global p = 0.12-0.69. Our results do not support a protective effect of selenium on risk of neoplastic progression to EA. Our study is the first to report positive associations of plasma SEPP1

  7. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using μ-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 μm thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 μm microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman

  8. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  9. Frequency spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  10. Frequency spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H., E-mail: strogatz@cornell.edu [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  11. Analysis of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in control and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, P D; Brandt, P C; Vanaman, T C

    1997-01-01

    It has been long known that neoplastic transformation is accompanied by a lowered requirement for extracellular Ca2+ for growth. The studies presented here demonstrate that human fibroblastic cell lines produce the two commonly found 'housekeeping' isoforms of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), PMCA1b and 4b, and at the expression of both is demonstrably lower in cell lines neoplastically transformed by SV40 than in the corresponding parental cell lines. Western blot analyses of lysates from control (GM00037) and SV40-transformed (GM00637) skin fibroblasts revealed a 138 kDa PMCA whose level was significantly lower in the SV40-transformed cells relative to either total cellular protein or alpha-tubulin. Similar analyses of plasma membrane preparations from control WI-38) and SV40-transformed (WI-38VA13) lung fibroblasts revealed 3-4-fold lower levels of PMCA in the SV40-transformed cells. Competitive ELISAs performed on detergent solubilized plasma membrane preparations indicated at least 3-4-fold lower levels of PMCA in the SV40-transformed cell lines compared to controls. Reverse transcriptase coupled-PCR analyses showed that PMCA1b and PMCA4b were the only isoforms expressed in all four cell lines. The PMCA4b mRNA level detected by Northern analysis also was substantially lower in SV40 transformed skin fibroblasts than in non-transformed fibroblasts. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed levels of PMCA1b and 4b mRNAs to be 5 and 10-fold lower, respectively, in GM00637 than in GM00037 when the levels of PCR products were normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA. These results demonstrate that the expression of these distinct PMCA genes is substantially lower in SV40 transformed human skin and lung fibroblasts and may be coordinately regulated in these cells.

  12. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems

  13. Cocoa Procyanidins Suppress Transformation by Inhibiting Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Dong Eun; Rogozin, Evgeny A.; Bode, Ann M.; Lee, Hyong Joo; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Cocoa was shown to inhibit chemically induced carcinogenesis in animals and exert antioxidant activity in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive potential of cocoa and its active ingredient(s) remain unknown. Here we report that cocoa procyanidins inhibit neoplastic cell transformation by suppressing the kinase activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). A cocoa procyanidin fraction (CPF) and procyanidin B2 at 5 μg/ml and 40 μm, respectively, inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal (JB6 P+) cells by 47 and 93%, respectively. The TPA-induced promoter activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which is involved in tumor promotion and inflammation, were dose-dependently inhibited by CPF or procyanidin B2. The activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-κB induced by TPA was also attenuated by CPF or procyanidin B2. The TPA-induced phosphorylation of MEK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p90 ribosomal s6 kinase was suppressed by CPF or procyanidin B2. In vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data demonstrated that CPF or procyanidin B2 inhibited the kinase activity of MEK1 and directly bound with MEK1. CPF or procyanidin B2 suppressed JB6 P+ cell transformation induced by epidermal growth factor or H-Ras, both of which are known to be involved in MEK/ERK signal activation. In contrast, theobromine (up to 80 μm) had no effect on TPA-induced transformation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the transactivation of activator protein-1 or nuclear factor-κB, or MEK. Notably, procyanidin B2 exerted stronger inhibitory effects compared with PD098059 (a well known pharmacological inhibitor of MEK) on MEK1 activity and neoplastic cell transformation. PMID:18519570

  14. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  15. Age and Spatial Peculiarities of Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue in Kazakhstan, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Bilyalova, Zarina; Akpolatova, Gulnur; Mamyrbayeva, Marzya; Zhumagaliyeva, Galina

    2017-11-01

    Arrangement of effective management aimed at improving dermatological services and consistent care of patients with skin diseases depends on understanding the epidemiological situation. This retrospective study presents an epidemiological assessment of non-neoplastic skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases in Kazakhstan registered in 2003-2015. The yearly incidence rate of the diseases among the whole population was in average 3,341.8±121.1 per 100000 population. This represents 4835.0±156.1 for children, 5503.2±141.8 for adolescents and 2646.6±106.7 for adults per 100000 inhabitants. Space and time incidence rate was evaluated according to the administrative division. The overall trend decreased to 3.5% in children to 2.8% in adolescents to 1.9%, and in adults to 3.9%. Considerable variation in rates was seen across the country, with highest rates in East Kazakhstan, Mangystau and Aktobe regions, the lowest - in Atyrau and South-Kazakhstan regions. Non-neoplastic diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue continue to be an urgent public health problem, especially among children in many regions of Kazakhstan.

  16. Imaging of demyelinating and neoplastic diseases of the spinal cord; Bildgebung bei demyelinisierenden und tumoroesen Erkrankungen des Rueckenmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, C. [Institut fuer CT und MRT Gaenserndorf, Gaenserndorf (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    The clinical symptoms of myelopathy are variable and non-specific. Demyelinating as well as neoplastic spinal cord diseases can cause paresthesia, progressive sensomotoric deficits and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Imaging of the spine, especially with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is an essential component in the diagnostic assessment of myelopathy and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the correct diagnosis. Although intramedullary neoplasms are far less common than demyelinating spinal cord diseases, radiologists should be familiar with the three most common entities, astrocytoma, ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, which represent over 70% of all spinal cord neoplasms. An early diagnosis and therapy is essential with neoplastic and demyelinating spinal cord diseases to hold residual neurological deficits as low as possible. (orig.) [German] Die klinische Symptomatik von Myelopathien ist aeusserst variabel und unspezifisch. Sowohl demyelinisierende als auch tumoroese Rueckenmarkerkrankungen koennen Paraesthesien, progrediente sensomotorische Ausfaelle und eine Sphinkterdysfunktion hervorrufen. Bildgebende Untersuchungen, und hier allen voran die MRT, sind ein unerlaesslicher Bestandteil zur Abklaerung von Myelopathien und tragen wesentlich zur korrekten Diagnose bei. Intramedullaere Tumoren sind zwar weitaus seltener als demyelinisierende Rueckenmarkerkrankungen, dennoch sollte der Radiologe mit den Bildmerkmalen der 3 haeufigsten Tumorarten, dem Astrozytom, Ependymom und Haemangioblastom vertraut sein, die ueber 70% aller Rueckenmarktumoren verursachen. Eine moeglichst fruehe Diagnostik und Therapie sind bei tumoroesen und demyelinisierenden Rueckenmarkerkrankungen essenziell, um bleibende neurologische Defizite moeglichst gering zu halten. (orig.)

  17. Neoplastic pleural effusion and intrathoracic metastasis of a scapular osteosarcoma in a dog: a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Luis; Mortier, Jeremy; Ressel, Lorenzo; Finotello, Riccardo; Silvestrini, Paolo; Piviani, Martina

    2017-06-01

    A 10-year-old, female spayed mixed-breed or cross-bred dog was referred to the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the University of Liverpool due to tachypnea, dyspnea, and pleural effusion not responding to diuretics and antibiotics. The chest was drained and cytology of the pleural fluid was consistent with a modified transudate with presence of atypical cells initially attributed to mesothelial hyperplasia and dysplasia. Computed tomography detected, in addition to the bilateral pleural effusion, diffuse pleural thickening, multiple pleural and pulmonary nodules, and a mineralized and lytic mass in the left scapula. Imaging findings were suggestive of a primary bone tumor with intrathoracic metastasis. Cytology of the left scapular and pleural masses revealed a malignant neoplasm highly suggestive of osteosarcoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of a positive cytochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase on prestained cytology slides. This finding prompted review of the initial interpretation of the pleural effusion cytology. The presence of neoplastic osteoblasts in the thoracic fluid was identified by a combination of cytochemistry, cell pellet immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy findings. In this report, a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach was used to diagnose and confirm a neoplastic pleural effusion due to osteosarcoma metastasis in a dog. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  19. ECG denoising with adaptive bionic wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new ECG denoising scheme is proposed using a novel adaptive wavelet transform, named bionic wavelet transform (BWT), which had been first developed based on a model of the active auditory system. There has been some outstanding features with the BWT such as nonlinearity, high sensitivity and frequency selectivity, concentrated energy distribution and its ability to reconstruct signal via inverse transform but the most distinguishing characteristic of BWT is that its resolution in the time-frequency domain can be adaptively adjusted not only by the signal frequency but also by the signal instantaneous amplitude and its first-order differential. Besides by optimizing the BWT parameters parallel to modifying a new threshold value, one can handle ECG denoising with results comparing to those of wavelet transform (WT). Preliminary tests of BWT application to ECG denoising were constructed on the signals of MIT-BIH database which showed high performance of noise reduction.

  20. Discrimination Between Inrush and Short Circuit Currents in Differential Protection of Power Transformer Based on Correlation Method Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rasoulpoor; M. Banejad; A. Ahmadyfard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for transformer differential protection to prevent incorrect operation due to inrush current. The proposed method in this paper is based on time-frequency transform known as the Wavelet transform. The discrete Wavelet transform is used for analysis the differential current signals in time and frequency domains. The investigation on the energy distribution of the signal on the discrete Wavelet transform components shows the difference distribution between ...

  1. First case of transformation for breast fibroadenoma to high-grade malignant phyllodes tumor in an in vitro fertilization patient: misdiagnosis of recurrence, treatment and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, A; Selman, H; Gentile, V; Pacchiarotti, A; Milazzo, G N; Lanzilotti, G; Lofino, S; Frati, P

    2013-09-01

    Cystosarcoma phyllodes are very rare tumors and may be difficult to diagnose clinically. Fibroadenomas have long been considered benign hyperplastic lesions rather than true neoplastic processes. However, previous clonality studies have shown differing results. to assess diagnostic and treatment options for phyllodes tumor. A 41-year-old female patient undergoing assisted fertilization treatment. The patient underwent fine needle aspiration biopsy that confirmed fibroadenoma before the IVF attempt. At 17 weeks of gestation, due to an increase in volume of the fibroadenoma, an excisional biopsy was performer that showed a malignant phyllodes tumor. Then she underwent quadrantectomy and chemiotherapy After 1 year there was a recurrence of phyllodes tumors and she underwent mastectomy and chemotherapy. Fibroadenoma that was transformed into high-grade malignant cystosarcoma after ovarian stimulation, relapsed after one year and it was not immediately diagnosed. The patient underwent mastectomy and chemotherapy. it is difficult to diagnose recurrence and to determine tele frequency and the right treatment for such a rare cancer, so it is important to report any case in the literature. We recommend to remove a fibroadenoma before attempting IVF for the risk of malignant transformation.

  2. Automatic traveltime picking using local time-frequency maps

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey B.

    2011-01-01

    The arrival times of distinct and sufficiently concentrated signals can be computed using Fourier transforms. In real seis- mograms, however, signals are far from distinct. We use local time-frequency maps of the seismograms and its frequency

  3. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  4. Isolation and characterization of a neoplastic epithelial cell line derived from irradiated human submaxillary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Sato, Mitsunobu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Yanagawa, Tetuo; Kubo, Kazuko

    1979-01-01

    Submaxillary tissues taken from a patient whose oral base was irradiated for squamous cell carcinoma were cultured in order to isolate transformed epithelial cells in vitro. The cells showed a fine structure similar to an intermediate duct cell. When they were transplanted in nude mice, salivary tumors developed. It is epidemiologically known that irradiation induces salivary tumors. In this study, the risk of inducement was revealed and a salivary epithelial cell line was used as a model for the analysis of salivary tumors. (Ichikawa, K.)

  5. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to detect neoplastic meningitis: Limited use in leukemia and lymphoma but convincing results in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, Sandra; Fischer, Ann-Cathrin; Brambs, Hans-Jürgen; Fetscher, Sebastian; Höche, Wolfram; Bommer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: An early diagnosis of meningitis is important to improve patients’ survival. Data about a direct comparison of cerebrospinal fluid cytology (CSF-cytology) and MRI are very limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare these two diagnostic modalities in diagnosing meningitis in patients with hematopoietic and solid malignancies. Methods: In 68 patients suspicious for neoplastic meningitis, cytology and MRI (1.5 T) was performed. The meningeal, pial or intraparenchymal hyperintense signal or contrast enhancement was correlated to the final CNS diagnosis and to cytology. Results: 44 patients (64.7%) had neoplastic meningitis, 21 patients (30.9%) had non-neoplastic meningitis. The sensitivity to diagnose meningeal disease was 49.2% for MRI and 95.4% for cytology (p < 0.001). In patients with neoplastic meningitis, sensitivity was 45.5% for MRI and 93.2% for cytology (p < 0.001). In patients with infectious meningitis, sensitivity was 57.1% for MRI and 100% for cytology (p = 0.0013). In patients with solid tumors, the sensitivity was 84.6% for both diagnostic methods. The sensitivity for MRI was low in patients with leukemia (20.0%) and lymphoma (37.5%). The positive predictive value (PPV) for MRI to differentiate infectious from neoplastic meningitis was high in patients with infectious meningitis (75.0%), in patients with lymphoma (83.3%), and in patients with solid tumors (72.7%). Ppv was low in patients with leukemia (33.3%). Conclusion: Diagnostic value of MRI for diagnosing meningitis is especially limited in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. MRI better detected leptomeningeal involvement caused by solid tumors than by leukemia or lymphoma. The ppv to specify neoplastic meningitis depends on tumor subtype.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal high-resolution US for staging gallbladder cancer and differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps compared with EUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yong Jae; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) for staging gallbladder cancer and differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps compared with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and pathology. Among 125 patients who underwent both HRUS and EUS, we included 29 pathologically proven cancers (T1 = 7, T2 = 19, T3 = 3) including 15 polypoid cancers and 50 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 30, non-neoplastic = 20). We reviewed formal reports and assessed the accuracy of HRUS and EUS for diagnosing cancer as well as the differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square tests. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for gallbladder cancer were 82.7 %, 44.4 %, 82.7 %, and 44 % using HRUS and 86.2 %, 22.2 %, 78.1 %, and 33.3 % using EUS. HRUS and EUS correctly diagnosed the stage in 13 and 12 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for neoplastic polyps were 80 %, 80 %, 86 %, and 73 % using HRUS and 73 %, 85 %, 88 %, and 69 % using EUS. Single polyps (8/20 vs. 21/30), larger (1.0 ± 0.28 cm vs. 1.9 ± 0.85 cm) polyps, and older age (52.5 ± 13.2 vs. 66.1 ± 10.3 years) were common in neoplastic polyps (p diagnostic accuracy for GB cancer compared with EUS. • HRUS and EUS showed similar diagnostic accuracy for differentiating neoplastic polyps. • Single, larger polyps and older age were common in neoplastic polyps. • HRUS is less invasive compared with EUS.

  7. Recent Developments of the Local Effect Model (LEM) - Implications of clustered damage on cell transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Thilo

    Exposure to radiation of high-energy and highly charged ions (HZE) causes a major risk to human beings, since in long term space explorations about 10 protons per month and about one HZE particle per month hit each cell nucleus (1). Despite the larger number of light ions, the high ionisation power of HZE particles and its corresponding more complex damage represents a major hazard for astronauts. Therefore, in order to get a reasonable risk estimate, it is necessary to take into account the entire mixed radiation field. Frequently, neoplastic cell transformation serves as an indicator for the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure. It can be measured for a small number of ion and energy combinations. However, due to the complexity of the radiation field it is necessary to know the contribution to the radiation damage of each ion species for the entire range of energies. Therefore, a model is required which transfers the few experimental data to other particles with different LETs. We use the Local Effect Model (LEM) (2) with its cluster extension (3) to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neoplastic transformation. It was originally developed in the framework of hadrontherapy and is applicable for a large range of ions and energies. The input parameters for the model include the linear-quadratic parameters for the induction of lethal events as well as for the induction of transformation events per surviving cell. Both processes of cell inactivation and neoplastic transformation per viable cell are combined to eventually yield the RBE for cell transformation. We show that the Local Effect Model is capable of predicting the RBE of neoplastic cell transformation for a broad range of ions and energies. The comparison of experimental data (4) with model calculations shows a reasonable agreement. We find that the cluster extension results in a better representation of the measured RBE values. With this model it should be possible to better

  8. The analysis of health condition and the assessment of the risk of neoplastic diseases among residents of villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neoplastic diseases have been classified as civilization diseases and are a big problem for modern medicine. According to the data from the International Agency for Research of Cancer, about 10 million people suffer from cancer and a number of deaths due to this disease has exceeded 6 million; until 2020 those numbers may double. In Poland, cancer survivors of five years concern 22% of men and 35% of women suffering from tumours, while in northern and western Europe there is a cure rate of 40% for men and 50% for women. The main reason for the adverse situation in Poland is a low percentage of early diagnosis of cancer. On the one hand this results from insufficient preparation of both family doctors and physicians of other specialties, but on the other, from insufficient dissemination of early diagnosis methods. Objective: The objective of the study is to analyze the health condition and to assess the risk of a neoplastic disease among residents of villages. Material and methods: The research involved 1000 residents of villages in Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The age of the researched ranges from 18 to 30 years, with mean age 26.96±0.84 (range [18;30], median 25.95%CI [18,9;29,01]. The researched group is represented in 43,8% by women in 56,2% by men. In order to obtain the research material, a standardized questionnaire has been applied including interview and physical examination, enabling assessment of symptoms reported during the interview and analysis of symptoms indicating a disease, including cancer. Results: According to the data analysis, during last few months the respondents have suffered from such ailments as cough (8.22% W, 7.12% M, dyspnea (3.2% W, 1.78% M, abdominal pain (13.7% W, 4.27% M, pain (5.48% W, 2.14% M and weakness (14.61% W, 4.98% M. During observations, one female respondent was diagnosed with symptoms of melanoma (0.46%, which has been confirmed in later dermatological test. Conclusions: No changes in

  9. Power Quality Problems Due to Transformer Inrush Current

    OpenAIRE

    Tokić, A.; Uglešić, I.

    2017-01-01

    Transformer energization can produce a large nonsinuoidal inrush current which contains both odd and higher order harmonic components that can put transformer winding under mechanical stress. Additionally, they can cause irregular tripping of harmonic protection relays. Furthermore, in relatively weak power systems, such as is the Bosnian system, the superposition of harmonic components with system resonance frequencies may produce temporary overvoltages (TOV). Transformer wind...

  10. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  11. Rapid testing of pulse transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Quality-control testing of pulse transformers is speeded up by method for determining rise time and droop. Instead of using oscilloscope and square-wave generator to measure these characteristics directly, method uses voltmeter and sine-wave generator to measure them indirectly in about one-tenth time. Droop and rise time are determined by measuring input/output voltage ratio at just four frequencies.

  12. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  13. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  14. Aging is associated with an expansion of CD49fhi mammary stem cells that show a decline in function and increased transformation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Zhang, Fuchuang; Gu, Xiang; Wu, Anqi; Wang, Danhan; Chen, Yuanhong; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Yeh, I-Tien; Daniel, Benjamin J; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Rebel, Vivienne L; Walter, Christi A; Lu, Jianxin; Huang, Changjiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-11-15

    Breast cancer incidence increases during aging, yet the mechanism of age-associated mammary tumorigenesis is unclear. Mammary stem cells are believed to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, but how their function changes with age is unknown. We compared mammary epithelial cells isolated from young and old mammary glands of different cohorts of C57BL6/J and BALB/c mice, and our findings revealed that old mammary glands were characterized by increased basal cell pool comprised of mostly CD49f hi cells, altered luminal-to-basal cell ratio, and irregular ductal morphology. More interestingly, basal stem cells in old mice were increased in frequency, but showed a functional decline of differentiation and increased neoplastic transformation potential. Gene signature enrichment analysis revealed a significant enrichment of a luminal cell gene expression signature in the basal stem cell-enriched population from old mice, suggesting some luminal cells were expressing basal markers. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the presence of luminal cells with high CD49f expression in hyperplastic lesions implicating these cells as undergoing luminal to basal phenotypic changes during aging. Whole transcriptome analysis showed elevated immune and inflammatory responses in old basal stem cells and stromal cells, which may be the underlying cause for increased CD49f hi basal-like cells in aged glands.

  15. Computed tomography in neoplastic diseases of the skull base and adjacent areas using EMI scanner CT-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshimi; Ohtake, Eiji; Asakura, Koichi; Tanohata, Kazunori; Ito, Otomasa

    1980-01-01

    CT-findings of 145 patients with and without neoplastic diseases of the skull base were evaluated using EMI CT-1000. Analysis of 64 patients without any lesion at the skull base showed more artifacts compared with that of higher slices, so that good or fair images were obtained only in 64% of this groups of patients. The most important factor in producing artifacts are considered to be caused by patient's movement. We also evaluated the tumor extension to the skull base in 81 patients. They were 24 brain tumors, 21 pituitary adenomas, and 36 nasopharyngeal and paranasal cancers. Four out of 24 brain tumors showed extracranial extension, 12 pituitary adenomas infiltrating outside of the sella turcica, and 10 cases of nasopharyngeal cancers showed intracranial extension. It was concluded that CT presented an excellent information in evaluating the degree of extension of neoplasms which invading to the skull base. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional lithographically-defined organotypic tissue arrays for quantitative analysis of morphogenesis and neoplastic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.

  17. Applications of Fourier transforms to generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M

    2011-01-01

    This book explains how Fourier transforms can be applied to generalized functions. The generalized function is one of the important branches of mathematics and is applicable in many practical fields. Its applications to the theory of distribution and signal processing are especially important. The Fourier transform is a mathematical procedure that can be thought of as transforming a function from its time domain to the frequency domain.The book contains six chapters and three appendices. Chapter 1 deals with preliminary remarks on Fourier series from a general point of view and also contains an introduction to the first generalized function. Chapter 2 is concerned with the generalized functions and their Fourier transforms. Chapter 3 contains the Fourier transforms of particular generalized functions. The author has stated and proved 18 formulas dealing with the Fourier transforms of generalized functions, and demonstrated some important problems of practical interest. Chapter 4 deals with the asymptotic esti...

  18. Linked color imaging reduces the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon: a randomized tandem colonoscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Silvia; Mogavero, Giuseppe; Amato, Arnaldo; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Imperiali, Gianni; Lenoci, Nicoletta; Mandelli, Giovanna; Terreni, Natalia; Conforti, Francesco Simone; Conte, Dario; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2018-04-01

     Linked color imaging (LCI) is a newly developed image-enhancing endoscopy technology that provides bright endoscopic images and increases color contrast. We investigated whether LCI improves the detection of neoplastic lesions in the right colon when compared with high definition white-light imaging (WLI).  Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomized (1:1) after cecal intubation into right colon inspection at first pass by LCI or by WLI. At the hepatic flexure, the scope was reintroduced to the cecum under LCI and a second right colon inspection was performed under WLI in previously LCI-scoped patients (LCI-WLI group) and vice versa (WLI-LCI group). Lesions detected on first- and second-pass examinations were used to calculate detection and miss rates, respectively. The primary outcome was the right colon adenoma miss rate.  Of the 600 patients enrolled, 142 had at least one adenoma in the right colon, with similar right colon adenoma detection rates (r-ADR) in the two groups (22.7 % in LCI-WLI and 24.7 % in WLI-LCI). At per-polyp analysis, double inspection of the right colon in the LCI-WLI and WLI-LCI groups resulted in an 11.8 % and 30.6 % adenoma miss rate, respectively ( P  one adenoma was identified in the second pass only (incremental ADR) in 2 of 300 patients (0.7 %) in the LCI - WLI group and in 13 of 300 patients (4.3 %) in the WLI - LCI group ( P  = 0.01).  LCI could reduce the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  20. High-frequency magnetic components

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    A unique text on the theory and design fundaments of inductors and transformers, updated with more coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices and many new design examples The first edition is popular among a very broad audience of readers in different areas of engineering and science. This book covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of high-frequency power inductors and transformers for a variety of applications, including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant dc-to-ac power inverters and dc-to-dc power converters. It describes eddy-current phenomena (su

  1. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  2. Late biological effects of ionizing radiation as influenced by dose, dose rate, age at exposure, and genetic sensitivity to neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Prine, J.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A most comprehensive investigation is in progress at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to study the late biological effects of whole-body exposure to gamma irradiation as they may be influenced by total dose, dose rate, age at exposure, and genetic background. Strain C57B1/6J mice of four age groups (newborn, 2, 6, and 15 months) were given five doses (20, 60, 180, 540, and 1620 rad) of gamma rays, with each dose being delivered at six dose rates (0.7, 2.1, 6.3, 18.9, 56.7 rad/day and 25 rad/min). Forty to sixty mice were used in each of the approximately 110 dose/dose-rate and age combinations. The study was done in two replications with an equal number of mice per replication. Strain RF/J mice were used in a companion study to investigate the influence of genetic background on the type and magnitude of effect. Results of the first and second replications of the 15-month-old age group and data on the influence of genetic background on biological response have been completed, and the results show no significant life shortening within the dose and dose-rate range used

  3. The chromatin remodeling BAP complex limits tumor-promoting activity of the Hippo pathway effector Yki to prevent neoplastic transformation in Drosophila epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Shilin; Herranz, Héctor; Cohen, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes are mutated in many human cancers. In this article, we make use of a Drosophila genetic model for epithelial tumor formation to explore the tumor suppressive role of SWI/SNF complex proteins. Members of the BAP complex exhibit...

  4. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  5. Neoplastic progression of the human breast cancer cell line G3S1 is associated with elevation of cytoskeletal dynamics and upregulation of MT1-MMP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tolde, O.; Rosel, D.; Mierke, C.T.; Paňková, D.; Folk, P.; Veselý, Pavel; Brabek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2010), s. 833-839 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : invasiveness * neoplastic progression * cytoskeletal dynamics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2010

  6. Steroid hormones as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are present in normal epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine and there have also been contentious reports of androgen, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the epithelium of the normal large intestine. The majority of reports suggest that stimulation of the intestinal glucocorticoid receptors results in increased proliferation of epithelial cells in the small bowel, as does stimulation of androgen receptors and possibly mineralocorticoid receptors. The proliferative response of the normal intestine to oestrogens is difficult to evaluate and that to progestigens appears not to have been reported. Epidemiological studies reveal a higher incidence of bowel cancer in premenopausal women than in men of the same age and yet there is a lower incidence of these tumors in women of higher parity. These findings have been atributted to a variety of non-epithelial gender characteristic such as differences in bile metabolism, colonic bacterial and fecal transit times. In experimental animals, androgens have also been shown to influence carcinogenesis and this could well be attributed to changes in food intake etc. However, many studies have now revealed steroid hormone receptors on colorectal tumor cells and thus a direct effect of the steroid hormones on the epithelium during and after malignant transformation must now be considered.

  7. The Roles of Telomerase in the Generation of Polyploidy during Neoplastic Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Christodoulidou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy contributes to extensive intratumor genomic heterogeneity that characterizes advanced malignancies and is thought to limit the efficiency of current cancer therapies. It has been shown that telomere deprotection in p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts leads to high rates of polyploidization. We now show that tumor genome evolution through whole-genome duplication occurs in ∼15% of the karyotyped human neoplasms and correlates with disease progression. In a panel of human cancer and transformed cell lines representing the two known types of genomic instability (chromosomal and microsatellite, as well as the two known pathways of telomere maintenance in cancer (telomerase activity and alternative lengthening of telomeres, telomere dysfunction-driven polyploidization occurred independently of the mutational status of p53. Depending on the preexisting context of telomere maintenance, telomerase activity and its major components, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC, exert both reverse transcriptase-related (canonical and noncanonical functions to affect tumor genome evolution through suppression or induction of polyploidization. These new findings provide a more complete mechanistic understanding of cancer progression that may, in the future, lead to novel therapeutic interventions.

  8. Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions For Processing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D.

    1995-01-01

    SUBTRANS software is package of routines implementing image-data-processing functions for use with MATLAB*(TM) software. Provides capability to transform image data with block transforms and to produce spatial-frequency subbands of transformed data. Functions cascaded to provide further decomposition into more subbands. Also used in image-data-compression systems. For example, transforms used to prepare data for lossy compression. Written for use in MATLAB mathematical-analysis environment.

  9. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  10. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

    1991-04-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  11. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  12. Applications of a fast, continuous wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.

    1997-02-01

    A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, based on Shannon`s sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon`s sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as a continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time- domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Computational cost and nonorthogonality aside, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets has advantages. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants` heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2-D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signal. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass-spring system (e.g., a vehicle) by an occupants beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, features such as the glottal closing rate and word and phrase segmentation may be extracted from voice data.

  13. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  14. 4-Hydroxyestradiol induces mammary epithelial cell transformation through Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Aye; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen (17?-estradiol, E2) undergoes oxidative metabolism by CYP1B1 to form 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a putative carcinogenic metabolite of estrogen. Our previous study showed that 4-OHE2-induced production of reactive oxygen species contributed to neoplastic transformation of human breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. In this study, 4-OHE2, but not E2, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a sensor and regulator of oxidative stress, in MCF-10A cells. Silencing the HO-1 gene...

  15. Specification of fast neutron radiation quality from cell transformation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental data on the neoplastic transformation of C3H 10T1/2 cells measured at Casaccia after neutron and X-ray irradiation were used to determine neutron RBE values for the RSV-Tapiro fast reactor energy spectrum and for monoenergetic neutrons of 0.5, 1, and 6 MeV. In parallel, micro-dosimetric measurements provided the actual lineal energy distributions and related mean parameters for the reactor radiation. From these experiments, values of the neutron quality factor were derived for the reactor neutron energy spectrum and, in turn, for the other neutron energies tested. A mathematical expression giving a smooth dependence on neutron energy was also determined for the effective quality factor in the entire energy range examined. The results were compared with other proposals

  16. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, S H; McCabe, R P; Evans, C H

    1981-12-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo[a]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit antisera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other culture cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens.

  17. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanian, S.H.; McCabe, R.P.; Evans, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo[a]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit anitsera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other cultured cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens

  18. Biomarkers for screening of lung cancer and pre-neoplastic lesions in a high risk Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Adonis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mortality of lung cancer (LC, increases each year in the world, in spite of any advances, in development of new drugs to advance stages of LC. The high incidence of LC has been associated with smoking habit, genetic diversity and environmental pollution. Antofagasta region has been reported to have the highest LC mortality rate in Chile and its inhabitants were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water in concentrations as high as 870 μg/L. Non-invasive techniques such as biomarkers (Automatic Quantitative Cytometry: AQC and DR70 and Auto Fluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB might be potentially useful as a supplementary diagnostic approach and early detection. Early detection is one of the most important factors to intervene and prevent cancer progression in LC. This is a work of an ongoing prospective bimodality cancer surveillance study in high risk LC volunteers. Enrolment was done in subjects from Antofagasta and Metropolitan regions. In addition, we enrolled subjects who were suspected of having lung cancer. AQC, DR70 and AFB were used as tools in the detection of pre-neoplastic (PNL and neoplastic lesions (NL. RESULTS: Half of the samples, classified as suspicious by AFB, were confirmed as metaplasia or dysplasia by histopathology. For LC, DR70 showed a higher sensitivity (95.8% and specificity (91.9% than AQC. However, for PNL AQC showed a higher sensitivity (91.9% than DR70 (27.3%, although both with low PPV values. As a pre screener, both biomarkers might be employed as complementary tools to detect LC, especially as serially combined tests, with a sensitivity of 60% and a PPV of 65.2%. Additionally, the use of parallel combined tests might support the detection of PNL (sensitivity 91.2%; PPV 49.1%. CONCLUSION: This work adds information on cellular and molecular biomarkers to complement imaging techniques for early detection of LC in Latin America that might contribute to formulate policies concerning screening of LC

  19. An in vitro model demonstrates the potential of neoplastic human germ cells to influence the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Schuppe, H-C; Bergmann, M; Hedger, M P; Loveland, B E; Loveland, K L

    2017-07-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT. Three different co-culture approaches were employed: direct contact during culture to simulate in situ cellular interactions occurring within seminomas (n = 9); indirect contact using well inserts to mimic GCNIS, in which a basement membrane separates the neoplastic germ cells and immune cells (n = 3); and PBMC stimulation prior to direct contact during culture to overcome the potential lack of immune cell activation (n = 3). Transcript levels for key cytokines in PBMC and TCam-2 cell fractions were determined using RT-qPCR. TCam-2 cell fractions showed an immediate increase (within 24 h) in several cytokine mRNAs after direct contact with PBMC, whereas immune cell fractions did not. The high levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) mRNA and protein associated with TCam-2 cells implicate this cytokine as important to seminoma physiology. Use of PBMCs from different donors revealed a robust, repeatable pattern of changes in TCam-2 and PBMC cytokine mRNAs, independent of potential inter-donor variation in immune cell responsiveness. This in vitro model recapitulated previous data from clinical TGCT biopsies, revealing similar cytokine expression profiles and indicating its suitability for exploring the in vivo circumstances of TGCT. Despite the limitations of using a cell line to mimic in vivo events, these results indicate how neoplastic germ cells can directly shape the surrounding tumour microenvironment, including by influencing local immune responses. IL6

  20. Neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to an extracellular matrix gene expression profile defining a breast cancer subtype likely to progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Triulzi

    Full Text Available We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4 with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, whereas TGFβ induced upregulation of the genes leading to ECM3 gene classification, especially in ER-negative breast carcinoma cells and in fibroblasts. Multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free survival in untreated breast tumor patients revealed a significant interaction between ECM3 and histological grade (p = 0.001. Cox models, estimated separately in grade I-II and grade III tumors, indicated a highly significant association between ECM3 and worse survival probability only in grade III tumors (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0098. Gene Set Enrichment analysis of ECM3 compared to non-ECM3 tumors revealed significant enrichment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes in both grade I-II and grade III subsets of ECM3 tumors. Thus, ECM3 is a robust cluster that identifies breast carcinomas with EMT features but with accelerated metastatic potential only in the undifferentiated (grade III phenotype. These findings support the