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Sample records for neonatal pigs received

  1. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administ...

  2. Neonatal mortality of pigs in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria | Abonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the causes of neonatal mortality among pig farms in Nsukka Local Government area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Forty (40) pig farms in the study area were randomly selected and used for the 20 weeks study duration. One week post partum was considered as the neonatal period. A total ...

  3. SERUM SODIUM CHANGES IN NEONATES RECEIVING PHOTOTHERAPY FOR NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Neonates receiving phototherapy have side effects like hypocalcemia and electrolyte changes. Our study is hereby intended to study the serum sodium changes due to phototherapy. AIMS : To evaluate the serum sodium changes in neonates receiving phototherapy f or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A prospective hospital based comparative study conducted on neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit receiving phototherapy. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A predesigned proforma has aided the enroll ment of 252 newborns into the study. Serum bilirubin and serum sodium were determined before and after termination of phototherapy. The first samples were considered as controls. A comparative study was made between before and after phototherapy groups to determine the incidence of serum sodium imbalances. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Proportions will be compared using chi - square test. All data of various groups will be tabulated and statistically analyzed using suitable statistical tests (Student's t test. RESULTS : Male to Female ratio was 1.45 : 1. Incidence of low birth weight babies was 23% and preterm was 20.2%. Mean birth weight and gestational age was 2.84±0.51 kg and 38.44±1.98 wks respectively. Mean duration of phototherapy was 37.65±11.06 hrs. The incidence of hyponatremia post phototherapy found to be 6% which was more in low birth weight (LBW babies (17.2% , p48 hrs (p<0.001. Even the decline in mean serum sodium values after phototherapy found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Our study shows that neonates u nder phototherapy are at higher risk of hyponatremia. This risk is greater in premature and LBW babies and hence this group of babies should be closely monitored for changes in serum sodium and should be managed accordingly.

  4. Intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal pigs compared to rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in the newborn pig and to compare data from the pig, rat and guinea pig, three species that differ greatly in their ability to absorb macromolecules at birth. Newborn pigs were administered a single oral dose of 50 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd 24 hours after birth and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after dosing. Cd absorption and gastrointestinal retention were then determined; these data were compared with similar data from the rat and guinea pig. Cd absorption in the neonate appears to be a two-step process; mucosal uptake of Cd from the lumen, probably by pinocytosis, followed by transfer of a portion of this Cd into the body. This transfer process is similar, but does not entirely coincide with changes associated with protein absorption in the neonate

  5. Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

  6. The measurement of milk intake in the neonatal guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, L.T.; Roberts, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Study of the effects of enteral nutrition on neonatal growth and development has been hindered by lack of a suitable model. An isotope dilution method for the measurement of milk intake in suckling rodents was evaluated in 13 hand-fed neonatal guinea pigs, by comparing milk intakes determined using 3H20 with intakes determined by difference in weight before and after feeding. The effects of two experimental durations (1 or 2-3 days) on the accuracy and precision of the method was assessed. Weighted milk intakes were 18 -26 g/day, and body weight changes were -7% - +12% of initial weight. There was no significant difference between milk intakes determined using the two methods for both 1 and 2-3 day comparisons. However, the coefficients of variation for 1 and 2-3 day measurements were 24.4% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are equivalent to precisions of approximately 10% and 2% for estimates of total milk output in a rodent suckling 8 pups. It is concluded that the 3H20 method is no less accurate or precise than the weighing method for 2-3 day measurements of milk intake in individual pups and milk production of dams. These findings strengthen the use of the precocial guinea pig as a model for the study of the effects of early feeding on growth, development and aging

  7. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced...... the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics...

  8. The impact of maternally derived immunity on influenza A virus transmission in neonatal pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerson, Matt; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan E; Gramer, Marie R; Joo, Han Soo; Romagosa, Anna; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-07

    The commonality of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure and vaccination on swine farms in the United States ensures that the majority of neonatal pigs will have some degree of maternal immunity to IAV. The influence of maternal immunity on IAV transmission in neonatal pig populations will impact virus prevalence and infection dynamics across pig populations. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternally derived immunity on IAV transmission in an experimental setting. Neonatal pigs suckled colostrum and derived maternal (passive) immunity from sows in one of three treatment groups: (a) non-vaccinated control (CTRL) or vaccinated with (b) homologous (PASSV-HOM) or (c) heterologous (PASSV-HET) inactivated experimental IAV vaccines. Sentinel neonatal pigs derived from the groups above were challenged with IAV via direct contact with an experimentally infected pig (seeder pig) and monitored for IAV infection daily via nasal swab sampling. A susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) experimental model was used to obtain and estimate transmission parameters in each treatment group via a generalized linear model. All sentinel pigs in the CTRL (30/30) and PASSV-HET (30/30) groups were infected with IAV following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimates (95% confidence interval) were 10.4 (6.6-15.8) and 7.1 (4.2-11.3), respectively. In contrast, 1/20 sentinel pigs in the PASSV-HOM group was infected following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimate was significantly lower compared to the CTRL and PASSV-HET groups at 0.8 (0.1-3.7). Under the conditions of this study, IAV transmission was reduced in neonatal pigs with homologous maternal immunity compared to seronegative neonatal pigs and pigs with heterologous maternal immunity as defined in this study. This study provides estimates for IAV transmission in pigs with differing types of maternal immunity which may describe the influence of maternal immunity on

  9. Sulfur amino acid deficiency upregulates intestinal methionine cycle activity and suppresses epithelial growth in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently showed that the developing gut is a significant site of methionine transmethylation to homocysteine and transsulfuration to cysteine. We hypothesized that sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency would preferentially reduce mucosal growth and antioxidant function in neonatal pigs. Neonatal pi...

  10. Kinetics of Phytosterol Metabolism in Neonates Receiving Parental Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem-Rao, T. Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M.; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M.; Firary, Mary F.; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M.; Patel, Shailendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Results Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (pPhytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD. PMID:25897540

  11. Kinetics of phytosterol metabolism in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem-Rao, T Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M; Firary, Mary F; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M; Patel, Shailendra B

    2015-08-01

    Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs. 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (P Phytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD.

  12. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  13. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  14. Continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition induces metabolic dysfunction in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Barbara; Puiman, Patrycja Jolanta; Cui, Liwei

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that parenteral nutrition (PN) compared with formula feeding results in hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. The current aim was to test whether the route of feeding (intravenous [IV] vs enteral) rather than other feeding modalities (diet, pattern) had...

  15. Continuous administration of an elemental diet induces insulin resistance in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously showed that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to intermittent enteral feeding of a milk-based formula induces insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in neonatal pigs. We hypothesized that intravenous (IV) feeding rather than the nature of the diet (elemental vs polymeric) or ...

  16. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs during endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsis has been associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, insulin resistance, and a profound suppression of muscle protein synthesis. However, lesser suppression of muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs occurs in response to endotoxin (LPS) whe...

  17. Clonidine for sedation and analgesia for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsik, Olga; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Norman, Elisabeth; Bruschettini, Matteo

    2017-05-10

    Although routine administration of pharmacologic sedation or analgesia during mechanical ventilation in preterm neonates is not recommended, its use in clinical practice remains common. Alpha-2 agonists, mainly clonidine and dexmedetomidine, are used as adjunctive (or alternative) sedative agents alongside opioids and benzodiazepines. Clonidine has not been systematically assessed for use in neonatal sedation during ventilation. To assess whether clonidine administered to term and preterm newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation reduces morbidity and mortality rates. To compare the intervention versus placebo, no treatment, and dexmedetomidine; and to assess the safety of clonidine infusion for potential harms.To perform subgroup analyses according to gestational age; birth weight; administration method (infusion or bolus therapy); dose, duration, and route of clonidine administration; and pharmacologic sedation as a co-intervention. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to January 10, 2017), Embase (1980 to January 10, 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to January 10, 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. We searched for randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and cluster trials comparing clonidine versus placebo, no treatment, or dexmedetomidine administered to term and preterm newborns receiving mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube. For the included trial, two review authors independently extracted data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, all-cause death during initial hospitalization, duration of respiratory support, sedation

  18. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly...... described metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and also glucagon-like peptides-1 and -2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We tested the effects of restoring bile acids by treating a neonatal piglet PNALD model with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Neonatal pigs received enteral feeding (EN), TPN, or TPN...... + CDCA for 14 days, and responses were assessed by serum markers, histology, and levels of key regulatory peptides. Cholestasis and steatosis were demonstrated in the TPN group relative to EN controls by elevated levels of serum total and direct bilirubin and also bile acids and liver triglyceride (TG...

  19. Evaluation of neonatal squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.; Krebs, J.S.; Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant squirrel monkeys received tritiated water (HTO) in the drinking water throughout gestation at levels ranging from 16 to 1000 times the permissible level for human consumption (0.003 μCi/ml), resulting in mean body water HTO levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.1 μCi/ml. There were no discernible effects of HTO administration on the newborn progeny in terms of body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights (brain, heart, adrenal, kidney, liver, spleen), hematologic patterns, and histology of selected organs and tissues (adrenal, kidney, liver, lung, brain, pancreas, jejunum, pituitary, spleen, testes, thymus, skin) other than ovaries. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly with increasing levels of HTO in maternal drinking water. Quantitative analysis of neonate ovaries, testes, brain tissue, and retinal tissue is in progress. No effects of HTO administration on maternal body weight, gestation time, or maintenance of pregnancy to full term were observed. Body weights of HTO-treated inseminated females that did not deliver were less than control weights, but the lack of dose dependence implies that this effect may have been associated with a stimulus characteristic of the HTO administration rather than with irradiation

  20. Evaluation of neonate squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of receiving tritiated water (HTO) throughout gestation on the developing primate was assessed by administering HTO to adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as the only source of drinking water beginning with the day of insemination and continuing throughout pregnancy. For the control (tap water) and six experimental groups, the mean urinary tritium concentrations in females delivering full-term progeny were <0.004, 0.05, 0.16, 0.33, 0.75, 1.61, and 3.09 microcuries/ml. Positive bioassays for pregnancy were observed in about half of 277 inseminated females. Among pregnant females, the full-term delivery rate was 36%, the abortion rate was 7%, and the resorption rate was 58% with no discernible effect of HTO administration on any of these parameters. The 46 full-term progeny were evaluated within 2 days of birth. No effects of HTO administration were observed in terms of gestation period (median 153 days, range 141-158 days), sex distribution, body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights, histology (except gonads), or hematologic pattern. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly within increasing concentrations of tritium. Specific quantification of this effect and evaluation of the neonate testes is in progress

  1. Early microvascular changes in the preterm neonate: a comparative study of the human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Lakkundi, Anil; de Waal, Koert; Latter, Joanna L; Clifton, Vicki L; Wright, Ian M R

    2014-09-17

    Dysfunction of the transition from fetal to neonatal circulatory systems may be a major contributor to poor outcome following preterm birth. Evidence exists in the human for both a period of low flow between 5 and 11 h and a later period of increased flow, suggesting a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle over the first 24 h following birth. Little is known about the regulation of peripheral blood flow during this time. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative study between the human and guinea pig to characterize peripheral microvascular behavior during circulatory transition. Very preterm (≤28 weeks GA), preterm (29-36 weeks GA), and term (≥37 weeks GA) human neonates underwent laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow at 6 and 24 h from birth. Guinea pig neonates were delivered prematurely (62 day GA) or at term (68-71 day GA) and laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow was assessed every 2 h from birth. In human preterm neonates, there is a period of high microvascular flow at 24 h after birth. No period of low flow was observed at 6 h. In preterm animals, microvascular flow increased after birth, reaching a peak at 10 h postnatal age. Blood flow then steadily decreased, returning to delivery levels by 24 h. Preterm birth was associated with higher baseline microvascular flow throughout the study period in both human and guinea pig neonates. The findings do not support a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle in the microcirculation during circulatory transition. The guinea pig model of preterm birth will allow further investigation of the mechanisms underlying microvascular function and dysfunction during the initial extrauterine period. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. [Establishment and validation of a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Fu; Ma, Yue-Lan; Nie, Ling; Chen, Shuan; Jin, Mei-Fang; Wang, San-Lan

    2016-05-01

    To establish a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice. Twelve seven-day-old purebred Yorkshire pigs were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=6 each). Immunization of New Zealand white rabbits was used to prepare rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell antibodies, and rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum was separated. The neonatal pigs in the experimental group were given an intravenous injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (5 mL), and those in the control group were given an intravenous injection of normal saline (5 mL). Venous blood samples were collected every 6 hours for routine blood test and liver function evaluation. The experimental group had a significantly higher serum bilirubin level than the control group at 18 hours after the injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (64±30 μmol/L vs 20±4 μmol/L; Pjaundice simulates the pathological process of human hemolytic jaundice well and provides good biological and material bases for further investigation of neonatal hemolysis.

  3. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  4. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  5. Early Postnatal Diets Affect the Bioregional Small Intestine Microbiome and Ileal Metabolome in Neonatal Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Brian D; Mercer, Kelly E; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K; Saraf, Manish K; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H; Badger, Thomas M; Yeruva, Laxmi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome. Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs. Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis. Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs ( P 60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine microbiome in pigs, with the most pronounced effects occurring in the duodena. Regional effects may be important factors when considering gut tissue metabolism and development in the postnatal period. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Infrared thermography--a non-invasive tool to evaluate thermal status of neonatal pigs based on surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammersgaard, T S; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2013-12-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. Infrared (IR) thermography is a promising non-invasive method to assess thermal status, but has not been evaluated for use on neonatal pigs from birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of IR thermography as a non-invasive tool to estimate body temperature and assess the thermal status in newborn pigs by (1) estimating the relationship between surface temperature and rectal temperature (RT) in neonatal pigs; and (2) estimating the influence of air temperature (AT), birth weight and the time from birth on the relationship between surface temperature and RT. The method was evaluated on the basis of 1695 thermograms and 915 RTs on 91 neonatal pigs born in loose farrowing pens with floor heating at 34°C, and three different ATs (15°C, 20°C and 25°C). Full-body thermograms of the back and the side of the pigs and RT were acquired at 11 sampling times between birth and 48 h after birth. The maximum (IRmax), minimum, average of the full body and ear minimum IR surface temperatures were derived from the thermograms. IRmax had the highest correlation with RT (0.82) and was therefore used in the statistical analysis. The relation of RT by IRmax depended on time at: 0 h (slope: 0.20°C, Pmethod has the potential to be used without the need for manual restraint of the pigs. On the basis of the results of this study, we propose that IRmax temperature from full-body thermograms has implication as a valid tool to assess the thermal status in neonatal piglets but not as an identical substitute for RT.

  7. Effects of flow rate and gas mixture on the welfare of weaned and neonate pigs during gas euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, L J; Hagen, C D; Wang, C; Widowski, T M; Johnson, A K; Millman, S T

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess efficacy and welfare implications of gas euthanasia when applied to weaned and neonate pigs. Parameters associated with welfare, which were measured before loss of consciousness, included open-mouth breathing, ataxia, righting response, and escape attempts. Two age groups (weaned and neonate) were assessed in 9 gas treatments arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design, with 2 gas types (CO2 = 100% CO2 and 50:50 = 50:50 CO2:argon) and 4 flow rates (box volume exchange/min: slow = 20%; medium = 35%; fast = 50%; prefill = prefilled followed by 20%) and a control treatment in which ambient air was passed through the box. Pig pairs (10/treatment) were placed in a modified Euthanex AgPro system (Euthanex Corp., Palmer, PA). Behavioral and physiological responses were observed directly and from video recordings for latency, duration, prevalence (percent of pigs affected), and frequency (number of occurrences/pig). Data were analyzed as linear mixed models or with a Cox proportional hazard model as appropriate. Piglet pair was the experimental unit. For the weaned pig, welfare was superior with CO2 relative to 50:50 within 1 or more flow rates on the basis of reduced duration of open-mouth breathing, duration of ataxia, frequency of escape attempts, and duration and frequency of righting response (P euthanasia. As such, a 50:50 CO2:argon gas mixture and slower flow rates should be avoided when euthanizing weaned or neonate pigs with gas methods. Neonate pigs succumb to the effects of gas euthanasia quicker than weaned pigs and display fewer signs of distress.

  8. Enzymuria in neonates receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Brygge, K; Brendstrup, L

    1992-01-01

    with non-treatment periods in the same newborn infant (33 infants). The same tendency applied to AAP. Newborn infants receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin were not found to be at greater risk of nephrotoxicity than those receiving intermittent gentamicin treatment, using NAG and AAP...

  9. Metabolism of trimethoprim in neonatal and young pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyrd-Hansen, N.; Friis, C.; Nielsen, P.; Rasmussen, F.

    1984-01-01

    Metabolism of trimethoprim (TMP) was in investigated in vivo and in vitro experiments on 1 day (group A), 8 days (group B), and 60 days (group C) old piglets. In the in vivo studies piglets received an intravenous injection of 14 C-trimethoprim. Urine was then collected for 3 hours after which the animals were killed. During the collection period 13, 24 and 40% of the dose was excreted in the urine in group A, B, and C, respectively. Trimethoprim and the following metabolites: Metabolite 1 and 4, minor metabolites, and conjugates were determined in plasma, liver, kidney, urine, and bile. The results show that newborn piglets have little capacity for oxidation of TMP while the ability to conjugate with glucuronic acid and sulfate seems somewhat higher. During the following 8 weeks a marked increase in the oxidative as well as conjugative potential took place. The microsomal fractions of liver and kidney were used for the in vitro metabolism studies of TMP. No metabolic activity could be demonstrated in the kidney preparations. Oxidative demethylation was just detectable in livers from the newborn piglets but increased considerably with age. Glucuronidation of metabolite 4 took place in the liver preparations from all three groups but at the highest rate in group C. The development in metabolic capacity was found to be qualitatively similar in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  10. Insulin modulates energy and substrate sensing and protein catabolism induced by chronic peritonitis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute infection promotes skeletal muscle wasting and insulin resistance, but the effect of insulin on energy and substrate sensing in skeletal muscle of chronically infected neonates has not been studied. Eighteen 2-d-old pigs underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery (CON) to ind...

  11. Infrared thermography - a non-invasive tool to evaluate thermal status of neonatal pigs based on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund Kammersgaard, Trine; Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2013-01-01

    and IRmax was improved (Ppiglets having RT... to be used without the need for manual restraint of the pigs. On the basis of the results of this study, we propose that IRmax temperature from full-body thermograms has implication as a valid tool to assess the thermal status in neonatal piglets but not as an identical substitute for RT....

  12. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  13. Enteral β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Michelle; Columbus, Daniel A.; Suryawan, Agus; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were studied immediately (F) or fed one of five diets for 24 h: low-protein (LP), high-protein (HP), or LP diet supplemented with 4 (HMB4), 40 (HMB40), or 80 (HMB80) μmol HMB·kg body wt−1·day−1. Cell replication was assessed from nuclear incorporation of BrdU in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and jejunum crypt cells. Protein synthesis rates in LD, gastrocnemius, rhomboideus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and brain were greater in HMB80 and HP and in brain were greater in HMB40 compared with LP and F groups. Formation of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex and S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in LD, gastrocnemius, and rhomboideus muscles were greater in HMB80 and HP than in LP and F groups. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and eEF2 and expression of SNAT2, LAT1, MuRF1, atrogin-1, and LC3-II were unchanged. Numbers of BrdU-positive myonuclei in the LD were greater in HMB80 and HP than in the LP and F groups; there were no differences in jejunum. The results suggest that enteral supplementation with HMB increases skeletal muscle protein anabolism in neonates by stimulation of protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation. PMID:27143558

  14. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Scott M.; El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Boutry, Claire; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Steven R.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 μmol·kg body wt−1·h−1 for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, ...

  15. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  16. Effects of noise exposure on neonatal auditory brainstem response thresholds in pregnant guinea pigs at different gestational periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chihiro; Nario, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h. We divided the animals into four groups as follows: the control, early gestational exposure, mid-gestational exposure, and late gestational exposure groups. ABR thresholds and latencies in newborns were recorded using 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tone burst on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Changes in ABR thresholds and latencies were measured between the 4 × 4 and 4 × 3 factorial groups mentioned above (gestational periods × postnatal days, gestational periods × frequencies). The thresholds were low in the order of control group guinea pigs. This is the first study to show that noise exposure during the early, mid-, and late gestational periods significantly elevated ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis.

  18. Digestive microbiota is different in pigs receiving antimicrobials or a feed additive during the nursery period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Soler

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials have been used in a prophylactic way to decrease the incidence of digestive disorders during the piglet post-weaning period. Nowadays, it is urgent to reduce their consumption in livestock to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, the effect of a product on piglet microbiota has been investigated as an alternative to antimicrobials. Three groups of ten post-weaning pigs were sampled at 0, 15 and 30 days one week post-weaning; the control, antibiotic and feed additive group received a standard post-weaning diet without antibiotics or additives, the same diet as the control group but with amoxicillin and colistin sulphate and the same diet as the control group but with a feed additive (Sanacore-EN, Nutriad International N.V., respectively. The total DNA extracted from faeces was used to amplify the 16S RNA gene for massive sequencing under manufacturer's conditions. Sequencing data was quality filtered and analyzed using QIIME software and suitable statistical methods. In general terms, age modifies significantly the microbiota of the piglets. Thus, the oldest the animal, the highest bacterial diversity observed for the control and the feed additive groups. However, this diversity was very similar in the antibiotic group throughout the trial. Interestingly, a clear increase in abundance of Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp was detected within the feed additive group versus the antibiotic and control groups. In conclusion, the feed additive group had a positive effect in the endogenous microbiota of post-weaning pigs increasing both, the diversity of bacterial families and the abundance of lactic acid bacteria during the post-weaning period.

  19. Localization of plutonium retention in the small intestine of the neonatal rat, guinea pig, baboon and macaca after Pu-citrate ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Lataillade, G.; Beauvallet, M.; L'Hullier, I.; Lepage, M.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Moutairou, K.; avi, 526, Republique Populaire du Benin)

    1988-01-01

    The retention of Pu-citrate in the gastrointestinal wall was compared at similar post ingestion times after ingestion at 2 days of age by rats and guinea pigs and at 1 to 34 days by neonatal primates. The small intestine was the main site of the Pu retention in all species. In rats and primates, most of the Pu was retained in the distal ileum, whereas in guinea pigs it was more homogeneously distributed. In the rats, Pu was retained in the epithelial cells on villi, but in the guinea pigs and primates it was confined to the macrophages under the epithelial cells in the lacteal region. (author)

  20. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Scott M.; El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Boutry, Claire; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 μmol·kg body wt−1·h−1 for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, or HMB 400). Plasma HMB concentrations increased with infusion and were 10, 98, 316, and 1,400 nmol/ml in the HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, and HMB 400 pigs. Protein synthesis rates in the longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, soleus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and spleen were greater in HMB 20 than in HMB 0, and in the LD were greater in HMB 100 than in HMB 0. HMB 400 had no effect on protein synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E·eIF4G complex formation and ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 and 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation increased in LD, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles with HMB 20 and HMB 100 and in diaphragm with HMB 20. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and elongation factor 2 and expression of system A transporter (SNAT2), system L transporter (LAT1), muscle RING finger 1 protein (MuRF1), muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) were unchanged. Results suggest that supplemental HMB enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates by stimulating translation initiation. PMID:24192287

  1. Transmit-Only/Receive-Only Radiofrequency System for Hyperpolarized 13C MRS Cardiac Metabolism Studies in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Frijia, F.; Hartwig, V.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables metabolic activity mapping, providing a powerful tool for the study of the heart physiology, but requires the development of dedicated radiofrequency coils, capable of providing large field of view with high signal......-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. This work describes the simulations and the tests of a transmit-only (TX) volume coil/receive-only (RX) surface coil both designed for hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. The coil characterization is performed by developing an SNR model for coil performance...

  2. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    . Our results show that striatal delivery of rAAV5 vectors in the neonatal brain represents a useful tool to express genes of interest both in the basal ganglia and the neocortex. Furthermore, we apply, for the first time, viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the pig brain providing the opportunity...

  3. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...

  4. Sepsis and development impede muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by different ribosomal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In muscle, sepsis reduces protein synthesis (MPS) by restraining translation in neonates and adults. Even though protein accretion decreases with development as neonatal MPS rapidly declines by maturation, the changes imposed by development on the sepsis-associated decrease in MPS have not been desc...

  5. Response to booster doses of hepatitis B vaccine among young adults who had received neonatal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K S Chan

    Full Text Available Newborns who have received hepatitis B immunization in 1980s are now young adults joining healthcare disciplines. The need for booster, pre- and post-booster checks becomes a practical question.The aim of this study is to refine the HBV vaccination policy for newly admitted students in the future.A prospective study on medical and nursing school entrants to evaluate hepatitis B serostatus and the response to booster doses among young adults.Among 212 students, 17-23-year-old, born after adoption of neonatal immunization, 2 (0.9% were HBsAg positive, 40 (18.9% were anti-HBs positive. At 1 month after a single-dose booster for anti-HBs-negative students, 14.5% had anti-HBs 100 mIU/mL, respectively. The anti-HBs levels were significantly higher for females than males (mean [SD]: 431 [418] vs. 246 [339] mIU/mL, P = 0.047. At 2-4 month after the third booster dose, 97.1% had anti-HBs >100 mIU/mL and 2.9% had 10-100 mIU/mL.Pre-booster check is still worthwhile to identify carriers among newly recruited healthcare workers born after adoption of neonatal immunization. A 3-dose booster, rather than a single dose, is required for the majority to achieve an anti-HBs level >100 mIU/mL, as memory immunity has declined in a substantial proportion of individuals. Cost-effectiveness of post-booster check for anti-HBs is low and should be further evaluated based on contextual specific utilization of results.

  6. Radiation doses received by premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, I.; Maccia, C.; Thierry-Chef, I.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Costil, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Because of frequent radiological investigations performed in 1 neonatal intensive care unit, a dosimetry study was carried out to assess the level of doses received by premature babies. Materials and methods. In vivo measurements were performed and effective doses were evaluated for single radiographs. Individual cumulative doses received over the period of stay were then estimated, for each premature baby entering the intensive care unit in 2002, taking into account the number of radiographs they underwent. Results. On average, babies stayed for a week and more than one radio-graph was taken per day. Results showed that, even if average doses per radiograph were relatively low (25μSv), cumulative doses strongly depended on the length of stay, and can reach a few mSv. Conclusion. Even if doses per radiograph are in agreement with European recommendations, optimisation of doses is particularly important because premature babies are more sensitive to radiation than adults and because they usually undergo further radiological examinations in other services. On the basis of the results of this dosimetry study, the implementation of a larger study is being discussed. (author)

  7. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhanced Th1 cellular immunity but did not affect antibody responses in a human gut microbiota transplanted neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wen

    Full Text Available This study aims to establish a human gut microbiota (HGM transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn pig model of human rotavirus (HRV infection and diarrhea, and to verify the dose-effects of probiotics on HRV vaccine-induced immune responses. Our previous studies using the Gn pig model found that probiotics dose-dependently regulated both T cell and B cell immune responses induced by rotavirus vaccines. We generated the HGM transplanted neonatal Gn pigs through daily feeding of neonatal human fecal suspension to germ-free pigs for 3 days starting at 12 hours after birth. We found that attenuated HRV (AttHRV vaccination conferred similar overall protection against rotavirus diarrhea and virus shedding in Gn pigs and HGM transplanted Gn pigs. HGM promoted the development of the neonatal immune system, as evidenced by the significantly enhanced IFN-γ producing T cell responses and reduction of regulatory T cells and their cytokine production in the AttHRV-vaccinated pigs. The higher dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG feeding (14 doses, up to 109 colony-forming-unit [CFU]/dose effectively increased the LGG counts in the HGM Gn pig intestinal contents and significantly enhanced HRV-specific IFN-γ producing T cell responses to the AttHRV vaccine. Lower dose LGG (9 doses, up to 106 CFU/dose was ineffective. Neither doses of LGG significantly improved the protection rate, HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in serum, or IgA antibody titers in intestinal contents compared to the AttHRV vaccine alone, suggesting that an even higher dose of LGG is needed to overcome the influence of the microbiota to achieve the immunostimulatory effect in the HGM pigs. This study demonstrated that HGM Gn pig is an applicable animal model for studying immune responses to rotavirus vaccines and can be used for studying interventions (i.e., probiotics and prebiotics that may enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines through improving the gut microbiota.

  8. Glucose stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs through an AMPK- and mTOR-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Orellana, Renan A; Suryawan, Agus; O'Connor, Pamela M J; Nguyen, Hanh V; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-08-01

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis is elevated in neonates in part due to an enhanced response to the rise in insulin and amino acids after eating. In vitro studies suggest that glucose plays a role in protein synthesis regulation. To determine whether glucose, independently of insulin and amino acids, is involved in the postprandial rise in skeletal muscle protein synthesis, pancreatic-substrate clamps were performed in neonatal pigs. Insulin secretion was inhibited with somatostatin and insulin was infused to reproduce fasting or fed levels, while glucose and amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. Fractional protein synthesis rates and translational control mechanisms were examined. Raising glucose alone increased protein synthesis in fast-twitch glycolytic muscles but not in other tissues. The response in muscle was associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and enhanced formation of the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex but no change in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), or eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Raising glucose, insulin, and amino acids increased protein synthesis in most tissues. The response in muscle was associated with phosphorylation of PKB, mTOR, S6K1, and 4E-BP1 and enhanced eIF4E.eIF4G formation. The results suggest that the postprandial rise in glucose, independently of insulin and amino acids, stimulates protein synthesis in neonates, and this response is specific to fast-twitch glycolytic muscle and occurs by AMPK- and mTOR-independent pathways.

  9. Gastrointestinal abosrption of radionuclides by the neonatal rat, guinea pig and swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Ruthenium-106 administered to newborn rats and swine was incorporated into the epithelium of the lower small intestine and retained there for a few weeks after gavage; the stomach and small bowel of guinea pigs incorporated 106 Ru but did not retain it

  10. Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Measurement With Total Serum Bilirubin Levels in Preterm Neonates Receiving Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendse, Amruta; Jasani, Bonny; Nanavati, Ruchi; Kabra, Nandkishor

    2017-08-15

    To compare transcutaneous bilirubin with total serum bilirubin in preterm neonates after initiation of phototherapy. Jaundice was assessed in 30 preterm neonates with transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin before initiation of phototherapy and at 12 hr after initiation of phototherapy. A photo-occlusive patch was applied over the sternum. Transcutaneous bilirubin has a good correlation with total serum bilirubin after initiation of phototherapy. (r=0.918, Pbilirubin at 28-32 weeks of gestation (r = 0.97) was better correlated with total serum bilirubin than those at 32-37 weeks (r =0.88). The correlation was better for neonates 72 hours of age (r = 0.82). Transcutaneous bilirubin correlates significantly with total serum bilirubin at the patched sternal site after initiation of phototherapy in preterm neonates.

  11. Effects of chronic glucagon-like peptide-2 therapy during weaning in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The enteroendocrine hormone glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and its ligands are under development as therapeutic agents for a variety of intestinal pathologies. A number of these conditions occur in neonates and infants, and thus a detailed understanding of the effects of GLP-2 during...

  12. Enteral B-hydroxy-B-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite B-hydr...

  13. Amino acids, independent of insulin, attenuate skeletal muscle autophagy in neonatal pigs during endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsis induces loss of skeletal muscle mass by activating the ubiquitin proteasome (UPS) and autophagy systems. Although muscle protein synthesis in healthy neonatal piglets is responsive to amino acids (AA) stimulation, it is not known if AA can prevent the activation of muscle protein degradation ...

  14. Chronic parenteral nutrition induces hepatic inflammation, steatosis and insulin resistance in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prematurity and overfeeding in infants are associated with insulin resistance in childhood and may increase the risk of adult disease. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a major source of infant nutrition support and may influence neonatal metabolic function. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that...

  15. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    . and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms...

  16. No evidence of enteric viral involvement in the new neonatal porcine diarrhoea syndrome in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goecke, Nicole Bakkegård; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kongsted, H.

    2017-01-01

    .7% of the animals tested positive by reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) for porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1) while 9% and 3% were found to be positive for rotavirus A and porcine teschovirus (PTV), respectively. The overall prevalence of porcine astrovirus (PAstV) was 75% with 69.8% of the PAstV positive pigs infected...... with PAstV type 3. No animals tested positive for rotavirus C, coronavirus (TGEV, PEDV and PRCV), sapovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, saffoldvirus, cosavirus, klassevirus or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Microarray analyses performed on a total of 18 animals were all negative, as were eight animals...... examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Using Next Generation de novo sequencing (de novo NGS) on pools of samples from case animals within all herds, PKV-1 was detected in four herds and rotavirus A, rotavirus C and PTV were detected in one herd each. Our detailed analyses of piglets from...

  17. Cardiomyocyte architectural plasticity in fetal, neonatal, and adult pig hearts delineated with diffusion tensor MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Allen, John; Hu, Lingzhi; Caruthers, Shelton D; Wickline, Samuel A; Chen, Junjie

    2013-01-15

    Cardiomyocyte organization is a critical determinant of coordinated cardiac contractile function. Because of the acute opening of the pulmonary circulation, the relative workload of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) changes substantially immediately after birth. We hypothesized that three-dimensional cardiomyocyte architecture might be required to adapt rapidly to accommodate programmed perinatal changes of cardiac function. Isolated fixed hearts from pig fetuses or pigs at midgestation, preborn, postnatal day 1 (P1), postnatal day 5, postnatal day 14 (P14), and adulthood (n = 5 for each group) were acquired for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiomyocyte architecture was visualized by three-dimensional fiber tracking and was quantitatively evaluated by the measured helix angle (α(h)). Upon the completion of MRI, hearts were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) to evaluate cardiomyocyte alignment, with picrosirius red to evaluate collagen content, and with anti-Ki67 to evaluate postnatal cell proliferation. The helical architecture of cardiomyocyte was observed as early as the midgestational period. Postnatal changes of cardiomyocyte architecture were observed from P1 to P14, which primary occurred in the septum and RV free wall (RVFW). In the septum, the volume ratio of LV- vs. RV-associated cardiomyocytes rapidly changed from RV-LV balanced pattern at birth to LV dominant pattern by P14. In the RVFW, subendocardial α(h) decreased by ~30° from P1 to P14. These findings indicate that the helical architecture of cardiomyocyte is developed as early as the midgestation period. Substantial and rapid adaptive changes in cardiac microarchitecture suggested considerable developmental plasticity of cardiomyocyte form and function in the postnatal period in response to altered cardiac mechanical function.

  18. Activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renan A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Fleming, Jillian R; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-12-01

    Insulin and amino acids act independently to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs, and the responses decrease with development. The purpose of this study was to compare the separate effects of fed levels of INS and AA on the activation of signaling components leading to translation initiation and how these responses change with development. Overnight-fasted 6- (n = 4/group) and 26-day-old (n = 6/ group) pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemiceuaminoacidemic conditions (controls), 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemichyperaminoacidemic clamps (AA), and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps (INS). INS, but not AA, increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2). Both INS and AA increased protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and these responses were higher in 6-day-old compared with 26-day-old pigs. Both INS and AA decreased the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E and increased eIF4E binding to eIF4G; these effects were greater in 6-day-old than in 26-day-old pigs. Neither INS nor AA altered the composition of mTORC1 (raptor, mTOR, and GbetaL) or mTORC2 (rictor, mTOR, and GbetaL) complexes. Furthermore, neither INS, AA, nor age had any effect on the abundance of Rheb and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Our results suggest that the activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation is developmentally regulated and parallels the developmental decline in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs.

  19. Upregulation of TGF-beta 1 in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Folsgaard, N.; Bisgaard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Influenza vaccination of pregnant women is generally considered safe,but the effects on the immune system of the unborn child are unknown.Objectives: Our primary objective was to explore differences in cytokine and chemokine levels in nasal mucosal lining fluid in neonates of mothers...... vaccinated during or after pregnancy. Method: IFN-c, IL-1b, IL-2, -4, -5, -10, - 12p70, -13, -17, TNF-a, IL-8, eotaxin-1,eotaxin-3, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1b, TGF-b1 and TARC were quantified in nasal mucosal lining fluid in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1v) vaccine during (n = 52......) or after pregnancy (n = 118) in our unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood 2010 birth-cohort. Result: Neonates of mothers vaccinated during pregnancy showed a significant up-regulation of the immune-regulatory TGF-b1 (P = 0.0004), significant down regulation (P

  20. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  1. Effects of neonatal surgical castration and immunocastration in male pigs on blood T lymphocytes and health markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, C; Prunier, A; Merlot, E

    2014-05-01

    Surgical castration in pig husbandry is criticized for welfare reasons. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate alternative ways of rearing male pigs, such as entire or immunocastrated animals. Immunocastration is a vaccination directed against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to suppress the production of sexual hormones. This study aimed at investigating the effects of these two methods of castration in comparison with intact male pigs on blood T-lymphocyte subsets and function, the immunoglobulin (Ig) response to an influenza vaccine and health markers during sexual development. A total of 70 animals were allocated to three experimental groups: entire (E), surgically castrated at 5 to 6 days of age (SC), and immunized against GnRH at 3 and 4 months of age (IC). Blood samples were collected at 3, 4 and 5 months. At slaughter, global health status and body and spleen weights were measured. Results showed that SC male pigs had fewer blood lymphocytes than E pigs at 4 and 5 months (Ppigs did not differ significantly from E pigs. The percentages of CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were not altered by treatment (P>0.1). Compared with E pigs, the SC pigs had a higher percentage of CD3+CD4+CD8+ cells at 4 months, whereas the IC pigs had a higher percentage at 5 months (Ppigs had a lower percentage than E pigs at 4 and 5 months (Ppigs did not differ significantly from E pigs at any age. However, there were no consequences on T-lymphocyte proliferation and total IgG or anti-influenza Ig. At slaughter, relative spleen weight was decreased in IC pigs, whereas pneumonia score was decreased in SC pigs relatively to E pigs. Overall, no clear functional consequences of either method on commercial pig immune abilities were demonstrated, but more investigations are required to ascertain this conclusion.

  2. Quick opening closure: a brazilian design to pig launching and receiving vessels; Tampa de abertura rapida: um projeto brasileiro para lancadores e recebedores de pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Antonio T. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Originally designed to use at launcher and receiver pig traps on offshore, area, the quick opening closure, presented at this work, it has technical features that assure a singular performance. The safety is assured by the 'vent bleed screw' that stop the blockage mechanism in closed position until it to be totally removed. A limited pressure bleed, give a warning that there is pressure in the vessel. The height quality of the door and external ring grinding surfaces added to the circular block segments system mechanism give a same pressure all over the o'ring surface. This assure the leak proof warranty. The open an close Asca system composed by circular blocks segments more the push pull mechanism actuated by the same davit-screw that lift the door, provide a quick, safety and ease operation. The care at the design and the manufacture quality of the parts prevent grip rings and the door opening operation failure. (author)

  3. Incidence of hypertriglyceridemia in critically ill neonates receiving lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic containers: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Camilia R; Dumas, Gregory J; Shoaie, Claire; Zheng, Zheng; Mackinnon, Brenda; Al-Aweel, Issa; Bistrian, Bruce R; Pursley, DeWayne M; Driscoll, David F

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate plasma clearance of lipid injectable emulsions packaged in either glass or plastic containers in neonates from 2 7-month periods, 1 year apart. Clinical records from June 1 to December 31, 2003 (glass [G] period) and the same months in 2004 (plastic [P] period) were assessed. Neonates who received lipid injectable emulsions were studied. Lipid container (glass vs plastic) was the independent variable. Of the 197 patients studied, 122 (G, 50/81; P, 72/116) had evaluable triglyceride (TG) levels, for an overall rate of 62%. Only birth weight (G, 1.09 +/- 0.32 kg vs P, 1.23 +/- .45 kg) and birth length (G, 36.4 +/- 3.5 cm vs P, 37.9 +/- 3.5 cm) were significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .047 and .028, respectively). There were no differences in the day of life on which lipid injection was started, the lipid dose, or the timing of TG measurements. The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in the P period (G, 3/50 vs P, 19/72; P = .004). Administration of the same lipid formulation in plastic bags compared with glass containers is associated with higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia. The poorer clearance of lipids could be due to a higher proportion of large-diameter fat globules in plastic bags compared with those in glass containers.

  4. Effects of neonatal surgical castration and immunocastration in male pigs on blood T lymphocytes and health markers

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, Caroline; Prunier, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Surgical castration in pig husbandry is criticized for welfare reasons. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate alternative ways of rearing male pigs, such as entire or immunocastrated animals. Immunocastration is a vaccination directed against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to suppress the production of sexual hormones. This study aimed at investigating the effects of these two methods of castration in comparison with intact male pigs on blood T-lymphocyte subsets and function, the immunogl...

  5. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Homocysteine in small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates from mothers receiving folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thushari S; Lindner, Ulrike; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karandagoda, Wimal; Gortner, Ludwig; Obeid, Rima

    2010-08-01

    Prematurity and small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates are at risk for postnatal complications. Concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) might be related to neonatal outcome. We hypothesized that concentrations of tHcy are not related to growth restriction in neonates from mothers receiving 5 mg/day folic acid. We studied a total of 133 preterm neonates from normotensive mothers; SGA (n=96) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, n=37). Concentrations of tHcy, folate and vitamin B12 were measured in venous umbilical cord plasma. AGA preterm neonates had higher mean birth weight (BW) compared to SGA preterms (2472 g vs. 2007 g; pgestational age (GA) (35.1 vs. 35.7 weeks; p=0.059). Concentrations of tHcy (4.86 vs. 4.95 micromol/L), folate (63.3 vs. 55.7 nmol/L), and vitamin B12 (409 vs. 394 pmol/L) were not significantly different between the groups. GA was a strong positive predictor, BW was a significant negative predictor of cord plasma folate. Vitamin B12 concentration was a significant negative predictor of cord tHcy. Concentrations of tHcy did not differ between SGA and AGA preterm neonates born to mothers supplemented with folic acid. This finding argues against a causal role for folate deficiency or increased tHcy in growth restriction.

  7. Atropine use may lead to post-operative respiratory acidosis in neonates receiving ductal ligation: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Szu-Ling; Lin, Wen-Li; Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Wu, Shye-Jao; Tsai, Hsin-Jung; Wang, Shwu-Meei; Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Jui-Hsing

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common cardiac conditions in preterm infants. Closure of the PDA in symptomatic patients can be achieved medically or surgically. Atropine is commonly administered in general anesthesia as a premedication in this age group but with limited evidence addressing the effect of its use. Our study examined the association of the use of atropine as a premedication in PDA ligation and the risk of post-operative respiratory complications. This retrospective cohort study included 150 newborns who have failed medical treatment for PDA and received PDA ligation during 2008-2012 in a single tertiary medical center. Ninety-two of them (61.3%) received atropine as premedication for general anesthesia while 58 (38.7%) did not. Post-operative respiratory condition, the need of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the presence of bradycardia were measured. Patients with atropine use were associated with increased odds of respiratory acidosis in both univariate analysis (22.9% vs 7.3%; OR = 3.785, 95% CI = 1.211-11.826, p = 0.022) and multivariate analysis (OR = 4.030, 95% CI = 1.230-13.202, p = 0.021), with an even higher odds of respiratory acidosis in patients receiving both atropine and ketamine. The use of atropine as premedication in general anesthesia for neonatal PDA ligation is associated with higher risk of respiratory acidosis, which worsens with the combined use of ketamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The influence of the induction of farrowing on live birth, body mass, appearance of dystocia, mortality and surviving of neonatal pigs in litter during the first ten days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Slavoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the the day of farrowing induction on the number of newborn piglets (live born and dead born, body mass and mortality of neonatal pigs in litter by the tenth day of age. For the investigation purpose, there were chosen 167 pregnant animals, 34 gilts and 133 sows, divided into 3 groups each, according to the day of pregnancy when prostaglandin analogue, dinoprost-tromethamine, was applied (from 112th to 114th day. Fastest- induced parturition was in gilts which were administered dinoprost on the 113th day of pregnancy, (34,30 ± 6,23 h after application, that is, in sows which were administered prostaglandin on the 114th day of pregnancy, (29,57 ± 4,14 h after application of dinoprost. Most gilts (75 % and sows (90,91% started farrowing 24-36 h after dinoprost application, when it was given on the 113th day of pregnancy. During daily twelve-hour working time (7-19 h, 67,07% out of all the treated animals started farrowing. When farrowing was induced on the 112th day of pregnancy, 17 sows (12,78% needed obstetric assistance for dystocia, while 47 (35,34 % sows had troublesome farrowing. Along with the delayed induction, body mass of newborn pigs increased, and the largest recorded weight was 1,27 kg in sows, that is 1,38 kg in gilts, which were given dinoprost on the 114th day of pregnancy, with the lowest number of live born pigs of body mass less than 1 kg (23,76%. In this experiment there was determined the connection between the body mass and vitality of newborn piglets, so the lowest mortality rate of the pigs by the 10th day of age was noticed in sows and gilts which were given dinoprost on the 114th day of pregnancy (11,05%, in regard to the pigs born of sows and gilts which were given dinoprost on the 112th day of pregnancy (15,39 %.

  9. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesi...

  10. Microbiological, pathological and histological findings in four Danish pig herds affected by a new neonatal diarrhoea syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Jonach, Beata Renata; Haugegaard, Svend

    2013-01-01

    conclusion and suspected to suffer from New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome, were selected. Within these herds, 51 diarrhoeic and 50 non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were necropsied and subjected to histological and microbiological examination. Faeces were non...

  11. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

  12. Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Agus; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Orellana, Renan A; Wilson, Fiona A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-10-01

    Skeletal muscle in the neonate grows at a rapid rate due in part to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which leucine stimulates protein synthesis in neonatal muscle, overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were treated with rapamycin [an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC)1] for 1 h and then infused with leucine for 1 h. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and activation of signaling components that lead to mRNA translation were determined in skeletal muscle. Rapamycin completely blocked leucine-induced muscle protein synthesis. Rapamycin markedly reduced raptor-mTOR association, an indicator of mTORC1 activation. Rapamycin blocked the leucine-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) and formation of the eIF4E.eIF4G complex and increased eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex abundance. Rapamycin had no effect on the association of mTOR with rictor, a crucial component for mTORC2 activation, or G protein beta-subunit-like protein (GbetaL), a component of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Neither leucine nor rapamycin affected the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PKB, or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)2, signaling components that reside upstream of mTOR. Eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF)2 phosphorylation was not affected by leucine or rapamycin, although current dogma indicates that eEF2 phosphorylation is mTOR dependent. Together, these in vivo data suggest that leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates by enhancing mTORC1 activation and its downstream effectors.

  13. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newbo....... coli-induced diarrhoea in sensitive newborn pigs. In vulnerable newborns there may be a delicate balance among bacterial composition and load, diet and the host. Caution may be required when administering LAB to compromised newborns suffering from enteric infections....... caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6x108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus...... with decreased activities in most cases after F18 and LAB inoculation. Bacterial density in colon mucosa increased after F18 inoculation (PE...

  14. High-resolution imaging of the layers of the gastrointestinal wall of pig and human specimens using an endoluminal MR receiver coil. Correlation to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Sebastian; Palmowski, M.; Macher-Goeppinger, S.; Mueller, M.; Volke, F.; Duex, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grenacher, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: High-resolution MR imaging of the layers of the gastrointestinal wall to provide a foundation for tumor staging based on morphological criteria. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 12 months, miscellaneous parts of the gastrointestinal tract of 15 human specimens and 30 porcine specimens were scanned using a 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner combined with an endoluminal receiver coil. The sequences used were T1-weighted opposed-phase, T2-weighted turbo spin echo with fat saturation and fast T2-weighted inversion recovery. The number of differentiable layers, their width and the signal intensity were documented. Then, the results were compared with histological specimens in order to link the imaged wall layers to the anatomical layers. Spearman's Rank Correlation was used to determine the soundness of the link between the images and their related histology. Results: For both human and animal specimens, the MRI scanning produced 3 to 5, maximum 6 (pig), differentiable layers. The mucosa, submucosa and muscularis could be differentiated with a hyperintense, hypointense and intermediary signal, respectively. The subserosal layer displayed a hypointense signal. Conclusion: High-resolution MRI is able to produce differentiable images of the anatomical layers of the gastrointestinal wall in both humans and pigs. Accordingly, it is possible to use MR imaging to diagnose the extent of local tumor infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall. (orig.)

  15. Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli in Pigs Receiving Oral Antimicrobial Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Elke; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify risk factors in addition to antimicrobial treatment for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurrence in commensal Escherichia coli in pigs. A variety of studies were searched in 2014 and 2015. Studies identified as potentially relevant were assessed against eligibility criteria such as observation or experiment (no review), presentation of risk factors in addition to (single dosage) antimicrobial use, risk factors for but not resulting from AMR, and the same antimicrobial used and tested. Thirteen articles (nine on observational, four on experimental studies) were finally selected as relevant. It was reported that space allowance, production size/stage, cleanliness, entry of animals and humans into herds, dosage/frequency/route of administration, time span between treatment and sampling date, herd size, distance to another farm, coldness, and season had an impact on AMR occurrence. Associations were shown by one to four studies per factor and differed in magnitude, direction, and level of significance. The risk of bias was unclear in nearly half of the information of observational studies and in most of the information from experimental studies. Further research on the effects of specific management practices is needed to develop well-founded management advice.

  16. The use of alteplase for the resolution of an intravesical clot in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, J L; Glover, M L; Totapally, B R

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of the use of alteplase for the lysis of a large urinary bladder clot. A neonate presented with respiratory failure, secondary to a left diaphragmatic hernia necessitating the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. On day 3 of ECMO support, hematuria was noted, and a subsequent urinary bladder ultrasound revealed a significant urinary bladder clot. Alteplase (0.5-1 mg) was instilled into the urinary bladder via a 10 French Foley catheter (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO). The catheter was clamped for 1 hour, followed by irrigation with normal saline. Multiple doses of alteplase were administered, resulting in complete resolution of the bladder clot. No adverse effects were attributed to the use of the intravesical alteplase. Alteplase seems to be safe and effective for the resolution of bladder clots, thereby potentially avoiding more invasive surgical procedures.

  17. Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers using bundle methodology in pediatric and neonatal patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy: An integrative review and call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Suzanne E; Mastro, Kari A; Preuster, Christa; Dardashti, Navid; McGill, Sandra; Madelon, Myrlene; Johnson, Donna

    2017-10-01

    This review focuses on identifying (1) evidence of the effectiveness of care bundle methodology to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) in pediatric and neonatal patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy and (2) barriers to implementing HAPU care bundles in this at-risk population. An integrative review was conducted and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A search of the scientific literature was performed. Studies included were published between January 2011 and February 2016. A total of seven articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each published article and analyzed to identify common themes, specifically bundle methodology and barriers to implementing HAPU bundles, in this population. There is limited research on effectiveness of care bundle methodology in reducing HAPUs in children, and no research specific to its effectiveness in pediatric or neonatal ECMO patients. No research was identified studying barriers to implementation of HAPU care bundles in this population. Nurses are well poised to test innovative strategies to prevent HAPUs. Nurses should consider implementing and testing bundle methodology to reduce HAPU in this at-risk population, and conduct research to identify any barriers to implementing this strategy. There is literature to support the use of nurses as unit-based skin care champions to facilitate teamwork and reliable use of the bundle, both critical components to the success of bundle methodology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neonatal retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero T Kivelä

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support

  19. Prenatal vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive immune responses to pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Saif, Linda J

    2014-02-07

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased childhood mortality and morbidity in impoverished Asian and African countries, but the impact of VAD on rotavirus (RV) vaccine or infection is poorly understood. We assessed effects of gestational and dietary induced pre- and post-natal VAD and vitamin A supplementation on immune responses to a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq(®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Vaccine efficacy was assessed against virulent G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) challenge. VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) piglets were derived from dietary VAD and VAS sows, respectively. VAD piglets had significantly lower levels of hepatic vitamin A compared to that of VAS piglets. RotaTeq(®)-vaccinated VAD piglets had 350-fold higher fecal virus shedding titers compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Only 25% of vaccinated non-vitamin A supplemented VAD piglets were protected against diarrhea compared with 100% protection rate in vaccinated non-supplemented VAS piglets post-challenge. Intestinal HRV specific immune responses were compromised in VAD piglets. Vaccinated VAD piglets had significantly lower ileal HRV IgG antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses (pre-challenge) and duodenal HRV IgA ASC responses (post-challenge) compared to vaccinated VAS piglets. Also, intestinal HRV IgA antibody titers were 11-fold lower in vaccinated VAD compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Persistently elevated levels of IL-8, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and lower IL-10 responses (anti-inflammatory) in vaccinated VAD compared to VAS piglets suggest more severe inflammatory responses in VAD piglets post-challenge. Moreover higher IFN-γ responses pre-challenge were observed in VAD compared to VAS piglets. The impaired vaccine-specific intestinal antibody responses and decreased immunoregulatory cytokine responses coincided with reduced protective efficacy of the RV vaccine against virulent HRV challenge in VAD piglets. In

  20. The female guinea pig, a useful model for the genetic hazard of radiation in man; preliminary results on germ cell radiosensitivity in foetal, neonatal and adult animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Vankerkom, J.; Lambiet-Collier, M.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made of the radiosensitivities of the resting oocyte of guinea pig in its two different states, the 'large' resting and 'contracted' oocyte, also extending the investigations to the radiosensitivity of the female germ cells at earlier stages during intrauterine life. Irradiation induced a dose-dependent decrease in the total number of oocytes, and this effect was more pronounced in animals irradiated as adults (target cells: contracted resting oocytes). Our results also suggested that the LD 50 of the large guinea pig resting oocyte should be around 4 Gy, a value similar to that obtained recently for the equivalent human oocyte. This confirms the high radioresistance of the guinea pig oocyte and the consequent suitability of this species for further detailed studies in relation to genetic hazards in man. (author)

  1. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  2. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters in Vivo and in Vitro Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  3. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  4. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  5. Hepatic beta-oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in neonatal pigs after dietary treatments of clofibric acid, isoproterenol, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peffer, Pasha Lyvers; Lin, Xi; Odle, Jack

    2005-06-01

    A suckling piglet model was used to study nutritional and pharmacologic means of stimulating hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation. Newborn pigs were fed milk diets containing either long- or medium-chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT). The long-chain control diet was supplemented further with clofibric acid (0.5%) or isoproterenol (40 ppm), and growth was monitored for 10-12 days. Clofibrate increased rates of hepatic peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of [1-(14)C]-palmitate by 60 and 186%, respectively. Furthermore, malonyl-CoA sensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) activity increased 64% (P clofibrate. Increased CPT I activity was not congruent with changes in message, as elevated abundance of CPT I mRNA was not detected (P = 0.16) when assessed by qRT-PCR. Neither rates of beta-oxidation nor CPT activities were affected by dietary MCT or by isoproterenol treatment (P > 0.1). Collectively, these findings indicate that clofibrate effectively induced hepatic CPT activity concomitant with increased fatty acid beta-oxidation.

  6. Airway Mucosal Immune-suppression in Neonates of Mothers Receiving A(H1N1)pnd09 Vaccination During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bischoff, Anne L.; Folsgaard, Nilofar V.

    2015-01-01

    , IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-1, eotaxin-3, TARC, MDC, IL-17, IL-1 beta, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-beta 1, IL-10 and IL-2. Infections were monitored the first year of life by daily diary cards and clinical controls. Results: Neonates of mothers vaccinated during pregnancy had significant up...... significant and positive association to up-regulation of TGF-beta 1 levels (P = 0.0003) and significant negative association to other mediators. The study was not powered to study differences in the incidence of infections in early infancy which did not differ between the study groups. Conclusion: Influenza A......(H1N1) pnd09 vaccination during pregnancy up-regulates TGF-beta 1 and down-regulates key mediators of the protective immunity....

  7. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig | Muenthaisong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now more than 8 years, since the first cloned pig from nuclear transfer was reported. Success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig is still low compared to that in bovine. Embryonic and neonatal abnormalities of cloned piglets are probably a result of incorrect or incomplete reprogramming of the transferred ...

  8. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Stolik-Dollberg, Orit C; Dollberg, Shaul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivac...

  9. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  10. Neonatal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  11. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  12. Neonatal Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Doreen; Morris, Maryke

    1994-01-01

    "Neonatal Nursing" offers a systematic approach to the nursing care of the sick newborn baby. Nursing actions and responsibilities are the focus of the text with relevant research findings, clinical applications, anatomy, physiology and pathology provided where necessary. This comprehensive text covers all areas of neonatal nursing including ethics, continuing care in the community, intranatal care, statistics and pharmokinetics so that holistic care of the infant is described. This book shou...

  13. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  14. Insulin accelerates global and mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in neonatal muscle during sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In neonatal pigs, sepsis decreases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by decreasing translation initiation. However, insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis despite persistent repression of translation initiation signaling. To determine whether the insulin-induced increase in global rates of m...

  15. Effect of a single dose of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii on the occurrence of porcine neonatal diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, L R; Le Bon, M; Richards, P J; Guillou, D; Dodd, C E R; Mellits, K H

    2015-11-01

    Piglet neonatal diarrhoea is an important issue in modern pig production and is linked to increased mortality and poor growth rates, affecting long-term pig health, increasing use of medication and cost of production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (SB) is a probiotic yeast with documented clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in humans. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of SB on occurrence and severity of neonatal diarrhoea in piglets, mortality and growth rate. Forty-six litters (606 piglets) were randomly allocated to a control or SB treatment (n=23 per treatment). Within 24 h of farrowing, piglets assigned to the SB treatment received a single oral dose of a paste containing 3.3×10(9) CFU of SB CNCM I-107(9). Piglets from the control litters received a placebo paste. Piglet weight, mortality and diarrhoea were recorded up to day 7 of age. It was shown that numbers of diarrhoea days were significantly correlated with increased mortality rate and reduced weight gain (P<0.05). SB treatment had no effect on growth or mortality in diarrhoeic litters. However, SB-supplemented litters had significantly lower faecal scores, indicating firmer faeces (P<0.01) and fewer numbers of diarrhoeic days (P<0.01) during the 1(st) week of life. Reduction in the number of diarrhoeic litters compared with the control group was observed following the probiotic administration (P<0.05). These results highlight the detrimental effects of neonatal diarrhoea on pre-weaning performance and suggest that SB, by reducing diarrhoea duration and severity, has the potential of improving enteric health in the early stages of life in pigs.

  16. Preterm Birth and Necrotizing Enterocolitis Alter Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene S.; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    perfringens predisposes to NEC. By using terminal-RFLP and FISH, we characterized the gut microbiota of preterm, caesarean-delivered, formula-fed pigs (n = 44) with or without NEC and of formula- or colostrum-fed term, and vaginally born pigs (n = 13). A different microbiota with high C. perfringens abundance......Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates is dependent on bacterial colonization, but it remains unclear whether a particular microbiota or specific pathogens are involved. We hypothesized that gut colonization differs between preterm and term neonates and that overgrowth of Clostridium...

  17. Neonatal neurosonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Paediatric and particularly neonatal neurosonography still remains a mainstay of imaging the neonatal brain. It can be performed at the bedside without any need for sedation or specific monitoring. There are a number of neurologic conditions that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants related to the brain and the spinal cord; most of them can be addressed by ultrasonography (US). However, with the introduction of first CT and then MRI, neonatal neurosonography is increasingly considered just a basic first line technique that offers only orienting information and does not deliver much relevant information. This is partially caused by inferior US performance – either by restricted availability of modern equipment or by lack of specialized expertise in performing and reading neurosonographic scans. This essay tries to highlight the value and potential of US in the neonatal brain and briefly touching also on the spinal cord imaging. The common pathologies and their US appearance as well as typical indication and applications of neurosonography are listed. The review aims at encouraging paediatric radiologists to reorient there imaging algorithms and skills towards the potential of modern neurosonography, particularly in the view of efficacy, considering growing economic pressure, and the low invasiveness as well as the good availability of US that can easily be repeated any time at the bedside.

  18. Neonatal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  19. Ictericia Neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco de la Fuente, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    El motivo que ha llevado a la realización de este trabajo fin de grado sobre el tema de la ICTERICIA NEONATAL se debe a la elevada frecuencia de su aparición en la población. Un porcentaje elevado de RN la padecen al nacer siendo, en la mayor parte de los casos, un proceso fisiológico resuelto con facilidad debido a una inmadurez del sistema hepático y a una hiperproducción de bilirrubina. La ictericia neonatal es la pigmentación de color amarillo de la piel y mucosas en ...

  20. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolik-Dollberg Orit C

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivacaine. The outcome variable was the administration by the parents of acetaminophen during the ensuing 24 hours. Results Seventeen infants received lidocaine and 19 received bupivacaine DPNB. Ten infants in the lidocaine group (59% were given acetaminophen following circumcision compared to only 3 (16% in the bupivacaine group (P 2 = 20.6; P = 0.006. Conclusion DPNB with bupivacaine for neonatal circumcision apparently confers better analgesia than lidocaine as judged by the requirement of acetaminophen over the ensuing 24-hour period.

  1. Neonatal Jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Væth, Michael; Schendel, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that infants transferred to a neonatal ward after delivery had an almost twofold increased risk of being diagnosed with infantile autism later in childhood in spite of extensive controlling of obstetric risk factors. We therefore decided to investigate other reasons ...

  2. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  3. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  4. Neonatal transport practices in Ibadan, Nigeria | Abdulraheem | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neonatal transport involves moving sick neonates in optimal conditions to ensure good outcomes. It is well organized in most developed countries but receives little attention in developing countries where the highest burden of neonatal mortality exists and a large number of newborns require referrals daily for ...

  5. [Neonatal cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquete, M L

    2000-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To warn pediatricians about the early recognition of cholestasis in newborns and infants. METHODS: A bibliographic research about cholestasis was performed using Medline, and emphasizing the most relevant publications of the last 30 years. RESULTS: The concept of cholestasis and the causes of cholestatic tendency in newborns and infants are described. Several causes of intra and extrahepatic cholestasis are reported as well. In this review, only the diseases with diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic peculiarities are commented, including extrahepatic biliary atresia, idiopathic neonatal hepatitis, galactosemia, and Alagille s syndrome. Furthermore, several resources are discussed for the diagnosis of cholestasis. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of the diagnosis of cholestasis through the detection of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns who present jaundice after 14 days of life is a goal that could change the prognosis of several diseases responsible for neonatal cholestasis.

  6. Neonatal Kraniefraktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine Marie Harries; Stantchev, Hristo

    2015-01-01

    During the latest decades the incidence of birth traumas has decreased significantly. Even so the traumas still contribute to an increased mortality and morbidity. We present a case of spontaneous neonatal skull fracture following a normal vaginal delivery. Abnormal facial structure was seen, and......, and the fracture was identified with an MRI. The fractures healed without neurosurgical intervention. Case reports show that even in uncomplicated vaginal deliveries skull fractures can be seen and should be suspected in children with facial abnormalities....

  7. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Backyard and Roaming Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of Toxoplasmosis, can be transmitted to pigs through the ingestion of oocysts, and to humans through consumption of pork containing viable cysts causing neonatal deaths and abortion in animals, and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised humans. The objective of this ...

  8. Neonatal Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western developed countries, Listeria monocytogenes is not an uncommon pathogen in neonates. However, neonatal listeriosis has rarely been reported in Taiwan. We describe two cases collected from a single medical institute between 1990 and 2005. Case 1 was a male premature baby weighing 1558 g with a gestational age of 31 weeks whose mother had fever with chills 3 days prior to delivery. Generalized maculopapular rash was found after delivery and subtle seizure developed. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture collected on the 1st day yielded L. monocytogenes. In addition, he had ventriculitis complicated with hydrocephalus. Neurologic development was normal over 1 year of follow-up after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Case 2 was a 28-weeks' gestation male premature baby weighing 1180 g. Endotracheal intubation and ventilator support were provided after delivery due to respiratory distress. Blood culture yielded L. monocyto-genes. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis but the culture was negative. Brain ultrasonography showed ventriculitis. Sudden deterioration with cyanosis and bradycardia developed on the 8th day and he died on the same day. Neonatal listeriosis is uncommon in Taiwan, but has significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of perinatal infection relies on high index of suspicion in perinatal health care professionals. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:161-164

  9. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  10. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  11. Physical activity level is impaired and diet dependent in preterm newborn pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Muqing; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    and neonatal physical activity. METHODS: In experiment 1, preterm and term pigs were fed parenteral nutrition (PN) or PN plus bovine colostrum (BC, 16-64 ml/kg/d enterally) for 5 d. In experiment 2, preterm pigs were fed PN+BC or PN+formula for 5 d. In experiment 3, preterm pigs were fed BC, formula, or human...... feeding increased HCA, intestinal weights, and necrotizing enteritis resistance, relative to formula (experiment 3). CONCLUSION: Preterm pigs show decreased physical activity, and the first enteral feeds diet dependently stimulate both gut growth and physical activity. The effects may arise from...

  12. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of polonium in adult and newborn rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.W.; Naylor, G.P.L.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 210 Po was determined by comparing tissue retention after oral and systemic administration. The results indicate an increase in absorption in adult rats for 210 Po administered in liver compared with 210 Po nitrate with estimated absorption of 5 and 13%, respectively. For 210 Po citrate, values of about 7% were obtained in 1-day-old neonate and adult rats while absorption in guinea pigs was estimated to be about 23% in 1-day-old neonates, 17% in 5-day-old neonates, and 9% in adults. Gut retention of ingested 210 Po in neonates was high in rats but not guinea pigs. In adult animals, but not neonates, the liver accounted for a greater proportion of 210 Po reaching the bloodstream after ingestion than after systemic injection. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to current assumptions made in the calculation of doses from 210 Po. (author)

  13. Neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straussman, Sharon; Levitsky, Lynne L

    2010-02-01

    Hypoglycemia in the newborn may be associated with both acute decompensation and long-term neuronal loss. Studies of the cause of hypoglycemic brain damage and the relationship of hypoglycemia to disorders associated with hyperinsulinism have aided in our understanding of this common clinical finding. A recent consensus workshop concluded that there has been little progress toward a precise numerical definition of neonatal hypoglycemia. Nonetheless, newer brain imaging modalities have provided insight into the relationship between neuronal energy deficiency and central nervous system damage. Laboratory studies have begun to reveal the mechanism of hypoglycemic damage. In addition, there is new information about hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of genetic, environmental, and iatrogenic origin. The quantitative definition of hypoglycemia in the newborn remains elusive because it is a surrogate marker for central nervous system energy deficiency. Nonetheless, the recognition that hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, which produces profound central nervous system energy deficiency, is most likely to lead to long-term central nervous system damage, has altered management of children with hypoglycemia. In addition, imaging studies on neonates and laboratory evaluation in animal models have provided insight into the mechanism of neuronal damage.

  14. The Frequency and Severity of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Infants with Mild Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian H; Neil, Jeffrey; Morey, JoAnn; Yang, Edward; Silvera, Michelle V; Inder, Terrie E; Ortinau, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system. Additional abnormalities not included in this classification system were also noted. The rate, pattern, and severity of abnormalities/injury were compared across the grades of neonatal encephalopathy. Eighty-nine infants received therapeutic hypothermia and met study criteria, 48 with mild neonatal encephalopathy, 35 with moderate neonatal encephalopathy, and 6 with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-eight infants (54%) had an abnormality on MRI. There was no difference in the rate of overall MRI abnormalities by grade of neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 54%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 54%, and severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P= .89). Basal ganglia/thalamic injury was more common in those with severe neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 4%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 9%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 34%; P = .03). In contrast, watershed injury did not differ between neonatal encephalopathy grades (mild neonatal encephalopathy 36%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 32%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P = .3). Mild neonatal encephalopathy is commonly associated with MRI abnormalities after therapeutic hypothermia. The grade of neonatal encephalopathy during the first hours of life may not discriminate adequately between infants with and without cerebral injury noted on MRI after therapeutic hypothermia

  15. Neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on neonatal sepsis, after a short presentation of etiopathogenesis and physiopathology, we will briefly present the clinical picture, the diagnosis and the therapy. Concerning diagnosis, we will focus our attention on procalcitonin (PCT, serum amyloid A (SAA, presepsin (sCD14 and metabolomics. Three practical tables complete the review. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of neonatal staff concerning neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizakele L.T. Khoza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal pain management has received increasing attention over the past four decades. Research into the effects of neonatal pain emphasises the professional, ethical and moral obligations of staff to manage pain for positive patient outcomes. However, evaluation studies continuously report evidence of inadequate neonate pain management and a gap between theory and practice. Objective: This study reviewed current practice in neonatal pain management to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses and doctors regarding pain management for neonates in two academic hospitals. Method: A non-experimental, prospective quantitative survey, the modified Infant Pain Questionnaire, was used to collect data from 150 nurses and doctors working in the neonatal wards of two academic hospitals in central Gauteng. Results: The response rate was 35.33% (n = 53, most respondents being professional nurses (88.68%; n = 47 working in neonatal intensive care units (80.77%; n = 42; 24 (45.28% had less than 5 years’ and 29 respondents 6 or more years’ working experience in neonatal care. A review of pain management in the study setting indicated a preference for pharmacological interventions to relieve moderate to severe pain. An association (p < 0.05 was found between pain ratings on 5 procedures and frequency of administration of pharmacological pain management. Two-thirds of respondents (64% reported that there were no pain management guidelines in the neonatal wards in which they worked. Conclusion: The interventions to manage moderate neonatal pain are in line with international guidelines. However, neonatal pain management may not occur systematically based on prior assessment of neonatal pain, choice of most appropriate intervention and evaluation. This study recommends implementation of a guideline to standardise practice and ensure consistent and adequate pain management in neonates.

  17. Review of wallowing in pigs: Description of the behaviour and its motivational basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs,commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper reviews

  18. Monitoring of intense neuromuscular blockade in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias V; Donatsky, Anders M; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-01-01

    were performed with acceleromyography [train-of-four (TOF) Watch SX]. In all pigs, the response to TOF nerve stimulation was stable and intense NMB (PTC 0-1) was established with rocuronium 3 mg/kg. For reversal, the pigs received sugammadex 20-35 mg/kg and returned to TOF-ratio above 0.90 within 2...

  19. Perinatal Asphyxia May Influence the Level of Beta-Amyloid (1-42 in Cerebrospinal Fluid: An Experimental Study on Newborn Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkil Benterud

    Full Text Available Total tau (T-tau, phosphorylated tau (p-Tau and Beta-Amyloid 1-42 (AB42 in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF are useful biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of these and other CSF biomarkers (T-tau, p-Tau, AB42, S100B and NSE, during hypoxia-reoxygenation in a newborn pig model.Thirty newborn pigs were included in a study of moderate or severe hypoxia. The moderate hypoxia group (n = 12 was exposed to global hypoxia (8% O2 until Base excess (BE reached -15 mmol/l. The pigs in the group exposed to severe hypoxia (n = 12 received 8% O2 until BE reached -20 mmol/l or mean Blood Pressure fell below 20 mm Hg, The control group (n = 6 was kept at room air. For all treatments, the CSF was collected at 9.5 hours after the intervention.The level of AB42 in CSF was significantly lower in the pigs exposed to severe hypoxia compared with the control group, 922(SD +/-445pg/ml versus. 1290(SD +/-143 pg/ml (p<0.05, respectively. Further, a non-significant reduction of AB42 was observed in the group exposed to moderate hypoxia T-tau and p-Tau revealed no significant differences between the intervention groups and the control group, however a significantly higher level of S100B was seen in the CSF of pigs receiving hypoxia in comparison to the level in the control group. Further on, there was a moderate negative correlation between the levels of AB42 and S100B in CSF, as well as a moderate negative correlation between Lactate in blood at end of hypoxia and AB42 in CSF.This is the first study to our knowledge that demonstrated a significant drop in AB42 in CSF after neonatal hypoxia. Whether or not this has an etiological basis for adult neurodegenerative disorders needs to be studied with additional experiments and epidemiological studies. AB42 and S100B are significantly changed in neonatal pigs subjected to hypoxia compared to controls and thus may be valuable biomarkers of perinatal asphyxia.

  20. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...

  1. Changes in Neuroactive Steroid Concentrations After Preterm Delivery in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Allopregnanolone, a key metabolite of progesterone, has neuroprotective and developmental effects in the brain. The objectives of this study were to measure the neuroactive steroid concentrations following preterm delivery in a neonatal guinea pig model and assess the potential for postnatal progesterone replacement therapy to affect neuroactive steroid brain and plasma concentrations in preterm neonates. Methods: Preterm (62-63 days) and term (69 days) guinea pig pups were delivered by cesarean section and tissue was collected at 24 hours. Plasma progesterone, cortisol, allopregnanolone, and brain allopregnanolone concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Brain 5α-reductase (5αR) expression was determined by Western blot. Neurodevelopmental maturity of preterm neonates was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining for myelination, glial cells, and neurons. Results: Brain allopregnanolone concentrations were significantly reduced after birth in both preterm and term neonates. Postnatal progesterone treatment in preterm neonates increased brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations. Preterm neonates had reduced myelination, low birth weight, and high mortality compared to term neonates. Brain 5αR expression was also significantly reduced in neonates compared to fetal expression. Conclusions: Delivery results in a loss of neuroactive steroid concentrations resulting in a premature reduction in brain allopregnanolone in preterm neonates. Postnatal progesterone therapy reestablished neuroactive steroid levels in preterm brains, a finding that has implications for postnatal growth following preterm birth that occurs at a time of neurodevelopmental immaturity. PMID:23585339

  2. Pelayanan Kesehatan Ibu dan Kematian Neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Fitri Yani

    2013-03-01

    2011. The result on antenatal care variables found that antenatal care and birth attendant had significant correlation with neonatal death, after controlling age and pregnancy history variable (p value = 0.000, OR = 16.32; p value = 0.31, OR = 18.36. The babies from mothers who did not get completed prenatal care risk of 16.32 times have neonatal death than babies born from mothers who received completed maternal care. There was no association between neonatal mortality and birth attendant, after controling variables of antenatal care, maternal age, pregnancy history, medical history and chilbirth history. Based on this study, it is suggested to increase activity of maternal perinatal audit, improve the quality of antenatal care, maternal delivery, and develop other support activities to prevent neonatal mortality in East Lampung District.

  3. Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonates born to opioid maintained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Nina; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Baewert, Andjela; Jagsch, Reinhold; Peternell, Alexandra; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele

    2007-03-16

    Neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers are at risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), which often requires pharmacological treatment. This study examined the effect of opioid maintenance treatment on the incidence and timing of NAS, and compared two different NAS treatments (phenobarbital versus morphine hydrochloride). Fifty-three neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers were included in this study. The mothers received methadone (n=22), slow-release oral morphine (n=17) or buprenorphine (n=14) throughout pregnancy. Irrespective of maintenance treatment, all neonates showed APGAR scores comparable to infants of non-opioid dependent mothers. No difference was found between the three maintenance groups regarding neonatal weight, length or head circumference. Sixty percent (n=32) of neonates required treatment for NAS [68% in the methadone-maintained group (n=15), 82% in the morphine-maintained group (n=14), and 21% in the buprenorphine-maintained group (n=3)]. The mean duration from birth to requirement of NAS treatment was 33 h for the morphine-maintained group, 34 h for the buprenorphine-maintained group and 58 h for the methadone-maintained group. In neonates requiring NAS treatment, those receiving morphine required a significantly shorter mean duration of treatment (9.9 days) versus those treated with phenobarbital (17.7 days). Results suggest that morphine hydrochloride is preferable for neonates suffering NAS due to opioid withdrawal.

  4. Neonatal euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A

    2009-12-01

    Despite advances in the care of infants, there remain many newborns whose medical conditions are incompatible with sustained life. At times, healthcare providers and parents may agree that prolonging life is not an appropriate goal of care, and they may redirect treatment to alleviate suffering. While pediatric palliative treatment protocols are gaining greater acceptance, there remain some children whose suffering is unrelenting despite maximal efforts. Due to the realization that some infants suffer unbearably (ie, the burdens of suffering outweigh the benefits of life), the Dutch have developed a protocol for euthanizing these newborns. In this review, I examine the ethical aspects of 6 forms of end of life care, explain the ethical arguments in support of euthanasia, review the history and verbiage of the United States regulations governing limiting and withdrawing life-prolonging interventions in infants, describe the 3 categories of neonates for whom the Dutch provide euthanasia, review the published analyses of the Dutch protocol, and finally present some practical considerations should some form of euthanasia ever be deemed appropriate.

  5. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    -mediated IL-6 and TNF-α production. These immune parameters remained different between preterm and near-term pigs at 2-3 weeks, even when adjusted for post-conceptional age. Our data suggest that systemic immunity follows a distinct developmental trajectory following preterm birth that may be influenced......Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life......, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth. Relative to near-term and term pigs, newborn preterm pigs had low blood leukocyte counts...

  6. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  7. Biochemical and physiological bases for utilization of dietary amino acids by young Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Reza; Wang, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-01-01

    Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amount...

  8. Neonatal hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarici D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dilek Sarici1, S Umit Sarici21Kecioren Research and Education Hospital, Kecioren, Ankara, 2Chief of Division of Neonatology, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: In this article, distribution of potassium (K+ in body fluids, pathophysiology, causes, clinical signs and symptoms, and the evaluation and treatment of neonatal hypokalemia are reviewed. K+ is the most important intracellular cation and normal serum K+ is stabilized between 3.5 and 5.5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia may be caused by increased renal losses, increased extrarenal (gastrointestinal losses, redistribution or prolonged insufficient K+ intake. Clinical signs and symptoms occur as the result of functional changes in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and the heart. Hypokalemia is usually asymptomatic when K+ levels are between 3.0 and 3.5 mEq/L; however, there may sometimes be slight muscle weakness. Moderate hypokalemia is observed when serum K+ is between 2.5 and 3.0 mEq/L. Proximal muscle weakness is observed most commonly in lower extremities; cranial muscles are normal, but constipation and distention are prominent. Severe hypokalemia develops when serum K+ falls below 2.5 mEq/L. Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, severe muscle weakness, paralysis, respiratory distress, and respiratory arrest are observed. The clinical signs and symptoms may be unremarkable in cases of chronically developing hypokalemia; however, appropriate treatment is essential when serum K+ level falls below 2.5 mEq/L as the most dangerous complication of hypokalemia is fatal cardiac arrythmia, and changes visible with electrocardiography may not always correlate with the level of hypokalemia. Sodium (Na+, K+, chloride (Cl-, bicarbonate, creatinine, blood sugar, magnesium (Mg, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and blood gases should be investigated by laboratory testing. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and

  9. The neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodmark, O.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical examination of the CNS in the neonate is often difficult in cases of complex pathology. Diagnostic imaging of the neonatal brain has become extremely useful and in the last decade has developed in two main directions: CT and US. MR imaging has been used recently with varying success in the diagnosis of pathology in the neonatal brain. Despite technical difficulties, this imaging method is likely to become increasingly important in the neonate. The paper examines the normal neonatal brain anatomy as seen with the different modalities, followed by pathologic conditions. Attention is directed to the common pathology, in asphyxiated newborns, the patholphysiology of intraventicular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia in the preterm neonate, and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the term neonate. Pitfalls, artifacts, and problems in image interpretation are illustrated. Finally, the subsequent appearance of neonatal pathology later in infancy and childhood is discussed

  10. Radiation doses and risks to neonates undergoing common radiographic examinations in the neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McParland, B.J.; Lee, R.

    1996-01-01

    Neonates in the-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can receive large numbers of radiographs owing to the clinical conditions they may present. More neonatal radiation dosimetry data are required for three fundamental reasons: (1.) to aid in the establishment of reference dose levels for interinstitutional comparisons; (2.) to improve childhood cancer risk estimates following neonatal exposure; and (3.) to indicate appropriate directions for dose reduction. This paper describes an investigation of two different NICU radiological techniques with significantly different neonate doses. While patient-matched images taken with both techniques were assessed in a blind review, this component of the study is beyond the scope of this paper and is not discussed here. (author)

  11. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  12. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  13. Marker-assisted selection on E. coli F4ab/ac resistance and the effect on neonatal survival in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Anderson, Susan I.; Cirera, Susanna

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab or F4ac fimbriae (formerly known as K88ab/ac) are major causes of diarrhea and death in neonatal and young pigs. A locus controlling susceptibility towards ETEC F4ab/ac has previously been mapped to pig chromosome 13q41. A number...

  14. Maternal booking status as a criterion for admission for neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... Given this strain on resources, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) staff are under pressure to admit only those patients with the best prognosis or, conversely, to deny access to those with a worse prognosis. Because neonates born to unbooked mothers who have received inadequate or no antenatal care.

  15. Challenges and opportunities for neonatal respiratory support in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal health appears not to have received the deserved attention in the context of the Child Survival Strategies and this must have contributed to the non-attainment of the MDG-4 in Nigeria. Neonatal mortality contributes 40% or more to the current rate of child deaths globally, with birth asphyxia, prematurity ...

  16. Hugsy : a comforting solution for preterm neonates designed to enhance parent-child bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, S.; Guerra, M.G.; Du, J.; Smits, L.M.; Kommers, D.; Oetomo, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Premature neonates frequently need to spend several weeks or months in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). These neonates will experience a significant amount of pain, stress and discomfort during their hospital stay due to various medical interventions they will receive ranging from feeding to

  17. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agho Kingsley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. Methods The data source for the analysis was the 2002–2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. Results At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00, and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03 compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00 and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02. The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00, male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01, smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00, and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00. Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03. Conclusion Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should

  18. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Dibley, Michael J; Agho, Kingsley; Roberts, Christine L; Hall, John

    2008-07-09

    Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. The data source for the analysis was the 2002-2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00), and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03) compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00) and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02). The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00), male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01), smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00), and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00). Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03). Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should address community, household and individual level factors

  19. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  1. Weight-correction of carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) reduces its inter-individual variability and improves its correlation with blood carbon dioxide levels in neonates receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belteki, Gusztav; Lin, Benjamin; Morley, Colin J

    2017-10-01

    Carbon-dioxide elimination during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is thought to be proportional to the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO 2 ) which is calculated as frequency x (tidal volume) 2 . DCO 2 can be used to as an indicator of CO 2 elimination but values obtained in different patients cannot be directly compared. To analyze the relationship between DCO 2 , the weight-corrected DCO 2 (DCO 2 corr) and blood gas PCO 2 values obtained from infants receiving HFOV. DCO 2 data were obtained from 14 infants at 1/s sampling rate and the mean DCO 2 was determined over 10 min periods preceding the time of the blood gas. DCO 2 corr was calculated by dividing the DCO 2 by the square of the body weight in kg. Weight-correction significantly reduced the inter-individual variability of DCO 2 . When data from all the babies were combined, standard DCO 2 showed no correlation with PCO 2 but DCO 2 corr showed a weak but statistically significant inverse correlation. The correlation was better when the endotracheal leak was correlation between the HFOV tidal volume (VThf) and the PCO 2 . In any baby, DCO 2 corr >50 mL 2 /sec/kg 2 or VThf > 2.5 mL/kg was rarely needed to avoid hypercapnia. Weight-correction of DCO 2 values improved its comparability between patients. Weight-corrected DCO 2 correlated better with PCO 2 than uncorrected DCO 2 but the correlation was weak. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.

    1975-01-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs

  3. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z

    1975-07-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.

  4. Neonatal Tele-Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne

    Neonatal homecare (NH) implies that parents manage tube feeding and care of their preterm infant at home supported by home visits from neonatal nurses, to monitor infant growth and the well-being of the family. Home visits are costly and time consuming in rural areas. The overall aim of this study...

  5. MRI of neonatal encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, P.L.; Lam, B.C.C.; Tung, H.K.S.; Wong, V.; Chan, F.L.; Ooi, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neonatal encephalopathy, including hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, perinatal/neonatal stroke, metabolic encephalopathy from inborn errors of metabolism, congenital central nervous system infections and birth trauma. The applications of advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are emphasized

  6. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  7. Is neonatal group B streptococcal infection preventable?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Azam, M

    2011-05-01

    Early onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection causes significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. We determined the incidence of EOGBS at Galway University Hospital (GUH) and examined any "missed opportunities" for preventing neonatal infection between 2004 and 2009. Our obstetric approach is risk-based. The incidence was 0.45\\/1,000 live-births; one death and one with neurological sequelae. A single mother received IAP; however we could not determine any potential for reducing cases of EOGBS by improving current IAP usage.

  8. Neonatal mortality of pigs in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abonyi

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... tials for optimum profit making. Unfortunately, this is .... energy was determined by Gallenkamp ballistic bomb calorimeter; crude protein was ... and phosphorus were determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer ...

  9. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  10. The differential proliferative ability of satellite cells in Lantang and Landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-qi Wang

    Full Text Available Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05 number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G(2/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05, while in G(0/G(1 phase was lower (P<0.05 in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05, while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1 were lower (P<0.05 than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs.

  11. Involvement of parents in care. Telemedicin neonatal homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, K. G.; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, G.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neonatal homecare (NH) is an alternative to hospitalization for healthy preterm infants dependent only on tube feeding. NH implies parents managing tube feeding while establishing breastfeeding at home with support from neonatal nurses offering home visits regularly, until breastfeed......INTRODUCTION Neonatal homecare (NH) is an alternative to hospitalization for healthy preterm infants dependent only on tube feeding. NH implies parents managing tube feeding while establishing breastfeeding at home with support from neonatal nurses offering home visits regularly, until...... breastfeeding is established. Home visits are time consuming and challenging for neonatal units covering big geographical areas and therefore replacements for home visits should be considered. The aim of this study is to identify parent’s needs when receiving NH and thereby identify requirements...

  12. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  13. Pipeline pig or swipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, H J

    1974-03-26

    A pig or swipe is used for cleaning piplines and for maintaining fluids separated while being transmitted through the line. It is adapted to be propelled through the line by a pressure gradient therein. The pig includes a sponge-like body of foamed plastic material, having an external coating or cover of durable material, such as unfoamed plastic in which reenforcing material, such a wire mesh or glass fabric may be embedded to increase resistance to tearing and wear. The covering is applied to leave openings through which the sponge-like body may project into wiping contact with the surrounding internal surface of the pipe when a longitudinal compressive force is exerted on the pig by the fluid in the pipe in advance of and following the pig therein. The pig also has a barrier layer at one end positioned to close the sponge-like body against the passage of fluid there through and to form a fluid-tight seal with the surrounding pipe. (3 claims)

  14. [Sedation and analgesia practices among Spanish neonatal intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (Pneonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... of spontaneous porcine pyemia including endocarditis and associated brain lesions. We present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus induced brain infection. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs received an intravenous injection of S. aureus of 108 CFU/kg body weight once at 0h or twice at 0h and 12h. Four...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  16. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  17. Neonatal abstinence syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a newborn who was exposed to addictive opiate drugs while in the mother’s womb. Causes Neonatal ... Increased muscle tone Irritability Poor feeding Rapid breathing Seizures Sleep problems Slow weight gain Stuffy nose, sneezing ...

  18. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  19. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  20. Gaseous nitrogen and carbon losses from pig manure derived from different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Nelemans, J.A.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication July 23, 2004. Manipulation of the diets of pigs may alter the composition of the manure and thereby the environmental and agricultural qualities of the manure. Laboratory studies were performed to quantify the effect of manipulation of pig diets on the chemical composition

  1. Female and male pigs' performance in a spatial holeboard and judgment bias task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the cognitive abilities of pigs are increasing in number, due to their relevance for the fields of animal welfare and biomedical research. While both female and male pigs have been used in cognitive tasks, possible sex differences in performance have not yet received extensive attention.

  2. Interaction between carbohydrates and fat in pigs : impact on energy evaluation of feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, G.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    In marketing pigs, nearly 50% of the costs are those of the feed. Therefore, it is necessary to know the nutritional value as accurately as possible.

    In the Netherlands, pigs receive in general (99%) compound feeds, containing all the nutrients they require. Cereals used to be the

  3. Foetal and neonatal thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetti, G; Zavallone, A; Gentili, L; Beck-Peccoz, P; Bona, G

    2002-10-01

    Thyroid hormones have been shown to be absolutely necessary for early brain development. During pregnancy, both maternal and foetal thyroid hormones contribute to foetal brain development and maternal supply explains why most of the athyreotic newborns usually do not show any signs of hypothyroidism at birth. Foetal and/or neonatal hypothyroidism is a rare disorder. Its incidence, as indicated by neonatal screening, is about 1:4000. Abnormal thyroid development (i.e. agenesia, ectopic gland, hypoplasia) or inborn errors in thyroid hormone biosynthesis are the most common causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. Recent studies reported that mutations involving Thyroid Transcriptor Factors (TTF) such as TTF-1, TTF-2, PAX-8 play an important role in altered foetal thyroid development. Deficiency of transcriptor factor (Pit-1, Prop-1, LHX-3) both in mother and in the foetus represents another rare cause of foetal hypothyroidism. At birth clinical picture may be not always so obvious and typical signs appear only after several weeks but a delayed diagnosis could have severe consequences consisting of delayed physical and mental development. Even if substitutive therapy is promptly started some learning difficulties might still arise suggesting that intrauterine adequate levels of thyroid hormones are absolutely necessary for a normal neurological development. Placental transfer of maternal antithyroid antibodies inhibiting fetal thyroid function can cause transient hypothyroidism at birth. If the mother with thyroid autoimmune disease is also hypothyroid during pregnancy and she doesn't receive substitutive therapy, a worse neurological outcome may be expected for her foetus. Foetal and/or neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare condition and its incidence has been estimated around 1:4000-40000, according to various authors. The most common causes are maternal thyroid autoimmune disorders, such as Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Rarer non autoimmune causes

  4. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La mayoría de las veces la ictericia en el recién nacido es un hecho fisiológico, causado por una hiperbilirrubinemia de predominio indirecto, secundario a inmadurez hepática e hiperproducción de bilirrubina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en los años 2007 a 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 173 recién nacidos que ingresaron al Departamento de Neonatología con diagnóstico de hiperbilirrubinemia agravada. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada fue del 3,67 % y predominó en hermanos con antecedentes de ictericia (56,65 %. El tiempo de aparición fue de 48 a 72 h (76,87 % y entre los factores agravantes se hallaron el nacimiento pretérmino y el bajo peso al nacer. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con luminoterapia (90,17 %. CONCLUSIÓN. La hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada constituye un problema de salud. Los factores agravantes son la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer. La luminoterapia es una medida terapéutica eficaz para su tratamiento.INTRODUCTION. Most of times jaundice in newborn is a physiological fact due to hyperbilirubinemia of indirect predominance, secondary to liver immaturity and to bilirubin hyperproduction. The aim of present of present study was to determine the behavior of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from 2007 to 2009. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in 173 newborn patients admitted in the Neonatology Department diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS. The incidence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was of 3,67% with predominance in brothers with a history of jaundice (56,65%. The time of appearance was of 48 to 72 hrs (76,87% and among the aggravating factors were the preterm birth and

  5. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  6. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  7. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Yeom

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1, an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs. Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  8. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  9. Hazards of pentazocine for neonatal analgesia: a single-centre experience over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, O D; Aghahowa, S E

    2008-09-01

    In developing countries, neonatal analgesia for surgical procedures is a major challenge where postoperative care is inadequate. To report experience of pentazocine for neonatal surgery in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. A retrospective study of surgical neonates who received pentazocine at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Benin City between January 1998 and December 2007. During the period, 2590 paediatric operations were performed including 368 (14.2%) neonates, 49 (13.3%) of whom had pentazocine. The other neonates received a variety of analgesics. Of 56 neonates who developed respiratory depression, 40 (71.4%) had pentazocine (pneonates aged between 9 hours and 28 days [mean (SD) 12 (1.2) days] died between 1 and 36 hours following 8-hourly administration of 0.5 mg/kg pentazocine. In older children who had pentazocine, over-sedation was also a problem but there were no deaths. Deaths in neonates were mainly owing to persistent respiratory depression which was compounded by the unavailability of a paediatric ventilator. However, many neonates responded to naloxone. All neonates who died had an autopsy and no lesion was found which could have compromised respiratory function. The use of pentazocine in neonates was associated with high morbidity and mortality. Caution is required when using pentazocine for neonatal analgesia where post-operative respiratory support is insufficient.

  10. The effects of low levels of dietary trace minerals on the plasma levels, faecal excretion health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate. Group 1 (n =100 pigs received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals. Group 2 (n =100 pigs received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1. Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated. Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P 0.05 by the dietary levels of these trace minerals. Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  11. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  12. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  14. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  15. (EPEC) from pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... 16 belonged to O60 (94.1%) and 1(5.88%) was untypeable. Virulence genes ..... Figure 4. a) Confluent monolayer of healthy vero cells; b) CPE in verocells after 12 h of incubation with filtrate extracts .... about 5 to 10 pigs near their residence and share the ... of Stx to vero cells remains the 'gold standard' for.

  16. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  17. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  18. Pediatric and neonatal cardiovascular pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Hoover, Suzan R

    2003-01-01

    Advances in cardiology, surgical techniques, postoperative care, and medications have improved the chances of long-term survival of the neonatal and pediatric patient with complex congenital cardiac anomalies. Rather than undergoing palliative repair, these children are now frequently taken to the operating room for complete repair. As complete repair becomes the norm, collaborative management and a thorough understanding of the pre and postoperative medications used become essential to the care of these patients. The nurse's ability to understand preop, postop, and management medications is enhanced by an understanding of the principles of cardiac anatomy and physiology, as well as developmental changes in cardiac function. All of these are reviewed. In addition, since the safe and effective administration of these drugs depends on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurse's thorough knowledge of these medications and their effects on the cardiovascular system, a brief review of these medications is presented. While new technology and techniques are improving survival rates for children with congenital heart anomalies, it is the postoperative care that these children receive that enhances the patient's survival even more.

  19. The response of the pig kidney to the combined effects of cisplatin and unilateral renal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Rezvani, M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Golding, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Seven mature Large White female pigs, approximately 10 months of age received a single dose of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), c-DDP (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Prior to, and 4 weeks after c-DDP administration, individual kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured. Of the 5 pigs surviving the c-DDP treatment most exhibited a reduction in both GFR and ERPF; the mean reduction in GFR (36.2±18.9%) was more pronounced than that for ERPF (12.6±19.4%). The right kidneys of these 5 pigs, plus 5 pigs which did not receive c-DDP, were irradiated with a single dose of 11.9 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. Animals that received c-DDP prior to irradiation failed to exhibit the hyperaemic response 2 weeks after irradiation. Moreover, the degree of reduction in renal function was greater than that observed in the irradiated kidneys of pigs receiving radiation alone. Prior treatment with c-DDP did not prevent a compensatory hypertrophic response by the contralateral unirradiated kidney; indeed the GFR in the unirradiated kidney of c-DDP treated pigs increased at a greater rate than in those pigs which did not receive c-DDP. Thus prior treatment with c-DDP enhances the radiation-induced reduction in individual kidney GFR and ERPF. 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  20. Treatment of pneumonia in pigs with long-acting injectable tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, A; Cromie, L; Neeve, S; Pommier, P; Keïta, A; Pagot, E

    2006-12-09

    A blinded, randomised clinical trial was carried out in Brittany, France on three commercial pig farms with a history of pneumonia. Pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups; 100 pigs received a single intramuscular injection of a long-acting formulation of tylosin at a dose rate of 20 mg tylosin/kg bodyweight, and 101 pigs received three consecutive daily intramuscular injections of 10 mg tylosin/kg bodyweight. The pigs' rectal temperatures and other clinical variables were recorded at intervals and a scoring system was used to evaluate the results of the treatments. Relapses were recorded for up to nine days after the treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatments in terms of clinical scores, rectal temperatures, or cure or relapse rates.

  1. Oxfendazole as successful treatment of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta; Armando Emiliano Gonzalez; Cesar Gavidia; Viterbo Ayvar; Hector Hugo Garcia; Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) on Taenia hydatigena metacestodes, also called Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis), was studied in 648 raising pigs. This study was performed in Tumbes Department in Peru, an endemic area for cysticercosis. Pigs were randomized in two groups;untreated group (n=142) did not receive any treatment and treated group (n=506) received OFZ treatment at a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Six months after treatment, the pigs were necropsied. The prevalence of infection by C. tenuicollis among the pigs was 27.5%(39/142) and 2.0%(10/506) in untreated and treated groups, respectively. Untreated group was infested only with viable cysts, whereas treated group had no viable cysts. All the cysts found in treated group presented degeneration, with a thick membrane, and they contained milky fluid and fibrous tissue. A single dose of OFZ was effective against C. tenuicollis, thus providing an alternative drug for controlling this parasite in pigs.

  2. Transient neonatal diabetes or neonatal hyperglycaemia: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transient neonatal diabetes and neonatal hyperglycaemia both present in the neonatal period with features of hyperglycaemia, dehydration and weight loss. Differentiating these conditions clinically is difficult. We describe the case of a 13 day old female whom we managed recently who could have had either condition.

  3. The value of neonatal autopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.

  4. Effect of antenatal tocolysis on neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Chad K; Briery, Christian M; Keiser, Sharon D; Martin, Rick W; Kosek, Mary A; Morrison, John C

    2012-12-01

    Detail adverse neonatal effects in pregnancies treated with indomethacin (I), magnesium sulfate (M) or nifedipine (N). Women in acute preterm labor with cervical dilatation 1-6 cm were randomized to receive one of three first-line tocolytic drugs. There were 317 neonates (I = 103, M = 95, N = 119) whose mothers were treated with tocolytic therapy. There was no difference in gestational age at randomization (average 28.6 weeks' gestation) or at delivery (31.6 weeks' gestation, p = 0.551), birth weight (p = 0.871) or ventilator days (p = 0.089) between the three groups. Neonatal morbidity was not different between the three groups; respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.086), patent ductus arteriosus (p = 0.592), sepsis (p = 0.590), necrotizing enterocolitis (p = 0.770), intraventricular hemorrhage (p = 0.669) and periventricular leukomalacia (p = 0.124). There were no statistically significant differences between the three tocolytics as far as composite neonatal morbidity or mortality was concerned.

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis in Omani Neonates; Single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharef W. Sharef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC is one of the most challenging complications of prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN in neonates. There is a lack of research investigating its incidence in newborn infants in Oman and the Arab region. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence of PNAC and its risk factors in Omani neonates. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January and April 2014. All neonates who received PN for ≥14 days during a four-year period (June 2009 to May 2013 at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Results: A total of 1,857 neonates were admitted to the NICU over the study period and 135 neonates (7.3% received PN for ≥14 days. Determining the incidence of PNAC was only possible in 97 neonates; of these, 38 (39% had PNAC. The main risk factors associated with PNAC were duration of PN, duration of enteral starvation, gastrointestinal surgeries, blood transfusions and sepsis. Neonates with PNAC had a slightly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in comparison to those without PNAC. Conclusion: This study found a PNAC incidence of 39% in Omani neonates. There were several significant risk factors for PNAC in Omani neonates; however, after logistic regression analysis, only total PN duration remained statistically significant. Preventive strategies should be implemented in NICUs so as to avoid future chronic liver disease in this population.

  6. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  7. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences from adults and children in physiology and anatomy of neonates inform our ... is based on energy expenditure indexed to bodyweight.2 Energy ... fragile and poorly keratinised.5 ... neonates means that very conservative fluid regimes in neonates ..... I make an estimation of insensible loss from the skin, viscera,.

  8. Ultrasonography of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is as an important tool for differentiation of obstructive and non-obstructive causes of jaundice in infants and children. Beyond two weeks of age, extrahepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis are the two most common causes of persistent neonatal jaundice: differentiation of extrahepatic biliary atresia, which requires early surgical intervention, is very important. Meticulous analysis should focus on size and configuration of the gallbladder and anatomical changes of the portahepatis. In order to narrow the differential diagnosis, combined approaches using hepatic scintigraphy, MR cholangiography, and, at times, percutaneous liver biopsy are necessary. US is useful for demonstrating choledochal cyst, bile plug syndrome, and spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct

  9. Rings in the neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hackett, C B

    2011-02-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an uncommon disease of the neonate. It is believed to be caused by the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies to the ribonucleoproteins (Ro\\/SSA, La\\/SSB or rarely U RNP) as these are almost invariably present in NLE sera. The most common clinical manifestations include cutaneous lupus lesions and congenital complete heart block. Hepatobiliary and haematologic abnormalities are reported less frequently. We describe a patient with cutaneous NLE to illustrate and raise awareness of the characteristic annular eruption of this condition. We also emphasize the need for thorough investigation for concomitant organ involvement and for maternal education regarding risk in future pregnancies.

  10. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  11. Antibiotic treatment preventing necrotising enterocolitis alters urinary and plasma metabolomes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Trimigno, Alessia; Stanstrup, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gut inflammatory condition in premature neonates, onset and development of which depends on the gut microbiome. Attenuation of the gut microbiome by antibiotics can reduce NEC incidence and severity. However, how the antibiotics-suppressed gut microbiome......, as shown by specific metabolites. Metabolites associated with the gut microbiome, including 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenylacetylglycine, all from phenylalanine, and three bile acids showed lower levels in the antibiotics-treated pigs where the gut microbiome was extensively...... affects the whole-body metabolism in NEC-sensitive premature neonates is unknown. In formula-fed preterm pigs, used as a model for preterm infants, plasma and urinary metabolomes were investigated by LC-MS and (1)H-NMR, with and without antibiotic treatment immediately after birth. While reducing the gut...

  12. Growth Performance and Behaviour in Grouped Pigs Fed Fibrous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter. Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively (p<0.05. Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05 compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05. Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05. Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05. It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided.

  13. Labor epidural analgesia is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Agakidou, Eleni; Philip Thomas, Sumesh; Murthy, Prashanth; John Lloyd, David

    2011-09-01

    To explore whether epidural analgesia (EA) in labor is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia. Retrospective observational study of 480 consecutive term singleton infants born to mothers who received EA in labor (EA group) and 480 term infants delivered to mothers who did not receive EA (NEA group). Mothers in the EA group had significantly higher incidence of intrapartum pyrexia [54/480 (11%) vs. 4/480 (0.8%), OR = 15.1, p neonatal pyrexia [68/480 (14.2%) vs. 15/480 (3.1%), OR = 5.1, p Neonates in the EA group had a median duration of pyrexia of 1 h (maximum 5 h) with a peak temperature within 1 h. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that maternal EA was independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia (>37.5°C) after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia (>37.9°C) and other confounders (OR = 3.44, CI = 1.9-6.3, p neonates. It is unnecessary to investigate febrile offspring of mothers who have had epidurals unless pyrexia persists for longer than 5 h or other signs or risk factors for neonatal sepsis are present.

  14. Clinical pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in the neonate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian Maria

    2009-04-01

    Sepsis is common in neonates and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sixty percent of preterm neonates receive at least one antibiotic, and 43% of the antibiotics administered to these neonates are aminoglycosides. The clearance (Cl), serum half-life (t(1/2)), and volume of distribution (Vd) of aminoglycosides change during the neonatal life, and the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides need to be studied in neonates in order to optimise therapy with these drugs. The aim of this work is to review the published data on the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature that can be a useful tool in the hands of physicians. The bibliographic search was performed electronically using PubMed, as the search engine, through July 11th, 2008. Firstly, a Medline search was performed with the keywords "pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in neonates" with the limit of "human". Other Medline searches were performed with the keywords "pharmacokinetics of ... in neonates" followed by the name of the aminoglycosides: amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin. In addition, the book Neofax: A Manual of Drugs Used in Neonatal Care by Young and Mangum (Thomson Healthcare, 2007) was consulted. The aminoglycosides are mainly eliminated by the kidney, and their elimination rates are reduced at birth. As a consequence Cl is reduced and t(1/2) is prolonged in the neonate as compared to more mature infants. The high body-water content of the neonate results in a large Vd of aminoglycosides as these drugs are fairly water soluble. Postnatal development is an important factor in the maturation of the neonate, and as postnatal age proceeds, Cl of aminoglycosides increases. The maturation of the kidney governs the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in the infant. Cl and t(1/2) are influenced by development, and this must be taken into consideration when planning a dosage regimen with aminoglycosides in the neonate. Aminoglycosides

  15. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  16. Approach to neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Narayan

    2015-01-01

    The treatment includes supportive care along with administration of appropriate antibiotics. Adjuvant treatment includes IVIG, GCSF, exchange transfusion and pentoxifylline administration. This paper aims to present an algorithmic approach to neonatal sepsis to expedite the diagnosis along with providing appropriate and adequate treatment.

  17. HIV and pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding epidemiological aspects, antiretroviral drug safety, and outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns are limited in Argentina. We underwent a retrospective analysis of registries of HIV-infected pregnant women assisted at Helios Salud, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1997-2006. Variables associated with preterm delivery and neonatal complications were analyzed by univariate and logistic regression analyses. A total of 204 mother-child binomium were included. Maternal age (median: 29 years; 32.5% without prior diagnosis of HIV-infection. Baseline median CD4 T-cell count: 417 cell/μl; 98% received antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy [2 nucleoside analogs plus either nevirapine (55% or a protease inhibitor (32%]. Overall incidence of toxicity was 12.5%: rash (8%, anemia (3.5% and hepatotoxicity (1%. Rash was associated with exposure to nevirapine. Eighty one percent and 50% reached HIV-viral loads <1000 and <50 copies/ml at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Twenty six percent had obstetric complications and 16% had preterm delivery. Of the newborns, 1.6% had congenital defects and 9% had neonatal complications. Overall neonatal mortality was 1% and perinatal transmission was 0.7%. Protease inhibitor use and obstetric complications were associated to preterm delivery while obstetric complications were associated with neonatal complications. In our population, hepatotoxicity was low despite frequent use of nevirapine. Protease inhibitor use was associated to preterm delivery. A favorable virological response and a low rate of perinatal transmission was observed, what supports the consensus that antiretroviral therapy benefits during pregnancy outweigh risks of maternal and neonatal adverse events.

  18. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  19. Analysis of In-hospital Neonatal Death in the Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in China: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Hong Wang; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Xiao-Mei Tong; Hong Liu; Guo-Fang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background:Globally,the proportion of child deaths that occur in the neonatal period remains a high level of 37-41%.Differences of cause in neonate death exist in different regions as well as in different economic development countries.The specific aim of this study was to investigate the causes,characteristics,and differences of death in neonates during hospitalization in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of China.Methods:All the dead neonates admitted to 26 NICUs were included between January 1,2011,and December 31,2011.All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a designed questionnaire.Data collected from each NICU were delivered to the leading institution where the results were analyzed.Results:A total of 744 newborns died during the l-year survey,accounting for 1.2% of all the neonates admitted to 26 NICUs and 37.6% of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age in these hospitals.Preterm neonate death accounted for 59.3% of all the death.The leading causes of death in preterm and term infants were pulmonary disease and infection,respectively.In early neonate period,pulmonary diseases (56.5%) occupied the largest proportion ofpreterm deaths while infection (27%) and neurologic diseases (22%) were the two main causes of term deaths.In late neonate period,infection was the leading cause of both preterm and term neonate deaths.About two-thirds of neonate death occurred after medical care withdrawal.Of the cases who might survive if receiving continuing treatment,parents' concern about the long-term outcomes was the main reason of medical care withdrawal.Conclusions:Neonate death still accounts for a high proportion of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age.Our study showed the majority of neonate death occurred in preterm infants.Cause of death varied with the age of death and gestational age.Accurate and prompt evaluation of the long-term outcomes should be carried out to guide the critical

  20. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    in blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...... neutrophil and monocyte TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated blood cytokine responses were low relative to adults. ORA pigs showed enhanced blood neutrophil maturation with reduced cell size and CD172a expression. Only ORA pigs, but not SYS pigs, were protected from a high density of gut Gram-positive bacteria......, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth....

  1. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  2. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas-Berríos, N.; García-Fragoso, L.; García-García, I.; Valcárcel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor ...

  4. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  5. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  6. Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of CH in neonates. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units of the Department of Pediatrics Unit-I, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore and Lady Willington Hospital Lahore in 6 months (January-June 2011. Materials and Methods: Sample was collected by non-probability purposive sampling. After consent, 550 newborn were registered for the study. Demographic data and relevant history was recorded. After aseptic measures, 2-3 ml venous blood analyzed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level by immunoradiometric assay. Treatment was started according to the individual merit as per protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and Chi-square test was applied to find out the association of CH with different variables. Results: The study population consisted of 550 newborns. Among 550 newborns, 4 (0.8% newborns had elevated TSH level. CH had statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism (P value 0.000 and mother′s drug intake during the pregnancy period (P value 0.013. Conclusion: CH is 0.8% in neonates. It has statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism and mother′s drug intake during pregnancy.

  7. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care......BACKGROUND: For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home...... visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...

  8. An increase in the burden of neonatal admissions to a rural district hospital in Kenya over 19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Kevin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the global neonatal deaths occur in developing nations, mostly in rural homes. Many of the newborns who receive formal medical care are treated in rural district hospitals and other peripheral health centres. However there are no published studies demonstrating trends in neonatal admissions and outcome in rural health care facilities in resource poor regions. Such information is critical in planning public health interventions. In this study we therefore aimed at describing the pattern of neonatal admissions to a Kenyan rural district hospital and their outcome over a 19 year period, examining clinical indicators of inpatient neonatal mortality and also trends in utilization of a rural hospital for deliveries. Methods Prospectively collected data on neonates is compared to non-neonatal paediatric (≤ 5 years old admissions and deliveries' in the maternity unit at Kilifi District Hospital from January 1st 1990 up to December 31st 2008, to document the pattern of neonatal admissions, deliveries and changes in inpatient deaths. Trends were examined using time series models with likelihood ratios utilised to identify indicators of inpatient neonatal death. Results The proportion of neonatal admissions of the total paediatric ≤ 5 years admissions significantly increased from 11% in 1990 to 20% by 2008 (trend 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.45 -1.21. Most of the increase in burden was from neonates born in hospital and very young neonates aged 7 mmol/l predicted inpatient neonatal death with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 68%. Conclusions There is clear evidence of increasing burden in neonatal admissions at a rural district hospital in contrast to reducing numbers of non-neonatal paediatrics' admissions aged ≤ 5years. Though the inpatient case fatality for all admissions aged ≤ 5 years declined significantly, neonates now comprise close to 60% of all inpatient deaths. Simple indicators may identify

  9. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  10. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  11. Determinants of weight and length of Indonesian neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.; Schmidt, M.K.; West, C.E.; Schultink, W.; Gross, R.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Design: From 16-20 week of pregnancy, 366 mothers of the neonates had participated in the community-based study to investigate the effect of weekly supplementation during pregnancy with iron and vitamin A on infant growth. Women from five villages were allocated randomly to receive two tablets each

  12. Clinical practice: neonatal resuscitation. A Dutch consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, F.A.M.; van Veenendaal, M.B.; Mulder, A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The updated Dutch guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation assimilate the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the 2004 guidelines and controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed, and recommendations for daily practice are provided and

  13. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  14. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  15. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs: differential expression of oxidative stress and DNA repair in liver and brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... incision repair (P = 0.014) were all increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P = 0.003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may...

  16. Neonatal hemochromatosis. Case series from Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Afaf M

    2013-12-01

    To review clinical presentations, diagnosis, response to treatment, and outcome of infants with neonatal hemochromatosis (NH). This is a retrospective review of all cases admitted to the Pediatric Department at Salmaniya Medical Center, Manama, Bahrain between March 2008 and May 2011. The diagnosis was based on serum iron and ferritin, alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP), liver and buccal biopsies, and abdominal MRI scan. Ten patients (8 males and 2 females) were diagnosed with NH. Two patients were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 6 were preterm. The median birth weight was 1.700 grams. The median age at presentation was 16 days, and at diagnosis was 23 days. Two patients had positive consanguinity. Clinical presentations of the infants were hepatosplenomegaly (n=5), ascites (n=3), and hypoglycemia (n=6). All patients had raised ferritin levels, prolonged prothrombin time, and 9 patients had high serum iron and serum AFP. Abdominal MRI showed iron overload in the liver (n=8). Liver biopsies showed evidence of hemochromatosis (n=3). Buccal biopsies stained positive for iron (n=1). Eight patients received antioxidant therapy and survived. Two patients passed away. Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare liver disease of newborns with a spectrum of clinical severity. Elevated serum ferritin and AFP support the diagnosis after excluding other causes of neonatal liver failure. The use of antioxidant therapy helps to improve the outcome.

  17. A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S; Vinther, Jens; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul

    2014-04-16

    A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2 mL ThoroVAX®VET, Group 2 received 1 mL Ingelvac®MycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators.The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAX®VET but not for pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac®MycoFLEX®, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. This trial demonstrated that vaccination with Thoro®VAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae.

  18. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  19. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P...

  20. Purified natural pig immunoglobulins can substitute dietary zinc in reducing piglet post weaning diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2017-01-01

    antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection. In the present study we were able to reproduce these results...... as it was observed that oral ppIgG accelerated clearance of faecal haemolytic bacteria in pigs challenged with E. coli in comparison with pigs not receiving ppIgG. This effect was observed upon feeding ppIgG for seven days postweaning suggesting that ppIgG does not have to be used prophylactically for several days...

  1. Volume and leak measurements during neonatal CPAP in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Hendrik S.

    2011-01-01

    As yet, little is known about the effects of air leakages during CPAP in newborns. The present doctoral dissertation investigates tidal volume and leak measurements during nasal continuous positive airway pressure in neonates using a commercial ventilatory device. Investigations include in vitro studies, modelling and computer simulation as well as a clinical randomized cross-over trial in neonates.

  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  3. Molecules produced by probiotics prevent enteric colibacillosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo; Tessema, Akalate; Sharma, Sapana; Kovač, Zlatko; Wang, Chuan; Morales, Rocio; Griffiths, Mansel William

    2017-11-15

    With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E. coli. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the bioactive molecules, termed proteobiotics, produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in preventing enterotoxigenic E, coli (ETEC) infection in pigs, which is the etiological agent for enteric colibacillosis, a common disease of nursing and young pigs. To achieve this, piglets were fed a preparation of the bioactive at four levels: 0, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× for 7 days prior to challenge with E. coli K88. There were 36 pigs (18 gilts and 18 barrows) per treatment, resulting in 144 piglets in total for the study. Each pen had 6 piglets (3 gilts and 3 barrows). Only piglets with no physical abnormality or conditions were used in the trial and intact male piglets and ridglings were excluded. The bioactive continued to be fed to the pigs post-challenge. Based of fecal and demeanour scores, pigs fed the low and high dose of the proteobiotic were significanlty less likely to show symptoms of illness than pigs fed no bioactive. While not being significant, the weight gain of pigs given the proteobiotics was improved. At day 4 following challenge, almost 50% of piglets that did not receive the proteobiotic were shedding ETEC in their feces, compared with about 15% of animals receiving the supplement. There was also an indication that the proteobiotics reduced colonization of the ileum by E. coli K88 and improved gut health. This study indicates that the bioactive molecules produced by L. acidophilus reduces

  4. F4-related mutation and expression analysis of the aminopeptidase N gene in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetstouwers, T; Van Poucke, M; Nguyen, V U; Melkebeek, V; Coddens, A; Deforce, D; Cox, E; Peelman, L J

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal infections with F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are worldwide an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. Adherence of F4 ETEC to the small intestine by binding to specific receptors is mediated by F4 fimbriae. Porcine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP) was recently identified as a new F4 receptor. In this study, 7 coding mutations and 1 mutation in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR)were identified in ANPEP by reverse transcriptase (RT-) PCR and sequencing using 3 F4 receptor-positive (F4R+) and 2 F4 receptor-negative (F4R-) pigs, which were F4 phenotyped based on the MUC4 TaqMan, oral immunization, and the in vitro villous adhesion assay. Three potential differential mutations (g.2615C > T, g.8214A > G, and g.16875C > G) identified by comparative analysis between the 3 F4R+ and 2 F4R- pigs were genotyped in 41 additional F4 phenotyped pigs. However, none of these 3 mutations could be associated with F4 ETEC susceptibility. In addition, the RT-PCR experiments did not reveal any differential expression or alternative splicing in the small intestine of F4R+ and F4R- pigs. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the difference in F4 binding to ANPEP is due to modifications in its carbohydrate moieties.

  5. The gastrointestinal absorption and retention of niobium in adult and newborn guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.; Haines, J.W.; Popplewell, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb ingested in milk by adult guinea pigs on a milk-supplemented diet was estimated as 0.8±0.2% (SEM; n=4) and a value of 1.4±0.2% obtained for guinea pigs fasted for 24 h before and 2 h after oral administration of 95 Nb in a citrate solution. The absorption in 2-day-old animals given the 95 Nb-citrate solution was estimated as 1.5±0.2% (SEM; n=3). These results support the values currently used for radiological protection purposes to calculate doses from the ingestion of niobium isotopes; these are 1% for adults and 2% for infants in the first year of life. Intestinal retention of niobium in newborn guinea pigs was low, unlike retention in other species, but consistent with observations of the retention of other elements in guinea pigs. It is considered that retention in human neonates is likely to be most similar to that in guinea pigs. (author)

  6. Immune response in pigs treated with therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin at the time of vaccination against Aujeszky's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Czyżewska-Dors, Ewelina; Kwit, Krzysztof; Rachubik, Jarosław; Lipowski, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2015-06-01

    The effect of treatment with enrofloxacin was studied on the postvaccinal immune response in pigs. Forty pigs were used (control not vaccinated (C), control vaccinated (CV), vaccinated, received enrofloxacin (ENRO)). From day -1 to day 3 pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended dose. Pigs from ENRO and CV groups were vaccinated twice against Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). There was a significant delay in the production of humoral response of enrofloxacin dosed pigs when compared with CV group. Moreover, in ENRO group the significant decrease in IFN-γ production and significantly lower values of stimulation index after ADV restimulation was noted, as compared with CV group. The secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α by PBMC after recall stimulation was also affected in ENRO group. The results indicate that enrofloxacin, in addition to its antimicrobial properties, possess significant immunomodulatory effects and may alter the immune response to vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  8. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  9. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is increased following probiotic administration to preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard Harvey

    2011-01-01

    with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P... immature gut immune system and low NEC incidence in the control group. It remains to be determined whether similar adverse responses to probiotics occur in preterm infants...

  10. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu)), lithium chloride (F(LiCl)), or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl)). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to...

  11. Behavioural and brain responses to flavoured-meals paired with visceral stimulations in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values were studied in twelve 30-kg pigs. During four 30-min conditioning sessions per flavour, the animals received a flavoured-meal paired with intraduodenal infusions of 15% glucose (FG), lithium chloride (FL), or saline (FS). Two-choice feeding tests were performed 1 and 5 weeks later, and in between, anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three PET brain imaging with exposure to the flavours. During conditi...

  12. Experimental and iatrogenic poisoning by sodium selenite in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Following a case of iatrogenic selenium poisoning in a young pig, an experimental study was carry out. Sodium selenite was orally and parenterally administered to 13 pigs that were subdivided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. The animals in groups G1 and G3 received sodium selenite intramuscularly (IM, G1 received a comercial formula, and G3 received sodium selenite mixed with distilled water at different dosages, and those in group G2 were fed commercial sodium selenite. Acute and subacute poisoning was observed in both groups, although the onset of clinical signs was slower in group G2. Only one pig (in group G1 that had received the highest dose showed a peracute course. Apathy, anorexia, dyspnea, vomiting, muscular tremors, proprioceptive deficit, ataxia and paresis of the hind limbs progressing to the front limbs evolving to tetraplegia were observed. Postmortem findings differed whether the animals received the injected (G1 and G3 or oral (G2 sodium selenite. The liver was moderately atrophic in some animals of G2. Some of the animals in groups G1 and G3 presented with lung edema. One pig in G3 had yellowish-brown areas in the ventral horns of the cervical intumescences of the spinal cord. The most important histological changes were present in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescences of the spinal cord. In one animal, changes were present in the brainstem and mesencephalon. The initial lesion was a perivascular and astrocyte edema that progressing to lysis and death of astrocytes and neurons. In the chronic stage of the lesions, there were extensive areas of liquefaction necrosis with perivascular lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration and occasional eosinophils. It seems that disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to astrocyte edema is the most likely mechanism of CNS lesion.

  13. Long-term Effects of Recurrent Intermittent Hypoxia and Hyperoxia on Respiratory System Mechanics in Neonatal Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dylag, Andrew M.; Mayer, Catherine A.; Raffay, Thomas M.; Martin, Richard J.; Jafri, Anjum; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Premature infants are at increased risk for wheezing disorders. Clinically, these neonates experience recurrent episodes of apnea and desaturation often treated by increasing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2). We developed a novel paradigm of neonatal intermittent hypoxia with subsequent hyperoxia overshoots (CIHO/E) and hypothesized that CIHO/E elicits long-term changes on pulmonary mechanics in mice. Methods Neonatal C57BL/6 mice received CIHO/E, which consisted of 10% O2 (1...

  14. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Major defects in neonatal skin have serious consequences for the health of the baby, but fortunately these are very rare. Early diagnosis of the genodermatoses can be life-saving. Birthmarks, also known as naevi, are usually first noted in neonates, and can be very alarming for parents. A variety of infections can.

  16. Neonatal hypocalcemia and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsary, Asmaa Y; Elgameel, Alkassem A; Mohammed, Wael S; Zaki, Osman M; Taha, Shaimaa A

    2018-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation.  Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from May to October 2016. Data were collected from 100 neonates by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire; which included socio-demographic information, maternal and neonatal history; in addition to investigations of serum calcium total and ionized and serum vitamin D level. Results: The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 76%, late hypocalcemia represent 52% of hypocalcemic neonates. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 38%. Hypocalcemia was found more prevalent among neonates with no history of vitamin D supplementation (98.7%), no history of maternal calcium supplementation (57.9%), while they had a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy (46.1%) which increased to 53.8% with late hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Neonatal hypocalcemia is widely prevalent in Fayoum governorate with significant association with a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy, not receiving maternal calcium or neonatal vitamin D supplementation.

  17. The effectiveness of familiar auditory stimulus on hospitalized neonates' physiologic responses to procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmnejad, Elham; Sarhangi, Forogh; Javadi, Mahrooz; Rejeh, Nahid; Amirsalari, Susan; Tadrisi, Seyed Davood

    2017-06-01

    Hospitalized neonates usually undergo different painful procedures. This study sought to test the effects of a familiar auditory stimulus on the physiologic responses to pain of venipuncture among neonates in intensive care unit. The study design is quasi-experimental. The randomized clinical trial study was done on 60 full-term neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between March 20 to June 20, 2014. The neonates were conveniently selected and randomly allocated to the control and the experimental groups. Recorded maternal voice was played for the neonates in the experimental group from 10 minutes before to 10 minutes after venipuncture while the neonates in the control group received no sound therapy intervention. The participants' physiologic parameters were assessed 10 minutes before, during, and after venipuncture. At baseline, the study groups did not differ significantly regarding the intended physiologic parameters (P > .05). During venipuncture, maternal voice was effective in reducing the neonates' heart rate, respiratory rate, and diastolic blood pressure (P familiar sounds to effectively manage neonates' physiologic responses to procedural pain of venipuncture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Xenotransplantation of neonatal porcine liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkavenko, O; Emerich, D F; Muzina, M; Muzina, Z; Vasconcellos, A V; Ferguson, A B; Cooper, I J; Elliott, R B

    2005-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine liver cell types may provide a means of overcoming the shortage of suitable donor tissues to treat hepatic diseases characterized by inherited inborn errors of metabolism or protein production. Here we report the successful isolation, culture, and xenotransplantation of liver cells harvested from 7- to 10-day-old piglets. Liver cells were isolated and cultured immediately after harvesting. Cell viability was excellent (>90%) over the duration of the in vitro studies (3 weeks) and the cultured cells continued to significantly proliferate. These cells also retained their normal secretory and metabolic capabilities as determined by continued release of albumin, factor 8, and indocyanin green (ICG) uptake. After 3 weeks in culture, porcine liver cells were loaded into immunoisolatory macro devices (Theracyte devices) and placed into the intraperitoneal cavity of immunocompetant CD1 mice. Eight weeks later, the devices were retrieved and the cells analyzed for posttransplant determinations of survival and function. Post mortem analysis confirmed that the cell-loaded devices were biocompatible, and were well-tolerated without inducing any notable inflammatory reaction in the tissues immediately surrounding the encapsulated cells. Finally, the encapsulated liver cells remained viable and functional as determined by histologic analyses and ICG uptake/release. The successful harvesting, culturing, and xenotransplantation of functional neonatal pig liver cells support the continued development of this approach for treating a range of currently undertreated or intractable hepatic diseases.

  19. Developments in neonatal care and nursing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Patricia; Fallon, Anne

    This article reviews the origins and evolution of neonatology and considers the role of the neonatal nurse within this specialty. Neonatal nurses are a vital part of the neonatal team that provides care for sick babies. The nursing care required by sick babies and their families on a neonatal unit can be variable and complex. The past century has seen significant changes in the role of the neonatal nurse. This has come about through dramatic technological developments on neonatal units, an increased understanding of neonatal physiology and pathology, changes in the education of neonatal nurses, and active and ongoing clinical research within the specialty. The resulting significant advances in neonatal care, including that provided by neonatal nurses, have made a crucial and steadfast contribution to marked improvements in neonatal outcomes.

  20. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  1. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  2. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV during the incubation (preclinical phase of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were co-mingled with infected donors through successive eight-hour time slots spanning from 8 to 64 hours post inoculation (hpi of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 hours prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors.Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 hours earlier than the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD was more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, the findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of

  3. Update on neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is one of the most common biochemical abnormalities encountered in the newborn. However, controversy remains surrounding its definition and management especially in asymptomatic patients. New information has been published that describes the incidence and timing of low glucose concentrations in the groups most at risk for asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia. Furthermore, one large prospective study failed to find an association between repetitive low glucose concentrations and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. But hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism, especially genetic causes, continued to be associated with brain injury. New advances were made in the diagnosis and management of hyperinsulinism, including acquired hyperinsulinism in small for gestational age infants and others. Continuous glucose monitoring remains an attractive strategy for future research in this area. The fundamental question of how best to manage asymptomatic newborns with low glucose concentrations remains unanswered. Balancing the risks of overtreating newborns with low glucose concentrations who are undergoing a normal transition following birth against the risks of undertreating those in whom low glucose concentrations are pathological, dangerous, and/or a harbinger of serious metabolic disease remains a challenge.

  4. Neonatal status of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb, as a result of the ovulation and fertilization of more than one egg. It is relatively rare in humans and represents the rest of the phylogenetic stages. The most common are twins and they indicate the development of two fetuses in the womb. The frequency of twin pregnancies is about 1%. Multiple pregnancies belong to a group of high-risk pregnancies because of the many complications that occur during the pregnancy: higher number of premature deliveries, bleeding, early neonatal complications and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Such pregnancies and infants require greater supervision and monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of baby twins born at the maternity ward of the General Hospital in Prokuplje and their morbidity and mortality. Data on the total number of deliveries, number of twins, parity and maternal age, gestational age, body weight of twins, method of delivery, Apgar score and perinatal mortality were collected and statistically analyzed by means of retrospective analysis of operative birth and neonatal protocol for 6 years (2005 of 2010. Out of 4527 mothers who gave birth 43 were pairs of twins, or 0.95% of women gave birth to twins. These babies are more likely born by Caesarean section, but delivered with slightly lower birth weight.

  5. Neonatal sigmoid volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalayleh, Harbi; Koplewitz, Benjamin Z; Kapuller, Vadim; Armon, Yaron; Abu-Leil, Sinan; Arbell, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Neonatal sigmoid volvulus is a rare entity. It is associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Presentation is acute abdominal distention, vomiting and obstipation. Abdominal radiograph will show the "coffee bean" sign, but this is frequently missed and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Treatment options include contrast enema, colonoscopy or laparotomy, depending on the condition of the baby and local availability. During the last 6years, 6 infants with sigmoid volvulus were treated in our department. Four presented during the first 48h since birth, and 2 presented at the age of 2 and 7weeks of age. One child was operated and 5 had primary contrast enema with radiologic de-volvulus. Rectal biopsy was performed in all cases; three children had Hirschsprung's disease. Those with normal biopsies responded well to rectal washouts. Two patients had early one stage transanal pullthrough and one had 2 further occasions of sigmoid volvulus prior to definitive surgery. All three recovered with an uneventful course. Neonatal sigmoid volvulus requires a high level of suspicion. Contrast enema is efficient for primary de-volvulus. Rectal biopsy should be performed and if positive for Hirschsprung's disease, surgery should be performed sooner rather than later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Shenfu injection provides protection for perinatal asphyxia in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of shenfu injection for the protection of neonates with asphyxia. Eighty neonates with asphyxia were randomly divided into two groups, treatment group and control group (n=40. Both groups received interventions such as ventilation, oxygen, and circulation support. Treatment group was administrated with shenfu injection additionally. Serum levels of creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, and neuron-specific enolase were significantly lower but the oxygenation index was significantly higher in treatment group on day 7 and day 14. The neurobehavioral score was significantly higher in treatment group than in control group. On the 14th day, the survival rate of treatment group (77.5% was higher than that of control group (55%. Shenfu injection could protect the function of the brain, heart, lung, liver and kidney by attenuating ischemia reperfusion after severe asphyxia resuscitation, improve neurobehavioral ability and increase the survival of neonates.

  7. Validação da curva normal de peso fetal estimado pela ultra-sonografia para o diagnóstico do peso neonatal Validity of the normal fetal weight curve estimated by ultrasound for diagnosis of neonatal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância entre o peso fetal estimado (PFE por ultra-sonografia e o neonatal, o desempenho da curva normal de PFE por idade gestacional no diagnóstico de desvios do peso fetal/neonatal e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 186 grávidas atendidas de novembro de 1998 a janeiro de 2000, com avaliação ultra-sonográfica até 3 dias antes do parto, determinação do PFE e do índice de líquido amniótico e parto na instituição. O PFE foi calculado e classificado de acordo com a curva de valores normais de PFE em: pequeno para a idade gestacional (PIG, adequado para a idade gestacional (AIG e grande para a idade gestacional (GIG. A mesma classificação foi feita para o peso neonatal. A variabilidade das medidas e o grau de correlação linear entre o PFE e o peso neonatal foram calculados, bem como a sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos para o uso da curva de valores normais de PFE para o diagnóstico dos desvios do peso neonatal. RESULTADOS: diferença entre o PFE e o peso neonatal variou entre -540 e +594 g, com média de +47,1 g, e as duas medidas apresentaram um coeficiente de correlação linear de 0,94. A curva normal de PFE teve sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 90,5% em detectar PIG ao nascimento, e de 94,4 e 92,8%, respectivamente, em detectar GIG, porém os valores preditivos positivos foram baixos para ambos. CONCLUSÕES: a estimativa ultra-sonográfica do peso fetal foi concordante com o peso neonatal, superestimando-o em apenas cerca de 47 g e a curva do PFE teve bom desempenho no rastreamento diagnóstico de recém-nascidos PIG e GIG.PURPOSE: tocompare the ultrasound estimation of fetal weight (EFW with neonatal weight and to evaluate the performance of the normal EFW curve according to gestational age for the diagnosis of fetal/neonatal weight deviation and associated factors. METHODS: one hundred and eighty-six pregnant women who delivered at the institution from

  8. Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometery versus Serum Bilirubin in Neonatal Jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Oveisi, Sonia; Jaberi, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem in neonates and causes serious complications. Thus, serial measurements of bilirubin should be done. This assessment is done through two methods of laboratory measurement in serum sample and transcutaneous bilirubinometer. This descriptive study compared transcutaneous bilirubin assessment and laboratory serum bilirubin. Bilirubin level was assessed among 256 neonates admitted to the Qods Children's Hospital in Qazvin- Iran, because of neonatal indirect jaundice, through two methods of transcutaneous bilirubinometery from two sites of forehead and sternum and laboratory measurement of bilirubin in serum. The cases were non-hemolytic icteric term neonates weighing 2500 gram or more and had not received phototherapy or other treatments. Neonates with hemolytic forms of jaundice, sepsis and suspicious to metabolic disorders were excluded. Assessments by means of KJ-8000 transcutaneous bilirubinometer from two sites of forehead and sternum and through laboratory measurement of serum bilirubin were registered and analyzed. The results of the current study showed that there was a correlation of 0.82 between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous forehead bilirubin assessment and for the used device sensitivity of 0.844; specificity of 0.842, Youden Index of 0.709 and Shortest of 0.042 for a cut-off of 12.4 in bilirubin of participants. Furthermore, Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR) were 5.665 and 0.164, respectively and diagnostic Odds Ratio (LR+/LR-) was 34.56. Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates.

  9. Implementation of Bubble CPAP in a Rural Ugandan Neonatal ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Ryan M; Hedstrom, Anna B; DiBlasi, Robert M; Mant, Jill E; Nyonyintono, James; Otai, Christine D; Lester, Debbie A; Batra, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    Respiratory distress is a leading cause of neonatal death in low-income and middle-income countries. CPAP is a simple and effective respiratory support modality used to support neonates with respiratory failure and can be used in low-income and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to describe implementation of the Silverman-Andersen respiratory severity score (RSS) and bubble CPAP in a rural Ugandan neonatal NICU. We sought to determine whether physicians and nurses in a low-income/middle-income setting would assign similar RSS in neonates after an initial training period and over time. We describe the process of training NICU staff to use the RSS to assist in decision making regarding initiation, titration, and termination of bubble CPAP for neonates with respiratory distress. Characteristics of all neonates with respiratory failure treated with bubble CPAP in a rural Ugandan NICU from January to June 2012 are provided. Nineteen NICU staff members (4 doctors and 15 nurses) received RSS training. After this, the Spearman correlation coefficient for respiratory severity scoring between doctor and nurse was 0.73. Twenty-one infants, all CPAP, with 17 infants starting on the day of birth. The majority of infants (16/21, 76%) were preterm, 10 (48%) were CPAP, 5.2 ± 2.3 after 2-4 h of CPAP, 4.9 ± 2.7 after 12-24 h of CPAP, and 3.5 ± 1.9 before CPAP was discontinued. Duration of treatment with CPAP averaged 79 ± 43 h. Approximately half (11/21, 52%) of infants treated with CPAP survived to discharge. Implementing bubble CPAP in a low-income/middle-income setting is feasible. The RSS may be a simple and useful tool for monitoring a neonate's respiratory status and for guiding CPAP management. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Enteral feeding induces diet-dependent mucosal dysfunction, bacterial proliferation, and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs on parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnvad, Charlotte R.; Thymann, Thomas; Deutz, Nicolaas E.

    2008-01-01

    Preterm neonates have an immature gut and metabolism and may benefit from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral food is introduced. Conversely,delayed enteral feeding may inhibit gut maturation and sensitize to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal mass and NEC lesions were first...... formula after TPN. Conversely, colostrum milk diets improve gut maturation and NEC resistance in preterm pigs subjected to a few days of TPN after birth....

  11. Pequenos para idade gestacional: fator de risco para mortalidade neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Márcia Furquim de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as variáveis contempladas na Declaração de Nascimento (DN como possíveis fatores de risco para nascimentos pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG e o retardo de crescimento intra-uterino como fator de risco para a mortalidade neonatal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As variáveis existentes na DN foram obtidas diretamente de prontuários hospitalares. Os dados referem-se a uma coorte de nascimentos obtida por meio da vinculação das declarações de nascimento e óbito, correspondendo a 2.251 nascimentos vivos hospitalares, de mães residentes, ocorridos no Município de Santo André, Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, no período de l/1 a 30/6/1992, e aos óbitos neonatais verificados nessa coorte. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se a proporção de 4,3% de nascimentos PIG, significativamente maior entre os recém-nascidos de pré-termo e pós-termo, entre os nascimentos cujas mães tinham mais de 35 anos de idade e grau de instrução inferior ao primeiro grau completo. Os recém-nascidos PIG apresentam maior risco de morte neonatal que aqueles que não apresentavam sinais de retardo de crescimento intra-uterino. CONCLUSÕES: Em áreas com menor freqüência de baixo peso ao nascer, é importante investigar a presença de retardo de crescimento intra-uterino entre os nascimentos prematuros e não apenas nos nascimentos de termo. O registro da data da última menstruação (ou da idade gestacional em semanas não agregadas na DN facilitaria a detecção de PIGs na população de recém-nascidos.

  12. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  14. Effects of Gentamicin on Urinary Electrolyte Excretion in Admitted Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Falakolaflaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used during the neonatal period. It is associated with nephrotoxic effects in neonates, including glomerular impairment and renal tubular dysfunction. Electrolyte balance is very important, especially in the sick premature neonate receiving aminoglycosides. The purpose of this study was early diagnosis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 23 neonates (11 full – term and 12 preterm with suspected sepsis who were admitted and treated with gentamicin. Blood and urine samples were collected before infusion and on the 3rd day of treatment. Serum and urine concentration of Na, K, creatinine (Cr and urine concentration of Ca were measured. Then fractional excretion of Na and K were estimated. Ca excretion was estimated as the UCa/UCr ratio. Then the collected data were analyzed using SPSS package.Results: In all neonates, increase in fractional excretion of Na and UCa/UCr, in the 3rd day of treatment were observed as compared to those of before infusion (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively. Serum creatinine levels decreased in all patients. Serum level of electrolytes during therapy was normal.Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate an effect of gentamicin infusion on renal sodium and calcium excretion. These results may be of clinical importance especially for sick preterm neonates receiving treatment with gentamicin. These babies are usually salt-losers and are also more susceptible to early onset hypocalcemia. Gentamicin can aggravate these complications.

  15. Efficacy of tramadol versus fentanyl for postoperative analgesia in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ana Julia Couto; Sanudo, Adriana; Sampaio, Virginia Maria Ramos; Góis, Rôsicler Pereira; Benevides, Fernando Antônio Barbosa; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    To assess, in newborn infants submitted to surgical procedures, the efficacy of two opioids-fentanyl and tramadol-regarding time to extubate, time to achieve 100 ml/kg of enteral feeding and pain in the first 72 h after surgery. Controlled, blind, randomised clinical trial. Neonatal intensive care unit. 160 newborn infants up to 28 days of life requiring major or minor surgeries. Patients were randomised to receive analgesia with fentanyl (1-2 μg/kg/h intravenously) or tramadol (0.1-0.2 mg/kg/h intravenously) in the first 72 h of the postoperative period, stratified by surgical size and by patient's gender. Pain assessed by validated neonatal scales (Crying, Requires oxygen, Increased vital signs, Expression and Sleepless Scale and the Neonatal Facial Coding System), time until extubation and time to reach 100 ml/kg enteral feeding. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance adjusted for confounding variables and Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by a Cox model of proportional risks. Neonatal characteristics were (mean±SD) birth weight of 2924±702 g, gestational age of 37.6±2.2 weeks and age at surgery of 199±63 h. The main indication of surgery was gastrointestinal malformation (85 newborns; 53%). Neonates who received fentanyl or tramadol were similar regarding time until extubation, time to reach 100 ml/kg of enteral feeding and pain scores in the first 72 h after surgery. Tramadol was as effective as fentanyl for postoperative pain relief in neonates but does not appear to offer advantages over fentanyl regarding the duration of mechanical ventilation and time to reach full enteral feeding. Trial registration NCT00713726.

  16. Neonate brain disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Hypoxic-Ischemic insults in the brain of neonates constitute major cause of morbidity and mortality. A wide range of motor, sensory, and cognitive disabilities are observed in this population spanning from slight motor deficits, school difficulties and behavioral problems up to cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Pathologically involved areas characterized by high metabolic demands and therefore with enhanced vulnerability to any reduction or cessation of energy and oxygen supply. Watershed areas of the brain (vascular end zones and vascular border zones) are predominately affected in any adverse event. Radiologic and pathologic appearance of these lesions depends both on the severity of the insult and the maturity of the brain. The dominant pathology observed in preterm neonates is white matter lesions. There are three basic patterns of brain destruction in this population. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL focal fPVL, diffuse dPVL), germinal matrix haemorrhage (GMH) associated with intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and parenchymal haemorrhage (PH). fPVL is characterized by focal necrosis of all cellular elements in the periventricular white matter, resulting in the formation of cysts, and dPVL is characterized by diffuse destruction of the premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) the precursors of mature oligodendroglia cells responsible for the formation of myelin in a later stage. GMH is located beneath germinal matrix layer surrounding the lateral ventricles and can extend into the ventricular system resulting thus to IVH. Finally, PH is located within the parenchyma adjacent to the ventricles and is believed to represent haemorrhagic infarcts following venous drainage compromise. In term or near-term neonates, the top-ographic pattern of injuries involves mainly gray matter structures. Most frequent predilection sites include the cerebral cortex (paracentral lobule, Rolandic area, visual cortex and hippocampus), basal ganglia, thalamus, and

  17. [Heart failure as early manifestation of neonatal hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado S, Jorge Luis; Fernández V, Zhirly Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal hyperthyroidism is usually a self-limited condition frequently associated with transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating antibodies secondary to maternal autoimmune disorders. To timely detect mothers with this medical antecedents decreases the risk for fetal adverse events. To report a case of neonatal hyperthyroidism associated with intrauterine growth restriction and heart failure. A 36 week-old newborn with birth weight of 1,240 g. Symptoms were tachycardia, distal coldness, exophthalmos, hepatomegaly and tremors. Echocardiogram ruled out structural heart disorders. Due to maternal symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism, TSH tests were performed showing 0.01 ulU/ml, free T4 7.7 ng/dl, so the diagnosis of neonatal hyperthyroidism was confirmed. It was treated with methimazole and propanol, alleviating the symptoms and decreasing the levels of free T4. To know the maternal history helps identify and manage neonatal complications of hyperthyroidism. Heart failure and other cardiopulmonary disorders are determinants of mortality during early neonatal period. High-risk newborns should receive follow up assessments.

  18. Neonates with Bartter syndrome have enormous fluid and sodium requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Antonio; Chehade, Hassib; Deschênes, Georges

    2015-07-01

    Managing neonatal Bartter syndrome by achieving adequate weight gain is challenging. We assessed the correlation between weight gain in neonatal Bartter syndrome and the introduction of fluid and sodium supplementations and indomethacin during the first 4 weeks of life. Daily fluid and electrolytes requirements were analysed using linear regression and Spearman correlation coefficients. The weight gain coefficient was calculated as daily weight gain after physiological neonatal weight loss. We studied seven infants. The highest weight gain coefficients occurred between weeks two and four in the five neonates who either received prompt amounts of fluid (maximum 810 mL/kg/day) and sodium (maximum 70 mmol/kg/day) or were treated with indomethacin. For the two patients with the highest weight gain coefficient, water and sodium supplementations were decreased in weeks two to four leading to a significant negative Spearman correlation between weight gain and fluid supplements (r = -0.55 and -0.68) and weight gain and sodium supplementations (r = -0.96 and -0.72). The two patients with the lowest weight gain coefficient had positive Spearman correlation coefficients between weight gain and fluid and sodium supplementations. Infants with neonatal Bartter syndrome required rapid and enormous fluid and sodium supplementations or the early introduction of indomethacin treatment to achieve adequate weight gain during the early postnatal period. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. MMP-2 participates in the sclera of guinea pig with form-deprivation myopia via IGF-1/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-X; Sun, Y

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the expression changes of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinases-2) mediated by IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factors-1) STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway in the sclera of the form-deprivation myopia guinea pigs. Twenty-four three-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (Control), B, C and D. Guinea pigs in group A were sacrificed after 21 days without any special treatment. Guinea pigs in group B were sacrificed 7 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Guinea pigs in group C were sacrificed 14 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Guinea pigs in group D were sacrificed 21 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Eyeball refraction and axial length of guinea pigs were measured before sacrifice. Eyeballs of guinea pigs were enucleated after sacrifice. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in scleral tissue were detected by Western blot. Axial length extension and myopia appeared in the right eye of guinea pigs in group B. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in the sclera significantly increased after 7 days of occlusion compared with that in control group A (pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in sclera significantly increased compared with that in group A (pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in scleral significantly upregulated 21 days after occlusion (pIGF-1 in sclera were positively correlated (r = 0.962, pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in the sclera and myopia of guinea pigs. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 increased progressively over the time of deprivation. Additionally, overexpression of MMP-2 mediated by IGF-1/STAT3 pathway in sclera might promote the formation of myopia.

  20. Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural Northern Ethiopia: A population based nested case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Yirgu

    Full Text Available In low income and middle income countries, neonatal mortality remains high despite the gradual reduction in under five mortality. Newborn death contributes for about 38% of all under five deaths. This study has identified the magnitude and independent predictors of neonatal mortality in rural Ethiopia.This population based nested case control study was conducted in rural West Gojam zone, Northern Ethiopia, among a cohort of pregnant women who gave birth between March 2011 and Feb 2012. The cohort was established by Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP project in 2010 by recruiting mothers in their third trimester, as identified by trained community volunteers. Once identified, women stayed in the cohort throughout their pregnancy period receiving Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH training by health extension workers and community volunteers till the end of the first 48 hours postpartum. Cases were 75 mothers who lost their newborns to neonatal death and controls were 150 randomly selected mothers with neonates who survived the neonatal period. Data to identify cause of death were collected using the WHO standard verbal autopsy questionnaire after the culturally appropriate 40 days of bereavement period. Binomial logistic regression model was used to identify independent contributors to neonatal mortality.The neonatal mortality rate was AOR(95%CI = 18.6 (14.8, 23.2 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality declined with an increase in family size, neonates who were born among a family of more than two had lesser odds of death in the neonatal period than those who were born in a family of two AOR (95% CI = 0.13 (0.02, 0.71. Mothers who gave birth to 2-4 AOR(95%CI = 0.15 (0.05, 0.48 and 5+ children AOR(95%CI = 0.08 (0.02, 0.26 had lesser odds of losing their newborns to neonatal mortality. Previous history of losing a newborn to neonatal death also increased the odds of neonatal mortality during the last birth AOR

  1. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  2. Porcine neonatal blood dendritic cells, but not monocytes, are more responsive to TLRs stimulation than their adult counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael Auray

    Full Text Available The neonatal immune system is often considered as immature or impaired compared to the adult immune system. This higher susceptibility to infections is partly due to the skewing of the neonatal immune response towards a Th2 response. Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in shaping the immune response, therefore, DCs are a target of choice for the development of efficient and protective vaccine formulations able to redirect the neonatal immune response to a protective Th1 response. As pigs are becoming more important for vaccine development studies due to their similarity to the human immune system, we decided to compare the activation and maturation of a subpopulation of porcine DCs in adult and neonatal pigs following stimulation with different TLR ligands, which are promising candidates for adjuvants in vaccine formulations. Porcine blood derived DCs (BDCs were directly isolated from blood and consisted of a mix of conventional and plasmacytoid DCs. Following CpG ODN (TLR9 ligand and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand stimulation, neonatal BDCs showed higher levels of expression of costimulatory molecules and similar (CpG ODN or higher (imiquimod levels of IL-12 compared to adult BDCs. Another interesting feature was that only neonatal BDCs produced IFN-α after TLR7 or TLR9 ligand stimulation. Stimulation with CpG ODN and imiquimod also induced enhanced expression of several chemokines. Moreover, in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay, neonatal BDCs displayed a greater ability to induce lymphoproliferation. These findings suggest that when stimulated via TLR7 or TLR9 porcine DCs display similar if not better response than adult porcine DCs.

  3. [Neonatal tumours and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel Tornero, O; Ortega García, J A; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; García Castell, J; Donat i Colomer, J; Soldin, O P; Fuster Soler, J L

    2008-06-01

    The association between pediatric cancer and congenital abnormalities is well known but, there is no exclusive data on the neonatal period and the underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. First, to analyze the frequency of neonatal tumours associated with congenital abnormalities; and second, to comment on the likely etiopathogenic hypotheses of a relationship between neonatal tumours and congenital abnormalities. Historical series of neonatal tumours from La Fe University Children's Hospital in Valencia (Spain), from January 1990 to December 1999. Histological varieties of neonatal tumours and associated congenital abnormalities were described. A systematic review of the last 25 years was carried out using Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science and Embase. The search profile used was the combination of "neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms" and "congenital malformations/birth defects". 72 neonatal tumours were identified (2.8% of all pediatric cancers diagnosed in our hospital) and in 15 cases (20.8%) there was some associated malformation, disease or syndrome. The association between congenital abnormalities and neonatal tumours were: a) angiomas in three patients: two patients with congenital heart disease with a choanal stenosis, laryngomalacia; b) neuroblastomas in two patients: horseshoe kidney with vertebral anomalies and other with congenital heart disease; c) teratomas in two patients: one with cleft palate with vertebral anomalies and other with metatarsal varus; d) one tumour of the central nervous system with Bochdaleck hernia; e) heart tumours in four patients with tuberous sclerosis; f) acute leukaemia in one patient with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease; g) kidney tumour in one case with triventricular hydrocephaly, and h) adrenocortical tumour: hemihypertrophy. The publications included the tumours diagnosed in different pediatric periods and without unified criteria to classify the congenital abnormalities. Little data

  4. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  5. Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Tam, Emily W; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, Anthony James; Ferriero, Donna M; Glass, Hannah C

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. This study is a cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern, and severity of injury on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 mo (neuromotor examination, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition mental development index encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns.

  6. Predictors of early neonatal mortality at a neonatal intensive care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    mortality and they have been the reasons for the wide variation in mortality rates among the health facilities reporting. Objective: ... A study in Indonesia about determinants of neonatal ..... antenatal visit, frequency of visits and administration of.

  7. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.I. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  8. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  9. Neonatal mucosal immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torow, N; Marsland, B J; Hornef, M W; Gollwitzer, E S

    2017-01-01

    Although largely deprived from exogenous stimuli in utero, the mucosal barriers of the neonate after birth are bombarded by environmental, nutritional, and microbial exposures. The microbiome is established concurrently with the developing immune system. The nature and timing of discrete interactions between these two factors underpins the long-term immune characteristics of these organs, and can set an individual on a trajectory towards or away from disease. Microbial exposures in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are some of the key determinants of the overall immune tone at these mucosal barriers and represent a leading target for future intervention strategies. In this review, we discuss immune maturation in the gut and lung and how microbes have a central role in this process.

  10. Neonatal heart rate prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Yumna; Jeremic, Aleksander; Tan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances have caused a decrease in the number of infant deaths. Pre-term infants now have a substantially increased chance of survival. One of the mechanisms that is vital to saving the lives of these infants is continuous monitoring and early diagnosis. With continuous monitoring huge amounts of data are collected with so much information embedded in them. By using statistical analysis this information can be extracted and used to aid diagnosis and to understand development. In this study we have a large dataset containing over 180 pre-term infants whose heart rates were recorded over the length of their stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). We test two types of models, empirical bayesian and autoregressive moving average. We then attempt to predict future values. The autoregressive moving average model showed better results but required more computation.

  11. Neonatal bartter syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkash, J.; Salat, S. M.; Khan, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    A pre-term baby girl was born following a pregnancy complicated by severe polyhydramnios at a gestational age of 36 weeks. She was initially suffering from respiratory distress consistent with idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome, and altered electrolyte imbalance with hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. However, during the third week of life when she had dehydration along with significant electrolyte imbalance, Bartter's syndrome was considered which was supported by findings of high renin and aldosterone levels. Treatment was done by correction of electrolytes and dehydration along with indomethacin. The drug was well tolerated. The infant showed correction of electrolyte imbalance. The features of this case suggest an extreme form of Bartter's syndrome presenting from the early days of life. The syndrome is reported because of it's rarity and alerts pediatricians to the antenatal and neonatal variant of Bartter's syndrome. (author)

  12. Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Ruby, Annette L; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2009-01-15

    To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Cross-sectional study. 127 guinea pigs. Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD). 83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples. Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.

  13. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  14. Neonatal Informatics: Transforming Neonatal Care Through Translational Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jonathan P.; Benitz, William E.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Butte, Atul J.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of neonatal informatics will be driven by the availability of increasingly vast amounts of clinical and genetic data. The field of translational bioinformatics is concerned with linking and learning from these data and applying new findings to clinical care to transform the data into proactive, predictive, preventive, and participatory health. As a result of advances in translational informatics, the care of neonates will become more data driven, evidence based, and personalized. PMID:22924023

  15. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination.

  16. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  17. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their

  18. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  19. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  20. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  1. Radiation doses to neonates requiring intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.; Dellagrammaticas, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    Radiological investigations have become accepted as an important part of the range of facilities required to support severely ill newborn babies. Since the infants are so small, many of the examinations are virtually ''whole-body'' irradiations and it was thought that the total doses received might be appreciable. A group of such babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Sheffield over a six-month period have been studied. X-ray exposure factors used for each examination have been noted and total skin, gonad and bone marrow doses calculated, supplemented by measurements on phantoms. It is concluded that in most cases doses received are of the same order as those received over the same period from natural background radiation and probably less than those received from prenatal obstetric radiography, so that the additional risks from the diagnostic exposure are small. The highest doses are received in CT scans and barium examinations and it is recommended that the need for these should be carefully considered. (author)

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Glycerin Suppositories During Phototherapy in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-O'Hara, Meggan; Reininger, Ann; Wang, Hongyue; Amin, Sanjiv B; Rodgers, Nathan J; D'Angio, Carl T

    To determine if glycerin suppositories were effective in reducing total duration of phototherapy in premature neonates. We hypothesized that glycerin suppositories would have no effect on phototherapy duration or total serum bilirubin levels. Prospective randomized controlled double-blinded trial. Level IV NICU. Neonates born between 30 weeks, 0 days and 34 weeks, 6 days gestational age who developed physiologic hyperbilirubinemia needing phototherapy. Neonates were randomized to the no-suppository group or to the suppository group. Neonates were randomized to receive glycerin suppositories every 8 hours while under phototherapy or to a sham group. The primary outcome was total hours of phototherapy. Secondary outcomes included peak total serum bilirubin levels, time from start to discontinuation of phototherapy, rate of decline in bilirubin levels, repeat episodes of phototherapy, and number of stools while the neonates received phototherapy. A total of 39 neonates were assigned to the no-suppository group and 40 to the suppository group. Withholding suppositories was not inferior to providing suppositories. The total hours of phototherapy were not longer (i.e., noninferior) among neonates not provided suppositories (61 ± 53 hours) than among those given suppositories (72 ± 49 hours). There were no differences in peak bilirubin levels, rate of bilirubin decline, or repeat episodes of phototherapy. Routine use of glycerin suppositories among preterm neonates who receive phototherapy does not affect bilirubin levels or phototherapy duration. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal mortality at Leratong Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unit lacked sufficient NICU equipment. The aims of the ... staff on duty, admission room care for all neonates from the Leratong .... home (29%) or from another facility (4%). ..... The work load, coupled with shortage of trained nurses during.

  4. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong

    1997-01-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment

  5. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong [Sansung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment.

  6. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  7. Radiation dose in the neonatal intensive care unit of Antoine Beclere Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, C.; Rehel, J. L.; Aubert, B.; Musset, D.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a program aiming a better knowledge of the medical exposure of the french population and in the frame of the principle of optimisation, a study of radiation doses to neonates was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit of Antoine Beclere hospital. From March to August 2005, entrance surface dose (ESD) received by 63 neonates classified according the their weight (184 X-ray examinations) was measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) during examination. The mean ESD ESD per exposure was found between 20 and 37 μGy according to the weight of neonates. The newborn of less than 1000 g at birth have a mean of 20 X-ray examinations. Above 1000 g the number of X-ray examinations was between 5 and 8.5. During their stay in neonatal intensive care unit, the total ESD of neonates was from 500 μGy for the smallest Neonates (<1000 g) and the other respectively. Results indicate that neonate exposition, is very small compared with french and international data. ESD was significantly lower than the french reference level of 80 μGy. (Author)

  8. Volume-Targeted Ventilation in the Neonate: Benchmarking Ventilators on an Active Lung Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias J; Wald, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Mechanically ventilated neonates have been observed to receive substantially different ventilation after switching ventilator models, despite identical ventilator settings. This study aims at establishing the range of output variability among 10 neonatal ventilators under various breathing conditions. Relative benchmarking test of 10 neonatal ventilators on an active neonatal lung model. Neonatal ICU. Ten current neonatal ventilators. Ventilators were set identically to flow-triggered, synchronized, volume-targeted, pressure-controlled, continuous mandatory ventilation and connected to a neonatal lung model. The latter was configured to simulate three patients (500, 1,500, and 3,500 g) in three breathing modes each (passive breathing, constant active breathing, and variable active breathing). Averaged across all weight conditions, the included ventilators delivered between 86% and 110% of the target tidal volume in the passive mode, between 88% and 126% during constant active breathing, and between 86% and 120% under variable active breathing. The largest relative deviation occurred during the 500 g constant active condition, where the highest output machine produced 147% of the tidal volume of the lowest output machine. All machines deviate significantly in volume output and ventilation regulation. These differences depend on ventilation type, respiratory force, and patient behavior, preventing the creation of a simple conversion table between ventilator models. Universal neonatal tidal volume targets for mechanical ventilation cannot be transferred from one ventilator to another without considering necessary adjustments.

  9. Neonatal hypoglycaemia: learning from claims

    OpenAIRE

    Hawdon, Jane M; Beer, Jeanette; Sharp, Deborah; Upton, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Neonatal hypoglycaemia is a potential cause of neonatal morbidity, and on rare but tragic occasions causes long-term neurodevelopmental harm with consequent emotional and practical costs for the family. The organisational cost to the NHS includes the cost of successful litigation claims. The purpose of the review was to identify themes that could alert clinicians to common pitfalls and thus improve patient safety. Design The NHS Litigation Authority (NHS LA) Claims Management Syste...

  10. Pulmonary Changes in Preterm Neonates with Hyaline Membrane Disease (a Clinicomorphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal lung morphological changes in preterm neonatal infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD in the use of exogenous surfactants and artificial ventilation. Materials and methods. Case histories and autopsy protocols were analyzed in 90 preterm neonates who had died from severe respiratory failure. All the neonates were divided into 4 groups: 1 20 (22.2% infants who had received the exogenous surfactant Curosurf in the combined therapy of HMD; 2 19 (21.1% babies with HMD who had taken Surfactant BL; 3 25 (27.8% surfactant-untreated infants who had died from HMD; 4 26 (28.9% very preterm neonates with extremely low birth weight who had died within the first hour of life. The lungs were histologically and morphometrically examined. Results. The study demonstrated the specific course of HMD when exogenous surfactants and artificial ventilation were used. The contributors to the development of the disease are intranatal amniotic fluid aspiration and intranatal fetal hypoxia. Conclusion. Artificial ventilation and the use of exogenous surfactants do not block the generation of hyaline membranes. The latter differ in formation time, form, and location. The differences in a cell response to hyaline membranes were found in the neonatal infants receiving exogenous surfactants. The characteristic morphological signs of the disease for all the neonates enrolled in the study are alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages and microcirculatory disorders. Key words: preterm neonatal infants, hyaline membrane disease, exogenous surfactants, artificial ventilation, histology, morphometry.

  11. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... on different continents, namely Denmark, USA, Uganda, Ecuador, China and St. Kitts (Caribbean). Additional sequences available from GenBank were incorporated into the analyses. RESULTS: We found no differentiation between human-derived Trichuris in Uganda and the majority of the Trichuris samples from non...

  12. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  13. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  14. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  15. T-cell proliferative responses following sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Ousama; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kohn, Annamarie; Muraskas, Jonathan K; Namak, Shahla Y; Alattar, Mohammad H; Sayeed, Mohammed M

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a suppression of T-cell function in burn and sepsis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte and purified T-cell proliferative response and IL-2 production in septic neonatal rats. We also examined if alterations in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in neonatal sepsis is due to elevation in PGE2. PGE2 is known to play a significant role in T-cell suppression during sepsis in adults. Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting 0.1 cm3 of fecal pellet impregnated with Escherichia coli (50 CFU) and Bacteroides fragilis (10(3) CFU). Animals receiving fecal pellets without the bacteria were designated as sterile. A group of septic and sterile rats were treated with PGE2 synthesis inhibitors, NS398 and resveratrol. These treatments of animals allowed us to evaluate the role of PGE2 in T-cell suppression during neonatal sepsis. Splenocytes as well as purified T cells were prepared and then proliferative response and IL-2 productive capacities were measured. A significant suppression of splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production was noticed in both sterile and septic animals compared to the T cells from unoperated control rats. In contrast, the proliferation and IL-2 production by nylon wool purified T cells in sterile rats was not significantly different from control rats, whereas, a significant suppression in Con A-mediated T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production noticed in septic rat T cells compared to the sterile and control rat T cells. Such decrease in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production was accompanied with 20-25% deaths in neonates implanted with septic pellets. No mortality was noted in sterile-implanted neonates. Treatment of animals with COX-1 inhibitor had no effect on T-cell proliferation response in both septic and sterile groups, whereas COX-2 inhibitor abrogated the decrease in T-cell proliferative response in the septic group. The treatment

  16. The effect of doxycycline treatment on the postvaccinal immune response in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata, E-mail: mpomorska@piwet.pulawy.pl; Kwit, Krzysztof; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-07-01

    The effect of a seven-day antibiotic therapy with doxycycline was investigated on the postvaccinal humoral and cellular immune response in pigs. The selected parameters of non-specific immunity were also studied. Fifty pigs were used (control not vaccinated (C, n = 10), control vaccinated (CV, n = 20), and experimental — received doxycycline (DOXY, n = 20)). For vaccination live-attenuated vaccine against pseudorabies (PR) was used. From day − 1 to day 5 pigs from DOXY group received doxycycline orally with drinking water, at the recommended dose. Pigs from DOXY and CV groups were vaccinated at 8 and 10 weeks of age. The results of the present study showed that cell-mediated postvaccinal immune response can be modulated by oral treatment with doxycycline. Significantly lower values of stimulation index were observed after PRV restimulation in doxycycline-treated pigs. Moreover, in the DOXY group a significant decrease in IFN-γ production after PRV restimulation was noted. The significantly lower number of CD4+CD8 + cells was also observed in doxy-treated, vaccinated pigs, 2 weeks after final vaccination. Simultaneously, specific humoral response was not disturbed. This study demonstrated the importance of defining the immune modulatory activity of doxycycline because it may alter the immune responses to vaccines. The exact mechanism of T-cell response suppression by doxycycline remains to be elucidated, however the influence of doxycycline on the secretion of various cytokines, including IFN-γ, may be considered as a possible cause. The present observations should prompt further studies on the practical significance of such phenomena in terms of clinical implications. - Highlights: • We examine the postvaccinal immune response in pigs treated with doxycycline. • Doxycycline negatively influenced the specific proliferation after recall stimulation. • Doxycycline negatively influenced secretion of IFN-γ after recall stimulation. • The lower number of

  17. The effect of doxycycline treatment on the postvaccinal immune response in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Kwit, Krzysztof; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a seven-day antibiotic therapy with doxycycline was investigated on the postvaccinal humoral and cellular immune response in pigs. The selected parameters of non-specific immunity were also studied. Fifty pigs were used (control not vaccinated (C, n = 10), control vaccinated (CV, n = 20), and experimental — received doxycycline (DOXY, n = 20)). For vaccination live-attenuated vaccine against pseudorabies (PR) was used. From day − 1 to day 5 pigs from DOXY group received doxycycline orally with drinking water, at the recommended dose. Pigs from DOXY and CV groups were vaccinated at 8 and 10 weeks of age. The results of the present study showed that cell-mediated postvaccinal immune response can be modulated by oral treatment with doxycycline. Significantly lower values of stimulation index were observed after PRV restimulation in doxycycline-treated pigs. Moreover, in the DOXY group a significant decrease in IFN-γ production after PRV restimulation was noted. The significantly lower number of CD4+CD8 + cells was also observed in doxy-treated, vaccinated pigs, 2 weeks after final vaccination. Simultaneously, specific humoral response was not disturbed. This study demonstrated the importance of defining the immune modulatory activity of doxycycline because it may alter the immune responses to vaccines. The exact mechanism of T-cell response suppression by doxycycline remains to be elucidated, however the influence of doxycycline on the secretion of various cytokines, including IFN-γ, may be considered as a possible cause. The present observations should prompt further studies on the practical significance of such phenomena in terms of clinical implications. - Highlights: • We examine the postvaccinal immune response in pigs treated with doxycycline. • Doxycycline negatively influenced the specific proliferation after recall stimulation. • Doxycycline negatively influenced secretion of IFN-γ after recall stimulation. • The lower number of

  18. Intraventricular antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin S; Ohlsson, Arne; Shah, Vibhuti S

    2012-07-11

    Neonatal meningitis may be caused by bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria, which are difficult to eradicate from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using safe doses of antibiotics. In theory, intraventricular administration of antibiotics would produce higher antibiotic concentrations in the CSF than intravenous administration alone, and eliminate the bacteria more quickly. However, ventricular taps may cause harm. To assess the effectiveness and safety of intraventricular antibiotics (with or without intravenous antibiotics) in neonates with meningitis (with or without ventriculitis) as compared to treatment with intravenous antibiotics alone. The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL and Science Citation Index were searched in June 2007. The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials was searched in June 2004. Pediatric Research (abstracts of proceedings) were searched (1990 to April 2007) as were reference lists of identified trials and personal files. No language restrictions were applied.This search was updated in May 2011. Selection criteria for study inclusion were: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which intraventricular antibiotics with or without intravenous antibiotics were compared with intravenous antibiotics alone in neonates (antibiotics compared to the group receiving intravenous antibiotics alone (RR 3.43; 95% CI 1.09 to 10.74; RD 0.30; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.53); NNTH 3; 95% CI 2 to 13). Duration of CSF culture positivity did not differ significantly (MD -1.20 days; 95% CI -2.67 to 0.27). In one trial that enrolled infants with gram-negative meningitis and ventriculitis, the use of intraventricular antibiotics in addition to intravenous antibiotics resulted in a three-fold increased RR for mortality compared to standard treatment with intravenous antibiotics alone. Based on this result, intraventricular antibiotics as tested in this trial should be avoided. Further trials comparing these interventions are not justified in

  19. Toluene-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Beydon, Dominique; Rieger, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Ferrari, Luc; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2009-10-01

    Toluene is a high-production industrial solvent, which can disrupt the auditory system in rats. However, toluene-induced hearing loss is species dependent. For instance, despite long-lasting exposures to high concentrations of aromatic solvent, no study has yet succeeded in causing convincing hearing loss in the guinea pig. This latter species can be characterized by two metabolic particularities: a high amount of hepatic cytochrome P-450s (P-450s) and a high concentration of glutathione in the cochlea. It is therefore likely that the efficiency of both the hepatic and cochlear metabolisms plays a key role in the innocuousness of the hearing of guinea pigs to exposure to solvent. The present study was carried out to test the auditory resistance to toluene in glutathione-depleted guinea pigs whose the P-450 activity was partly inhibited. To this end, animals on a low-protein diet received a general P-450 inhibitor, namely SKF525-A. Meanwhile, they were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for 4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day. Auditory function was tested by electrocochleography and completed by histological analyses. For the first time, a significant toluene-induced hearing loss was provoked in the P-450-inhibited guinea pigs. However, the ototoxic process caused by the solvent exposure was different from that observed in the rat. Only the stria vascularis and the spiral fibers were disrupted in the apical coil of the cochlea. The protective mechanisms developed by guinea pigs are discussed in the present publication.

  20. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  1. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  2. Monitoring of the newborn dog and prediction of neonatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila, Hanna; Grellet, Aurélien; Delebarre, Marine; Mariani, Claire; Feugier, Alexandre; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2017-08-01

    Despite the high neonatal mortality rate in puppies, pertinent criteria for health evaluation of the newborns are not defined. This study was thus designed to measure and to characterize factors of variation of six health parameters in dog neonates, and to evaluate their value as predictors of neonatal mortality. A total of 347 purebred puppies under identical conditions of housing and management were examined within the first 8h after birth and then at Day 1. The first health evaluation included Apgar score, weight, blood glucose, lactate and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, rectal temperature and urine specific gravity (SG). The second evaluation at Day 1 included the same parameters, excluding Apgar score and weight. The mortality rate over the first 24h and over 21days of age was recorded. The early predictors of neonatal mortality in the dog were determined with generalized linear mixed models and receiver operating characteristic curves analyses. An Apgar score at or below 6 evaluated within the first 8h after birth was found associated with a higher risk of death during the first 24h. A reduced glucose concentration (≤92mg/dl) at Day 1 was found to be associated with higher mortality between 1 and 21days of age. Low-birth-weight puppies were characterized by both low viability (low Apgar score) and low blood glucose concentration, and thus were found indirectly at higher risk of neonatal mortality. This study promotes two low cost easy-to-use tests for health evaluation in puppies, i.e. Apgar scoring and blood glucose assay. Further investigation is necessary to establish if the strong relationship between blood glucose and neonatal survival reflects high energy requirements or other benefits from colostrum intake. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Spectrum, Management and Outcome of Neonatal Candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E. A.; Choudhry, S.; Fatima, M.; Batool, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify clinical spectrum, management and outcome of neonatal candidiasis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised microbiological records of all the babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from January 2009 to January 2014 that were reviewed to identify those with positive candida cultures. Medical records were analysed for demographic and clinical spectrum features, management and outcome. SPSS 16 was used statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 1550 neonatal admissions, 560 (36 percent) had positive cultures, and, of them, candida was isolated in 49(8.8 percent) neonates. Among them, 13(26 percent) had candida albicans and the rest had candida species. Majority were males 34(70 percent), and preterm with 30(61 percent) being <37 weeks. The mean birth weight was 2000±873 grams. Mean age at admission was 6±7.6 days. Overall, 39(80 percent) had >2 risk factors. The commonest site of isolation was blood in 41(84 percent). Besides, 32 (65 percent) received fluconazole alone for treatment. Mean duration of anti-fungal therapy was 10±5 days (range: 1-21 days). Twelve (24 percent) neonates expired and the cause of death was candida sepsis in 10(20 percent) cases. Mortality was not significantly associated with gender, place of birth, gestation, risk factors, length of stay, prior antibiotic exposure or receipt of antifungal prophylaxis except those who were <1500 grams (p<0.05). Conclusion: Approximately one in ten at-risk neonates may develop candida sepsis with high mortality. Early institution of anti-fungal therapy may prove to be life-saving. (author)

  4. Pain Control Interventions in Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vivek V; Bansal, Satvik; Nimbalkar, Archana; Chapla, Apurva; Phatak, Ajay; Patel, Dipen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2018-04-15

    To compare individual efficacy and additive effects of pain control interventions in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level-3 University affiliated neonatal intensive care unit. 200 neonates (26-36 wk gestational age) requiring heel-prick for bedside glucose assessment. Exclusion criteria were neurologic impairment and critical illness precluding study interventions. Neonates were randomly assigned to Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy, Music therapy, Kangaroo Mother care or Control (no additional intervention) groups. All groups received expressed breast milk with cup and spoon as a baseline pain control intervention. Assessment of pain using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score on recorded videos. The mean (SD) birth weight and gestational age of the neonates was 1.9 (0.3) kg and 34 (2.3) wk, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant difference in total PIPP score across groups (P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons using Sheffe's test revealed that the mean (SD) total PIPP score was significantly lower in Kangaroo mother care group [7.7 (3.9) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95% CI(-5.9, -1.7), P<0.001] as well as Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy group [8.5 (3.2) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95%CI (-5.1, -0.9), P=0.001] as compared to Control group. PIPP score was not significantly different between Control group and Music therapy group. Kangaroo mother care with and without Music therapy (with expressed breast milk) significantly reduces pain on heel-prick as compared to expressed breast milk alone. Kangaroo mother care with expressed breast milk should be the first choice as a method for pain control in preterm neonates.

  5. INVISIBLE MURDERER: NEONATAL TETANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonca SONMEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal tetanus (NNT has been secondary in the whole world in the death list of diseases which can be protected by the help of vaccine. It’s an important community health problem in the less-developed countries in which pre-birth care services are limited, assisting a mother at childbirth by uneducated people in dirty atmosphere and the immunity against tetanus is not enough. Studies have shown that minor part of the cases have been expressed in most of the countries. Because of that NNT have been called as “silent/invisible murderer”. In Turkey, in the year of 2003 it has been seen 15 cases, and 12 of them have been resulted in death. The methods which will be applied to carry out the elimination of NNT are; the vaccination of pregnant women with at least two doses tetanus toxoid and providing clean birth conditions for all of the pregnant women. However, in Turkey the proportion of the women who have two doses of tetanus vaccine is 41%. To eliminate NNT in our country, all the pregnant women must be attained, the ones who are attained must be presented with qualified pre-birth care service which also includes tetanus immunity and the births must be carried out under healty conditions. As smallpox and polio eradication, NNT elimination will also be accomplished by self-sacrificing works of personnel in primary health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 229-233

  6. Neonatal cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro; Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author)

  7. Neonatal aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Benson, Lee N

    2005-09-01

    Neonatal aortic stenosis is a complex and heterogeneous condition, defined as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at valvular level, presenting and often requiring treatment in the first month of life. Initial presentation may be catastrophic, necessitating hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic resuscitation. Subsequent management is focused on maintaining systemic blood flow, either via a univentricular Norwood palliation or a biventricular route, in which the effective aortic valve area is increased by balloon dilation or surgical valvotomy. In infants with aortic annular hypoplasia but adequately sized left ventricle, the Ross-Konno procedure is also an attractive option. Outcomes after biventricular management have improved in recent years as a consequence of better patient selection, perioperative management and advances in catheter technology. Exciting new developments are likely to significantly modify the natural history of this disorder, including fetal intervention for the salvage of the hypoplastic left ventricle; 3D echocardiography providing better definition of valve morphology and aiding patient selection for a surgical or catheter-based intervention; and new transcutaneous approaches, such as duel beam echo, to perforate the valve.

  8. Osteoarthritis in the neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, W.; Hayek, W.H.; Bens, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fatally ending index case of sepsis osteoarthritis that was diagnosed retrospectively initiated this report. This patient had severe, asymmetrically distributed metaphyseal growthdisturbances, many long bones. In order to determine the features of early radiologic diagnosis we report the findings of 7 further patients with neonatal septic osteoarthritis with clinical and radiological follow-up. The most important observation for early radiologic diagnosis of osteoarthritis is the displacement of fat layers along the metaphysis. Other findings of the soft tissues have the same diagnostic value as bone destruction and subperiosteal new bone formation found one to three weeks later on roentgenfilms. Detecting early signs of osteoarthritis helps in localizing the focus for bacteriologic diagnosis, which is to be more successful than blood cultures. Diagnosing a joint empyema initiates surgical intervention for pressure relief in order to avoid necrosis of the epiphysis as seen in the femoral bone in septic arthritis of the hip joint. Early diagnosis and treatment to destruction of growing cartilage is necessary to avoid gross disturbances and length discrepancies of long bones. In cases of sepsis called 'babygram' and a repeat examination 10 to 14 days later is mandatory. (orig.) [de

  9. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  10. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  11. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  12. Comparison of Techniques for Sampling Adult Necrophilous Insects From Pig Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Angela; Hatano, Eduardo; Watson, David W; Schal, Coby

    2018-02-06

    Studies of the pre-colonization interval and mechanisms driving necrophilous insect ecological succession depend on effective sampling of adult insects and knowledge of their diel and successional activity patterns. The number of insects trapped, their diversity, and diel periodicity were compared with four sampling methods on neonate pigs. Sampling method, time of day and decomposition age of the pigs significantly affected the number of insects sampled from pigs. We also found significant interactions of sampling method and decomposition day, time of sampling and decomposition day. No single method was superior to the other methods during all three decomposition days. Sampling times after noon yielded the largest samples during the first 2 d of decomposition. On day 3 of decomposition however, all sampling times were equally effective. Therefore, to maximize insect collections from neonate pigs, the method used to sample must vary by decomposition day. The suction trap collected the most species-rich samples, but sticky trap samples were the most diverse, when both species richness and evenness were factored into a Shannon diversity index. Repeated sampling during the noon to 18:00 hours period was most effective to obtain the maximum diversity of trapped insects. The integration of multiple sampling techniques would most effectively sample the necrophilous insect community. However, because all four tested methods were deficient at sampling beetle species, future work should focus on optimizing the most promising methods, alone or in combinations, and incorporate hand-collections of beetles. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Neonatal screening for treatable congenital disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Boonwanich, W.; Krasao, P.; Waiyasilp, S.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a treatable disease if detected at the early stage of life. It is one of the most frequent cause of mental retardation in children. In 85 % of cases, congenital hypothyroidism is a consequence of thyroid disgenesis, in which the gland is either absent, located ectopically and/or severely reduced in size. Early detection and treatment with thyroid hormone supplement can significantly reduce mental damage. In 1996, Thailand initiated a neonatal screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) and phenylketonuria (PKU), with the objective of bringing a better quality of life to people throughout the country, but especially in the remote areas. The programme involves implementing routine screening nationwide. The plan of action was designed with the goal of having public health service units throughout the country provide neonatal screening by year 2002 for the 1.2 million babies born per annum in Thailand. The government supported the programme by allocating a five-year budget of approximately US$15 million. The programme received additional assistance through technical support and human resource development from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Centers for Disease Control. This assistance promoted self-sustainability and strengthened the programme's technical base. The programme is on track. It is expected that by year 2002 all new born babies in Thailand will be screened for CHT and PKU

  14. Inflammation, caffeine and adenosine in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Winerdal, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brain injury during the neonatal period has potentially lifelong consequences for a child. Perinatal infections and inflammation can induce preterm birth and unfavorable cognitive development, Thus inflammation has received enthusiastic interest for potential therapeutic approaches seeking to protect the newborn brain. Experimental evidence demonstrates that inflammation induces brain injury succeeding the initial insult. A key cytokine in brain injury is the tumor necrosis factor...

  15. Trends in use of neonatal CPAP: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Jennifer R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is used widely to provide respiratory support for neonates, and is often the first treatment choice in tertiary centres. Recent trials have demonstrated that CPAP reduces need for intubation and ventilation for infants born at 25-28 weeks gestation, and at > 32weeks, in non-tertiary hospitals, CPAP reduces need for transfer to NICU. The aim of this study was to examine recent population trends in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. Methods We undertook a population-based cohort study of all 696,816 liveborn neonates ≥24 weeks gestation in New South Wales (NSW Australia, 2001-2008. Data were obtained from linked birth and hospitalizations records, including neonatal transfers. The primary outcome was CPAP without mechanical ventilation (via endotracheal intubation between birth and discharge from the hospital system. Analyses were stratified by age ≤32 and > 32 weeks gestation. Results Neonates receiving any ventilatory support increased from 1,480 (17.9/1000 in 2001 to 2,486 (26.9/1000 in 2008, including 461 (5.6/1000 to 1,465 (15.8/1000 neonates who received CPAP alone. There was a concurrent decrease in mechanical ventilation use from 12.3 to 11.0/1000. The increase in CPAP use was greater among neonates > 32 weeks (from 3.2 to 11.8/1000 compared with neonates ≤32 weeks (from 18.1 to 32.7/1000. The proportion of CPAP > 32 weeks initiated in non-tertiary hospitals increased from 6% to 30%. Conclusions The use of neonatal CPAP is increasing, especially > 32 weeks gestation and among non-tertiary hospitals. Recommendations are required regarding which infants should be considered for CPAP, resources necessary for a unit to offer CPAP and monitoring of longer term outcomes.

  16. Trends in use of neonatal CPAP: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine L; Badgery-Parker, Tim; Algert, Charles S; Bowen, Jennifer R; Nassar, Natasha

    2011-10-17

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used widely to provide respiratory support for neonates, and is often the first treatment choice in tertiary centres. Recent trials have demonstrated that CPAP reduces need for intubation and ventilation for infants born at 25-28 weeks gestation, and at > 32 weeks, in non-tertiary hospitals, CPAP reduces need for transfer to NICU. The aim of this study was to examine recent population trends in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. We undertook a population-based cohort study of all 696,816 liveborn neonates ≥24 weeks gestation in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, 2001-2008. Data were obtained from linked birth and hospitalizations records, including neonatal transfers. The primary outcome was CPAP without mechanical ventilation (via endotracheal intubation) between birth and discharge from the hospital system. Analyses were stratified by age ≤32 and > 32 weeks gestation. Neonates receiving any ventilatory support increased from 1,480 (17.9/1000) in 2001 to 2,486 (26.9/1000) in 2008, including 461 (5.6/1000) to 1,465 (15.8/1000) neonates who received CPAP alone. There was a concurrent decrease in mechanical ventilation use from 12.3 to 11.0/1000. The increase in CPAP use was greater among neonates > 32 weeks (from 3.2 to 11.8/1000) compared with neonates ≤32 weeks (from 18.1 to 32.7/1000). The proportion of CPAP > 32 weeks initiated in non-tertiary hospitals increased from 6% to 30%. The use of neonatal CPAP is increasing, especially > 32 weeks gestation and among non-tertiary hospitals. Recommendations are required regarding which infants should be considered for CPAP, resources necessary for a unit to offer CPAP and monitoring of longer term outcomes.

  17. Effect of oral zinc on hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patton Patton

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral zinc has been shown to reduce serum unconjugated bilirubin in animals, adolescents and low birth weight neonates. However, studies in healthy tenn neonates given oral zinc showed no reduction in hyperbilirubinemia based on time measurement in days. In order to improve accuracy, hyperbilirubinemia may be determined based on time measurements in hours. Objective To determine the effect of oral zinc on hyperbiliru-binemia in full term neonates, based on time measurement in hours, rather than days. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical trial on healthy term neonates born spontaneously or through elective caesarean section in Hasan Sadikin Hospital from June to July 2010. Subjects were randomized into two groups: those receiving 5 mg of zinc sulphate and those receiving a placebo, sucrose, each twice daily. Serum total bilirubin level was examined at discharge and upon followup at day 5 of life. Factors which may be related to hyperbilirubinemia such as maternal age, infants' gender, umbilical cord bilirubin levels and type of feeding, were analyzed by Chi-square test. Hyperbilirubinemia persistence and comparison of survival distributions were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Logrank test. Results Out of 60 subjects, 26 had hyperbilirubinemia. The mean duration of hyperbilirubinemia in the 15 subjects in the zinc group and 11 in the placebo group were 116.5 hours and 117.3 hours, respectively. There was no significant difference in hyperbilirubinemia duration between the two groups ( P=0.496, 95% CI 111.5 to 122.7. In addition, Chi-square analysis of factors which may be related to hyperbilirubinemia showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions Oral zinc 5 mg tMce daily made no significant difference in hyperbilirubinemia duration in full tenn neonates despite measuring in hours.

  18. Radiation dose reduction in a neonatal intensive care unit in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayre, A.S.; Torres, P.; Gaona, E.; Rivera, T.; Franco, J.; Molina, N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by chest x-rays in neonatal care with thermoluminescent dosimetry and to determine the level of exposure where the quantum noise level does not affect the diagnostic image quality in order to reduce the dose to neonates. In pediatric radiology, especially the prematurely born children are highly sensitive to the radiation because of the highly mitotic state of their cells; in general, the sensitivity of a tissue to radiation is directly proportional to its rate of proliferation. The sample consisted of 208 neonatal chest x-rays of 12 neonates admitted and treated in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). All the neonates were preterm in the range of 28–34 weeks, with a mean of 30.8 weeks. Entrance Surface Doses (ESD) values for chest x-rays are higher than the DRL of 50 μGy proposed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In order to reduce the dose to neonates, the optimum image quality was achieved by determining the level of ESD where level noise does not affect the diagnostic image quality. The optimum ESD was estimated for additional 20 chest x-rays increasing kVp and reducing mAs until quantum noise affects image quality. - Highlights: ► Entrance surface doses (ESD) in neonates were measured. ► Doses measured in neonates examinations were higher than those reported by literature. ► Reference levels in neonatal studies are required. ► Radiation protection optimization was proposed.

  19. Effects of neonatal oxytocin manipulation on development of social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Kazutaka; Ooyama, Rumi; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-06-22

    The oxytocin (OT) neural system is thought to be involved in the underlying mechanisms that guide the development of social behaviors. In the present study, we examined the effects of neonatal oxytocin manipulation in mice. Within 24 hours after birth, pups in the treatment group randomly received an intraperitoneal injection of OT or OT antagonist (OTA), and those in the control group received a saline injection or handling only. Some of these mice underwent a test that counted the number of isolation-induced ultrasound vocalizations they made on postnatal day 6, and they were further tested for sociability at 8-9 weeks of age and for neuroendocrine stress response to novel environments at 19-20 weeks of age. Another group of mice was tested for alloparental responsiveness at 13-15 weeks of age. The OT injection affected sociability and alloparental responsiveness. In an approach/avoidance test, most of the mice made a social approach to an unfamiliar conspecific of the same sex, but females that had received a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OTA did not show this response. The neonatal OTA treatment appeared to inhibit females' sociability in a dose-dependent fashion. In a retrieving test, females that had received a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OT retrieved significantly more pups than did those that had received 3 μg of OTA, although neither of the treatments caused the females to behave significantly differently from control group females. Meanwhile, a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OTA increased the latency to retrieve pups in males. These results suggested that neonatal OT action may positively regulate alloparental responsiveness in adulthood. Considering that the organizational effects of OT have also been shown in voles and rats, the mechanism by which neonatal OT modifies the development of social behaviors appears to be common to all rodents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypothyroidism in Filipino neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevarra, R.; Torres, J.F.; Estrada, F.A.; San Luis, T.O.L.

    1988-01-01

    Thyroid hormone determination (T4, T3, rT3, TSH) in cord blood of 3,897 newborns was carried out in Metro Manila (non-endemic) and central, Northern and Southern Luzon (endemic for goiter). The objective is to detect congenital hypothyroidism and establish its incidence in new born Filipinos. This was done by radioimmunoassay, using commercial kits from Abbott Laboratories. The results obtained as mean values for non-endemic regions are: T4: 10.96 +- 2.25 ug/dl; T3: 60-64 +- 13.82 ng/dl; rT3: 250.4 +- 64.9 ng/dl; and TSH 5.89 +- 2.58 uU/ml, n=200. Mean values in endemic regions (n = 205) are T4: 9.46 +- 2.18 ug/dl; T3: 67.8 +- 12.05 ng/dl; rT3: 184.3 +- 32.7 ng/dl and TSH: 6.65 +- 3.13 uU/ml. From the above data, nomograms were drawn where the values obtained from each case were plotted. From non-endemic regions 28 positive cases were recalled and in the endemic regions 16 positive cases were also recalled for re-examination but most of them turned out to be false positive. As of now, four positive cases were found in Metro Manila, i.e. 4/2, 441 births and five in endemic regions out of 1,456 births so the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism is 9/3,897 births. This is 9 times higher than most reports abroad which is about 1/4000 births. (Auth.). 36 refs; 10 tabs; 10 figs

  1. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Chandar Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave's disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant's specific signs and symptoms. PMID:24251220

  2. Anti-anaphylactic action of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in antigen sensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Dale R; Valentine, Jimmie L

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic natural products and medicinal herbs has gained popularity. The anti-antigenic action of the plant alkaloid nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) was studied in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs. In one series of experiments conscious, non-sedated guinea pigs were challenged with OA aerosol. Specific airway resistance (SR AW ) was monitored using a two-chambered whole-body plethysmograph. OA aerosol increased SR AW above that produced by vehicle administration. Prior NDGA administration by a 1min 0.9% aerosol (w/vol) attenuated the increase in SR AW resulting from OA challenge. In the anesthetized guinea pig pretreated with indomethacin, pyrilamine and propranolol, intravenous OA injection increased intra-tracheal pressure above vehicle injection. Intravenous NDGA administration (5mg/kg) reduced the intra-tracheal pressure increases. In a third series of experiments plasma leukotriene C 4 was measured by radio-immunoassay in 3 groups challenged with OA aerosol: vehicle-treated OA-sensitized, OA-sensitized receiving NDGA and vehicle treated guinea pigs. NDGA pretreatment reduced plasma LTC 4 in response to OA challenge in OA sensitized guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that NDGA is an effective antigenic agent when given by aerosol or intravenous injection in either conscious or anesthetized guinea pigs, respectively. The mechanism of action of NDGA is presumed primarily be due to the blockage of 5-lipoxygenase and therefore the synthesis of leukotrienes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ROLES AND EFFICIENCY OF PARTICIPANTS IN PIG MARKETING IN THE NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ajala

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of market participants in pig marketing in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational pattern of pig marketing; identify the major problems militating against the marketing efficiency and evaluate the marketing margins of pig at various levels of the marketing channel/chain. The study investigated the pig marketing practices in this area through interviews with producers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. The data collected were analyzed using costs and marketing margins to assess market performance. Empirical findings indicated that the difference (margin between the price received by producers and the retail price of pork and butchers’ sales of by-products was N4,192.40 (US $32.75 per head of pigs. This margin expressed as percentage of the sum of the price paid by pork consumers and by-products merchants was 22% and was shared by the intermediate agents in the marketing chain. Several factors perceived by participants in the market as limiting constraints to pig production and marketing are inadequate abattoir, absence of refrigerators, absence of standard weights and measures, high cost of transportation, lack of access to formal credit sources and lack of good roads. The study recommends the provision of credit facilities, installation of processing plants, use of weights and infrastructural developments in order to increase overall volume of the market.

  4. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  5. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  6. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  7. Neonatal transfusion practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindern, Jeannette Susanne von

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are probably the most frequently used drug given to very preterm infants; more than 90% of infants with a birth weight <1000 grams receive one or more RBC transfusions. Except for reduction of the amount of blood drawn for laboratory tests and use of a single donor program, no

  8. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  9. Two Neonates with Congenital Hydrocolpos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vydehi Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal hydrocolpos is a rare condition. Hydrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina with fluid accumulation due to a combination of stimulation of secretary glands of the reproductive tract and vaginal obstruction. The differential for a neonatal presentation of lower abdominal mass includes urogenital anomalies, Hirschsprung’s, disease or sacrococcygeal teratoma. Prenatal diagnosis and early newborn imaging studies leads to early detection and treatment of these cases. Case. We report here two cases of neonatal hydrocolpos with prenatal diagnosis of lower abdominal mass. Postnatally, ultrasound, MRI imaging, and cystoscopy confirmed large cystic mass as hydrocolpos with distal vaginal obstruction. Both patients had enlarged renal system secondary to mass effect. Conclusion. High index of suspicion for hydrocolpos in a newborn presenting with fetal diagnosis of infraumbilical abdominal mass will facilitate timely intervention and prevention of complications.

  10. CT of the neonatal head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Rogan, E.A.; Batty, R.; Raghavan, A.; Whitby, E.H.; Hart, A.R.; Connolly, D.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used less often than other techniques on neonatal units. However, in the acute setting, CT can be invaluable in diagnosing or excluding potentially life-threatening conditions and guiding initial management in neonates. Common indications for scanning include trauma, suspected non-accidental injury, infection, or an acute hypoxic or metabolic event. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the normal neonatal head at CT and compare this to the common pathological abnormalities. Several key features of each condition will be highlighted. It is important to note that some pathological conditions can have overlapping features at CT and, therefore, the clinical history and additional investigations are also of key importance in determining the diagnosis

  11. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M.

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Neonatal hemophilia: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a X-linked hereditary condition that lead to decreased factor VIII activity, occurs mainly in males. Decreased factor VIII activity leads to increased risk of bleeding events. During neonatal period, diagnosis is made after post-partum bleeding complication or unexpected bleeding after medical procedures. Subgaleal hemorrhage during neonatal period is a rare, severe extracranial bleeding with high mortality and usually related to traumatic labor or coagulation disorders. Subgaleal hemorrhage complications result from massive bleeding. We present a neonate with unremarkable family history and uneventful pregnancy with a vaginal delivery with no instrumentation, presenting with severe subgaleal bleeding at 52 hours of life. Aggressive support measures were implemented and bleeding managed. The unexpected bleeding lead to a coagulation study and the diagnosis of severe hemophilia A. There were no known sequelae. This case shows a rare hemophilia presentation reflecting the importance of coagulation studies when faced with unexplained severe bleeding.

  13. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000 li...... indicates that over the past decade the surveyed area has greatly reduced neonatal and NNT mortality. Possible strategies for accelerated NNT control have been identified by the survey....

  14. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  15. Safety of milrinone use in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Raman, Sudha R; van den Anker, John N; McHutchison, Kerstin; Hornik, Christoph P; Clark, Reese H; Brian Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Milrinone use in the neonatal intensive care unit has increased over the last 10 years despite a paucity of published safety data in infants. We sought to determine the safety of milrinone therapy among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. We conducted a retrospective data analysis, identifying all infants who were exposed to milrinone and discharged from 322 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997-2010. We identified adverse events (AEs) during milrinone exposure. The unit of observation for clinical AEs was the first course of milrinone and for laboratory AEs it was an infant-day of exposure to milrinone. Overall, 1446 of 716,821 (0.2%) infants received milrinone for a total of 6894 infant-days. The proportion of infants exposed to milrinone increased from 0 in 1997 to 4/1000 infant cases in 2010. Persistent pulmonary hypertension (40%) was the most commonly reported diagnosis at the start of milrinone administration. Overall, 606/1446 (42%) of infants had at least 1 clinical AE recorded during milrinone therapy. Hypotension requiring pressors and thrombocytopenia (milrinone therapy. Among infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, there was an increase in the use of milrinone over the past 13 years. The safety, dosing, and efficacy of milrinone in infants should be determined in prospective clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome after chronic maternal consumption of 4-methylethcathinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; García, Jordi; Girona, Noelia; Leal, Lorna; García-Algar, Oscar; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic cathinones have been markedly present in the Spanish drug market in recent years. These substances can be easily obtained in "smart shops", smoke shops, gas stations and web sites where they can be bought and received anonymously avoiding normal law controls. For the first time we present a case of a neonatal withdrawal syndrome in a baby born to a woman who was a chronic consumer of 4-methylethcathinone. The newborn presented with increased jitteriness and irritability, highpitched cry, hypertonia in the limbs and brisk tendon reflexes. 4-Methylethcathinone was identified and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the four subsequent 3cm segments of maternal hair (4.3, 4.0, 4.0 and 3.9ng/mg hair starting from most proximal segment) accounting for maternal consumption during the whole pregnancy and before and in neonatal meconium (0.7ng/g) confirming fetal exposure during intrauterine life. Methadone and its metabolite were also measured in maternal and neonatal matrices. Counseling pregnant women and women who may become pregnant on the consequences of fetal drug exposure to new designer drugs like 4-methylethcathinone is critical to preventing poor neonatal outcomes. This case report is informative to those studying designer drugs and those clinically involved with pregnant women abusing psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal Bubble CPAP: One Year Experience in a Neonatal Unit of a Tertiary Health Facility in Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadir, I; Hassan, L; Abdullahi, F; Purdue, S; Ogala, W N

    2015-03-01

    Nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (NBCPAP) respiratory support, though decades old, is beginning to gain popularity in developing countries including Nigeria. We reviewed neonates who benefitted from NBCPAP, to describe the demographics and outcome of NBCPAP respiratory support in newborns admitted to the neonatal unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria, over a one year period. The study is a descriptive observational review of all neonates who required NBCPAP respiratory support in the neonatal unit of ABUTH Zaria. Data was extracted from a specifically designed proforma used to obtain information on each neonate throughout the period of admission. Twenty babies received NBCPAP respiratory support during the period of study. Seventeen (85%) of the neonates were successfully weaned off CPAP while three (15%) failed CPAP. Three neonates developed complications with two having CPAP belly syndrome and the third had facial swelling which resolved spontaneously after 6 hours. Overall, seven (41%) of the neonates who were successfully weaned off CPAP were discharged home. MajorityofnewbornswhorequirerespiratorysupportwillbenefitfromNBCPAP therefore, this method of respiratory support should be popularized and neonatal units in the country should be supported to efficiently offer the service.

  18. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  19. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail: aadebiyi@uthsc.edu; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  20. Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Neonatal Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dudink (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAlthough in the last decades advances in fetal and neonatal medicine have reduced mortality in neonatal intensive care units in the Western world, the morbidity due to brain injury remains high. Patterns of neonatal brain injury can be roughly divided in (1) term and (2) preterm

  1. Phototherapy and exchange transfusion for neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this document is to address the current lack of consensus regarding the management of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates in South Africa. If left untreated, severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia may cause kernicterus and ultimately death and the severity of neonatal jaundice is often underestimated clinically.

  2. Right paratesticular abscess mimicking neonatal testicular torsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U.O. Ezomike

    Abstract. The clinical presentation of neonatal paratesticular abscess may closely resemble that of, neonatal testicular torsion and the use of scrotal ultrasonography to differentiate the two has low, sensitivity. We propose early operative treatment of suspected neonatal testicular torsion to salvage, the testicle in cases of ...

  3. Malaria parasite positivity among febrile neonates | Enyuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...

  4. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation dose reduction in a neonatal intensive care unit in computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayre, A S; Torres, P; Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Franco, J; Molina, N

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by chest x-rays in neonatal care with thermoluminescent dosimetry and to determine the level of exposure where the quantum noise level does not affect the diagnostic image quality in order to reduce the dose to neonates. In pediatric radiology, especially the prematurely born children are highly sensitive to the radiation because of the highly mitotic state of their cells; in general, the sensitivity of a tissue to radiation is directly proportional to its rate of proliferation. The sample consisted of 208 neonatal chest x-rays of 12 neonates admitted and treated in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). All the neonates were preterm in the range of 28-34 weeks, with a mean of 30.8 weeks. Entrance Surface Doses (ESD) values for chest x-rays are higher than the DRL of 50 μGy proposed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In order to reduce the dose to neonates, the optimum image quality was achieved by determining the level of ESD where level noise does not affect the diagnostic image quality. The optimum ESD was estimated for additional 20 chest x-rays increasing kVp and reducing mAs until quantum noise affects image quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  7. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin on circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska-Mól Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pigs of similar genetics (PIC were used. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ENRO, n = 10 and control (C, n = 10. From day 0 to day 4, pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended therapeutic dose. Pigs from C group received PBS instead of enrofloxacin. Blood samples were collected on days 0 (before antibiotic administration, 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy, 9, and 13 of the study (after enrofloxacin administration. Haematological examination and flow cytometry were used to establish the relative and absolute counts of various leukocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by fluorochrom-labelled antibodies according to following definitions: CD3+ (T cells, CD21+ (B cells, CD4+CD8- (helper T cells, Th, CD4-CD8+ (cytolytic T cells, CLT, CD4+CD8+ (cytolytic and memory T cells. The present study revealed the modulating effect of enrofloxacin on the composition of circulating lymphocytes in pigs. Concentration and percentage of CD8+ cells decreased significantly after treatment with enrofloxacin and as a result the absolute CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly as compared to control group (P < 0.05.These findings should prompt further studies on the practical significance of the results obtained in terms of clinical implications. In view of the results, it cannot be excluded that enrofloxacin may also have immunomodulatory effects on host response to infection.

  9. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...

  10. The initial experience of antithrombin III in the management of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peter, Shawn D; Little, Danny C; Calkins, Casey M; Holcomb, George W; Snyder, Charles L; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2007-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the devastating enteric process of premature neonates, is marked by severe intravascular abnormalities and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment to date remains historical and continues to be merely supportive without attempts to ameliorate progress within the inflammatory or coagulation cascades. Antithrombin III (ATIII) supplementation has been shown to favorably alter the process of disseminated intravascular coagulation and sepsis in adults. However, no reported use of this treatment exists in neonates. Therefore, we analyze the efficacy of our recent experience with ATIII replacement therapy in neonates with NEC. Age and diseased-matched controls with NEC were identified before the introduction of ATIII in our institution and compared against neonates with NEC undergoing ATIII replacement for diminished ATIII levels. Data collected included demographics, course of treatment parameters, and outcomes. Course of treatment parameters included hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time over the first 10 consecutive days of treatment. Outcome variables included packed red blood cell, platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate transfusions, as well as transfusion cost, length of stay, and survival. Over a 5-year period, 19 neonates with NEC received ATIII and were compared to 17 historical controls. Treatment hematologic profiles were not worsened in the ATIII-treated patients. The control patients received less overall transfusions and had a shorter length of stay. Antithrombin III appears to be safe in neonates with NEC, and its impact on reversing intravascular pathology in these patients warrants more thorough investigation.

  11. Oral sucrose for heel lance increases adenosine triphosphate use and oxidative stress in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S; Bahjri, Khaled; Holden, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  13. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  14. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondwani Kawaza

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care.We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups.87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62 compared with 44.0% (11/25 for controls. 65.5% (19/29 of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13 of controls. 64.6% (31/48 of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17 of controls. 61.5% (16/26 of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived.Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  15. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaza, Kondwani; Machen, Heather E; Brown, Jocelyn; Mwanza, Zondiwe; Iniguez, Suzanne; Gest, Al; Smith, E O'Brian; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls) were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62) compared with 44.0% (11/25) for controls. 65.5% (19/29) of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13) of controls. 64.6% (31/48) of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17) of controls. 61.5% (16/26) of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  16. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Safe excipient exposure in neonates and small children - protocol for the SEEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration...... (more common by enteral than parenteral route), and regional differences were revealed. The survey did not identify if the content of excipients was more pronounced in medications prescribed for specific medical diseases, e.g. more common in cardiovascular conditions than lung diseases. Furthermore......, the quantitative amount of e.g. ethanol in the multi-medicated neonate has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to quantify the total amount of excipients administered to poly-medicated neonatal and paediatric patients during hospitalisation; and to investigate if any particular medical diseases...

  18. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A.; Northington, F.J.; Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J.; Huisman, T.A.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  19. The challenges of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J.; Edwards, Andrea; Austin, Topun

    2012-01-01

    Improved neonatal survival rates and antenatal diagnostic imaging is generating a growing demand for postnatal MRI examinations. Neonatal brain MRI is now becoming standard clinical care in many settings, but with the exception of some research centres, the technique has not been optimised for imaging neonates and small children. Here, we review some of the challenges involved in neonatal MRI, including recent advances in overall MR practicality and nursing practice, to address some of the ways in which the MR experience could be made more neonate-friendly. (orig.)

  20. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  1. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  2. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  3. Digestibilidade de nutrientes e balanço de Ca e P em suínos recebendo dietas com ácido butírico, fitase e diferentes níveis de cálcio Nutrient digestibility and Ca and P balance in pigs receiving butyric acid, phytase and different calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiane Golfetto Machinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o uso do ácido butírico (AB e da fitase em dietas de suínos na fase de crescimento, variando no nível de cálcio. O experimento foi subdivido no tempo em dois períodos de 17 dias, sendo três de adaptação e 14 de mensurações. Em cada período, foram utilizados 16 suínos machos castrados, com peso de 24,6±0,7kg no primeiro e 43,2±1,77kg no segundo período. As dietas diferiam no nível de cálcio (0,5 ou 0,72%, de AB (0 ou 0,3% de butirato de sódio 84% e de fitase (0 ou 500 FTU kg-1, fitase de origem bacteriana derivada de Escherichia coli. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados (períodos, em decomposição fatorial 2x2x2, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta e o balanço de Ca e P. O AB melhorou a digestibilidade da proteína bruta, mas, de forma individual ou em combinação com a fitase, não aumentou a retenção de minerais. A fitase aumentou a retenção de P, reduzindo sua excreção fecal e urinária. O menor nível de Ca na dieta proporcionou maior retenção de Ca e menor retenção de P, em decorrência do aumento da excreção de P na urina (PIt was studied the use of butyric acid (BA and phytase in growing pigs diets, varying calcium level. The experiment was divided into two periods of time, of 17 days, with 3 days of adaptation and 14 of measurements. In each period, it was used 16 barrows weighing 24.6±0.7kg in the first and 43.2±1.77kg in the second. Diets were different in calcium level (0.5 or 0.72%, AB (0 or 0.3% sodium butyrate 84% and phytase (0 or 500FTU kg-1 phytase of bacterial origin derived from Escherichia coli. The experimental design was in randomized blocks (periods, decomposed in 2x2x2 factorial, with four replications. It was evaluated the apparent digestibility of nutrients, gross energy and balance of Ca and P. AB improved crude protein digestibility, but individually or in combination with phytase did not increase

  4. Internipple measurements in Indian neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and transverse ocular distance are some important measurements when diagnosing dysmorphology.[4]. The internipple index (internipple distance (cm) × 100 ÷ circum ference of ... internipple distance to chest circumference compared with neonates ... first 3 days of life, and to correlate these measurements with gender,.

  5. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  6. Photodegradation of riboflavin in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The biologically most important flavins are riboflavin and its related nucleotides, all highly sensitive to light. It is because of its photoreactivity and its presence in almost all body fluids and tissues that riboflavin assumes importance in phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The absorption maxima of both bilirubin and riboflavin in the body are nearly identical: 445-450 (447) nm. In consequence, blue visible light will cause photoisomerization of bilirubin accompanied by photodegradation of riboflavin. This results in diminished erythrocyte glutathione reductase, which indicates generalized tissue riboflavin deficiency and red cell lysis. Single- and double-strand breaks in intracellular DNA have occurred with phototherapy. This light exposure of neonates may result also in alterations of bilirubin-albumin binding in the presence of both riboflavin and theophylline (the latter frequently given to prevent neonatal apnea). Many newborns, especially if premature, have low stores of riboflavin at birth. The absorptive capacity of premature infants for enteral riboflavin is likewise reduced. Consequently, inherently low stores and low intake of riboflavin plus phototherapy for neonatal jaundice will cause a deficiency of riboflavin at a critical period for the newborn. Supplementation to those infants most likely to develop riboflavin deficiency is useful, but dosage, time, and mode of administration to infants undergoing phototherapy must be carefully adjusted to avoid unwanted side effects

  7. Standardisation of neonatal clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Z A; Giuliani, F; Haroon, A; Knight, H E; Albernaz, E; Batra, M; Bhat, B; Bertino, E; McCormick, K; Ochieng, R; Rajan, V; Ruyan, P; Cheikh Ismail, L; Paul, V

    2013-09-01

    The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ) is a large-scale, population-based, multicentre project involving health institutions from eight geographically diverse countries, which aims to assess fetal, newborn and preterm growth under optimal conditions. Given the multicentre nature of the project and the expected number of preterm births, it is vital that all centres follow the same standardised clinical care protocols to assess and manage preterm infants, so as to ensure maximum validity of the resulting standards as indicators of growth and nutrition with minimal confounding. Moreover, it is well known that evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Neonatal Group produced an operations manual, which reflects the consensus reached by members of the group regarding standardised definitions of neonatal morbidities and the minimum standards of care to be provided by all centres taking part in the project. The operational definitions and summary management protocols were developed by consensus through a Delphi process based on systematic reviews of relevant guidelines and management protocols by authoritative bodies. This paper describes the process of developing the Basic Neonatal Care Manual, as well as the morbidity definitions and standardised neonatal care protocols applied across all the INTERGROWTH-21(st) participating centres. Finally, thoughts about implementation strategies are presented. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You work in a regional neonatal intensive care unit. An 8-day-old ... The baby was born at 28 weeks' gestation with a birth weight of 1. 100 g. ... and arterial blood taken from indwelling arterial lines.2-4 However, even ... tal age of 48 - 72 hours.

  9. Human Parechovirus and Neonatal Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation, cranial ultrasound (cUS and MRi findings, and neurodevelopmental outcome of 10 neonates (70% term with human parechovirus (HPeV encephalitis are described by researchers at University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands; University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Universitaire de Quebec, Canada.

  10. Neonatal umbilical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal scan. The preferred treatment option is resection of the tumor. Spontaneous regression has been described. Ann Pediatr Surg 13:160–162 c 2017 Annals of Pediatric. Surgery. ... Keywords: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, neonatal tumor, surgical resection ... Other anatomical regions were the brain, the.

  11. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmony Hong

    education level (none, primary, secondary+ and household wealth (asset-based index. Data on antenatal care, tetanus injection and skilled assistance at birth were used for the mother's last child. Between 2000 and 2014, Cambodia achieved a considerable reduction in neonatal mortality (46% reduction rate. By 2014, gender inequities became almost non-existent (for all measures of equality; inequity related to mother's education decreased for all time periods; improvements were observed for differences in neonatal mortality by preceding birth interval; and a reduction in neonatal mortality rates could be noted among all the regional subgroups. Inequities increased between mothers who had limited antenatal care and those who received more than four antenatal care visits. In most scale indicators, the Slope Index of Inequality and Relative Index of Inequality estimates for all four rounds of the survey suggest inequity exacerbated in deprived communities. Also, wealth and residence (urban/rural divide continued to be major determinants in neonatal mortality rates and related inequity trends.Analysis highlighted some of the complex patterns and determinants of neonatal mortality, in Cambodia. There has been a considerable decline in neonatal mortality which echoes global trends. Our analysis reveals that despite these advances, additional socio-economic and demographic characteristics considerably affected neonatal mortality rates and its inequities. There continue to be pockets of vulnerable groups that are lagging behind. This analysis highlights the determinants along the urban-rural and rich-poor divides in neonatal mortality inequities and how these affect access to and utilization of quality basic health services. This calls for future policy and programming efforts to be deliberate in their equity approach. Quality improvements in health services and targeted interventions for specific socio-economic groups will be required to further accelerate progress in reducing

  12. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Wieringa, Frank; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud; Van Geystelen, Judit; Berger, Jacques; Poirot, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    , secondary+) and household wealth (asset-based index). Data on antenatal care, tetanus injection and skilled assistance at birth were used for the mother's last child. Between 2000 and 2014, Cambodia achieved a considerable reduction in neonatal mortality (46% reduction rate). By 2014, gender inequities became almost non-existent (for all measures of equality); inequity related to mother's education decreased for all time periods; improvements were observed for differences in neonatal mortality by preceding birth interval; and a reduction in neonatal mortality rates could be noted among all the regional subgroups. Inequities increased between mothers who had limited antenatal care and those who received more than four antenatal care visits. In most scale indicators, the Slope Index of Inequality and Relative Index of Inequality estimates for all four rounds of the survey suggest inequity exacerbated in deprived communities. Also, wealth and residence (urban/rural divide) continued to be major determinants in neonatal mortality rates and related inequity trends. Analysis highlighted some of the complex patterns and determinants of neonatal mortality, in Cambodia. There has been a considerable decline in neonatal mortality which echoes global trends. Our analysis reveals that despite these advances, additional socio-economic and demographic characteristics considerably affected neonatal mortality rates and its inequities. There continue to be pockets of vulnerable groups that are lagging behind. This analysis highlights the determinants along the urban-rural and rich-poor divides in neonatal mortality inequities and how these affect access to and utilization of quality basic health services. This calls for future policy and programming efforts to be deliberate in their equity approach. Quality improvements in health services and targeted interventions for specific socio-economic groups will be required to further accelerate progress in reducing neonatal mortality and address

  13. Early Administration of Probiotics Alters Bacterial Colonization and Limits Diet-Induced Gut Dysfunction and Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Richard H.; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and interal formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocilitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial...... colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2d) with porcine colosstrum (COLOS; n= 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics...

  14. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  15. Maternal and Neonatal Outcome in Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, G Thiruvikrama; Das, Ashok Kumar; Habeebullah, Syed; Bhat, Vishnu; Shamanna, Suryanarayana Bettadpura

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common and is accompanied with other comorbidities. Challenges to treatment exist at our institute as it serves women with low income. This study assessed the burden of comorbidities and the outcome of GDM. This was a prospective, observational study of women with gestational diabetes attending the obstetrics department from September 2012 to April 2014. GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Medical comorbidities were noted, and lipid profile was done. All the women were followed up till delivery, and the complications were recorded. Age- and parity-matched pregnant women with normal oral glucose tolerance test were recruited as controls. One hundred and thirty-nine women were followed up till delivery. The average age was 28 years. Eighteen percent had bad obstetric history. The average body mass index was 28.8. Twenty-five percent had gestational hypertension (HTN), and 6.4% had chronic HTN. Thirty percent had hypothyroidism. 65% women received insulin. The glucose values were within the recommended range in 60% of the women. Maternal hypoglycemia occurred in 7 (5%) women. Forty-four percent of the women required cesarean section and 34% had complications either during pregnancy or labor. Three neonates had macrosomia. Twenty-six neonates (20%) required admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Four neonates (3%) died. Newborns of mothers whose GDM optimally treated had less complications. Gestational diabetes is associated with HTN, hypothyroidism, obesity, and lipid abnormalities. The majority of women required insulin for treatment and optimal control of blood glucose resulted in lower neonatal complications.

  16. Maternal and neonatal outcome in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thiruvikrama Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is common and is accompanied with other comorbidities. Challenges to treatment exist at our institute as it serves women with low income. This study assessed the burden of comorbidities and the outcome of GDM. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of women with gestational diabetes attending the obstetrics department from September 2012 to April 2014. GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Medical comorbidities were noted, and lipid profile was done. All the women were followed up till delivery, and the complications were recorded. Age- and parity-matched pregnant women with normal oral glucose tolerance test were recruited as controls. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine women were followed up till delivery. The average age was 28 years. Eighteen percent had bad obstetric history. The average body mass index was 28.8. Twenty-five percent had gestational hypertension (HTN, and 6.4% had chronic HTN. Thirty percent had hypothyroidism. 65% women received insulin. The glucose values were within the recommended range in 60% of the women. Maternal hypoglycemia occurred in 7 (5% women. Forty-four percent of the women required cesarean section and 34% had complications either during pregnancy or labor. Three neonates had macrosomia. Twenty-six neonates (20% required admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Four neonates (3% died. Newborns of mothers whose GDM optimally treated had less complications. Conclusion: Gestational diabetes is associated with HTN, hypothyroidism, obesity, and lipid abnormalities. The majority of women required insulin for treatment and optimal control of blood glucose resulted in lower neonatal complications.

  17. Prebiotics for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanian, Amir Mohammad; Barekatain, Behzad; Hoseinzadeh, Maryam; Salehimehr, Nima

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated if prebiotics have benefits for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm neonates. Preterm neonates were entered into the study when enteral feeding volume met 30 mL/kg/day. They randomly received a mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosacarids/long-chain fructo-oligosacarids or distilled water (placebo) for 1 week. Total serum bilirubin level was measured by transcutaneous bilirubinometry. Stool frequency and meeting full enteral feeding during the study period were considered as secondary outcomes. Twenty-five neonates in each group completed the trial. Bilirubin level was decreased with the prebiotic (-1.3 ±  1.8 mg/dL, p = 0.004), but not placebo (-0.1 ± 3.3 mg/dL, p = 0.416). Peak bilirubin level was lower with the prebiotic than placebo (8.3 ± 1.7 versus 10.1 ± 2.2 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Stool frequency was increased with the prebiotic (0.7 ± 1.9 defecation/day, p = 0.014), but not with placebo (0.6 ±  1.5 defecation/day, p = 0.133). Average stool frequency (2.4 ±  0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 defecation/day, p = 0.003) and frequently of meeting full enteral feeding (60% versus 16%, p = 0.002) were higher with the prebiotic than placebo. Prebiotic oligosaccharides increase stool frequency, improve feeding tolerance and reduce bilirubin level in preterm neonates and therefore can be efficacious for the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  18. Status of neonatal intensive care units in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality in India accounts for 50% of infant mortality, which has declined to 84/1000 live births. There is no prenatal care for over 50% of pregnant women, and over 80% deliver at home in unsafe and unsanitary conditions. Those women who do deliver in health facilities are unable to receive intensive neonatal care when necessary. Level I and Level II neonatal care is unavailable in most health facilities in India, and in most developing countries. There is a need in India for Level III care units also. The establishment of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in India and developing countries would require space and location, finances, equipment, staff, protocols of care, and infection control measures. Neonatal mortality could be reduced by initially adding NICUs at a few key hospitals. The recommendation is for 30 NICU beds per million population. Each bed would require 50 square feet per cradle and proper climate control. Funds would have to be diverted from adult care. The largest expenses would be in equipment purchase, maintenance, and repair. Trained technicians would be required to operate and monitor the sophisticated ventilators and incubators. The nurse-patient ratio should be 1:1 and 1:2 for other infants. Training mothers to work in the NICUs would help ease the problems of trained nursing staff shortages. Protocols need not be highly technical; they could include the substitution of radiant warmers and room heaters for expensive incubators, the provision of breast milk, and the reduction of invasive procedures such as venipuncture and intubation. Nocosomial infections should be reduced by vacuum cleaning and wet mopping with a disinfectant twice a day, changing disinfectants periodically, maintaining mops to avoid infection, decontamination of linen, daily changing of tubing, and cleaning and sterilizing oxygen hoods and resuscitation equipment, and maintaining an iatrogenic infection record book, which could be used to

  19. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH.

  20. Spectrum Of Congenital Heart Disease In Full Term Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Saima; Hussain Gilani, Syed Yasir; Bibi, Shawana

    2018-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a significant problem world over especially in neonates. Early diagnosis and prompt interventions in neonatal period precludes the mortality associated with this disorder. The objective of this study was to highlight the diversity of congenital cardiac defects in our region so that appropriate interventions are devised to minimize significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disorder. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Neonatology Unit of Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Teaching Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016. Approval of ethical committee was taken. All fullterm neonates of either gender who presented in department of neonatology including those delivered in hospital or received from other sources (private settings, home deliveries), diagnosed as having congenital heart disease on echocardiography were included in the study. Preterm neonates of either gender were excluded from the study. Patient characteristics were recorded in a designed proforma. Data was entered in SPSS version 20 and analysed. A total of 89 neonates were included in the study. Mean age of presentation was 6.34±7.058 days and range of 1-28 days. There was a male preponderance with 57 (64%) male patients as compared to 32 (36%) female patients. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the commonest cardiac lesion being present in 34 (38.2%) patients. Other defects included complex congenital heart disease in 8 (9%), atrial septal defect (ASD) and transposition of great arteries (TGA) in 7 (7.9%) each, atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) in 6 (6.7%) and Fallots's tetralogy (TOF) and hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 5 (5.6%) each.. Congenital heart disease is a problem of profound importance. It constitutes approximately one third of the total major congenital malformations. There is a diversity of cardiac lesions in our region that warrant early and prompt interventions so that the disease is recognized and treated at

  1. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  2. Neonatal pleural effusions in a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions are rare in the newborn. Still, being familiar with this condition is relevant given its association with a wide range of disorders. Only two large series of cases on this matter have been published, with no solid conclusions established. The aim of this study is to determine the etiology, management and prognosis of pleural effusions in a population of high-risk neonates.The authors performed a retrospective study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of "Hospital de São João", Porto (Portugal, between 1997 and 2014, of all newborns with the diagnosis of pleural effusion, chylothorax, hemothorax, empyema, fetal hydrops or leakage of total parenteral nutrition (TPN.Eighty-two newborns were included, 48 males and 34 females. Pleural effusions were congenital in 19 (23.2% newborns and acquired in 63 (76.8%. Fetal hydrops was the most frequent cause (15 cases, 78.9% of congenital effusions while postoperative after intrathoracic surgery was the most common cause (39 cases, 61.9% of acquired effusions, followed by leakage of TPN (13 cases, 20.6%. Chylothorax was the most common type of effusion (41.5% of cases. Pleural effusions after intrathoracic surgery were mainly (64.1% chylothoraces. Regarding use of octreotide for treatment of acquired chylous effusions, the comparative analysis showed no statistical differences between the group of alive newborns who received octreotide and the group who did not. Twenty-seven (32.9% newborns died; the causes of death were related to underlying diseases and not to the pleural effusion. Clinical outcome is generally good, except in hydropic neonates. Blood albumin level appears to be predictive of prognosis and further investigation on its clinical significance should be encouraged.

  3. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; McNeill, D.A.; Spangler, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131 I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 μCi 131 I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131 I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131 I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  4. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PIG's Speed Estimated with Pressure Transducers and Hall Effect Sensor: An Industrial Application of Sensors to Validate a Testing Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gustavo F; Freitas, Victor C G; Araújo, Renan P; Maitelli, André L; Salazar, Andrés O

    2017-09-15

    The pipeline inspection using a device called Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) is safe and reliable when the PIG is at low speeds during inspection. We built a Testing Laboratory, containing a testing loop and supervisory system to study speed control techniques for PIGs. The objective of this work is to present and validate the Testing Laboratory, which will allow development of a speed controller for PIGs and solve an existing problem in the oil industry. The experimental methodology used throughout the project is also presented. We installed pressure transducers on pipeline outer walls to detect the PIG's movement and, with data from supervisory, calculated an average speed of 0.43 m/s. At the same time, the electronic board inside the PIG received data from odometer and calculated an average speed of 0.45 m/s. We found an error of 4.44%, which is experimentally acceptable. The results showed that it is possible to successfully build a Testing Laboratory to detect the PIG's passage and estimate its speed. The validation of the Testing Laboratory using data from the odometer and its auxiliary electronic was very successful. Lastly, we hope to develop more research in the oil industry area using this Testing Laboratory.

  6. Distribution of mercury in guinea pig offspring after in utero exposure to mercury vapor during late gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Minoru; Yamamura, Yukio; Sataoh, Hiroshi

    1986-04-01

    Organ distribution of mercury after in utero mercury vapor exposure was investigated in neonatal guinea pigs. Mother guinea pigs in late gestation were exposed to 0.2-0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ mercury vapor 2 h per day until giving birth. Mercury concentrations in neonatal brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, plasma and erythrocytes were much lower than those of maternal organs and tissues. Neonatal liver, however, showed a mercury concentration twice as high as maternal liver. Mercury concentration ratios of erythrocytes to plasma in offspring were quite different from those of mothers, being 0.2-0.4 for offspring, and 1.3-3.0 for mothers. These results suggested that mercury vapor metabolism in fetuses was quite different from that in their mothers. This may be due to the different blood circulation, as mercury vapor transferred through the placental barrier would be rapidly oxidized into ionic mercury in fetal liver and accumulated in the organ. The different mercury vapor metabolism may prevent fetal brain, which is rapidly developing, and thus vulnerable, from being exposed to excessive mercury vapor.

  7. Effect of intraosseous anesthesia on control of hemostasis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tyler F; Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Schwartz, Stephen F; Wolf, David

    2009-11-01

    Intraosseous anesthesia is used to deliver anesthetic into cancellous bone adjacent to the root apices. No study has assessed the effect of this anesthetic technique on hemostasis. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of bleeding from soft tissue and bone in pig jaws after preoperative intraosseous or infiltration anesthesia with 2% lidocaine containing 1:50,000 epinephrine. Twelve pigs were divided into 3 groups. The first group received infiltration anesthesia on one half of the jaw and no anesthesia on the other half. The second group received intraosseous anesthesia on one half of the jaw and no anesthesia on the other half. The third group received infiltration anesthesia on one half of the jaw and intraosseous anesthesia on the second half. Blood was collected during flap reflection to measure the volume of soft tissue bleeding. Osteotomies were then prepared with blood collected from the surgical site to measure the volume of osseous bleeding. The median soft tissue blood loss observed in animals receiving infiltration anesthesia (1.14 mL) was significantly less as compared with animals that received no anesthesia (4.49 mL) or intraosseous anesthesia (2.45 mL). Compared with median hard tissue blood loss observed in animals without anesthesia (1.51 mL), significantly less blood loss was observed in animals receiving either infiltration anesthesia (0.67 mL) or intraosseous anesthesia (0.76 mL). Infiltration anesthesia resulted in significantly less soft tissue bleeding (p = .004) as compared with no anesthesia. Infiltration and intraosseous anesthesia resulted in significantly less osseous bleeding than the use of no anesthetic (p < .001). The volume of blood loss for each animal was shown to be below the maximum safe volume of blood loss for a single procedure.

  8. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    the specifics of modern datasets available on the Web, which often use the RDF data model. Graph patterns, for instance, are one of the core concepts of SPARQL but have to be formulated as explicit joins, which burdens the user with the details of efficient query processing strategies. In this paper, we address......In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user...

  9. Advancing Neurologic Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a Neonatal Neurologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal neurology is a growing sub-specialty area. Given the considerable amount of neurologic problems present in the neonatal intensive care unit, a neurologist with expertise in neonates is becoming more important. We sought to evaluate the change in neurologic care in the neonatal intensive care unit at our tertiary care hospital by having a dedicated neonatal neurologist. The period post-neonatal neurologist showed a greater number of neurology consultations (Pneurology encounters per patient (Pneurology became part of the multi-disciplinary team providing focused neurologic care to newborns. PMID:23271754

  10. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    , which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher......Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  11. Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda L da; Amaral, Augusto R do; Oliveira, Daniela S de; Martins, Lisiane; Silva, Mariana R E; Silva, Jean Carl

    To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated at a public maternity hospital from July 2010 to August 2014. The study included women aged at least 18 years, with a singleton pregnancy, who met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, fetal abdominal circumference, body mass index and gestational age were considered for treatment decision-making. The evaluated neonatal outcomes were: type of delivery, prematurity, weight in relation to gestational age, Apgar at 1 and 5min, and need for intensive care unit admission. The sample consisted of 705 pregnant women. The neonatal outcomes were analyzed based on the treatment received. Women treated with metformin were less likely to have children who were small for gestational age (95% CI: 0.09-0.66) and more likely to have a newborn adequate for gestational age (95% CI: 1.12-3.94). Those women treated with insulin had a lower chance of having a preterm child (95% CI: 0.02-0.78). The combined treatment with insulin and metformin resulted in higher chance for a neonate to be born large for gestational age (95% CI: 1.14-11.15) and lower chance to be born preterm (95% CI: 0.01-0.71). The type of treatment did not affect the mode of delivery, Apgar score, and intensive care unit admission. The pediatrician in the delivery room can expect different outcomes for diabetic mothers based on the treatment received. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual Innervation of Neonatal Merkel Cells in Mouse Touch Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

  13. Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated at a public maternity hospital from July 2010 to August 2014. The study included women aged at least 18 years, with a singleton pregnancy, who met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose levels, fetal abdominal circumference, body mass index and gestational age were considered for treatment decision-making. The evaluated neonatal outcomes were: type of delivery, prematurity, weight in relation to gestational age, Apgar at 1 and 5 min, and need for intensive care unit admission. Results: The sample consisted of 705 pregnant women. The neonatal outcomes were analyzed based on the treatment received. Women treated with metformin were less likely to have children who were small for gestational age (95% CI: 0.09-0.66 and more likely to have a newborn adequate for gestational age (95% CI: 1.12-3.94. Those women treated with insulin had a lower chance of having a preterm child (95% CI: 0.02-0.78. The combined treatment with insulin and metformin resulted in higher chance for a neonate to be born large for gestational age (95% CI: 1.14-11.15 and lower chance to be born preterm (95% CI: 0.01-0.71. The type of treatment did not affect the mode of delivery, Apgar score, and intensive care unit admission. Conclusions: The pediatrician in the delivery room can expect different outcomes for diabetic mothers based on the treatment received.

  14. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  15. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  16. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  17. Selected hematological and immunological parameters in pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected from 64 healthy growing pigs one week before and one week after they were transferred to the finishing house. The following tests were performed: complete blood count with machine differential, immunoglobulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and cortisol level. Pigs were divided into two groups.

  18. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  19. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  20. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  1. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  2. Animal models got you puzzled?: think pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eric M; Agca, Yuksel; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Evans, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Swine are an excellent large animal model for human health and disease because their size and physiology are similar to humans, in particular, with respect to the skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. In addition, the pig has many emerging technologies that will only enhance the development of the pig as the nonrodent biomedical model of choice. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  4. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  5. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Neonatal stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Neonatologie, angeborene Stoerungen und Intensivmedizin; Puig, S.; Prayer, D. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [German] Ein Infarkt im Stromgebiet der Zerebralarterien stellt eine wichtige Differentialdiagnose bei neurologischen Auffaelligkeiten in der Neonatalperiode dar. Die Inzidenz wird anhand von klinischer Daten auf 1:4000 Lebendgeborene geschaetzt. Da der Verlauf oft subklinisch ist, liegt die wahre Inzidenz wahrscheinlich hoeher. Diagnose: Bei der Diagnosestellung kommen dem Schaedelultraschall und der Doppelsonographie als leicht verfuegbaren Screening-Methoden eine zentrale Rolle zu. Die definitive Diagnose wird, je nach Verfuegbarkeit, mittels Computertomographie oder Kernspintomographie gestellt. Die Behandlung ist neben der symptomatischen (antikonvulsiven) Therapie auf die Vermeidung von ischaemischen Sekundaerschaeden gerichtet. Diskussion: Wir wollen mit der vorliegenden Arbeit anhand von 3 Kindern mit verschiedenen klinischen Verlaeufen eines sog. Neonatal stroke den Stellenwert der bildgebenden Verfahren bei der Diagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle aufzeigen und die Sensibilitaet fuer dieses vermutlich unterdiagnostizierte Krankheitsbild erhoehen

  6. Colestase neonatal prolongada: estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADO Elizabeth Teixeira Mendes Livramento

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da urgência de se decidir por um tratamento clínico ou por uma intervenção cirúrgica imediata, o estudo da colestase neonatal prolongada envolve dois objetivos básicos: o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e a pesquisa dos agentes etiológicos associados. Desta maneira, através de estudo prospectivo desenvolvido na década de 1970, foram avaliadas 77 crianças portadoras de colestase neonatal prolongada para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e, numa segunda fase, 108 crianças, visando esclarecer a etiopatogenia da colestase neonatal prolongada. Os resultados do diagnóstico diferencial revelaram que, dos 18 atributos avaliados, apenas oito mostraram-se bons indicadores de atresia biliar, em ordem decrescente: ductos proliferados (espaço-porta, fibrose (espaço-porta, colestase (espaço-porta, cor das fezes -- acolia, hepatomegalia, colestase canalicular (lóbulo, infiltrado (espaço-porta, células gigantes (lóbulo. Estes oito atributos foram então compostos, mediante uma ponderação, em um único indicador de grande poder discriminativo, capaz de decidir o diagnóstico diferencial em 99% dos casos. Quanto à etiopatogenia, registrou-se: vírus rubéola 0%, vírus herpes simples 0%, listeriose 0%, citomegalovirose 2,2%, vírus hepatite B 2,4%, toxoplasmose 2,8%, deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina 13,1%, sífilis 21,1 %, auto-anticorpos hepáticos 58,4%. O trabalho desenvolvido mostra que as 8 variáveis mais decisivas, como indicadoras diferenciais entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal, permanecem como índices fundamentais, auxiliando, em conjunto com novos métodos diagnósticos, na composição de uma estratégia multifatorial cada vez menos invasiva e mais precisa. O estudo da etiopatogenia, dependente das condições epidemiológicas locais e da época, com a introdução de novos métodos diagnósticos, torna-se atualmente cada vez mais

  7. Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm neonates: etiologies and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2017-12-15

    Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm newborns are a relevant clinical challenge due to the presence of many knowledge gaps. Etiology-wise, acute symptomatic seizures have an age-specific epidemiology, with intraventricular hemorrhage and its complications representing the first cause in extremely and very preterm neonates, whereas other etiologies have similar occurrence rates as in full-term infants. Specific treatment strategies for the premature neonates are not yet available. Studies suggest a similarly low response rate with even more unfavorable prognosis than in full-term infants. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes are likely under way during the preterm period, with the potential to affect both effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic drugs in these patients. However, due to the lack of clear evidence to guide prioritization of second-line drugs, off-label medications are frequently indicated by review papers and flow-charts, and are prescribed in clinical practice. We therefore conclude by exploring potential future lines of research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diet-Dependent Effects of Minimal Enteral Nutrition on Intestinal Function and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: A rapid advance in enteral feeding is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Therefore, minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) is common clinical practice, but the effects on NEC and intestinal function remain poorly...... characterized. It was hypothesized that a commonly used MEN feeding volume (16-24 mL/kg/d) prevents NEC and improves intestinal structure, function, and microbiology in preterm pigs. Methods: After preterm birth pigs were stratified into 4 nutrition intervention groups that received the following treatments: (1...... later formula-induced gut dysfunction and NEC. However, in CF pigs, intestinal lesions were restricted to the colon, compared with all regions in OF and FF pigs, which indicated proximal protection of colostrum MEN. Bacterial composition was not affected by MEN, diet, or NEC outcomes, but bacterial load...

  9. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  10. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  12. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  13. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  14. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  15. Association Between Early Caffeine Citrate Administration and Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Preterm Neonates: Results From the AWAKEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harer, Matthew W; Askenazi, David J; Boohaker, Louis J; Carmody, J Bryan; Griffin, Russell L; Guillet, Ronnie; Selewski, David T; Swanson, Jonathan R; Charlton, Jennifer R

    2018-04-02

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in preterm neonates and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To examine the association between caffeine citrate administration and AKI in preterm neonates in the first 7 days after birth and to test the hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced incidence and severity of AKI. This study was a secondary analysis of the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN) study, a retrospective observational cohort that enrolled neonates born from January 1 to March 31, 2014. The dates of analysis were October 2016 to December 2017. The setting was an international, multicenter cohort study of neonates admitted to 24 participating level III or IV neonatal intensive care units. Participants met the original inclusion and exclusion criteria of the AWAKEN study. Additional exclusion criteria for this study included participants greater than or equal to 33 weeks' gestation at birth, admission after age 7 days, use of theophylline in the neonatal intensive care unit, or lack of data to define AKI. There were 675 preterm neonates available for analysis. Administration of caffeine in the first 7 days after birth. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI (based on the modified neonatal Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] definition) in the first 7 days after birth. The hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced AKI incidence was formulated before data analysis. The study cohort (n = 675) was 55.4% (n = 374) male, with a mean (SD) gestational age of 28.9 (2.8) weeks and a mean (SD) birth weight of 1285 (477) g. Acute kidney injury occurred in 122 neonates (18.1%) in the first 7 days after birth. Acute kidney injury occurred less frequently among neonates who received caffeine than among those who did not (50 of 447 [11.2%] vs 72 of 228 [31.6%], P < .01). After multivariable adjustment, administration of

  16. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas-Berríos, N; García-Fragoso, L; García-García, I; Valcárcel, M

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL), glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate's hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  17. Neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Evelyn Ning Man; George, Susan R.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Silversides, Candice K.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypocalcemia is a common endocrinological condition in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Neonatal hypocalcemia may affect neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that neonatal hypocalcemia would be associated with rare, more severe forms of intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used a logistic regression model to investigate potential predictors of intellectual disability severity, including neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and complex congenital heart disease, e.g., interrupted aortic arch, in 149 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Ten subjects had moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Results The model was highly significant (P < 0.0001), showing neonatal seizures (P = 0.0018) and neonatal hypocalcemia (P = 0.047) to be significant predictors of a more severe level of intellectual disability. Neonatal seizures were significantly associated with neonatal hypocalcemia in the entire sample (P < 0.0001), regardless of intellectual level. There was no evidence for the association of moderate- to-severe intellectual disability with other factors such as major structural brain malformations in this sample. Conclusion The results suggest that neonatal seizures may increase the risk for more severe intellectual deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, likely mediated by neonatal hypocalcemia. Neonatal hypocalcemia often remains unrecognized until the postseizure period, when damage to neurons may already have occurred. These findings support the importance of early recognition and treatment of neonatal hypocalcemia and potentially neonatal screening for 22q11.2 deletions. PMID:23765047

  18. Bartter syndrome: presentation in an extremely premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F X; Ojeda, F J; Calhoun, D A

    2013-08-01

    Reports of Bartter syndrome in premature neonates are rare. We describe the presentation and clinical course of a neonate born at 25.6 weeks estimated gestational age with polyuria, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria ,who was diagnosed with neonatal Bartter syndrome. The evaluation, diagnosis and management of neonatal Bartter syndrome in this premature neonate are discussed.

  19. The effects of pressed sugar beet pulp silage (PBPS and dairy whey on heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressed beet pulp silage (PBPS replacing barley for 10% and 20% (DM basis were studied on heavy pigs fed dairy whey-diluted diets. 60 Hypor pigs (average initial weight of 28 kg, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, were homogeneously allocated to three exper- imental groups: T1 (control in which pigs were fed a traditional sweet whey- diluted diet (the ratio between whey and dry matter was 4.5/1; T2 in which PBPS replaced barley for 10% (DM basis during a first period (from the beginning to the 133rd day of trial and thereafter for 20% (DM basis; T3 in which PBPS replaced barley for 20% (DM basis throughout the experimental period. In diets T2 and T3 feed was dairy whey-diluted as in group T1. No significant (P>0.05 differences were observed concerning growth parameters (ADG and FCR. Pigs on diets contain- ing PBPS showed significantly higher (P<0.05 percentages of lean cuts and lower percentages of fat cuts. On the whole, ham weight losses during seasoning were moderate but significantly (P<0.05 more marked for PBPS-fed pigs as a prob- able consequence of their lower adiposity degree. Fatty acid composition of ham fat was unaffected by diets. With regard to m. Semimembranosus colour, pigs receiving PBPS showed lower (P<0.05 “L”, “a” and “Chroma” values. From an economical point of view it can be concluded that the use of PBPS (partially replacing barley and dairy whey in heavy pig production could be of particular interest in areas where both these by products are readily available.

  20. Adrenaline reveals the torsadogenic effect of combined blockade of potassium channels in anaesthetized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G; Kane, K A; Coker, S J

    2008-08-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced in several species by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether combined I(Kr) and I(Ks) blockade could induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs and whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP. Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, adrenaline-stimulated male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either vehicle, the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (3, 10 and 30 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)), the I(Ks) blocker HMR1556 (75, 250, 750 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. Phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs were also treated with the K(+) channel blockers in combination. Arterial blood pressure, ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potential (MAP) were recorded. TdP was observed in 75% of adrenaline-stimulated guinea pigs given the K(+) channel blockers in combination, but was not observed in guinea pigs treated with either I(K) blocker alone, or in phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs. Salvos and ventricular tachycardia occurred with adrenaline but not with phenylephrine. No changes in STV or triangulation of the MAP signals were observed before TdP. Combined blockade of both I(Kr) and I(Ks) plus the addition of adrenaline were required to induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs. This suggests that there must be sufficient depletion of repolarization reserve and an appropriate trigger for TdP to occur.

  1. Diarrhea-like condition and intestinal muscosal responses in susceptible homozygous and heterozygous F4R+ pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2012-01-01

    with E. coli F4 or not as the 2 factors. Within genotype, 4 pigs were inoculated with E. coli F4 and the other 4 pigs received saline buffer on days 7 and 8 after weaning. Fecal score and DM and bacterial counts were conducted from days 7 to 12 after weaning. Blood was obtained on days 3 and 10 after...

  2. IFN-γ and TNF-α producing CD4+ T-cells in the blood after Mycoplasma hyosynoviae challenge of vaccinated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Hansen, Mette Sif; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll

    In a vaccine trial against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection, pigs were vaccinated with formalin fixed whole-cell-antigen formulated with adjuvant DDA/TDB (SSI). Placebo pigs received adjuvant with saline. Vaccinations were performed at five and eight weeks of age, followed by an intranasal M....... hyosynoviae challenge inoculation three weeks later. Vaccination induced both antibodies and a cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in vaccinated pigs compared to placebo pigs as shown by M. hyosynoviae antigen (Ag) specific IFN-γ response in an IL-18 potentiated whole-blood IFN-γ stimulation assay (mean IFN......-γ level 1936 pg/ml vs. 82 pg/ml (p=0.0001)). A central memory T cell phenotype with polyfunctional capacity to produce all three cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 has recently been linked to development of vaccine induced protection in several infections. In a subset of seven vaccinated pigs and four...

  3. Neonatal pustular dermatosis: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal pustular eruption is a group of disorders characterized by various forms of pustulosis seen in first 4 weeks of life. Its presentation is often similar with some subtle differences, which can be further established by few simple laboratory aids, to arrive at a definite diagnosis. Given their ubiquitous presentation, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate among self-limiting, noninfectious, pustular dermatosis such as erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, miliaria pustulosa, etc., and potentially life threatening infections such as herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections. This review article tries to address the chronological, clinical, morphological, and histological differences among the various pustular eruptions in a newborn, in order to make it easier for a practicing dermatologist to diagnose and treat these similar looking but different entities of pustulation with a clear demarcation between the physiological benign pustular rashes and the infectious pustular lesions.

  4. Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Backes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multiorgan, heterogeneous disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal strategies in the care of the women with preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated, leaving physicians with incomplete data to guide their clinical decision making. Because preeclampsia is a progressive disorder, in some circumstances, delivery is needed to halt the progression to the benefit of the mother and fetus. However, the need for premature delivery has adverse effects on important neonatal outcomes not limited to the most premature infants. Late-preterm infants account for approximately two thirds of all preterm deliveries and are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Reviewed is the current literature in the diagnosis and obstetrical management of preeclampsia, the outcomes of late-preterm infants, and potential strategies to optimize fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

  5. Neonatal erythroderma – clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boull CL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Boull, Kristen P Hook Department of Dermatology, Division of Pediatric Dermatology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Neonatal erythroderma is rare, but significant as it may be the initial manifestation of an array of infectious, metabolic, and genetic conditions, some of which are life-threatening. Initial management should focus on identifying and treating life threatening etiololgies and complications, including infection, and fluid, electrolyte, and temperature disturbances. Often, the etiology of erythroderma is difficult to quickly identify in the neonate, as there is significant clinical overlap between causative entities. Furthermore, rapid definitive diagnostic tests are lacking. Herein we provide a review of the specific clinical features and diagnostic tests, which can aid in making a correct diagnosis. Skin care for the erythrodermic infant is also discussed. We encourage subspecialist consultation when appropriate to aid in the evaluation, especially when initial testing is nondiagnostic. Keywords: psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, cutaneous candidiasis

  6. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Berginer, J.; Hertzanu, Y.; Hershkowitz, E.; Berenstein, T.; Sofer, S.; Maor, E.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the 'reversal sign'. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The 'reversal sign' has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.)

  7. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Berginer, J.; Hertzanu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P. O. Box 151, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hershkowitz, E.; Berenstein, T.; Sofer, S. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Maor, E. [Department of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the `reversal sign`. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The `reversal sign` has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  8. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  9. Consequences of dietary calcium and phosphorus depletion and repletion feeding sequences on growth performance and body composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, E; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Bernier, J F; Pomar, C

    2018-06-01

    The effect of a calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) depletion and repletion strategy was studied in four consecutive feeding phases of 28 days each. In all, 60 castrated male pigs (14±1.6 kg initial BW) received 60% (low (L) diet; depletion) or 100% (control (C) diet; repletion) of their Ca and digestible P requirements according to six feeding sequences (CCCC, CCCL, CLCC, CCLC, LCLC and LLLL; subsequent letters indicate the diet received in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Pigs bone mineral content in whole-body (BMCb) and lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 (BMCv) was measured in every feeding phase by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Growth performance was slightly (depletion, however, dietary treatments did not affect overall growth. Compared with control pigs, depletion reduced BMCb (34%, 38%, 33% and 22%) and BMCv (46%, 54%, 38% and 26%) in phases 1 to 4, respectively. Depletion increased however digestible P retention efficiency from the second to the fourth phases allowing LLLL pigs to present no differences in BMCb and BMCv gain compared with CCCC pigs in phase 4. Growth performance in repleted compared with control pigs was lower in phase 2, was no different in phase 3 and was lower in CLCC pigs in phase 4. Repletion increased body P and Ca retention efficiency when compared with control pigs (respectively, 8% and 10% for LC v. CC, Pdepletion and repletion sequences than BMCb especially in the first phase probably due to a higher proportion of metabolically active trabecular bone in vertebrae than in the whole skeleton. Dietary Ca was, however, oversupply in L compared with C diets (3.1 v. 2.5 Ca:digestible P ratio, respectively) suggesting that P has probably driven the regulations. Phosphorus and Ca depletion and repletion increases dietary P utilization efficiency and can help to reduce dietary P supply, but the underlying mechanisms need elucidation before its practical application.

  10. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  11. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in

  12. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  13. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  14. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  15. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Simultaneous occurrence of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and neonatal neutropenia due to maternal neutrophilic autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taaning, Ellen; Jensen, Lise; Varming, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and neonatal neutropenia caused by maternal autoantibodies against neutrophils are rare disorders. We describe a newborn with severe thrombocytopenia and intracerebral bleeding caused by maternal anti-HPA-3a alloantibodies and mild neutropenia...

  17. Neonatal Hearing screening in tafila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    To measure the true prevalence of hearing impairment in neonates in Tafila, Jordan. This retrospective study was carried out at Prince Zeid Hospital, Taflia, Jordan through analysis of data of all births from January 2005 and January 2006. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured via the application of echoprobe to both ears. There were two groups of births that were analysed statistically. Hearing impaired neonates were those with two fails or more in each ear. Normal ones were those with 3 pass or more. Of the 1788 babies in the study group, 1622 (90.7%) were enrolled in the study with 9.3% loss rate. 1512 babies were examined on the 2 day of birth, 2 of them had hearing impairment with a rate of 1.2/1000. 110 babies were screened on the day of discharge from the nursery, one of them with hearing defect with a rate of 5.9/1000. Thus, true prevalence of hearing impaiment or failure was 1.7/1000. We conclude that screening for hearing impairment in the neonatal period is easy, informative and the true prevalence of hearing impairment in Tafila is similar to that in different parts of the world. (author)

  18. Effects of dietary fat on the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The effect of dietary fats differing in fatty acid (FA) composition on the metabolism of saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in growing pigs was investigated. The deposition of FA in the body and the fate of individual dietary FA were assessed after slaughter. Gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 60 kg were used as experimental animals. Six pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW, while further 18 pigs received three isoenergetic and isonitrogen experimental diets containing linseed oil, rapeseed oil or beef tallow at 50 g/kg diet until they reached 105 kg (six pigs per group). The chemical composition and the content of FA in the whole body were determined and compared across groups. Regardless of dietary treatment, the whole body contained similar amounts of protein, fat and total FA. The total accumulation (percentage of net intake and de novo production) of SFA and MUFA was similar in all groups, but the processes of elongation and desaturation of SFA and MUFA depended upon the type of FA added to the diet. A high dietary content and intake of MUFA inhibits desaturation compared to SFA- and PUFA-rich diets, whereas a high SFA content and intake lowers elongation rate. The increasing net intake of total SFA and MUFA was associated with a lower total de novo production of these FA in the whole body of pigs.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi: partial prevention of the natural infection of guinea pigs with a killed parasite vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basombrio, M A

    1990-07-01

    Guinea pigs are natural reservoirs of Chagas' disease. Domestic breeding and local trade of these animals are common practices among andean communities in South America. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi occurs when the animals live in triatomine-infested houses or yards. The preventive effect of a vaccine consisting of cultured T. cruzi killed by freezing and thawing plus saponin was tested both in mice and in the guinea pig ecosystem. Resistance against T. cruzi challenge in mice was improved by increasing the trypomastigote/epimastigote ratio in live attenuated vaccines but not in killed parasite vaccines. Although the killing of attenuated parasites sharply reduced their immunogenicity for mice, a protective effect against natural T. cruzi infection was detected in guinea pigs. A total of 88 guinea pigs were vaccinated in four intradermal sites on three occasions. Eighty controls received similar inoculations of culture medium plus saponin. All animals were kept in a triatomine-infested yard. Parasitemia was studied with the capillary microhematocrit method. After an exposure time averaging 4 months, natural T. cruzi infection occurred in 55% (44/80) of the controls and in 33% (29/88) of the vaccinated group (P less than 0.01). The number of highly parasitemic guinea pigs was also significantly decreased (6/80 vs 0/88, P less than 0.01). Thus, immunizing protocols which are only partially protective against artificial callenge with T. cruzi may nevertheless constrain the exchange of parasites between natural hosts and vectors.

  20. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  1. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  2. Pre-delivery fibrinogen predicts adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes in patients with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangcheng; Matsunaga, Shigetaka; Mikami, Yukiko; Takai, Yasushi; Terui, Katsuo; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Placental abruption is a severe obstetric complication of pregnancy that can cause disseminated intravascular coagulation and progress to massive post-partum hemorrhage. Coagulation disorder due to extreme consumption of fibrinogen is considered the main pathogenesis of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with placental abruption. The present study sought to determine if the pre-delivery fibrinogen level could predict adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes in patients with placental abruption. This retrospective medical chart review was conducted in a center for maternal, fetal, and neonatal medicine in Japan with 61 patients with placental abruption. Fibrinogen levels prior to delivery were collected and evaluated for the prediction of maternal and neonatal outcomes. The main outcome measures for maternal outcomes were disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemorrhage, and the main outcome measures for neonatal outcomes were Apgar score at 5 min, umbilical artery pH, and stillbirth. The receiver-operator curve and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that fibrinogen significantly predicted overt disseminated intravascular coagulation and the requirement of ≥6 red blood cell units, ≥10 fresh frozen plasma units, and ≥20 fresh frozen plasma units for transfusion. Moderate hemorrhage occurred in 71.5% of patients with a decrease in fibrinogen levels to 155 mg/dL. Fibrinogen could also predict neonatal outcomes. Umbilical artery pH neonatal outcomes with placental abruption. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Evaluation of Introduction of a Delayed Cord Clamping Protocol for Premature Neonates in a High-Volume Maternity Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lilly Y; Feinglass, Joe M; Khan, Janine Y; Gerber, Susan E; Grobman, William A; Yee, Lynn M

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate adherence to a delayed cord clamping protocol for preterm births in the first 2 years after its introduction, perform a quality improvement assessment, and determine neonatal outcomes associated with protocol implementation and adherence. This is a retrospective cohort study of women delivering singleton neonates at 23-32 weeks of gestation in the 2 years before (preprotocol) and 2 years after (postprotocol) introduction of a 30-second delayed cord clamping protocol at a large-volume academic center. This policy was communicated to obstetric and pediatric health care providers and nurses and reinforced with intermittent educational reviews. Barriers to receiving delayed cord clamping were assessed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. Neonatal outcomes then were compared between all neonates in the preprotocol period and all neonates in the postprotocol period and between all neonates in the preprotocol period and neonates receiving delayed cord clamping in the postprotocol period using multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Of the 427 eligible neonates, 187 were born postprotocol. Of these, 53.5% (n=100) neonates received delayed cord clamping according to the protocol. The rate of delayed cord clamping preprotocol was 0%. Protocol uptake and frequency of delayed cord clamping increased over the 2 years after its introduction. In the postprotocol period, cesarean delivery was the only factor independently associated with failing to receive delayed cord clamping (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.96). In comparison with the preprotocol period, those who received delayed cord clamping in the postprotocol period had significantly higher birth hematocrit (β=2.46, P=.007) and fewer blood transfusions in the first week of life (adjusted OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.96). After introduction of an institutional delayed cord clamping protocol followed by continued health care provider education and

  4. Structural Connectivity Asymmetry in the Neonatal Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V.; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-...

  5. Lipopolysaccharide significantly influences the hepatic triglyceride metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqing; Liu, Weifeng; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-06-30

    In the practical commercial pig farms, inflammation is a perennial problem, yet most of studies on inflammation are focused on immune response. Actually, inflammation can induce body metabolism disorder which will finally influence animals' growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of acute inflammation on the triglyceride (TG) metabolism in the liver of growing pigs and the possible underlying mechanisms. Twelve male growing pigs were randomly divided into two groups, a control group (received saline) and a LPS group (intramuscular injected with 15 μg/kg LPS). Six hours after LPS injection, the pigs were euthanized and sampled. Biochemical indexes, inflammation factors, lipid metabolism related parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated. The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the key enzymes of de novo lipogenesis were also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). LPS induced a serious inflammation in the liver of growing pigs proved by liver morphologic changes, the up-regulated plasma cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and gene expression of inflammation related genes in liver. For de novo lipogenesis, LPS significantly decreased the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and the protein expression of ACC-1 and SCD-1. For lipolysis, only the gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was decreased. LPS did nothing to the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the lipolytic enzymes activities. For β-oxidation, LPS significantly increased the protein expression of CPT-1α, but the gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and the activities of mitochondrial complex IV and V demonstrated no obviously changes. Furthermore, ChIP results showed that LPS significantly decreased the level of GR binding to ACC-1 promoter. LPS infection has a profound impact on hepatic TG metabolism

  6. [Clinical evaluation of flomoxef in neonatal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, K; Yamakawa, M; Kuroki, S; Haruta, T; Kobayashi, Y

    1991-11-01

    Serum concentrations, urinary excretion and clinical responses of flomoxef (FMOX) were studied. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Serum concentrations of FMOX were 17.4 micrograms/ml 1-hour after intravenous injection on the average in 5 cases who received approximately 10 mg/kg, 41.8 micrograms/ml in 2 cases given 20 mg/kg, and 69.6 micrograms/ml in 2 cases given 40 mg/kg, indicating that serum concentrations of FMOX changed in a dose-dependent manner in this range. Average serum half-life (T 1/2) in 4 mature babies was 2.48 hours and that in 6 premature babies was 3.17 hours, indicating that elimination rates in premature cases tend to be slower than those in mature cases. Urinary recovery rates averaged 39.2% in the first 6 hours in 5 cases examined. 2. Five newborns or premature babies received FMOX 33.1-80.2 mg/kg (b.i.d. or t.i.d.) via intravenous route for 5 to 8 days. FMOX showed excellent or good clinical effectiveness in the treatment of all patients including 1 case each of sepsis with urinary infection, furunclal otitis, impetigo, uterogenic fetus infection and urinary infection. Bacteriological responses were also studied, and eradication of identified organisms (Escherichia coli 3 strains and Staphylococcus aureus 2 strains) was obtained upon the FMOX treatment, but in 1 strain of S. aureus showed only a decrease. No adverse reactions were observed in any cases, but a slight elevation of eosinophil was noted in 1 patient receiving a dose of 210 mg a day. From the results obtained in these tests, FMOX appears to be very usefull and safe for the treatment of some infectious diseases in neonates.

  7. Prevalence and characterization of neonatal skin disorders in the first 72h of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; DeVilla, Damie; Muller, Fernanda M; Peruzzo, Juliano; Peres, Letícia P; Steglich, Raquel B; Cestari, Tania F

    To determine the prevalence of neonatal dermatological findings and analyze whether there is an association between these findings and neonatal and pregnancy characteristics and seasonality. Newborns from three maternity hospitals in a Brazilian capital city were randomly selected to undergo dermatological assessment by dermatologists. 2938 neonates aged up to three days of life were randomly selected, of whom 309 were excluded due to Intensive Care Unit admission. Of the 2530 assessed neonates, 49.6% were Caucasians, 50.5% were males, 57.6% were born by vaginal delivery, and 92.5% of the mothers received prenatal care. Some dermatological finding was observed in 95.8% of neonates; of these, 88.6% had transient neonatal skin conditions, 42.6% had congenital birthmarks, 26.8% had some benign neonatal pustulosis, 2% had lesions secondary to trauma (including scratches), 0.5% had skin malformations, and 0.1% had an infectious disease. The most prevalent dermatological findings were: lanugo, which was observed in 38.9% of the newborns, sebaceous hyperplasia (35%), dermal melanocytosis (24.61%), skin desquamation (23.3%), erythema toxicum neonatorum (23%), salmon patch (20.4%), skin erythema (19%), genital hyperpigmentation (18.4%), eyelid edema (17.4%), milia (17.3%), genital hypertrophy (12%), and skin xerosis (10.9%). Dermatological findings are frequent during the first days of life and some of them characterize the newborn's skin. Mixed-race newborns and those whose mothers had some gestational risk factor had more dermatological findings. The gestational age, newborn's ethnicity, gender, Apgar at the first and fifth minutes of life, type of delivery, and seasonality influenced the presence of specific neonatal dermatological findings. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. When, Where, and Why Are Babies Dying? Neonatal Death Surveillance and Review in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim

    Full Text Available Better data on cause of, and factors contributing to, neonatal deaths are needed to improve interventions aimed at reducing neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.Community surveillance to identify all neonatal deaths across four districts in Bangladesh. Verbal autopsy for every fifth case and InterVA-4 used to assign likely cause of death.6748 neonatal deaths identified, giving a neonatal mortality rate of 24.4 per 1000 live births. Of these, 51.3% occurred in the community and 48.7% at or on the way to a health facility. Almost half (46.1% occurred within 24 hours of birth with 83.6% of all deaths occurring in the first seven days of life. Birth asphyxia was the leading cause of death (43%, followed by infections (29.3%, and prematurity (22.2%. In 68.3% of cases, care had been provided at a health facility before death occurred. Care-seeking was significantly higher among mothers who were educated (RR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04-1.35 or who delivered at a health facility (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.37-1.60 and lower among mothers who had 2-4 previous births (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96, for baby girls (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.93, and for low birth weight babies (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96.Most parents of neonates who died had accessed and received care from a qualified healthcare provider. To further reduce neonatal mortality, it is important that the quality of care provided, particularly skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care, and neonatal care during the first month of life is improved, such that it is timely, safe, and effective.

  9. Low Apgar score, neonatal encephalopathy and epidural analgesia during labour: a Swedish registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnell, S; Ekéus, C; Hultin, M; Håkansson, S; Thunberg, J; Högberg, U

    2015-04-01

    Maternal intrapartum fever (MF) is associated with neonatal sequelae, and women in labour who receive epidural analgesia (EA) are more likely to develop hyperthermia. The aims of this study were to investigate if EA and/or a diagnosis of MF were associated to adverse neonatal outcomes at a population level. Population-based register study with data from the Swedish Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register, including all nulliparae (n=294,329) with singleton pregnancies who gave birth at term in Sweden 1999-2008. Neonatal outcomes analysed were Apgar score (AS)neonatal encephalopathy (e.g. convulsions or neonatal cerebral ischaemia). Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). EA was used in 44% of the deliveries. Low AS or encephalopathy was found in 1.26% and 0.39% of the children in the EA group compared with 0.80% and 0.29% in the control group. In multivariate analysis, EA was associated with increased risk with low AS, AOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.39), but not with diagnosis of encephalopathy, 1.11 (0.96-1.29). A diagnosis of MF was associated with increased risk for both low AS, 2.27 (1.71-3.02), and of neonatal encephalopathy, 1.97 (1.19-3.26). Diagnosis of MF was associated with low AS and neonatal encephalopathy, whereas EA was only associated with low AS and not with neonatal encephalopathy. The found associations might be a result of confounding by indication, which is difficult to assess in a registry-based population study. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) targets rotavirus from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobari, Jarir At; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J.; Barnes, Graeme L.; Bachtiar, Novilia S.; Icanervilia, Ajeng Viska; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Buttery, Jim P.; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-01-01

    Background A birth dose strategy using a neonatal rotavirus vaccine to target early prevention of rotavirus disease may address remaining barriers to global vaccine implementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB administered in a neonatal schedule at 0-5 days, 8 and 14 weeks or infant schedule at 8, 14 and 18 weeks, or placebo. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis was graded using a modified Vesikari score. The primary analysis was efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis from two weeks after all doses to 18 months in the combined vaccine group (neonatal and infant schedule) compared with placebo. Results Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis to 18 months was 63% in the combined vaccine group (95% CI 34, 80; p<0.001), 75% in the neonatal vaccine group (95% confidence interval [CI] 44, 91; p<0.001) and 51% in the infant vaccine group (95% CI 7, 76; p=0.03) in the per protocol analysis, with similar results in the intention-to-treat analysis. Vaccine efficacy to 12 months was 94% in the neonatal vaccine group (95%CI 56, 99; p=0.006). Vaccine take occurred in 78/83 (94%) in the neonatal vaccine group and 83/84 (99%) in the infant vaccine group. The vaccine was well tolerated, with similar incidence of adverse events in vaccine and placebo recipients. Conclusion RV3-BB was efficacious, immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered in a neonatal or infant schedule in Indonesia. PMID:29466164

  11. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fargas-Berríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM. We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL, glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate’s hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  12. NEONATAL CONJUNCTIVITIS AND ITS DRUG SENSITIVITY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Thulukkanam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neonatal conjunctivitis is eye discharge in neonates and it is a common infection in neonates in the first month of life. Worldwide, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis varies from 1% to 33% depending on the socioeconomic status of the people in the region. In India, the incidence varies from region to region from 0.9 to 35%. MATERIALS AND METHODS Single center prospective study. All neonates of age 0-30 days delivered and referred from neonatal ward of Chengalpattu Medical College and Hospital with complaints of eye swelling, redness, conjunctival discharge to the eye department for treatment are included in the study. RESULTS In this study, age group from 0-7 days were most commonly affected by neonatal conjunctivitis. Both eyes were commonly affected together. Neonates born by both LSCS and normal vaginal delivery were almost equally affected. The most common organism found in culture and Gram staining was staphylococci. CONCLUSION Neonatal conjunctivitis is more likely to be acquired postnatally. It acquires during the 1 st week and responds well to local application of antibiotics, which covers common causative bacteria.

  13. Neonatal Vaccination: Challenges and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Surendran, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    While vaccines have been tremendously successful in reducing the incidence of serious infectious diseases, newborns remain particularly vulnerable in the first few months of their life to life-threatening infections. A number of challenges exist to neonatal vaccination. However, recent advances in the understanding of neonatal immunology offer insights to overcome many of those challenges. This review will present an overview of the features of neonatal immunity which make vaccination difficult, survey the mechanisms of action of available vaccine adjuvants with respect to the unique features of neonatal immunity, and propose a possible mechanism contributing to the inability of neonates to generate protective immune responses to vaccines. We surveyed recent published findings on the challenges to neonatal vaccination and possible intervention strategies including the use of novel vaccine adjuvants to develop efficacious neonatal vaccines. Challenges in the vaccination of neonates include interference from maternal antibody and excessive skewing towards Th2 immunity, which can be counteracted by the use of proper adjuvants. Synergistic stimulation of multiple Toll-like receptors by incorporating well-defined agonist-adjuvant combinations to vaccines is a promising strategy to ensure a protective vaccine response in neonates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Absorption of high-dose enteral vitamin A in lowbirth- weight neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to detennine whether high-dose (25 000 IU) enteral vitamin A. to correct deficiency, would be absorbed and well tolerated in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Thirty-five LBW infants (950 - 1 700 g; gestational age 27 - 36 weeks) were allocated to receive ...

  15. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  16. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  17. Improvements in launchings and recipients of PIG in Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional; Melhorias nos lancamentos e recebedores de PIG da Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Jairo A.C.; Lemos, Francisco A.C.; Lima, Artur W.R. de S. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the study that resulted in the preparation of a project for improvement of launchers and receivers of PIG in facilities maintained and operated by PETROBRAS S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in the Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional (Malha NEM). The improvements are part of the component in cleaner production system and reduce the risks of accidents and the costs of hazardous waste management.

  18. Rapid resolution of hyperammonemia in neonates using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a platform to drive hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jamie R; Conroy, Patricia C; Hardison, Daphne; Hamid, Rizwan; Grubb, Peter H; Pietsch, John B; Lovvorn, Harold N

    2018-02-21

    We aimed to clarify the impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a platform to drive hemodialysis (HD) for ammonia clearance on outcomes of neonates with severe hyperammonemia. All neonates treated for hyperammonemia at a single children's hospital between 1992 and 2016 were identified. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared between those receiving medical management or ECMO/HD. Twenty-five neonates were treated for hyperammonemia, of which 13 (52%) received ECMO/HD. Peak ammonia levels among neonates treated with ECMO/HD were significantly higher than those medically managed (1041 [IQR 902-1581] μmol/L versus 212 [IQR 110-410] μmol/L; p = 0.009). Serum ammonia levels in the ECMO/HD cohort declined to the median of medically managed within 4.5 (IQR 2.9-7.0) hours and normalized within 7.3 (IQR 3.6-13.5) hours. All neonates survived ECMO/HD, and nine (69.2%) survived to discharge. ECMO/HD is an effective adjunct to rapidly clear severe hyperammonemia in newborns, reducing potential neurodevelopmental morbidity.

  19. Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; At Thobari, Jarir; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J; Barnes, Graeme L; Bachtiar, Novilia S; Viska Icanervilia, Ajeng; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-02-22

    A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo. The primary analysis was conducted in the per-protocol population, which included only participants who received all four doses of vaccine or placebo within the visit windows, with secondary analyses performed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who underwent randomization. Among the 1513 participants in the per-protocol population, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred up to the age of 18 months in 5.6% of the participants in the placebo group (28 of 504 babies), in 1.4% in the neonatal-schedule vaccine group (7 of 498), and in 2.7% in the infant-schedule vaccine group (14 of 511). This resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 91) in the neonatal-schedule group (PBill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612001282875 .).

  20. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands and Denmark are the two biggest pig meat exporters in Europe, both with a strong focus on the German market. The structure of pig farms is very different: an average Danish pig farm has 3500 pigs, 170 ha of agricultural land on which a major part of the feed cereals are grown...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...... pig farmers are less sensitive to nutrient policies and feed prices than those in the Netherlands, but the high debt rate makes the sector vulnerable to low pig prices....

  1. Venepuncture versus heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne

    2011-10-05

    Heel lance has been the conventional method of blood sampling in neonates for screening tests. Neonates undergoing heel lance experience pain which cannot be completely alleviated. To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates. Randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Regsiter of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinical trials registries in May 2011. Trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or with out the use of a sweet tasting solution as a co-intervention in term neonates. Outcomes included pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or without the use of a sweet tasting solution using validated pain measures, the need of repeat sampling and cry characteristics. Analyses included typical relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat (NNT), weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between study heterogeneity was reported including the I squared (I(2)) test. Six studies (n = 478) of variable quality were included. A composite outcome of Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), Neonatal Facial Action Coding System (NFCS) and/or Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score was reported in 288 infants, who did not receive a sweet tasting solution. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the venepuncture versus the heel lance group (SMD -0.76, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.52; I(2) = 0%). When a sweet tasting solution was provided the SMD remained significant favouring the venepuncture group (SMD - 0.38, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.07). The typical RD for requiring more than one skin puncture for venepuncture versus heel lance (reported in 4 studies; n = 254) was -0.34 (95% CI -0.43 to -0.25; I(2) = 97%). The NNT to avoid one repeat skin

  2. [Neonatal risks of drugs exposure at the end of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Cissoko, Hawaré; Jonville-Béra, Annie Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Foetal drugs exposure consequences depend according to the drug involved and to the length of the exposure which in the sum of length of treatment and of drug elimination (5 half life). Decisions are based upon risk evaluation and are a compromise between a risk banalisation and an excess of carefully. We described risks management for drugs used for a disease due to the pregnancy (glucocorticoïdes, antibiotics) then for drugs used for a chronic disease often preceding the pregnancy (non steroidal anti-inflammatory, serotonin recapture inhibitors, benzodiazepines, antiepileptics, conversion enzyme inhibitors/renine angiotensine antagonists, betabloquants). We also present the elements to take in account for the best drug choice at the end of pregnancy and/or for an adapted advice if the drug has been already taken: the drug itself (pharmacological effects, kinetics in neonate, toxicity marker, risk detection tool), drug amount possibly received by the neonate and literature data about neonatal manifestations due to the drug. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. [Benefits of epidural analgesia in major neonatal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, J; Encarnación, J; Couselo, M; Mangas, L; Domenech, A; Gutiérrez, C; García Sala, C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the benefits of epidural anesthesia in major surgery neonatal. We have performed a matched case-control (2:1) study of patients undergoing neonatal major surgery (NMSs) who received intra-and postoperative epidural anesthesia (EA) and controls with conventional general anesthesia. The matching criteria were age, weight and baseline pathology. EA was administered by caudal puncture and epidural catheter placed with ultrasound support. Levobupivacaine was selected as anesthetic drug. The time to extubation, intestinal transit time, type of analgesia and complications were studied. This study is based on 11 cases (2 esophageal atresia, 2 diaphragmatic hernias, 1 necrotizing enterocolitis, 3 intestinal atresia, 2 anorectal malformation and 1 bladder exstrophy) and 22 controls. We observed statistically significant differences in time to extubation (95% CI OR 12 1.99 to 72.35; Chi2 p = 0.004, Mann U Whytney p = 0.013) and intestinal transit time (Mann Whitney U p analgesia. Therefore we believe that the intra-and postoperative EA helps improve postoperative management in neonates and should be preferred in centers where this technique is available.

  4. Effect of Intravenous Administration of Contrast Media on Serum Creatinine Levels in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Maria A; White, Ammie M; Edgar, J Christopher; Pradhan, Madhura; Raab, Elisabeth L; Meyer, James S

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of intravenous contrast media on renal function in neonates. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained with waiver of consent. Electronic health records from January 2011 to April 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Measures of renal function were obtained in inpatient neonates who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or computed tomography (CT) and for whom serum creatinine (Cr) levels were obtained within 72 hours before imaging and at least one time after imaging (>1 day after administration of contrast material). A total of 140 neonates who received contrast material (59 who underwent CT with iohexol or iodixanol and 81 who underwent MR imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine) were identified. These neonates were frequency matched according to sex, gestational and postnatal age, and preimaging serum Cr levels with neonates who underwent unenhanced MR imaging or CT. Cr levels and glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) were grouped according to when they were obtained (before imaging, 1-2 days after imaging, 3-5 days after imaging, 6-9 days after imaging, 10-45 days after imaging, and more than 45 days after imaging). Serum Cr levels and GFRs for each time period were compared between groups by using hierarchic regressions or χ 2 or Fisher exact tests and with repeated-measures analysis of variance to compare groups on the rate of change in serum Cr levels and GFRs from before to after imaging. Results Cr levels decreased and GFRs increased in both groups from before to after imaging (CT group, P ≤ .01; MR imaging group, P ≤ .01). The neonates who underwent contrast material-enhanced imaging and the neonates who underwent unenhanced imaging showed similar serum Cr levels at all examined time periods. Groups also did not differ in the proportion of neonates with serum Cr levels higher than the reference range (>0.4 mg/dL) at any time point (iodine- [P > .12] or gadolinium-based [P > .13] contrast

  5. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Ppig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Pguinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Ppig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3guinea pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  6. Biochemical and physiological bases for utilization of dietary amino acids by young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Reza; Wang, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-02-27

    Protein is quantitatively the most expensive nutrient in swine diets. Hence it is imperative to understand the physiological roles played by amino acids in growth, development, lactation, reproduction, and health of pigs to improve their protein nutrition and reduce the costs of pork production. Due to incomplete knowledge of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, it was traditionally assumed that neonatal, post-weaning, growing-finishing, and gestating pigs could synthesize sufficient amounts of all "nutritionally nonessential amino acids" (NEAA) to support maximum production performance. Therefore, over the past 50 years, much emphasis has been placed on dietary requirements of nutritionally essential amino acids as building blocks for tissue proteins. However, a large body of literature shows that NEAA, particularly glutamine, glutamate, arginine and proline regulate physiological functions via cell signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NEAA-derived gaseous molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide). Available evidence shows that under current feeding programs, only 70% and 55% of dietary amino acids are deposited as tissue proteins in 14-day-old sow-reared piglets and in 30-day-old pigs weaned at 21 days of age, respectively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the roles and dietary requirements of NEAA in swine nutrition. This review highlights the basic biochemistry and physiology of absorption and utilization of amino acids in young pigs to enhance the efficacy of utilization of dietary protein and to minimize excretion of nitrogenous wastes from the body.

  7. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  8. Procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyololo, O'Brien Munyao; Stevens, Bonnie; Gastaldo, Denise; Gisore, Peter

    2014-11-01

    To determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures and procedural pain management practices in neonatal units in Kenya. Cross-sectional survey. Level I and level II neonatal units in Kenya. Ninety-five term and preterm neonates from seven neonatal units. Medical records of neonates admitted for at least 24 h were reviewed to determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures performed in the 24 h period preceding data collection (6:00 to 6:00) as well as the pain management interventions (eg, morphine, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, containment, non-nutritive sucking) that accompanied each procedure. Neonates experienced a total of 404 painful procedures over a 24 h period (mean=4.3, SD 2.0; range 1-12); 270 tissue-damaging (mean=2.85, SD 1.1; range 1-6) and 134 non-tissue-damaging procedures (mean=1.41, SD 1.2; range 0-6). Peripheral cannula insertion (27%) and intramuscular injections (22%) were the most common painful procedures. Ventilated neonates and neonates admitted in level II neonatal units had a higher number of painful procedures than those admitted in level I units (mean 4.76 vs 2.96). Only one procedure had a pain intensity score documented; and none had been performed with any form of analgesia. Neonates in Kenya were exposed to numerous tissue-damaging and non-tissue-damaging procedures without any form of analgesia. Our findings suggest that education is needed on how to assess and manage procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. [Neonatal septicemia in the G-DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, M; Hentschel, R; Böhler, T; Dirschedl, P

    2006-12-01

    The introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups in Germany (G-DRG) has brought forward the obligation for physicians to take into account an intricate system of medical, economical and legal implementations. Mistakes in the process of encoding the principal diagnosis or procedures may have financial consequences. Problems to determine the correct ICD-code will be most prominent for diseases with poorly defined or even inconsistent diagnostic criteria as is the case for neonatal septicemia. We decided to evaluate whether the introduction of G-DRG resulted in a change of frequency of the diagnosis "neonatal septicemia". We analysed data derived from the quality assurance program "Neonatalerhebung" in the state of Baden-Württemberg during the years of 2001 through 2004, i. e., 2 years before and 2 years during the introduction of G-DRG. During this period an annual number of 12,316 up to 13,172 newborns were admitted to the participating hospitals. The mean number of diagnoses per patient increased from 2.2 to 3.8. The frequency of the diagnosis of septicemia remained constant. The percentage of newborns receiving antibiotic therapy did not change. The ratio of cases with "septicemia yes" over "antibiotics yes" did not change. Although it is difficult to determine the diagnosis of neonatal septicemia and in spite of the economic implications of this diagnosis, no change in the frequency of this diagnosis occurred during the introduction of DRG. Assuming that the participating hospitals used an identical database for the quality assurance program "Neonatalerhebung" and for accounting, we conclude that the DRG system is stable with respect to neonatal septicemia.

  10. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effects of intranasal corticosteroids on radiated nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinhua; Liu Yuehui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a mechanism protected radiation-induce injure for radiated guinea pigs'nasal mucosa treated with intranasal corticosteroids(fluticasone nasal cavity spray). Methods: 50 health guinea pigs were divided into 2 groups randomly: the irradiated group (control group) with 25 guinea pigs and the administration group after irradiation (test group)with 25 guinea pigs. The nasal part of all guinea pigs were performed irradiation by the 6 MV X-ray with single 5 Gy, one time each week for three weeks. The guinea pigs of test group received intranasal corticosteroids with one time every day and one spray each side nasal cavity on the second day after three weeks irradiation. Five guinea pigs in each group were sacrificed randomly at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 4 months after irradiation, and the histopathologic changes were observed under optical microscope and electron microscope. At the same time, blood were drawn from the heart and the concentration of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were measured by ELISA. Results: The early nasal mucosa inflammatory reaction of the test group was less than the control group. The coverage rate of cilia of the test group was much than that of the control group (72.9% vs 50.2%) at four months after irradiation. The atrophy of submucosal glandular organ was lessened and they displayed some extent secretory function. The concentration of IL-1 in serum was increased very much in the test group compared with the control group after irradiation and kept higher level in the first two months. After two months, it began to decrease; on four months, it still kept equivalency level with the control group. The concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were reduced all the while. Conclusions: The intranasal corticosteroids with fluticasone nasal cavity spray can reduce radiation- induced injury of guinea pigs' nasal mucosa. The concentration change of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum may be one of mechanism protected

  12. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  13. Dexmedetomidine Pharmacology in Neonates and Infants After Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Felice; Gastonguay, Marc R; Nicolson, Susan C; DiLiberto, MaryAnn; Ocampo-Pelland, Alanna; Zuppa, Athena F

    2016-05-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-agonist with hypnotic, analgesic, and anxiolytic properties. Despite off-label administration, dexmedetomidine has found a niche in critically ill neonates and infants with congenital heart disease because of its minimal effects on respiratory function at sedative doses, facilitating early extubation and fast-track postoperative care. There are little pharmacokinetic data regarding newborns who have immature drug metabolizing capacity and who are at risk for reduced dexmedetomidine clearance and drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in neonates and infants after open heart surgery. This study included 23 evaluable neonates (age, 1 day-1 month) and 36 evaluable infants (age, 1 month-24 months) after open heart surgery. Full-term neonates and infants requiring mechanical ventilation after open heart surgery received dexmedetomidine in a dose-escalation study. Dexmedetomidine was administered as a loading dose over 10 minutes followed by a continuous IV infusion up to 24 hours. Cohorts of 12 infants were enrolled sequentially to receive 0.35, 0.7, or 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine followed by 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 μg/kg/h dexmedetomidine, respectively. Cohorts of 9 neonates received 0.25, 0.35, or 0.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine followed by 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 μg/kg/h dexmedetomidine, respectively. Plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. A population nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach was used to characterize dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic parameters of dexmedetomidine were estimated using a 2-compartment disposition model with weight allometrically scaled as a covariate on drug clearance, intercompartmental clearance, central and peripheral volume of distributions and age, total bypass time, and intracardiac shunting on clearance. Dexmedetomidine demonstrated

  14. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  15. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  16. Etiologies of Prolonged Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates Admitted to Neonatal Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaundice is a common condition among neonates. Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs when jaundice persists beyond two weeks in term neonates and three weeks in preterm neonates. This study aimed to determine the etiologies of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants admitted to the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on all infants diagnosed with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia during 2007-2012 in the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Demographic characteristics of infants, physical examination and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed to determine the etiologies of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Results: In total, 100 infants diagnosed with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled in this study, including 49 male and 51 female neonates with mean age of 20±1 days and mean bilirubin level of 17.5±4.0 mg/dL. Main causes of hyperbilirubinemia were urinary tract infection, ABO incompatibility, hypothyroidism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in 14%, 5%, 6% and 5% of neonates, respectively. Moreover, unknown etiologies, such as breastfeeding, were detected in 70% of the studied infants. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, determining the main causes of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates is of paramount importance. In the majority of cases, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with physiological factors, such as breastfeeding.

  17. Evaluation of Neonates with Ventriculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Neonatal meningitis and ventriculitis still remain a problem with high mortality in spite of systemic and intraventricular antibiotics. Ventriculitis due to repeated taps is a serious problem of posthemorragic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Methods: In this study, we evaluated 16 infants with ventriculitis followed at Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 1999-December 2004. Results: Mean gestational week was 33± 5 (25-40 weeks and mean birth weight was 2096 ± 912 (980-3500 grams. Venticulitis was diagnosed at 38 ± 22 days. Eleven of the infants had intraventricular hemorrhage and 15 had hydrocephalus, 5 of whom had congenital hydrocephalus. Drainage of CSF was performed by taps in 13 infants. Gram negative microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were predominating in cultures. Both intravenous and intraventricular antibiotic treatment was performed according to the cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Vancomycine and amicasine as intraventricular therapy were performed for 28 ±17 days. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels increased significantly at 8 infant during intraventricular therapy. Mean cerebrospinal fluid protein at the begining of intraventricular treatment was 624.1± 429.1 (109-1330 mg/dl while on 14th day of treatment it was 993.7± 582.2 (89-1750 mg/dl. Seven of the infants were ventriculoperitoneal shunted 6 of them were reinfected. Seven of the infants were died during treatment, 1 infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt was treated and 8 infants were discharged during treatment because of parents’ refusal of therapy. Conclusion: Despite the new treatment regimens, the ventriculitis still remains a problem because of nonstandardized practice in neonatal care. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 553-558

  18. Imaging of the neonatal CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbrunner, J; Riccabona, M

    2006-01-01

    Imaging of the central nervous system is one of the major tasks of Paediatric Radiology, particularly in newborns, who present with a variety of conditions that need more or less urgent imaging. Imaging is usually performed primarily by bedside US, in rare cases supplemented by a skull or spine radiograph. For more detailed information and preoperatively, MRI has become the neuroimaging tool. Thus, CT today is only used for acute trauma assessment, for assessment of potential cerebral calcifications or when MRI is not available. In cases with vascular anomalies or unsuccessful punctures, image guided interventions (embolisation) or image guidance for access (lumbar puncture, puncture of skull collections ...) may become necessary. This article tries to give a brief overview on the common disease entities, their typical imaging features in the major modalities applied and the implications of imaging potential for indication and choice of imaging method. In general, acute assessment may become everywhere and major features of important diseases should be recognised not to miss conditions which need urgent treatment or referral to a dedicated paediatric unit. Many other conditions will only be seen at centres with a dedicated neonatal care unit and dedicated paediatric radiologist who then also will be able to provide proper imaging with adapted protocols and methods for these partially severely sick babies. As these specific features and adapted capabilities as well as dedicated training and clinical experience are necessary for providing best results and proper handling in neonates, many neonatal conditions will not be imaged at a peripheral site, but primarily should be referred to a paediatric (radiology) centre

  19. Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Cecile

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT results from maternal alloimmunisation against foetal platelet antigens inherited from the father and different from those present in the mother, and usually presents as a severe isolated thrombocytopaenia in otherwise healthy newborns. The incidence has been estimated at 1/800 to 1/1 000 live births. NAIT has been considered to be the platelet counterpart of Rh Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn (RHD. Unlike RHD, NAIT can occur during a first pregnancy. The spectrum of the disease may range from sub-clinical moderate thrombocytopaenia to life-threatening bleeding in the neonatal period. Mildly affected infants may be asymptomatic. In those with severe thrombocytopaenia, the most common presentations are petechiae, purpura or cephalohaematoma at birth, associated with major risk of intracranial haemorrhage (up to 20% of reported cases, which leads to death or neurological sequelae. Alloimmune thrombocytopaenia is more often unexpected and is usually diagnosed after birth. Once suspected, the diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of maternal antiplatelet alloantibodies directed against a paternal antigen inherited by the foetus/neonate. Post-natal management involves transfusion of platelets devoid of this antigen, and should not be delayed by biological confirmation of the diagnosis (once the diagnosis is suspected, especially in case of severe thrombocytopaenia. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce the chances of death and disability due to haemorrhage. Due to the high rate of recurrence and increased severity of the foetal thrombocytopaenia in successive pregnancies, antenatal therapy should be offered. However, management of high-risk pregnancies is still a matter of discussion.

  20. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Ruis, Marko; Dekker, Ruud; van Diepen, Hans; Korte, Mechiel; Mroz, Zdzislaw

    2005-07-21

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress hormones in catheterized pigs ( approximately 50 kg BW), which were exposed to social stress by placing them twice into the territory of a dominant pig ( approximately 60 kg) for 15 min. Pre-stress plasma TRP concentrations were 156+/-15 vs. 53+/-6 micromol/l (psocial confrontations, pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets show a tendency towards reduced active avoidance behavior (3.2+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-1.2 min, psocial confrontations, the post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations and/or curves (from +5 min to 2 h) were lower/steeper (psurplus TRP in diets for pigs (1) does not significantly affect behavior when exposed to social stress, (2) reduces basal plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations, (3) does not affect the immediate hormonal response to stress, and (4) reduces the long-term hormonal response to stress. In general, pigs receiving high dietary TRP were found to be less affected by stress.

  1. Efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine for the control of enzootic pneumonia in pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivara, A; Kritas, S K; Bourriel, A R; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C

    2007-02-17

    The efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated at two M hyopneumoniae-infected farrow-to-finish commercial farms (A and B) in Greece. In a prospective, randomised double-blind study, two groups on each farm received intramuscular doses of either the vaccine or the adjuvant when they were one and four weeks of age. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs of disease; morbidity and mortality were recorded; and bodyweight was recorded at intervals. At slaughter, the lungs of the animals were examined and the chest cavities were examined for signs of pleuritis. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in any of the pigs. On farm A the vaccinated pigs were on average 6 kg heavier at slaughter, and on farm B they were on average 4 kg heavier; on both farms the average daily gain of the pigs was greater than that of the unvaccinated pigs. The prevalence and severity of enzootic pneumonia in the affected lungs were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated pigs.

  2. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  3. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals ... 2Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive ... with both the European and Asian pig breeds; the genetic exchange ...

  4. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sepsis neonatal por Chryseobacterium meningosepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El Chrysobacterium meningosepticum conocido también como Flavobacterium meningosepticum, es una bacteria Gram negativa distribuida en la naturaleza, pero cuya variedad patógena es raramente diagnosticada. Su importancia radica en su alta resistencia antibiótica, que cuando es causa de infecciones en prematuros y adultos inmunocomprometidos conlleva a una alta mortalidad. Se realiza una revisión acerca de esta bacteria, la importancia de su diagnóstico y la vigilancia de las infecciones intrahospitalarias, a raíz de un caso presentado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatal de Lima, Perú.

  6. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropathic bladder in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The management of infants born with myelomeningocele depends on understanding how their bladder stores and empties urine. Storage at low pressure with effective emptying periodically throughout the day is the goal. Intervention is designed to impact on one or both of these processes so that infants can remain infection-free and at the same time allow for appropriate renal growth over time. Urodynamic evaluation plays an important role, so that neonates can be stratified according to their risk. Most patients require intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy to achieve these goals at some point in their lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal nurses' perceptions of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados-Gómez, L; Camacho-Vicente, V; González-Villalba, M; Sanz-Prades, G; Bellón-Vaquerizo, B

    To describe the perceptions of nurses in neonatal units on pain management, meet the educational profile and describe the use of pain assessment tools and non-pharmacological management for treatment. Cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study, developed during the months of February to September 2015, in the neonatology services of three hospitals at the Community of Madrid, Spain. Data collection was performed through an ad hoc questionnaire on paper or electronically using Survey Monkey platform. The sample consisted of 142 professionals, with a response rate of 55%: 47.9% (68) confirmed they had received specific training in pain management; 39.5% (56) stated that pain is regularly assessed in the unit; only 43.6% reported using validated scales, the most used being the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). As for the non-pharmacological management, swaddling and non-nutritive sucking it is the most used, followed by sucrose. Intravenous cannulation was identified as the most painful procedure. Pain management is in the process of improvement, because of training and because there is little pain assessment using validated scales. The improvement in the use of non-pharmacological management for the relief of pain in minor procedures is noteworthy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidural analgesia, neonatal care and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Alighieri, Giovanni; Riccardi, Riccardo; Cavani, Maria; Iafisco, Alma; Cota, Francesco; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2014-11-29

    The objective of our study is to evaluate the correlation between epidural analgesia during labor, start of breastfeeding and type of maternal-neonatal care.Two different assistance models were considered: Partial and Full Rooming-in.In this cohort study, 2480 healthy infants were enrolled, 1519 in the Partial Rooming-in group and 1321 in the Full Rooming-in group; 1223 were born to women subjected to epidural analgesia in labor.In case of Partial Rooming-in the rate of exclusive or prevailing breastfeeding is significant more frequent in newborns born to mothers who didn't receive analgesia. Instead, in case of Full Rooming-in the rate of exclusive or prevailing breastfeeding is almost the same and there's no correlation between the use or not of epidural analgesia.The good start of lactation and the success of breastfeeding seems to be guaranteed by the type of care offered to the couple mother-infant, that reverses any possible adverse effects of the use of epidural analgesia in labor.

  10. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G.; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M.; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  11. Neurological status in severely jaundiced Zimbabwean neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M. J.; Beunen, G.; Casaer, P.; Wolf, B.

    1998-01-01

    Neurological status was studied in 50 jaundiced infants with a total serum bilirubin of > 400 mumol/l (23.4 mg/dl). Infants were assessed in the neonatal period with the Neonatal Neurological Examination and 4 months of age with the Infant Motor Screen. Twenty-six (52 per cent) infants were

  12. Outcome of neonatal surgeries in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome. 2 (1.4). Neonatal testicular torsion. 2 (1.4). Vaginal atresia. 1 (0.7). Musculoskeletal. Abscesses. 6 (4.1). Congenital cutis aplasia. 2 (1.4). Tumours. Sacrococcygeal teratoma. 4 (2.7). Cystic hygroma. 2 (1.4). Cervical teratoma. 2 (1.4). Total. 147 (100.0). Outcome of neonatal surgeries Ekwunife et al.

  13. Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal perforator stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; van der Haer, Marit; Smit, Liesbeth S; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Lequin, Maarten; de Jonge, Rogier C J; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen

    AIM: To assess outcome after neonatal perforator stroke in the largest cohort to date. METHOD: Survivors from a cohort of children diagnosed with neonatal perforator stroke using cranial ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging were eligible for inclusion. Recovery and Recurrence Questionnaire

  14. Teamwork in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-01-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…

  15. Neonatal malaria complicated by hypoglycaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no established and widely accepted guidelines for clinical management of severe neonatal malaria. The aim of this paper is to raise the alertness of physicians regarding the occurrence of severe malaria in the neonatal period and to describe the treatment modality we adopted (in the absence of an internationally ...

  16. Factors infleuncing neonatal septicaemia in Maiduguri, north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal septicaemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in the tropics. The risk factors vary, and the clinical features of neonatal septicaemia may be vague and nonspecific, therefore a high index of suspicion is vital to early diagnosis and treatment. The aetiological agents ...

  17. The study of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, I.; Hassan, K.A.; Ahmad, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of cases and manifestations of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates. Subjects and Methods: A total of 365 neonates from 0-28 days of age admitted with different clinical problems irrespective of birth weight and gestational age were evaluated for thrombocytopenia. These neonates were categorized into five different groups (A-E), which were of neonatal infections, asphyxia neonatorum, preterm and smallness for gestational age, jaundice and miscellaneous respectively. Results: Out of 365 cases, 88 were found to have thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 150,000 per mm/sup 3/) which was 24.1% of the total. In group A (neonatal infections), out of 152 neonates, 62 had low platelet counts (40.78%). In group B (neonatal asphyxia), out of 90 only 11 had thrombocytopenia (12.2%). In group C (preterm and small for gestational age), out of 60 cases only 9 had thrombocytopenia. In group D (jaundice), all 33 cases had normal platelet counts. In group E (miscellaneous), out of 30 cases only 6 had thrombocytopenia. The common manifestations in thrombocytopenic babies were petechiae and bruises followed by gastrointestinal hemorrhages. The percentage of manifest thrombocytopenia cases was 56.8% and of occult thrombocytopenia 43.1 %. Conclusion: The leading causes of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates are infections, asphyxia, complicated pre- maturity and smallness for gestational age. Apart from the platelet counts the bleeding mainfestations also depend upon the underlying ailments. (author)

  18. Neonatal maxillary orthopedics: past to present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Prahl, C.; Berkowitz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal maxillary orthopedics was introduced in the treatment protocol for cleft lip and palate in the 1950s of the last century. A wide range of appliances has been designed with pin-retained active appliances at one end of the spectrum and passive appliances at the other. Although neonatal

  19. Safe excipient exposure in neonates and small children - protocol for the SEEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration...... are treated with potentially harmful excipients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study based on chart-audit on multi-medicated patients ≤ 5 years of age treated at the Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Preparations with ethanol, propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, parabens, acesulfame p, aspartame, glycerol...

  20. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J; Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death and to study the causes of death among the children. DESIGN: Cohort study of pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care in Aarhus, Denmark. SETTING: Aarhus...... University Hospital, Denmark, 1989-1996. POPULATION: A total of 24,505 singleton pregnancies (112 stillbirths, 75 neonatal deaths) were included in the analyses. METHODS: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, height, lifestyle factors and obstetric risk factors were obtained from self......-administered questionnaires and hospital files. We classified the population according to pre-pregnancy BMI as underweight (BMI