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Sample records for neonatal brown fat

  1. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

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    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  2. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

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    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  3. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat.

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    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; López, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4 Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. © 2017 The authors.

  4. Novel nuances of human brown fat

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    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the......, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans.......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  5. Imaging of Brown Fat Associated with Adrenal Pheochromocytoma

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    Dundamadappa, S.K.; Shankar, S.; Danrad, R.; Singh, Ajay; Vijayaraghavan, G.; Kim, Y.; Perugini, R. [Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The association of adrenal pheochromocytoma and brown fat has been described in the pathology literature and scantily in the radiology literature. We present a case of diffuse collection of brown fat in both perinephric spaces associated with left adrenal pheochromocytoma, and describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Keywords: Brown fat; computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; pheochromocytoma.

  6. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

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    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

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    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  8. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

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    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  9. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

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    Giulia Ferrannini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  10. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat.

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    Schulz, Tim J; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E; Townsend, Kristy L; Cypess, Aaron M; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-03-21

    Maintenance of body temperature is essential for the survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation. Owing to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anatomically located in the interscapular region of mice; and recruitable BAT (rBAT), which resides within white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, and has alternatively been called beige, brite or inducible BAT. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate the formation and thermogenic activity of BAT. Here we use mouse models to provide evidence for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis. Genetic ablation of the type 1A BMP receptor (Bmpr1a) in brown adipogenic progenitor cells leads to a severe paucity of cBAT. This in turn increases sympathetic input to WAT, thereby promoting the formation of rBAT within white fat depots. This previously unknown compensatory mechanism, aimed at restoring total brown-fat-mediated thermogenic capacity in the body, is sufficient to maintain normal temperature homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These data suggest an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells. This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease.

  11. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation.

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    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Wei, Gang; You, Yilin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Dong, Meng; Lin, Jun; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hanlin; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Ye, Rongcai; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhai, Baiqiang; Huang, Weidong; Liu, Shunai; Xie, Wen; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Cui, Chengbi; Li, Donghao; Zhan, Jicheng; Cheng, Jun; Yuan, Zengqiang; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Rutin also induced brown-like adipocyte (beige) formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in both obesity mouse models. Mechanistically, we found that rutin directly bound to and stabilized SIRT1, leading to hypoacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein, which stimulated Tfam transactivation and eventually augmented the number of mitochondria and UCP1 activity in BAT. These findings reveal that rutin is a novel small molecule that activates BAT and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of metabolic disorders.-Yuan, X., Wei, G., You, Y., Huang, Y., Lee, H. J., Dong, M., Lin, J., Hu, T., Zhang, H., Zhang, C., Zhou, H., Ye, R., Qi, X., Zhai, B., Huang, W., Liu, S., Xie, W., Liu, Q., Liu, X., Cui, C., Li, D., Zhan, J., Cheng, J., Yuan, Z., Jin, W. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation. © FASEB.

  12. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

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    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  13. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

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    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  14. Regulation of brown and beige fat by microRNAs.

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    Chen, Yong; Pan, Ruping; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold. Later on, it was also discovered in human adults, suggesting its potential role in energy balance and metabolism. Moreover, "brown-like" adipocytes present in WAT depots, so called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells, were discovered by several groups. In recent years, miRNAs were found to have important regulatory function during brown fat differentiation, brown fat activation and white fat "browning". In this review, we focus on the regulation of brown and beige fat by miRNAs including the role in their differentiation and function, providing evidence for their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases.

  15. NFIA co-localizes with PPARγ and transcriptionally controls the brown fat gene program

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    Hiraike, Yuta; Waki, Hironori; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    . NFIA and the master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, co-localize at the brown-fat-specific enhancers. Moreover, the binding of NFIA precedes and facilitates the binding of PPARγ, leading to increased chromatin accessibility and active transcription. Introduction of NFIA into myoblasts...... results in brown adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, the brown fat of NFIA-knockout mice displays impaired expression of the brown-fat-specific genes and reciprocal elevation of muscle genes. Finally, expression of NFIA and the brown-fat-specific genes is positively correlated in human brown fat......Brown fat dissipates energy as heat and protects against obesity. Here, we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a transcriptional regulator of brown fat by a genome-wide open chromatin analysis of murine brown and white fat followed by motif analysis of brown-fat-specific open chromatin regions...

  16. [Hibernoma: brown fat retroperitoneal tumor. Report of a pediatric case].

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    Collado, Laura; Sierre, Sergio; Bosalec, Andrea; Lipsich, José

    2011-12-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, composed of brown fat. This tissue is predominant in hibernating animals and hence its name. Because of its rarity in Pediatrics and difficult diagnosis, we report a 3 month-old patient with a diagnosis consistent with an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound and computed tomography exams showed an infiltrative retroperitoneal tumor, with hypervascular and lipomatous features. After tumor excision, histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of hibernoma or brown fat tumor. This presentation describes the characteristics of this type of tumor, rare in children, and reviews the fatty tumors, according to their frequency in pediatric patients.

  17. Can Brown Fat Win the Battle Against White Fat?

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    Elattar, Sawsan; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2015-10-01

    A rapid growth in the overweight and obese population in the last few decades suggest that the current diet, exercise, awareness or drug strategies are still not effectively restraining the obesity epidemic. Obesity results from increased energy intake, and the body's energy balance shifts towards energy abundance. Therefore, current research is focused on developing new strategies aimed at increasing energy expenditure. As a result, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is receiving tremendous attention since the major function of BAT is to dissipate energy as heat. For example, mouse models that have increased BAT activity or increased numbers of brown-like adipocytes within the white adipose tissue (WAT) are lean and protected from obesity. Alternatively, mouse models that lack BAT activity are more susceptible to age and diet-induced obesity. However, a significant loss of BAT mass during the natural growth process in humans has created enormous challenges in effectively utilizing this tissue to increase energy expenditure. New strategies are primarily focused on expanding the BAT mass and/or activating the existing BAT. In this regard, recent finding that expression of early B cell factor-2 (Ebf2) reprograms the white pre-adipocytes into brown adipocytes is a significant break-through in developing BAT-mediated strategies to treat obesity. Here we review the major biological functions of WAT and BAT, which play critical but opposing roles in the energy spectrum, energy storage versus energy expenditure, and we evaluate whether activation and/or expansion of BAT is practically achievable to treat obesity in humans.

  18. Brown fat in a protoendothermic mammal fuels eutherian evolution.

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    Oelkrug, Rebecca; Goetze, Nadja; Exner, Cornelia; Lee, Yang; Ganjam, Goutham K; Kutschke, Maria; Müller, Saskia; Stöhr, Sigrid; Tschöp, Matthias H; Crichton, Paul G; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Jastroch, Martin; Meyer, Carola W

    2013-01-01

    Endothermy has facilitated mammalian species radiation, but the sequence of events leading to sustained thermogenesis is debated in multiple evolutionary models. Here we study the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a phylogenetically ancient, 'protoendothermic' eutherian mammal, in which constantly high body temperatures are reported only during reproduction. Evidence for nonshivering thermogenesis is found in vivo during periodic ectothermic-endothermic transitions. Anatomical studies reveal large brown fat-like structures in the proximity of the reproductive organs, suggesting physiological significance for parental care. Biochemical analysis demonstrates high mitochondrial proton leak catalysed by an uncoupling protein 1 ortholog. Strikingly, bioenergetic profiling of tenrec uncoupling protein 1 reveals similar thermogenic potency as modern mouse uncoupling protein 1, despite the large phylogenetic distance. The discovery of functional brown adipose tissue in this 'protoendothermic' mammal links nonshivering thermogenesis directly to the roots of eutherian evolution, suggesting physiological importance prior to sustained body temperatures and migration to the cold.

  19. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

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    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  20. Limits of fat utilization in the neonatal piglet

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    Chiang, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dosing corn oil on the colostrum consumption in neonatal piglets, the capacity of neonatal piglets to digest and absorb fish oil and the effect of fasting on that capacity, and the capacity of neonatal piglets to absorb and oxidize long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols to identify an appropriate source and dosage of fat for maximum amount of energy. In experiment 1, piglets were either dosed 8 ml corn oil per kg body weight or sham fed, and then the colostrum consumption of each piglet during next 24-h period was measured by an isotope dilution technique. In experiment 2, neonatal piglets were given an amount of fish oil calculated to provide the piglet's maintenance energy needs for 12 h. Twelve hours after administration of fish oil, contents of stomach, small intestine and large intestine and feces were collected for lipid analyses. In experiment 3, neonatal piglets were given one of three levels of either (1-/sup 14/C)-triolein or (1-/sup 14/C)-trioctanoin, which supplied about .5, 1.0 or 2.0 times piglet's maintenance energy needs for 12 h. The hourly /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production was measured to estimate the oxidation rate, and the contents of digestive tract were collected for radioactivity and lipid analyses for estimating the absorption rate of the dosed triacylglycerols.

  1. Browning of White Fat: Novel Insight Into Factors, Mechanisms, and Therapeutics.

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    Jeremic, Nevena; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2017-01-01

    What is more interesting about brown adipose tissue (BAT) is its ability to provide thermogenesis, protection against obesity by clearing triglycerides, releasing batokines, and mitigating insulin resistance. White adipose tissue (WAT) on the other hand stores excess energy and secretes some endocrine factors like leptin for regulating satiety. For the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the browning of fat keeping in view its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and protection in the form of perivascular fat. Obesity is one such metabolic disorder that leads to significant morbidity and mortality from obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease risk. Browning of white fat paves the way to restrict obesity and obesity related disorders. Although exercise has been the most common factor for fat browning; however, there are other factors that involve: (1) beta aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA); (2) gamma amino butyric acid (GABA); (3) PPARɣ agonists; (4) JAK inhibition; and (5) IRISIN. In this review, we propose two novel factors musclin and TFAM for fat browning. Musclin a myokine released from muscles during exercise activates PPARɣ which induces browning of WAT that has beneficial metabolic and cardiac effects. TFAM is a transcription factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Since BAT is rich in mitochondria, higher expression of TFAM in WAT or TFAM treatment in WAT cells can induce browning of WAT. We propose that fat browning can be used as a therapeutic tool for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 61-68, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cold-Inducible SIRT6 Regulates Thermogenesis of Brown and Beige Fat

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    Lu Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological “whitening” of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2 consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, SIRT6 deficiency inhibits the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT following cold exposure or β3-agonist treatment. Depletion of SIRT6 expression in brown adipocytes reduces expression of thermogenic genes, causing a reduction in cellular respiration. Conversely, SIRT6 overexpression in primary fat cells stimulates the thermogenic program. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with and promotes phospho-ATF2 binding to the PGC-1α gene promoter to activate its expression. The present study reveals a critical role for SIRT6 in regulating thermogenesis of fat.

  3. Shades of Brown: A Model for Thermogenic Fat

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    Jon Michael Dempersmier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is specialized to burn fuels to perform thermogenesis in defense of body temperature against cold. Recent discovery of metabolically active and relevant amounts of BAT in adult humans have made it a potentially attractive target for development of anti-obesity therapeutics. There are two types of brown adipocytes: classical brown adipocytes as well as brown adipocyte-like cells, so called beige/brite cells, that arise in white adipose tissue in response to cold and hormonal stimuli. These cells may derive from distinct origins, and while functionally similar, have different gene signatures. Here, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of brown and beige/brite adipocytes as well as transcriptional regulation for development and function of murine brown and beige/brite adipocytes focusing on EBF2, IRF4 and ZFP516, in addition to PRDM16 as a coregulator. We also discuss hormonal regulation of brown and beige/brite adipocytes including several factors secreted from various tissues, including BMP7, FGF21 and irisin, as well as those from BAT itself, such as Nrg4 and adenosine.

  4. Brown Fat Lipoatrophy and Increased Visceral Adiposity through a Concerted Adipocytokines Overexpression Induces Vascular Insulin Resistance and Dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Otero, Yolanda F; de las Heras, Natalia; Escribano, Óscar; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; Benito, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the role played by concerted expression of adipocytokines associated with brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity on triggering vascular insulin resistance...

  5. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation of white and brown fat cells is controlled by a similar set of transcription factors, including PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. However, despite many similarities between the two types of fat cells, they carry out essentially opposite functions in vivo, with white adipocytes being...... the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation...... of adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein...

  6. Unilateral Suppression of Brown Fat on FDG PET/CT in Horner Syndrome.

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    Ulaner, Gary A; Samstein, Robert; Cahlon, Oren; Weber, Wolfgang A; Rimner, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    A 29-year-old woman underwent resection of a left anterior mediastinal thymoma and pleurectomy. Postsurgical FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated FDG avidity in the right neck and upper thoracic fat but relatively absent FDG-avid fat in the left neck and upper thorax. Bilateral FDG-avid fat was also apparent in the lower chest and upper abdomen. After surgery, the patient demonstrated Horner syndrome, with left-sided ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis. It is hypothesized that left-sided sympathetic nerves were compromised during surgery, leading to Horner syndrome and denervation of ipsilateral brown fat. The unilateral FDG avidity should not be mistaken for malignancy.

  7. A switch from white to brown fat increases energy expenditure in cancer-associated cachexia.

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    Petruzzelli, Michele; Schweiger, Martina; Schreiber, Renate; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Tsoli, Maria; Allen, John; Swarbrick, Michael; Rose-John, Stefan; Rincon, Mercedes; Robertson, Graham; Zechner, Rudolf; Wagner, Erwin F

    2014-09-02

    Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a wasting syndrome characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, atrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle. Limited therapeutic options are available and the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we show that a phenotypic switch from WAT to brown fat, a phenomenon termed WAT browning, takes place in the initial stages of CAC, before skeletal muscle atrophy. WAT browning is associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples mitochondrial respiration toward thermogenesis instead of ATP synthesis, leading to increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure in cachectic mice. Chronic inflammation and the cytokine interleukin-6 increase UCP1 expression in WAT, and treatments that reduce inflammation or β-adrenergic blockade reduce WAT browning and ameliorate the severity of cachexia. Importantly, UCP1 staining is observed in WAT from CAC patients. Thus, inhibition of WAT browning represents a promising approach to ameliorate cachexia in cancer patients.

  8. Leptin and insulin act on POMC neurons to promote the browning of white fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Garron; Descherf, Stephanie; Loh, Kim; Simonds, Stephanie E.; Wiede, Florian; Balland, Eglantine; Merry, Troy L.; Münzberg, Heike; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Kahn, Barbara B.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Bence, Kendra K.; Andrews, Zane B.; Cowley, Michael A.; Tiganis, Tony

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The primary task of white adipose tissue (WAT) is the storage of lipids. However, ‘beige’ adipocytes also exist in WAT. Beige adipocytes burn fat and dissipate the energy as heat, but their abundance is diminished in obesity. Stimulating beige adipocyte development, or WAT browning, increases energy expenditure and holds potential for combating metabolic disease and obesity. Here we report that insulin and leptin act together on hypothalamic neurons to promote WAT browning and weight loss. Deletion of the phosphatases PTP1B and TCPTP enhanced insulin and leptin signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons and prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing WAT browning and energy expenditure. The co-infusion of insulin plus leptin into the CNS or the activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons also increased WAT browning and decreased adiposity. Our findings identify a homeostatic mechanism for coordinating the status of energy stores, as relayed by insulin and leptin, with the central control of WAT browning. PMID:25594176

  9. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  10. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1......) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white...... precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell...

  11. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-08

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hansen, Lillian H L; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Madsen, Lise; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Quistorff, Bjørn; Hansen, Jacob B

    2009-12-24

    Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) was found to be expressed at substantially higher levels in brown compared to white pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that forced expression of Tfam but not Tfb2m in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell differentiation, we report a detailed characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We find significant differences in differentiating white and brown adipocytes, which might explain the notable increase in mitochondrial content observed during brown adipose conversion. In addition, our data support a key role of PRDM16 in triggering brown adipocyte differentiation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of UCP1.

  13. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Murholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam and B2 (Tfb2m, whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16 was found to be expressed at substantially higher levels in brown compared to white pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that forced expression of Tfam but not Tfb2m in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell differentiation, we report a detailed characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We find significant differences in differentiating white and brown adipocytes, which might explain the notable increase in mitochondrial content observed during brown adipose conversion. In addition, our data support a key role of PRDM16 in triggering brown adipocyte differentiation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and

  14. Ubc9 Impairs Activation of the Brown Fat Energy Metabolism Program in Human White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Sean M; Bader, David A; Abadie, Kathleen V; Motamed, Massoud; Hamilton, Mark P; Long, Weiwen; York, Brian; Mueller, Michaela; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Chan, Lawrence; Bajaj, Mandeep; Moore, David D; Mancini, Michael A; McGuire, Sean E

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from an inability to efficiently store and catabolize surplus energy in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipocytes protect against insulin resistance and T2DM by coupling differentiation with the induction of brown fat gene programs for efficient energy metabolism. Mechanisms that disrupt these programs in adipocytes are currently poorly defined, but represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we performed a high-throughput microscopy screen that identified ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) as a negative regulator of energy storage in human sc adipocytes. Ubc9 depletion enhanced energy storage and induced the brown fat gene program in human sc adipocytes. Induction of adipocyte differentiation resulted in decreased Ubc9 expression commensurate with increased brown fat gene expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reduced the interaction between Ubc9 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, suggesting a mechanism by which Ubc9 represses PPARγ activity. In support of this hypothesis, Ubc9 overexpression remodeled energy metabolism in human sc adipocytes by selectively inhibiting brown adipocyte-specific function. Further, Ubc9 overexpression decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression by disrupting PPARγ binding at a critical uncoupling protein 1 enhancer region. Last, Ubc9 is significantly elevated in sc adipose tissue isolated from mouse models of insulin resistance as well as diabetic and insulin-resistant humans. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for Ubc9 in the regulation of sc adipocyte energy homeostasis.

  15. MyomiR-133 regulates brown fat differentiation through Prdm16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Mirko; Ahmed, Kashan; Esau, Christine C; Stoffel, Markus

    2012-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) uses the chemical energy of lipids and glucose to produce heat, a function that can be induced by cold exposure or diet. A key regulator of BAT is the gene encoding PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), whose expression can drive differentiation of myogenic and white fat precursors to brown adipocytes. Here we show that after cold exposure, the muscle-enriched miRNA-133 is markedly downregulated in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT) as a result of decreased expression of its transcriptional regulator Mef2. miR-133 directly targets and negatively regulates PRDM16, and inhibition of miR-133 or Mef2 promotes differentiation of precursors from BAT and SAT to mature brown adipocytes, thereby leading to increased mitochondrial activity. Forced expression of miR-133 in brown adipogenic conditions prevents the differentiation to brown adipocytes in both BAT and SAT precursors. Our results point to Mef2 and miR-133 as central upstream regulators of Prdm16 and hence of brown adipogenesis in response to cold exposure in BAT and SAT.

  16. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Khedoe, P Padmini S J; Bartelt, Alexander; Schlein, Christian; Worthmann, Anna; Kooijman, Sander; Hoeke, Geerte; Mol, Isabel M; John, Clara; Jung, Caroline; Vazirpanah, Nadia; Brouwers, Linda P J; Gordts, Philip L S M; Esko, Jeffrey D; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Havekes, Louis M; Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2015-03-10

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation protects from atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism that unlike hyperlipidemic Apoe(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-) mice expresses functional apoE and LDLR. BAT activation increases energy expenditure and decreases plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that BAT activation enhances the selective uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins into BAT, subsequently accelerating the hepatic clearance of the cholesterol-enriched remnants. These effects depend on a functional hepatic apoE-LDLR clearance pathway as BAT activation in Apoe(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-) mice does not attenuate hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. We conclude that activation of BAT is a powerful therapeutic avenue to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and protect from atherosclerosis.

  17. Brown, beige, and white: the new color code of fat and its pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Alexander; Hoffmann, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was previously regarded as a special type of fat relevant only for defending hibernating animals and newborns against a cold environment. Recently, BAT has received considerable attention following its (re)discovery in humans. Using glucose tracers, multiple laboratories independently found metabolically active BAT in adults. The enormous metabolic powers of BAT in animal models could make it an attractive target for antiobesity therapies in humans. Here, we review the present knowledge on the role of BAT in energy homeostasis and metabolism, focusing on signaling pathways and potential targets for novel therapeutics. We also shine light on ongoing debates, including those about the true color of brown fat in adults, as well as on the requirements for translation of basic research on BAT into clinical medicine.

  18. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging cooling-reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundström, Elin; Strand, Robin; Johansson, Lars; Bergsten, Peter; Ahlström, Håkan; Kullberg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT...

  20. Fat accumulation in differentiated brown adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Barui, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Datta, Tirtha K

    2016-03-01

    Homeobox (Hox) genes are involved in body plan of embryo along the anterior-posterior axis. Presence of several Hox genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is indicative of involvement of Hox genes in adipogenesis. We propose that differentiation inducing agents viz. isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), indomethacin, dexamethasone (DEX), triiodothyronine (T3) and insulin may regulate differentiation in brown adipose tissue through Hox genes. In vitro culture of brown fat stromalvascular fraction (SVF) in presence or absence of differentiation inducing agents was used for establishing relationship between fat accumulation in differentiated adipocytes and expression of Hox genes. Relative expression of Pref1, UCP1 and Hox genes was determined in different stages of adipogenesis. Presence or absence of IBMX, indomethacin and DEX during differentiation of proliferated pre-adipocytes resulted in marked differences in expression of Hox genes and lipid accumulation. In presence of these inducing agents, lipid accumulation as well as expression of HoxA1, HoxA5, HoxC4 &HoxC8 markedly enhanced. Irrespective of presence or absence of T3, insulin down regulates HoxA10. T3 results in over expression of HoxA5, HoxC4 and HoxC8 genes, whereas insulin up regulates expression of only HoxC8. Findings suggest that accumulation of fat in differentiated adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

  1. Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Ravussin

    Full Text Available Homeotherms have specific mechanisms to maintain a constant core body temperature despite changes in thermal environment, food supply, and metabolic demand. Brown adipose tissue, the principal thermogenic organ, quickly and efficiently increases heat production by dissipating the mitochondrial proton motive force. It has been suggested that activation of brown fat, via either environmental (i.e. cold exposure or pharmacologic means, could be used to increase metabolic rate and thus reduce body weight. Here we assess the effects of intermittent cold exposure (4°C for one to eight hours three times a week on C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Cold exposure increased metabolic rate approximately two-fold during the challenge and activated brown fat. In response, food intake increased to compensate fully for the increased energy expenditure; thus, the mice showed no reduction in body weight or adiposity. Despite the unchanged adiposity, the cold-treated mice showed transient improvements in glucose homeostasis. Administration of the cannabinoid receptor-1 inverse agonist AM251 caused weight loss and improvements in glucose homeostasis, but showed no further improvements when combined with cold exposure. These data suggest that intermittent cold exposure causes transient, meaningful improvements in glucose homeostasis, but without synergy when combined with AM251. Since energy expenditure is significantly increased during cold exposure, a drug that dissociates food intake from metabolic demand during cold exposure may achieve weight loss and further metabolic improvements.

  2. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto eMuzik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake.Methods: Fourteen adult normal subjects (9F/5M, 30+7 years underwent triple oxygen scans (H215O, C15O, 15O2 as well as indirect calorimetric measurements at rest and following exposure to mild cold (60F. Subjects were divided into two groups (BAT+ and BAT- based on the presence or absence of FDG tracer uptake (SUV > 2 in supraclavicular BAT. Blood flow (BF and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF was calculated from dynamic PET scans at the location of BAT, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT. The metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2 in BAT was determined and used to calculate the contribution of activated BAT to daily energy expenditure (DEE.Results: The median mass of activated BAT in the BAT+ group (5F, 31+8yrs was 52.4 g (14-68g and was 1.7 g (0-6.3g in the BAT- group (5M/4F, 29+6yrs. SUV values were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (7.4+3.7 vs 1.9+0.9; p=0.03. BF values in BAT were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (13.1+4.4 vs 5.7+1.1 ml/100g/min, p=0.03, but were similar in WAT (4.1+1.6 vs 4.2+1.8 ml/100g/min and muscle (3.7+0.8 vs 3.3+1.2 ml/100g/min. Calculated MRO2 values in BAT increased from 0.95+0.74 to 1.62+0.82 ml/100g/min in the BAT+ group and were significantly higher than those determined in the BAT- group (0.43+0.27 vs 0.56+0.24; p=0.67. The DEE associated with BAT oxidative metabolism was highly variable in the BAT+ group, with an average of 5.5+6.4 kcal/day (range 0.57–15.3 kcal/day.

  3. An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deierlein Andrea L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days, anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh, and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg + 0.055*weight (kg2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh; R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.

  4. Role of PRDM16 in the activation of brown fat programming. Relevance to the development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Sara; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Martín, Marina; Moncada, Rafael; Sesma, Pilar; Burrell, María A; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-11-01

    From a histological and functional point of view, two types of adipose tissue can be identified. As opposed to the mainly unilocular white adipocytes, brown adipocytes possess plenty of small multilocular lipid droplets and dissipate energy as heat. Moreover, two distinct types of brown adipose cells exist. In vivo fate mapping experiments of brown adipose tissue (BAT) precursors suggest that classical brown adipocytes and skeletal myoblasts originate from a common mesenchymal, myogenic factor 5 (Myf5)-positive precursor cell. In addition to the classical brown adipocytes, thermogenic brown-like adipocytes (brite/beige cells) may appear within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots, sharing many of the morphological and functional features of brown adipocytes, but arising from a Myf5-negative lineage. In humans, the conversion of white fat cells into brite adipocytes could be a strategy to increase energy expenditure. The zinc finger transcription factor Prdm16 controls the bidirectional fate decision between brown adipocytes and myoblasts. Prdm16 determines the brown fat-like programme and thermogenesis in both brown and white adipose tissues. Moreover, the expression of this transcriptional regulator is strongly correlated with beige cell-selective genes. From a therapeutical point of view, the potential of inducing BAT or the transdifferentiation of WAT into beige cells by enhancing Prdm16 expression, as well as the identification of mechanisms of Prdm16 function and regulation represent potentially exciting new approaches for treatment or prevention of obesity and related diseases.

  5. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-06-06

    Pharmacological β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β3AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β3ARs in adipose tissue. However, β3ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brainstem and hypothalamus that provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the CNS may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β3ARs. This study therefore aimed to elucidate whether CNS β3ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β3AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β3AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β3AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high fat-high sugar fed rats subchronic central β3AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β3AR-activation. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  6. [Ursolic acid as antitumor agent and inductor of PTEN and brown fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteĭn, L M

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review the basic evidence about anticancer properties of ursolic acid (UA), the compound belonging to the class of triterpenoids, is given. Beside inhibiting tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo and activating of apoptosis, UA (as well as some other related and not related compounds) is capable to induce PTEN (a tumor suppressor mutation of which is rather often discovered in human tumors including endometrial cancer type I) and amount/activity of brown fat. The latter action may explain obesity-preventing capacity of UA that also may lead to an additional antiblastomogenic effect.

  7. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Wu, Jun; Jedrychowski, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-γ co-activator-1 α (PGC1-α). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-α expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression...... of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly...... increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise....

  8. Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veech, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is classically activated by sympathetic nervous stimulation resulting from exposure to cold. Feeding a high-fat diet also induces development of brown fat, but is decreased by caloric restriction. Blood ketone bodies, which function as alternative energy substrates to glucose, are increased during caloric restriction. Here we discuss the unexpected observation that feeding an ester of ketone bodies to the mouse, which increases blood ketone body concentrations, results in an activation of brown fat. The mechanism of this activation of brown fat is similar to that occurring from cold exposure in that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels are increased as are levels of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, which is also increased by ketone ester feeding. Other effects of feeding ketone esters, in addition to their ability to induce brown fat, are discussed such as their ability to overcome certain aspects of insulin resistance and to ameliorate the accumulation of amyloid and phosphorylated tau protein in brain, and improve cognitive function, in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT.We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status.The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8 or eumenorrheic (n = 8.We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition.Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002, higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01 and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09. BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively. We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02.BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02, and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones.Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female

  10. Lipolysis sensation by white fat afferent nerves triggers brown fat thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, John T; Szymanski, Laura A; Schwartz, Gary J; Xue, Bingzhong; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic challenges, such as a cold environment, stimulate sympathetic neural efferent activity to white adipose tissue (WAT) to drive lipolysis, thereby increasing the availability of free fatty acids as one source of fuel for brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. WAT is also innervated by sensory nerve fibers that network to metabolic brain areas; moreover, activation of these afferents is reported to increase sympathetic nervous system outflow. However, the endogenous stimuli sufficient to drive WAT afferents during metabolic challenges as well as their functional relation to BAT thermogenesis remain unknown. We tested if local WAT lipolysis directly activates WAT afferent nerves, and then assessed whether this WAT sensory signal affected BAT thermogenesis in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). 2-deoxyglucose, a sympathetic nervous system stimulant, caused β-adrenergic receptor dependent increases in inguinal WAT (IWAT) afferent neurophysiological activity. In addition, direct IWAT injections of the β3-AR agonist CL316,243 dose-dependently increased: 1) phosphorylation of IWAT hormone sensitive lipase, an indicator of SNS-stimulated lipolysis, 2) expression of the neuronal activation marker c-Fos in dorsal root ganglion neurons receiving sensory input from IWAT, and 3) IWAT afferent neurophysiological activity, an increase blocked by antilipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole. Finally, we demonstrated that IWAT afferent activation by lipolysis triggers interscapular BAT thermogenesis through a neural link between these two tissues. These data suggest IWAT lipolysis activates local IWAT afferents triggering a neural circuit from WAT to BAT that acutely induces BAT thermogenesis.

  11. Within brown-fat cells, UCP1-mediated fatty acid-induced uncoupling is independent of fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Backlund, Emma C; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have utilized the availability of UCP1(-/-) mice to examine a wide range of previously proposed lipid activators of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in its native environment, i.e. in the brown-fat cells. A non-metabolizable fatty acid analogue, beta,beta cent-methyl-substituted hexadecane alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid (Medica-16) is a potent UCP1 (re)activator in brown-fat cells, despite its bipolar structure. All-trans-retinoic acid activates UCP1 within cells, whereas beta-carotene only does so after metabolism. The UCP1-dependent effects of fatty acids are positively correlated with their chain length. Medium-chain fatty acids are potent UCP1 activators in cells, despite their lack of protonophoric properties in mitochondrial membranes. Thus, neither the ability to be metabolized nor an innate uncoupling/protonophoric ability is a necessary property of UCP1 activators within brown-fat cells.

  12. Dysfunctional Subcutaneous Fat With Reduced Dicer and Brown Adipose Tissue Gene Expression in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Martin; Srinivasa, Suman; Fitch, Kathleen V; Thomou, Thomas; Wong, Kimberly; Petrow, Eva; Kahn, C Ronald; Cypess, Aaron M; Grinspoon, Steven K

    2016-03-01

    HIV patients are at an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease secondary to depot-specific alterations in adipose function, but mechanisms remain poorly understood. The endoribonuclease Dicer has been linked to the modulation of brown and white adipocyte differentiation. We previously demonstrated that Dicer knockout mice undergo transformation of brown adipose tissue to white adipose tissue and develop a lipodystrophic phenotype. We hypothesized reduced Dicer and brown adipose tissue gene expression from nonlipomatous sc fat among HIV patients with a lipodystrophic phenotype. Eighteen HIV (nine with and without lipodystrophic changes in fat distribution, characterized by excess dorsocervical adipose tissue [DCAT]) and nine non-HIV subjects underwent punch biopsy of abdominal sc fat to determine expression of Dicer and other adipose-related genes. HIV subjects with long-duration antiretroviral use demonstrated excess DCAT vs non-HIV subjects (9.8 ± 1.0 vs 6.6 ± 0.8 cm(2), P = .02) with similar body mass index. Dicer expression was decreased in abdominal sc fat of HIV vs non-HIV (4.88 [1.91, 11.93] vs 17.69 [10.72, 47.91], P = .01), as were PPARα, ZIC1, PRDM16, DIO2, and HSP60 (all P ≤ .03). Moreover, the expression of Dicer (2.49 [0.02, 4.88] vs 11.20 [4.83, 21.45], P = .006), brown fat (PPARα [P = .002], ZIC1 [P = .004], LHX8 [P = .03], PRDM16 [P = .0008], PAT2 [P = .008], P2RX5 [P = .02]), beige fat (TMEM26 [P = .004], CD137 [P = .008]), and other genes (DIO2 [P = .002], leptin [P = .003], HSP60 [P = .0004]) was further decreased in abdominal sc fat comparing HIV subjects with vs without excess DCAT. Down-regulation of Dicer in the abdominal sc fat correlated with the down-regulation of all brown and beige fat genes (all P ≤ .01). Our results demonstrate dysfunctional sc adipose tissue marked by reduced Dicer in relationship to the down-regulation of brown and beige fat-related genes in lipodystrophic HIV patients and may provide a novel mechanism for

  13. Regulation of brown fat adipogenesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

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    Kosuke Matsuo

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation.To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO mice. In addition, we reconstituted KO cells with wild type, substrate-trapping (D/A and sumoylation-resistant (K/R PTP1B mutants, then characterized differentiation and signaling in these cells. KO, D/A- and WT-reconstituted cells fully differentiated into mature adipocytes with KO and D/A cells exhibiting a trend for enhanced differentiation. In contrast, K/R cells exhibited marked attenuation in differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with WT cells. Expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PGC1α mirrored the differentiation pattern. In addition, the differentiation deficit in K/R cells could be reversed completely by the PPARγ activator troglitazone. PTP1B deficiency enhanced insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 tyrosyl phosphorylation, while K/R cells exhibited attenuated insulin-induced IR and IRS1 phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with WT cells. In addition, substrate-trapping studies revealed that IRS1 is a substrate for PTP1B in brown adipocytes. Moreover, KO, D/A and K/R cells exhibited elevated AMPK and ACC phosphorylation compared with WT cells.These data indicate that PTP1B is a modulator of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that adipocyte differentiation requires regulated expression of PTP1B.

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy for body fat sensing in neonates: quantitative analysis by GAMOS simulations.

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    Mustafa, Fatin Hamimi; Jones, Peter W; McEwan, Alistair L

    2017-01-11

    Under-nutrition in neonates is closely linked to low body fat percentage. Undernourished neonates are exposed to immediate mortality as well as unwanted health impacts in their later life including obesity and hypertension. One potential low cost approach for obtaining direct measurements of body fat is near-infrared (NIR) interactance. The aims of this study were to model the effect of varying volume fractions of melanin and water in skin over NIR spectra, and to define sensitivity of NIR reflection on changes of thickness of subcutaneous fat. GAMOS simulations were used to develop two single fat layer models and four complete skin models over a range of skin colour (only for four skin models) and hydration within a spectrum of 800-1100 nm. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat was set from 1 to 15 mm in 1 mm intervals in each model. Varying volume fractions of water in skin resulted minimal changes of NIR intensity at ranges of wavelengths from 890 to 940 nm and from 1010 to 1100 nm. Variation of the melanin volume in skin meanwhile was found to strongly influence the NIR intensity and sensitivity. The NIR sensitivities and NIR intensity over thickness of fat decreased from the Caucasian skin to African skin throughout the range of wavelengths. For the relationship between the NIR reflection and the thickness of subcutaneous fat, logarithmic relationship was obtained. The minimal changes of NIR intensity values at wavelengths within the ranges from 890 to 940 nm and from 1010 to 1100 nm to variation of volume fractions of water suggests that wavelengths within those two ranges are considered for use in measurement of body fat to solve the variation of hydration in neonates. The stronger influence of skin colour on NIR shows that the melanin effect needs to be corrected by an independent measurement or by a modeling approach. The logarithmic response obtained with higher sensitivity at the lower range of thickness of fat suggests that implementation of NIRS

  15. Non-Invasive Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues and Liver Fat Content by Computed Tomography in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubura, Marko; Hesse, Deike; Neumann, Nancy; Scherneck, Stephan; Wiedmer, Petra; Schürmann, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Obesity and its distribution pattern are important factors for the prediction of the onset of diabetes in humans. Since several mouse models are suitable to study the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes the aim was to validate a novel computed tomograph model (Aloka-Hitachi LCT-200) for the quantification of visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat depots in mice. Methods Different lean and obese mouse models (C57BL/6, B6.V-Lepob, NZO) were used to determine the most adequate scanning parameters for the detection of the different fat depots. The data were compared with those obtained after preparation and weighing the fat depots. Liver fat content was determined by biochemical analysis. Results The correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and weights determined by CT were significant for subcutaneous (r2 = 0.995), visceral (r2 = 0.990) and total white adipose tissue (r2 = 0.992). Moreover, scans in the abdominal region, between lumbar vertebrae L4 to L5 correlated with whole-body fat distribution allowing experimenters to reduce scanning time and animal exposure to radiation and anesthesia. Test-retest reliability and measurements conducted by different experimenters showed a high reproducibility in the obtained results. Intrahepatic fat content estimated by CT was linearly related to biochemical analysis (r2 = 0.915). Furthermore, brown fat mass correlated well with weighted brown fat depots (r2 = 0.952). In addition, short-term cold-expose (4°C, 4 hours) led to alterations in brown adipose tissue attributed to a reduction in triglyceride content that can be visualized as an increase in Hounsfield units by CT imaging. Conclusion The 3D imaging of fat by CT provides reliable results in the quantification of total, visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat in mice. This non-invasive method allows the conduction of longitudinal studies of obesity in mice and therefore enables experimenters to investigate

  16. The biological clock is regulated by adrenergic signaling in brown fat but is dispensable for cold-induced thermogenesis.

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    Siming Li

    Full Text Available The biological clock plays an important role in integrating nutrient and energy metabolism with other cellular processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that core clock genes are rhythmically expressed in peripheral tissues, including the liver, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, and white and brown adipose tissues. These peripheral clocks are entrained by physiological cues, thereby aligning the circadian pacemaker to tissue functions. The mechanisms that regulate brown adipose tissue clock in response to physiological signals remain poorly understood. Here we found that the expression of core clock genes is highly responsive to cold exposure in brown fat, but not in white fat. This cold-inducible regulation of the clock network is mediated by adrenergic receptor activation and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Brown adipocytes in mice lacking a functional clock contain large lipid droplets accompanied by dysregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and adaptive thermogenesis. Paradoxically, the "clockless" mice were competent in maintaining core body temperature during cold exposure. These studies elucidated the presence of adrenergic receptor/clock crosstalk that appears to be required for normal thermogenic gene expression in brown fat.

  17. Subcutaneous fat necrosis in neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy registered in the Swiss National Asphyxia and Cooling Register

    OpenAIRE

    Grass, Beate; Weibel, Lisa; Hagmann, Cornelia; Brotschi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) are routinely treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for 72 h in order to improve neurological outcome. Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is an adverse event occurring in neonates with HIE. Methods We analyzed risk factors for SCFN regarding demographic factors, cooling methods and deviation from target temperature range during hypothermia therapy. Data of all neonates registered in the National Asphyxia and Cooling Register in...

  18. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  19. Brown fat determination and development from muscle precursor cells by novel action of bone morphogenetic protein 6.

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    Ankur Sharma

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays a pivotal role in promoting energy expenditure by the virtue of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 that differentiates BAT from its energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT counterpart. The clinical implication of "classical" BAT (originates from Myf5 positive myoblastic lineage or the "beige" fat (originates through trans-differentiation of WAT activation in improving metabolic parameters is now becoming apparent. However, the inducers and endogenous molecular determinants that govern the lineage commitment and differentiation of classical BAT remain obscure. We report here that in the absence of any forced gene expression, stimulation with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6 induces brown fat differentiation from skeletal muscle precursor cells of murine and human origins. Through a comprehensive transcriptional profiling approach, we have discovered that two days of BMP6 stimulation in C2C12 myoblast cells is sufficient to induce genes characteristic of brown preadipocytes. This developmental switch is modulated in part by newly identified regulators, Optineurin (Optn and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2. Furthermore, pathway analyses using the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE identified additional potential causal drivers of this BMP6 induced commitment switch. Subsequent analyses to decipher key pathway that facilitates terminal differentiation of these BMP6 primed cells identified a key role for Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R. Collectively these data highlight a therapeutically innovative role for BMP6 by providing a means to enhance the amount of myogenic lineage derived brown fat.

  20. Medium-Chain Triglyceride Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Induced Reduction of Fat Mass in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; XUE Chang Yong; XU Qing; LIU Ying Hua; ZHANG Xin Sheng; WANG Jin; YU Xiao Ming; ZHANG Rong Xin; XUE Chao; YANG Xue Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulated by medium-chain triglyceride (MCT). Methods 30 Male C57BL/6J obese mice induced by fed high fat diet (HFD) were divided into 2 groups, and fed another HFD with 2% MCT or long-chain triglyceride (LCT) respectively for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical variables, interscapular brown fat tissue (IBAT) mass, expressions of mRNA and protein of beta 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR), uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), protein kinase A (PKA), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in IBAT were measured. Results Significant decrease in body weight and body fat mass was observed in MCT group as compared with LCT group (P<0.05) after 12 weeks. Greater increases in IBAT mass was observed in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Blood TG, TC, LDL-C in MCT group were decreased significantly, meanwhile blood HDL-C, ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C and norepinephrine were increased markedly. Expressions of mRNA and protein ofβ3-AR, UCP1, PKA, HSL, ATGL in BAT were greater in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that MCT stimulated the activation of BAT, possible via norepinephrine pathway, which might partially contribute to reduction of the body fat mass in obese mice fed high fat diet.

  1. Brown fat like gene expression in the epicardial fat depot correlates with circulating HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechi, Kanta; Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Mathieu, Patrick; Deshaies, Yves; Richard, Denis

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) expresses uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), a marker of brown adipocytes. However, the putative effects of the presence of brown adipocytes in EAT remain unknown. The mRNA expression of genes related to brown adipocyte-mediated thermogenesis was measured in the fat samples collected from the epicardial-, mediastinal- and subcutaneous-depots of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were then utilized to determine any association between gene expression and the anthropometrics and fasting blood chemistries of these patients. EAT exhibited significantly higher expression of UCP1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit-IV (COX-IV) compared to mediastinal- and subcutaneous-fat depots (P ≤ 0.05). EAT expression of UCP1 (r=0.50), COX-IV (r=0.37) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) (r=0.58) positively associated with circulating levels of HDL-cholesterol (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, EAT expression of LPL, acyl coA dehydrogenase-short, -medium and -long chain genes associated negatively with circulating TG levels (P ≤ 0.05). Abundance of UCP-1 in the EAT relative to other fat depots confirms the presence of brown adipocytes in human EAT. Furthermore, the correlations among the EAT expression of thermogenesis-related genes with the circulating HDL and TG levels indicate that presence of active brown adipocytes shares a functional association with the circulating plasma lipids in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

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    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  3. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Steven D; Elmore, Christopher J; Bongers, Kale S; Ebert, Scott M; Fox, Daniel K; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Adams, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  4. MicroRNA 34a inhibits beige and brown fat formation in obesity in part by suppressing adipocyte fibroblast growth factor 21 signaling and SIRT1 function.

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    Fu, Ting; Seok, Sunmi; Choi, Sunge; Huang, Zhang; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H Eric; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2014-11-15

    Brown fat generates heat through uncoupled respiration, protecting against hypothermia and obesity. Adult humans have brown fat, but the amounts and activities are substantially decreased in obesity, by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that elevated microRNA 34a (miR-34a) in obesity inhibits fat browning in part by suppressing the browning activators fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and SIRT1. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of miR-34a in mice with diet-induced obesity reduced adiposity, improved serum profiles, increased the mitochondrial DNA copy number, and increased oxidative function in adipose tissue in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Remarkably, downregulation of miR-34a increased coexpression of the beige fat-specific marker CD137 and the browning marker UCP1 in all types of white fat, including visceral fat, and promoted additional browning in brown fat. Mechanistically, downregulation of miR-34a increased expression of the FGF21 receptor components, FGFR1 and βKL, and also that of SIRT1, resulting in FGF21/SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of PGC-1α and induction of the browning genes Ucp1, Pgc-1α, and Prdm16. Importantly, anti-miR-34a-mediated beneficial effects, including decreased adiposity, are likely from multiple tissues, since downregulation of miR-34a also improves hepatic FGF21 signaling and lipid oxidation. This study identifies miR-34a as an inhibitor of beige and brown fat formation, providing a potential target for treating obesity-related diseases.

  5. Pharmacological Activation of Thyroid Hormone Receptors Elicits a Functional Conversion of White to Brown Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z. Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT into a tissue with brown adipose tissue (BAT-like activity, often referred to as “browning,” represents an intriguing strategy for combating obesity and metabolic disease. We demonstrate that thyroid hormone receptor (TR activation by a synthetic agonist markedly induces a program of adaptive thermogenesis in subcutaneous WAT that coincides with a restoration of cold tolerance to cold-intolerant mice. Distinct from most other browning agents, pharmacological TR activation dissociates the browning of WAT from activation of classical BAT. TR agonism also induces the browning of white adipocytes in vitro, indicating that TR-mediated browning is cell autonomous. These data establish TR agonists as a class of browning agents, implicate the TRs in the browning of WAT, and suggest a profound pharmacological potential of this action.

  6. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  7. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H L; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-06-09

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.

  8. Which Anthropometric Measure Best Correlates with Neonatal Fat Mass at Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Gal, Moran; Landau-Helman, Yeela; Biderman, Lihi; Nir, Romy; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    Objective Body composition provides additional information than weight alone. There is currently no accepted anthropometric measure of adiposity in infants, yet weight and length data allow calculations of a wide array of indices. The study objective was to identify the anthropometric index which best correlates with neonatal adiposity, by examining the associations between neonatal fat mass and several anthropometric indices of newborn infants. Study Design The sum of skinfolds (SSF), birth weight, and birth length were measured in 94 healthy infants (58% males) born at term to healthy mothers. Several anthropometric indices were calculated, and their relationship with SSF was assessed using linear regression adjusting for gestational age and sex. Results SSF at birth was significantly higher in females compared with males (20.7 ± 3.3 vs. 18.8 ± 4.1 mm, p = 0.019). Birth weight, birth weight-for-gestational-age percentile, birth weight percentile, and weight/length ratio had the highest associations with SSF, yet R (2) values were very low, ranging from 16 to 18%. Body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, ponderal index, and the symmetry index had even lower associations. Conclusion No anthropometric measure can confidently assess fat mass in infants at birth, in accordance with previous research. When body composition data are needed, they should be directly measured.

  9. Brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity through a concerted adipocytokines overexpression induces vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Otero, Yolanda F; de las Heras, Natalia; Escribano, Oscar; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; Benito, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed the role played by concerted expression of adipocytokines associated with brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity on triggering vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in brown adipose tissue (BAT) insulin receptor knockout (BATIRKO) mice. In addition, we assessed whether vascular insulin resistance may aggravate vascular damage. The 52-wk-old, but not 33-wk-old, BATIRKO mice had a significant decrease of BAT mass associated with a significant increase of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, without changes in body weight. Brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity enhanced the concerted expression of adipocytokines (TNF-α, leptin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) and nuclear factor-κB binding activity in BAT and visceral WAT, mainly in the gonadal depot, and aorta. Although those mice showed insulin sensitivity in the liver and skeletal muscle, insulin signaling in WAT (gonadal depot) and aorta was markedly impaired. Treatment with anti-TNF-α antibody impaired the inflammatory activity in visceral adipose tissue, attenuated insulin resistance in WAT and aorta and induced glucose tolerance. Finally, 52-wk-old BATIRKO mice showed vascular dysfunction, macrophage infiltration, oxidative stress, and a significant increase of gene markers of endothelial activation and inflammation, the latter effect being totally reverted by anti-TNF-α antibody treatment. Our results suggest that brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity through the concerted overexpression of cytoadipokines induces nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory signaling, vascular insulin resistance, and vascular dysfunction. Inhibition of inflammatory activity by anti-TNF-α antibody treatment attenuates vascular insulin resistance and impairs gene expression of vascular dysfunction markers.

  10. Effects of parenteral L-carnitine supplementation on fat metabolism and nutrition in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, C M; DeBrie, K L; Hug, G; Landrigan, E; Taylor, B J

    1995-02-01

    The effects of parenteral L-carnitine supplementation on fat metabolism, nutrient intake, and plasma and erythrocyte carnitine concentrations were studied in 43 very low birth weight infants. Infants were randomly assigned to control or carnitine-supplemented (50 mumol/kg per day) groups within two weight categories: group 1, 750 to 1000 gm, and group 2, 1001 to 1500 gm. Plasma total, free, and acyl carnitine levels, erythrocyte carnitine levels, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and triglyceride levels, and total fat intake were monitored weekly until 50% of total caloric intake was met enterally. Neonates receiving carnitine had higher plasma carnitine levels than control groups (total carnitine: group 1, 75.2 +/- 22.9 vs 9.6 +/- 2.7 mmol/ml; group 2, 61.6 +/- 31.2 vs 13.0 +/- 9.2 nmol/ml). Levels of beta-OH-butyrate decreased from baseline in control neonates (group 1, 0.12 +/- 0.06 to 0.03 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; group 2, 0.11 +/- 0.03 to 0.05 +/- 0.02 mmol/L); they remained unchanged in supplemented groups. Thus ketogenesis appeared less impaired in infants receiving supplements. Supplemented group 2 tolerated more fat than control group 2; triglyceride levels remained acceptable in all groups. Carnitine group 2 had greater weight gain than control group 2 during the first 2 weeks of life. We conclude that very low birth weight infants requiring prolonged parenteral nutrition have carnitine deficiency with impaired ketogenesis. Parenteral administration of carnitine appears to alleviate this metabolic disturbance.

  11. Inherent plasticity of brown adipogenesis in white fat of mice allows for recovery from effects of post-natal malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P Kozak

    Full Text Available Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT is formed during fetal development and stable for the life span of the mouse. In addition, brown adipocytes also appear in white fat depots (wBAT between 10 and 21 days of age in mice maintained at a room temperature of 23 °C. However, this expression is transient. By 60 days of age the brown adipocytes have disappeared, but they can re-emerge if the adult mouse is exposed to the cold (5 °C or treated with β3-adrenergic agonists. Since the number of brown adipocytes that can be induced in white fat influences the capacity of the mouse to resist the obese state, we determined the effects of the nutritional conditions on post-natal development (birth to 21 days of wBAT and its long-term effects on diet-induced obesity (DIO. Under-nutrition caused essentially complete suppression of wBAT in inguinal fat at 21 days of age, as indicated by expression of Ucp1 and genes of mitochondrial structure and function based upon microarray and qRT-PCR analysis, whereas over-nutrition had no discernible effects on wBAT induction. Surprisingly, the suppression of wBAT at 21 days of age did not affect DIO in adult mice maintained at 23 °C, nor did it affect the reduction in obesity or cold tolerance when DIO mice were exposed to the cold at 5 °C for one week. Gene expression analysis indicated that mice raised under conditions that suppressed wBAT at 21 days of age were able to normally induce wBAT as adults. Therefore, neither severe hypoleptinemia nor hypoinsulinemia during suckling permanently impaired brown adipogenesis in white fat. In addition, energy balance studies of DIO mice exposed to cold indicates that mice with reduced adipose stores preferentially increased food intake, whereas those with larger adipose tissue depots preferred to utilize energy from their adipose stores.

  12. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-02-26

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) as the target of BMP signaling required for these brown fat-like changes in WAT. This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. These findings provide a genetic and metabolic basis for BMP4's role in altering insulin sensitivity by affecting WAT development.

  13. FAT-ABSORPTION IN NEONATES - COMPARISON OF LONG-CHAIN-FATTY-ACID AND TRIGLYCERIDE COMPOSITIONS OF FORMULA, FECES, AND BLOOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERKADE, HJ; HOVING, EB; MUSKIET, FAJ; MARTINI, IA; JANSEN, G; OKKEN, A; VONK, RJ; BIJLEVELD, CMA

    1991-01-01

    We studied malabsorption of fat in neonates who were fed either a lard-modified formula (n = 22, gestational age, 33.6 +/- 3.9 wk) or an unmodified formula (n = 14, gestational age, 34.1 +/- 3.7 wk). In both groups fecal lipid consisted almost completely (> 90%) of free fatty acids, whose compositio

  14. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P Brown eggs were heavier (P brown eggs had greater (P brown eggs due to increased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. The molting of hens reduced (P brown eggs. Strain and molt appear to influence nutrient composition and component percentages in eggs produced from laying hens.

  15. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  16. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas; Lindén, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([(14)C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[(3)H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  18. A role for phosphodiesterase 3B in acquisition of brown fat characteristics by white adipose tissue in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Emilia; Hockman, Steven; Chung, Youn Wook; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Gavrilova, Oksana; Raghavachari, Nalini; Yang, Yanqin; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Zu Xi; Liu, Shiwei; Degerman, Eva; Manganiello, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is linked to various diseases, including insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. The idea of inducing white adipose tissue (WAT) to assume characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT), and thus gearing it to fat burning instead of storage, is receiving serious consideration as potential treatment for obesity and related disorders. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) links insulin- and cAMP-signaling networks in tissues associated with energy metabolism, including WAT. We used C57BL/6 PDE3B knockout (KO) mice to elucidate mechanisms involved in the formation of BAT in epididymal WAT (EWAT) depots. Examination of gene expression profiles in PDE3B KO EWAT revealed increased expression of several genes that block white and promote brown adipogenesis, such as C-terminal binding protein, bone morphogenetic protein 7, and PR domain containing 16, but a clear BAT-like phenotype was not completely induced. However, acute treatment of PDE3B KO mice with the β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243, markedly increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyzes prostaglandin synthesis and is thought to be important in the formation of BAT in WAT and the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 3, which is linked to BAT recruitment upon cold exposure, causing a clear shift toward fat burning and the induction of BAT in KO EWAT. These data provide insight into the mechanisms of BAT formation in mouse EWAT, suggesting that, in a C57BL/6 background, an increase in cAMP, caused by ablation of PDE3B and administration of CL316243, may promote differentiation of prostaglandin-responsive progenitor cells in the EWAT stromal vascular fraction into functional brown adipocytes.

  19. Metabolic regulation and the anti-obesity perspectives of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    , white fat tissue transformation into beige has been observed in patients with pheochromocytoma, a norepinephrine-producing tumor. Interestingly, human beige fat is predominantly induced in regions that were BAT during early childhood, possibly reflecting that a presence of human beige progenitors...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging cooling-reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lundström

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT depot after a three-hour long mild cold exposure.Nine volunteers were investigated with chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI at baseline, after a three-hour long cold exposure and after subsequent short reheating. Changes in fat fraction (FF and R2*, related to ambient temperature, were quantified within cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue (considered as suspected BAT, denoted sBAT after semi-automatic segmentation. In addition, FF and R2* were quantified fully automatically in subcutaneous adipose tissue (not considered as suspected BAT, denoted SAT for comparison. By assuming different time scales for the regulation of lipid turnover and perfusion in BAT, the changes were determined as resulting from either altered absolute fat content (lipid-related or altered absolute water content (perfusion-related.sBAT-FF decreased after cold exposure (mean change in percentage points = -1.94 pp, P = 0.021 whereas no change was observed in SAT-FF (mean = 0.23 pp, P = 0.314. sBAT-R2* tended to increase (mean = 0.65 s-1, P = 0.051 and SAT-R2* increased (mean = 0.40 s-1, P = 0.038 after cold exposure. sBAT-FF remained decreased after reheating (mean = -1.92 pp, P = 0.008, compared to baseline whereas SAT-FF decreased (mean = -0.79 pp, P = 0.008, compared to after cold exposure.The sustained low sBAT-FF after reheating suggests lipid consumption, rather than altered perfusion, as the main cause to the decreased sBAT-FF. The results obtained demonstrate the use of the cooling-reheating protocol for detecting changes in the cervical-supraclavicular fat depot, being the main human brown adipose tissue depot, in terms of lipid content and perfusion.

  1. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  2. [Brown, white, beige: the color of fat and new therapeutic perspectives for obesity...].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, E; Binart, N; Lombès, M

    2012-10-01

    Three articles published in the NEJM in 2009 have renewed the interest for brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. This review reports interesting new findings on adipocyte cell types that have been presented at the last meeting of the Endocrine Society in Houston, TX, in June 2012. Many studies have focused on identifying factors involved in brown adipocyte lineage, the site of adaptive thermogenesis. Indeed, the role of the transcription factors, such as PRDM16, in brown adipocyte differentiation has been unambiguously established. Very recently, the concept of "beigeing", defined as the occurrence of thermogenic brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue, has emerged, leading to the identification, by Bruce Spiegelman's group, of a new muscular hormone, called irisin, which is able to stimulate the "beigeing". This finding should convey toward the discovery of new mutations involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and lipodystrophies, and should be translated into innovative therapeutic perspectives. Finally, the nature of BAT innervation has been clarified and the presence of an autoregulatory loop between BAT and notably hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei via the sensory and sympathetic nervous systems has been delineated. These feedback circuits appear to be crucial to control BAT thermogenic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Water-fat MRI in a hibernator reveals seasonal growth of white and brown adipose tissue without cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCannell, Amanda; Sinclair, Kevin; Friesen-Waldner, Lannette; McKenzie, Charles A; Staples, James F

    2017-03-21

    Obligate hibernators, such as ground squirrels, display circannual patterns which persist even under constant laboratory conditions, suggesting that they are regulated by endogenous rhythms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during periodic arousals from hibernation when core body temperature rises spontaneously from 5 to 37 °C. In most small eutherians BAT growth requires several weeks of cold exposure. We hypothesized that in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernator, BAT growth is regulated, in part, by an endogenous rhythm and we predicted that this growth would precede the hibernation season without cold exposure. We tested this prediction using repeated water-fat magnetic resonance imaging over a year, including the hibernation season. Thoracic BAT depots increased in volume from spring through autumn even though animals were housed at ~22 °C. Subsequent cold exposure (5 °C) enlarged the thoracic BAT further. The fat fraction of this tissue fell significantly during the period of peak growth, indicating relative increases in non-triglyceride components, perhaps mitochondria or vasculature. We also found that the proportion of the body consisting of white adipose tissue (WAT) increased steadily from spring through autumn, and fell throughout hibernation, mirroring changes in body mass. Unlike BAT, WAT fat fractions remained constant (near 90%) throughout the year. Future studies will evaluate the significance of photoperiod and cold exposure on the growth of these tissues. We also found tissue with a fat fraction characteristic of BAT in the head near the eyes, a potentially novel discovery that requires further confirmation.

  4. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Shabalina, Irina G.; Kalinovich, Anastasia V.; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse b...

  5. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  6. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  7. Lithium and methylphenidate: opposite effects on perirenal brown fat Lítio e metilfenidato: efeitos opostos sobre a gordura perirrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Menna Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal and white (inguinal adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. RESULTS: Lithium significantly reduced perirenal fat, and this effect was minimized by the administration of methylphenidate. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the effects of lithium on inguinal fat. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that different effects on white and brown tissue distribution may be involved in lithium-induced weight gain.OBJETIVO: Avaliar como a administração de lítio afeta o tecido adiposo marrom (perirrenal e branco (inguinal e se o metilfenidato modula os efeitos do lítio. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco ratos Wistar adultos machos foram alimentados com ração normal ou contendo lítio por 30 dias. Entre os dias 15 e 30 de tratamento, os animais receberam doses intraperitoneais diárias de metilfenidato ou solução salina. RESULTADOS: A administração de lítio reduziu significativamente a gordura perirrenal. Esse efeito foi reduzido com a administração de metilfenidato. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação à gordura inguinal. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que efeitos diferenciados sobre os tecidos adiposos marrom e branco podem estar envolvidos no ganho de peso induzido pelo tratamento com lítio.

  8. Plasma and tissue levels of lipids, fatty acids and plasma carnitine in neonates receiving a new fat emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, G; Boberg, M; Cederblad, G; Meurling, S

    1997-06-01

    This study was undertaken to compare Intralipid with a new fat emulsion containing gamma-linolenic acid and carnitine, named Pediatric Fat Emulsion 4501, in neonates with regard to lipid and carnitine metabolism over a short period of total parenteral nutrition. There were 10 neonates in each group and they tolerated the total parenteral nutrition well. In spite of the gamma-linolenic acid supplementation in the new emulsion, arachidonic acid decreased significantly in plasma lipid esters and adipose tissue in both groups after 5 d of treatment. Also, there was a decrease in plasma docosahexaenoic acid which was more pronounced in the treatment group. The relative percentage values of linoleic and linolenic acids in adipose tissue were increased, indicating that newborns have a rapid accretion of fatty acids. Plasma-triglycerides were effectively cleared during the periods without fat infusion. In the group that received Pediatric Fat Emulsion 4501 the means of both free and total plasma carnitine concentrations increased significantly, whereas they tended to decrease in the Intralipid group.

  9. Maternal high-fat diet during lactation impairs thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in offspring mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhang, Lupei; Maricelli, Joseph W; Rodgers, Buel D.; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Due to uncoupling, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy via heat generation, mitigating obesity and diabetes. The lactation stage is a manageable period for improving the health of offspring of obese mothers, but the impact of maternal HFD during lactation on offspring BAT function is unknown. To determine, female mice were fed either a control or HFD during lactation. At weaning, HFD offspring gained more body weight and had greater body fat mass compared to the control, and these differences maintained into adulthood, which correlated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD offspring. Adaptive thermogenesis of BAT was impaired in HFD offspring at weaning. In adulthood, HFD offspring BAT had lower Ucp1 expression and thermogenic activity. Mechanistically, maternal HFD feeding during lactation elevated peripheral serotonin, which decreased the sensitivity of BAT to sympathetic β3-adrenergic signaling. Importantly, early postnatal metformin administration decreased serotonin concentration and ameliorated the impairment of offspring BAT due to maternal HFD. Our data suggest that attenuation of BAT thermogenic function may be a key mechanism linking maternal HFD during lactation to persisted metabolic disorder in the offspring. PMID:27686741

  10. Exendin-4 improves thermogenic capacity by regulating fat metabolism on brown adipose tissue in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiong; Li, Ling; Chen, Ji-an; Wang, Shao-hua; Sun, Zi-lin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the benefits of exendin-4 treatment on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We examined the effects of exendin-4 on body adiposity and the level of genes associated with adipogenesis, glucose/lipid uptake, lipolysis, and thermogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity. Exendin-4 treatment deceased body weight, serum-free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Exendin-4 treatment increased the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis, glucose/lipid uptake, lipolysis, and thermogenesis in BAT. Compared with HFD-fed mice, exendin-4 treatment also exhibited elevated energy expenditure and reduced respiratory quotient, but showed similar food intake and locomotor activity. Exendin-4 treatment reduced high-fat-induced obesity by decreasing adiposity and increasing thermogenesis. This result suggests that GLP-1 agonist may be a new approach to combat obesity by shifting the energy balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  11. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Mantyh, P.W. (Wadsworth VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific binding of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.

  12. Hedgehog partial agonism drives Warburg-like metabolism in muscle and brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teperino, Raffaele; Amann, Sabine; Bayer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and cancer affect upward of 15% of the world's population. Interestingly, all three diseases juxtapose dysregulated intracellular signaling with altered metabolic state. Exactly which genetic factors define stable metabolic set points in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we......-independent glucose uptake in muscle and brown adipose tissue. These data identify multiple noncanonical endpoints that are pivotal for rational design of hedgehog modulators and provide a new therapeutic avenue for obesity and diabetes.......Diabetes, obesity, and cancer affect upward of 15% of the world's population. Interestingly, all three diseases juxtapose dysregulated intracellular signaling with altered metabolic state. Exactly which genetic factors define stable metabolic set points in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we...

  13. Identification of brown fat and mechanisms for energy balance in the marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, P J; Pyle, D; Daniels, C B; Chapman, I; Horowitz, M; Morley, J E; Trayhurn, P; Kumaratilake, J; Wittert, G

    1997-07-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in marsupials is controversial because attempts to identify mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) have been unsuccessful. Sminthopsis crassicaudata is a small nocturnal marsupial with an interscapular pad of adipose tissue. Electron microscopy revealed this tissue to have characteristics typical of BAT. GDP binding and UCP detection by immunoblot confirmed BAT. Expression of UCP was increased by cold exposure. When animals were placed from 28 to 15 degrees C, body temperature (Tb) decreased by 1.7 degrees C within 30 min and a further 1.0 degree C by 90 min (P consumption (P energy balance and body composition without the need for an increase in metabolic rate or food consumption and without the need for torpor.

  14. Perilipin overexpression in white adipose tissue induces a brown fat-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sawada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perilipin A (PeriA exclusively locates on adipocyte lipid droplets and is essential for lipid storage and lipolysis. Previously, we reported that adipocyte specific overexpression of PeriA caused resistance to diet-induced obesity and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity. In order to better understand the biological basis for this observed phenotype, we performed additional studies in this transgenic mouse model. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When compared to control animals, whole body energy expenditure was increased in the transgenic mice. Subsequently, we performed DNA microarray analysis and real-time PCR on white adipose tissue. Consistent with the metabolic chamber data, we observed increased expression of genes associated with fatty acid β-oxidation and heat production, and a decrease in the genes associated with lipid synthesis. Gene expression of Pgc1a, a regulator of fatty acid oxidation and Ucp1, a brown adipocyte specific protein, was increased in the white adipose tissue of the transgenic mice. This observation was subsequently verified by both Western blotting and histological examination. Expression of RIP140, a regulator of white adipocyte differentiation, and the lipid droplet protein FSP27 was decreased in the transgenic mice. Importantly, FSP27 has been shown to control gene expression of these crucial metabolic regulators. Overexpression of PeriA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also reduced FSP27 expression and diminished lipid droplet size. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that overexpression of PeriA in white adipocytes reduces lipid droplet size by decreasing FSP27 expression and thereby inducing a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype. Our data suggest that modulation of lipid droplet proteins in white adipocytes is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and its related disorders.

  15. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  16. Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 may be responsible for basal and fatty-acid-induced uncoupling respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kramarova, Tatiana V; Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration ('proton leak'). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein levels were similar in brown-fat mitochondria from wild-type mice and in liver mitochondria, but the level was increased in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice. However, in liver, only Ant2 mRNA was found, whereas in brown adipose tissue, Ant1 and Ant2 mRNA levels were equal. The data are therefore compatible with a tentative model in which the ANT2 isoform mediates fatty-acid-induced uncoupling, whereas the ANT1 isoform may mediate a significant part of the high basal proton leak in brown-fat mitochondria.

  17. Mechanism of fatty-acid-dependent UCP1 uncoupling in brown fat mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Andriy; Lishko, Polina V; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2012-10-12

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion carriers (SLC25), UCP1 is believed to transport H(+) by an unusual mechanism that has long remained unresolved. Here, we achieved direct patch-clamp measurements of UCP1 currents from the IMM of BAT mitochondria. We show that UCP1 is an LCFA anion/H(+) symporter. However, the LCFA anions cannot dissociate from UCP1 due to hydrophobic interactions established by their hydrophobic tails, and UCP1 effectively operates as an H(+) carrier activated by LCFA. A similar LCFA-dependent mechanism of transmembrane H(+) transport may be employed by other SLC25 members and be responsible for mitochondrial uncoupling and regulation of metabolic efficiency in various tissues.

  18. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  19. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  20. Ablation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Saha, Pradip K; Ma, Xiaojun; Henshaw, Iyabo O; Shao, Longjiang; Chang, Benny H J; Buras, Eric D; Tong, Qiang; Chan, Lawrence; McGuinness, Owen P; Sun, Yuxiang

    2011-12-01

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show that ablation of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) improves insulin sensitivity during aging. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, old Ghsr(-/-) mice have reduced fat and preserve a healthier lipid profile. Old Ghsr(-/-) mice also exhibit elevated energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate, yet have similar food intake and locomotor activity. While GHS-R expression in white and brown adipose tissues was below the detectable level in the young mice, GHS-R expression was readily detectable in visceral white fat and interscapular brown fat of the old mice. Gene expression profiles reveal that Ghsr ablation reduced glucose/lipid uptake and lipogenesis in white adipose tissues but increased thermogenic capacity in brown adipose tissues. Ghsr ablation prevents age-associated decline in thermogenic gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Cell culture studies in brown adipocytes further demonstrate that ghrelin suppresses the expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes, while GHS-R antagonist abolishes ghrelin's effects and increases UCP1 expression. Hence, GHS-R plays an important role in thermogenic impairment during aging. Ghsr ablation improves aging-associated obesity and insulin resistance by reducing adiposity and increasing thermogenesis. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists may be a new means of combating obesity by shifting the energy balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  2. Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in white fat through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songbo; Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Fu, Xing; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhu, Meijun; Rodgers, B. D.; Jiang, Qingyan; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective Development of brown-like/beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) helps to reduce obesity. Thus, we investigated the effects of resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol capable of preventing obesity and related complications in humans and animal models, on brown-like adipocyte formation in inguinal WAT (iWAT). Methods CD1 female mice (5-month-old) were fed a high-fat diet with/without 0.1% resveratrol. In addition, primary stromal vascular cells separated from iWAT were subjected to resveratrol treatment. Markers of brown-like (beige) adipogenesis were measured and the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 was assessed using conditional knockout. Results Resveratrol significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16), Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A (Cidea), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 3 (Elovl3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), cytochrome C and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in differentiated iWAT stromal vascular cells (SVC), suggesting that resveratrol induced brown-like adipocyte formation in vitro. Concomitantly, resveratrol markedly enhanced AMPKα1 phosphorylation and differentiated SVC oxygen consumption. Such changes were absent in cells lacking AMPKα1, showing that AMPKα1 is a critical mediator of resveratrol action. Resveratrol also induced beige adipogenesis in vivo along with the appearance of multiocular adipocytes, increased UCP1 expression and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. Conclusion Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT via AMPKα1 activation and suggest that its beneficial anti-obesity effects may be partly due to the browning of WAT and as a consequence, increased oxygen consumption. PMID:25761413

  3. Deficiency in milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 exacerbates organ injury and mortality in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura W; Khader, Adam; Yang, Weng-Lang; Jacob, Asha; Chen, Tracy; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Prince, Jose M; Wang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a systemic inflammation occurring in neonates because of a proven infection within the first 28days of birth. It is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborns. The mechanism(s) underlying the systemic inflammation in neonatal sepsis has not been completely understood. We hypothesize that the deficiency of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), a protein commonly found in human milk, could be responsible for the increased inflammatory response leading to morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis. Male and female newborn mice aged 5-7days were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9mg/g body weight cecal slurry (CS). At 10h after CS injection, they were euthanized, and blood, lungs and gut tissues were obtained for further analyses. Control newborn mice underwent similar procedures with the exception of the CS injection. In duplicate newborn mice after CS injection, they were returned to their respective cages with their mothers and were closely monitored for 7days and survival rate recorded. At 10h after CS injection, serum LDH in the MFG-E8 knockout (KO) newborn mice was significantly increased by 58% and serum IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in the MFG-E8KO newborn mice were also significantly increased by 56%, 65%, and 105%, respectively, from wild type (WT) newborn mice. There were no significant difference between WT control and MFG-E8 control newborn mice. The lung architecture was severely damaged and a significant 162% increase in injury score was observed in the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice. The MPO, TUNEL staining, and cytokine levels in the lungs and the intestine in CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice were significantly increased from CS WT newborn mice. Similarly, intestinal integrity was also compromised in the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice. In a survival study, while the mortality rate within 7days was only 29% in the CS WT newborn mice, 80% of the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice died during the same time period with the

  4. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  5. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  6. Anti-obesity effects of Arctii Fructus (Arctium lappa) in white/brown adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Park, Jinbong; Jeong, Mi-Young; Mun, Jung-Geon; Park, Sung-Joo; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-12-07

    Arctii Fructus is traditionally used in oriental pharmacies as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Although several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory effects, there have been no reports on its use in obesity related studies. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of Arctii Fructus was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and the effect was confirmed in white and primary cultured brown adipocytes. Arctii Fructus inhibited weight gain and reduced the mass of white adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese mice. Serum levels of triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, and HDL-cholesterol was increased in the Arctii Fructus treated group. In 3T3-L1 cells, a water extract (WAF) and 70% EtOH extract (EtAF) of Arctii Fructus significantly inhibited adipogenesis and suppressed the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. In particular, EtAF activated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. On the other hand, uncoupling protein 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, known as brown adipocytes specific genes, were increased in primary cultured brown adipocytes by WAF and EtAF. This study shows that Arctii Fructus prevents the development of obesity through the inhibition of white adipocyte differentiation and activation of brown adipocyte differentiation which suggests that Arctii Fructus could be an effective therapeutic for treating or preventing obesity.

  7. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E;

    2015-01-01

    diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white...... glucose and lipid homeostasis, in part through recruitment and metabolic activation of brown and beige adipocytes....

  8. Effect of intravenous L-carnitine on growth parameters and fat metabolism during parenteral nutrition in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, R A; Mauer, E C; Hay, W W; Christensen, M L; Storm, M C

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether intravenous carnitine can improve nutritional indices, neonates requiring parenteral nutrition were randomized into carnitine treatment (n = 23) and control (n = 20) groups. Observed plasma lipid indices, carnitine and nitrogen balances, and plasma carnitine concentrations were not different in the prestudy period. Under standardized, steady-state conditions, 0.5 g/kg Intralipid was administered intravenously over 2 hr prior to carnitine administration, after infants received 7 days of 50 mumol/kg/day, and after a second 7 days of 100 mumol/kg/day of continuous intravenous L-carnitine as part of parenteral nutrition. Triglyceride (TGY), free fatty acid (FFA), acetoacetate (AA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOB), and plasma carnitine concentrations were measured prior to and at 2, 4, and 6 hr after the initiation of the lipid bolus. Twenty-four-hour urine collections for nitrogen and carnitine balance were obtained on days 7 and 14. Neonates receiving carnitine had significantly greater concentrations of plasma carnitine on days 7 and 14 (p less than 0.001). Greater nitrogen (p less than 0.05) and carnitine (p less than 0.001) balances and weight gain (week 2, p less than 0.05) were found in the carnitine-supplemented group when compared with controls. On day 14, (BOB + AA)/FFA ratios were significantly higher (p less than 0.05), and peak TGY concentrations and 6-hr FFA concentrations were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the treatment group. Carnitine supplementation was associated with modest increases in growth and nitrogen accretion possibly by enhancing the neonate's ability to utilize exogenous fat for energy.

  9. Impact of maternal dietary fat supplementation during gestation upon skeletal muscle in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Hernan P; Almond, Kayleigh L; Li, Dongfang; Rauch, Cyril; Bikker, Paul; Symonds, Michael E; Mostyn, Alison

    2014-08-27

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fats during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a fat supplemented (palm oil) "high fat" diet on skeletal muscle development in a porcine model. Histological and metabolic features of the biceps femoris muscle obtained from 7-day-old piglets born to sows assigned to either a commercial (C, n = 7) or to an isocaloric fat supplementation diet ("high fat" HF, n = 7) during pregnancy were assessed. Offspring exposed to a maternal HF diet demonstrated enhanced muscular development, reflected by an increase in fractional growth rate, rise in myofibre cross-sectional area, increased storage of glycogen and reduction in lipid staining of myofibres. Although both groups had similar intramuscular protein and triglyceride concentrations, the offspring born to HF mothers had a higher proportion of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) and a reduction in α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) compared to C group offspring. The HF group muscle also exhibited a higher ratio of C20:3n6 to C20:4n6 and total n-6 to n-3 in conjunction with up-regulation of genes associated with free fatty acid uptake and biogenesis. In conclusion, a HF gestational diet accelerates the maturation of offspring biceps femoris muscle, reflected in increased glycolytic metabolism and fibre cross sectional area, differences accompanied with a potential resetting of myofibre nutrient uptake.

  10. Gene expression profiles reveal effect of a high-fat diet on the development of white and brown adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeng-Soo; Ryoo, Zae Young; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Sanggyu

    2015-07-01

    Because of the recent discovery of brown adipose tissues tissue in adult humans, brown adipose tissues have garnered additional attention. Many studies have attempted to transform the precursor cells within the white adipocyte cultures to Brite (brown-in-white) cells by using genomic modification or pharmacological activation in order to determine the therapeutic effect of obesity. However, genome-scale analysis of the genetic factors governing the development of white and brown adipose tissues remains incomplete. In order to identify the key genes that regulate the development of white and brown adipose tissues in mice, a transcriptome analysis was performed on the adipose tissues. Network analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that Trim30 and Ucp3 play pivotal roles in energy balance and glucose homeostasis. In addition, it was discovered that identical biological processes and pathways in the white and brown adipose tissues might be regulated by different genes. Trim30 and Ucp3 might be used as genetic markers to precisely represent the stage of obesity during the early and late stages of adipose tissue development, respectively. These results may provide a stepping-stone for future obesity-related studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of milk, fat and protein yields in first lactation from serum ß-lactoglobulin concentrations during gestation in Italian Brown heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Superchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report the results of a study carried out on 23 pregnant Italian Brown heifers, with the aim to determine the relationships between blood serum ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG concentrations during first gestation and subsequent milk production and quality in first lactation, in order to obtain an improved selection method for replacement heifers. At weeks 20, 26 and 32 of gestation, ß-LG concentrations (±SE were 706±78, 753±66 and 772±63 ng/ml, respectively (P>0.05. High and significant (P≤0.05 correlation coefficients were observed only between ß-LG content at week 32 and total milk and protein yields in first lactation. Prediction equations of milk, fat and protein production in first lactation from log10 ß-LG content at week 32 of gestation, from parent average genetic indexes and from both were calculated by means of multiple regression analysis. When the contribution of both ß-LG content and predicted genetic indexes were considered, the regression equations gave generally a better estimate of the production parameters in first lactation (higher R2, lower SE of estimate than the above mentioned parameters alone. These results suggest that it is valuable to pre-estimate milk, fat and protein production in Italian Brown first lactating cows by means of the analysis of serum ß-LG content during gestation.

  12. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  13. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  14. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Supplementation in Formula Modulates the Neonatal Gut Microbiome and Normalizes Intestinal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Ganive; Allaire, Joannie M.; Garcia, Cyrielle; Lau, Jennifer T.; Chan, Justin M.; Ryz, Natasha R.; Bosman, Else S.; Graef, Franziska A.; Crowley, Shauna M.; Celiberto, Larissa S.; Berkmann, Julia C.; Dyer, Roger A.; Jacobson, Kevan; Surette, Michael G.; Innis, Sheila M.; Vallance, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast milk has many beneficial properties and unusual characteristics including a unique fat component, termed milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). While breast milk yields important developmental benefits, there are situations where it is unavailable resulting in a need for formula feeding. Most formulas do not contain MFGM, but derive their lipids from vegetable sources, which differ greatly in size and composition. Here we tested the effects of MFGM supplementation on intestinal development and the microbiome as well as its potential to protect against Clostridium difficile induced colitis. The pup-in-a-cup model was used to deliver either control or MFGM supplemented formula to rats from 5 to 15 days of age; with mother’s milk (MM) reared animals used as controls. While CTL formula yielded significant deficits in intestinal development as compared to MM littermates, addition of MFGM to formula restored intestinal growth, Paneth and goblet cell numbers, and tight junction protein patterns to that of MM pups. Moreover, the gut microbiota of MFGM and MM pups displayed greater similarities than CTL, and proved protective against C. difficile toxin induced inflammation. Our study thus demonstrates that addition of MFGM to formula promotes development of the intestinal epithelium and microbiome and protects against inflammation. PMID:28349941

  15. MicroRNA Functions in Brite/Brown Fat — Novel Perspectives towards Anti-Obesity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current anti-obesity strategies are aiming at restricting energy uptake, but still, obesity treatment is far from being satisfactory. The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans currently opens new avenues to combat obesity and follow-up complications as it tackles the other site of the energy balance: energy expenditure via non-shivering thermogenesis. This process of energy dissipation in the adipose tissue is tightly controlled, and the elucidation of its regulatory network is a key plank for therapeutic applications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs belong to a novel class of regulatory determinants which are small non-coding RNAs with vital roles in regulating gene expression that also play a role in many human diseases. In this review we summarize miRNAs which have been shown to govern thermogenic, i.e. brite or brown, adipocyte recruitment and physiology. Notably, most miRNAs in this context have so far been characterized solely in mice, revealing a great demand for more human studies. As in the context of other diseases, RNA-based therapeutics have meanwhile entered clinical trials, further exploring the functions of miRNAs in brown and white adipose tissues could result in novel therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and its follow-up complications.

  16. The Relationship Between Brown Adipose Tissue Content in Supraclavicular Fat Depots and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes

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    Ustyuzhanin, Dmitry; Philippov, Yury; Mayorov, Alexander; Shestakova, Marina; Shariya, Merab; Ternovoy, Sergey; Dedov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The evaluation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and its role in metabolism and obesity remains an important topic in the recent literature. This study evaluated the influence of the BAT triglyceride content measured by proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and prediabetes on insulin sensitivity. Methods: A total of 25 patients with DM2 and prediabetes (45.9 ± 10.1 years old, body mass index [BMI] of 31.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements (BMI), insulin sensitivity analysis (M value during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), proton MR spectroscopy, and blood tests (total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides). The relationship between the triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot and insulin sensitivity, anthropometric measurements, and blood test results was assessed. Results: The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot varied between 79.2% and 97.1% (mean: 92.6% ± 4.2%). The triglyceride content in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of the neck was significantly higher (85.3%–99.3%; mean: 95.5% ± 2.9%; P = 0.0007). The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot exhibited a significantly moderate correlation with the BMI (r = 0.64; P = 0.0009). A significant weak negative correlation between the supraclavicular fat content and M value was revealed (r = −0.44; P = 0.002). Patients with high insulin resistance (IR) had a higher triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot than patients with normal and lower IR (94.3% ± 2.0% vs. 90.4% ± 5.2%; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Reducing the BAT content in the supraclavicular fat depot can influence the development of IR in patients with DM2 and prediabetes. PMID:28118051

  17. The Relationship Between Brown Adipose Tissue Content in Supraclavicular Fat Depots and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksharova, Ekaterina; Ustyuzhanin, Dmitry; Philippov, Yury; Mayorov, Alexander; Shestakova, Marina; Shariya, Merab; Ternovoy, Sergey; Dedov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and its role in metabolism and obesity remains an important topic in the recent literature. This study evaluated the influence of the BAT triglyceride content measured by proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and prediabetes on insulin sensitivity. A total of 25 patients with DM2 and prediabetes (45.9 ± 10.1 years old, body mass index [BMI] of 31.6 ± 5.4 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric measurements (BMI), insulin sensitivity analysis (M value during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), proton MR spectroscopy, and blood tests (total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides). The relationship between the triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot and insulin sensitivity, anthropometric measurements, and blood test results was assessed. The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot varied between 79.2% and 97.1% (mean: 92.6% ± 4.2%). The triglyceride content in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of the neck was significantly higher (85.3%-99.3%; mean: 95.5% ± 2.9%; P = 0.0007). The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot exhibited a significantly moderate correlation with the BMI (r = 0.64; P = 0.0009). A significant weak negative correlation between the supraclavicular fat content and M value was revealed (r = -0.44; P = 0.002). Patients with high insulin resistance (IR) had a higher triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot than patients with normal and lower IR (94.3% ± 2.0% vs. 90.4% ± 5.2%; P = 0.02). Reducing the BAT content in the supraclavicular fat depot can influence the development of IR in patients with DM2 and prediabetes.

  18. Disruption of insulin signaling in Myf5-expressing progenitors leads to marked paucity of brown fat but normal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynes, Matthew D; Schulz, Tim J; Pan, Andrew J; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Insulin exerts pleiotropic effects on cell growth, survival, and metabolism, and its role in multiple tissues has been dissected using conditional knockout mice; however, its role in development has not been studied. Lineage tracing experiments have demonstrated that interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) arises from a Myf5-positive lineage shared with skeletal muscle and distinct from the majority of white adipose tissue (WAT) precursors. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of impaired insulin signaling in the Myf5-expressing precursor cells by deleting the insulin receptor gene. Mice lacking insulin receptor in the Myf5 lineage (Myf5IRKO) have a decrease of interscapular BAT mass; however, muscle development appeared normal. Histologically, the residual BAT had decreased cell size but appeared mature and potentially functional. Expression of adipogenic inhibitors preadipocyte factor-1, Necdin, and wingless-type MMTV integration site member 10a in the residual BAT tissue was nonetheless increased compared with controls, and there was an enrichment of progenitor cells with impaired adipogenic differentiation capacity, suggesting a suppression of adipogenesis in BAT. Surprisingly, when cold challenged, Myf5IRKO mice did not show impaired thermogenesis. This resistance to cold could be attributed to an increased presence of uncoupling protein 1-positive brown adipocytes in sc WAT as well as increased expression of lipolytic activity in BAT. These data suggest a critical role of insulin signaling in the development of interscapular BAT from Myf5-positive progenitor cells, but it appears to be dispensable for muscle development. They also underscore the importance of compensatory browning of sc WAT in the absence of BAT for thermoregulation.

  19. Hypothesis: Cryptochromes and brown fat are essential for adaptation and affect mood and mood-related behaviors.

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    Timo ePartonen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation and ambient temperature have acted as selective physical forces among populations and thereby guided species distributions in the globe. Circadian clocks are universal and evolve when subjected to selection, and their properties contribute to variations in fitness within specific environments. Concerning humans, as compared to the remaining, the evening owls have a greater deviation from the 24-hour cycle, are under a greater pressure to circadian desynchrony and more prone to a cluster of health hazards with the increased mortality. Because of their position in the hierarchy and repressive actions, cryptochromes are the key components of the feedback loops on which circadian clocks are built. Based on the evidence a new hypothesis is formulated in which brown adipocytes with their cryptochromes are responsive to a broad range of physical stimuli from the habitat and through their activity ensure adaptation of the individual. The over-activated brown adipose tissue with deficient cryptochromes might induce disrupted thermoregulation and circadian desynchrony, and thereby contribute to lowered mood and pronounced depressive behaviors.

  20. Engineering brown fat into skeletal muscle using ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction gene delivery in obese Zucker rats: Proof of concept design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raul A; Chen, Jiaxi; Kent, Jack W; Nava-Gonzalez, Edna J; Rodriguez-Ayala, Ernesto; Daadi, Marcel M; Jorge, Barbara; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Chen, Shuyuan; Grayburn, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel means of tissue-specific gene delivery. This approach systemically infuses transgenes precoupled to gas-filled lipid microbubbles that are burst within the microvasculature of target tissues via an ultrasound signal resulting in release of DNA and transfection of neighboring cells within the tissue. Previous work has shown that adenovirus containing cDNA of UCP-1, injected into the epididymal fat pads in mice, induced localized fat depletion, improving glucose tolerance, and decreasing food intake in obese diabetic mice. Our group recently demonstrated that gene therapy by UTMD achieved beta cell regeneration in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice and baboons. We hypothesized that gene therapy with BMP7/PRDM16/PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle (SKM) of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (fa/fa) rats using UTMD technology would produce a brown adipose tissue (BAT) phenotype with UCP-1 overexpression. This study was designed as a proof of concept (POC) project. Obese Zucker rats were administered plasmid cDNA contructs encoding a gene cocktail with BMP7/PRDM16/PPARGC1A incorporated within microbubbles and intravenously delivered into their left thigh. Controls received UTMD with plasmids driving a DsRed reporter gene. An ultrasound transducer was directed to the thigh to disrupt the microbubbles within the microcirculation. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, and after treatment to measure glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids levels. SKM was harvested for immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our IHC results showed a reliable pattern of effective UTMD-based gene delivery in enhancing SKM overexpression of the UCP-1 gene. This clearly indicates that our plasmid DNA construct encoding the gene combination of PRDM16, PPARGC1A, and BMP7 reprogrammed adult SKM tissue into brown adipose cells in vivo. Our pilot established POC showing that the administration of the gene cocktail to SKM in this rat model of genetic obesity using UTMD

  1. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

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    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the

  2. Dedifferentiated Fat Cells as a Novel Source for Cell Therapy to Target Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrogeorgiou, Alkisti; Sato, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Taiki; Hattori, Tetsuo; Sugiyama, Yuichiro; Ito, Miharu; Saito, Akiko; Nakanishi, Keiko; Tsuji, Masahiro; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Hayakawa, Masahiro

    2017-03-09

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of mortality and persistent neurological disabilities in affected individuals. At present, hypothermia is considered to be the only applicable treatment option, although growing evidence suggests that cell-based therapy might achieve better outcomes. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are derived from mature adipocytes via a dedifferentiation strategy called ceiling culture. Their abundance and ready availability might make them an ideal therapeutic tool for the treatment of HIE. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the outcome of HIE can be improved by DFAT cell treatment. HI injury was achieved by ligating the left common carotid artery in 7-day-old rat pups, followed by 1-h exposure to 8% O2. Subsequently, the severity of damage was assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to assign animals to equivalent groups. 24 h after hypoxia, DFAT cells were injected at 105 cells/pup into the right external jugular vein. To evaluate brain damage in the acute phase, a group of animals was sacrificed 48 h after the insult, and paraffin sections of the brain were stained to assess several acute injury markers. In the chronic phase, the behavioral outcome was measured by performing a series of behavioral tests. From the 24th day of age, the sensorimotor function was examined by evaluating the initial forepaw placement on a cylinder wall and the latency to falling from a rotarod treadmill. The cognitive function was tested with the novel object recognition (NOR) test. In vitro conditioned medium (CM) prepared from cultured DFAT cells was added at various concentrations to neuronal cell cultures, which were then exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The number of cells that stained positive for the apoptosis marker active caspase-3 decreased by 73 and 52% in the hippocampus and temporal cortex areas of the brain, respectively, in the DFAT-treated pups. Similarly, the

  3. 吡格列酮对小鼠皮下、内脏脂肪棕色化的差异作用%The different roles of Pioglitazone in fat browning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉洁; 刘娟; 毕建华; 丁国宪

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨吡格列酮对小鼠皮下、内脏脂肪棕色化不同作用及其机制.方法:取C57BL/5J小鼠皮下及内脏前脂肪细胞原代培养,诱导分化同时加吡格列酮刺激直至分化成熟后,RT-PCR检测棕色脂肪相关功能基因的mRNA表达水平.结果:在皮下脂肪中吡格列酮组较对照组棕色脂肪功能基因均明显表达上调(P< 0.05),而内脏脂肪对照组和吡格列酮组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:吡格列酮可促进小鼠皮下脂肪棕色化改变,但对内脏脂肪无作用.%Objective:To explore the role of Pioglitazone in the browning of both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue.Methods:Primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes were isolated from C57BL/5J mice and induced for differentiation.The primary cells were stimulated with 2.5 μmol/L Pioglitazone or vehicle throughout the whole induction period.Then the expression of either white fat or brown fat relative genes were observed by RT-PCR.Results:Pioglitazone could cause a significant increase of brown fat marker genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue instead of the visceral adipose.Conclusion:Pioglitazone can promote a "white to brown" change in the subcutaneous adipose tissue instead of the visceral adipose.

  4. Resveratrol enhances brown adipocyte formation and function by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songbo; Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Fu, Xing; Zhu, Meijun; Rodgers, B D; Jiang, Qingyan; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the formation and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases thermogenesis and hence reduces obesity. Thus, we investigate the effects of resveratrol (Resv) on brown adipocyte formation and function in mouse interscapular BAT (iBAT). CD1 mice and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) isolated from iBAT were treated with Resv. Expression of brown adipogenic and thermogenic markers, and involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α1 were assessed. In vivo, Resv-enhanced expression of brown adipogenic markers, PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) and thermogenic genes, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and cytochrome C in iBAT, along with smaller lipid droplets, elevated AMPKα activity and increased oxygen consumption. Meanwhile, Resv promoted expression of PRDM16, UCP1, PGC1α, cytochrome C and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in differentiated iBAT SVCs, suggesting that Resv enhanced brown adipocyte formation and function in vitro. In addition, Resv stimulated AMPKα and oxygen consumption in differentiated iBAT SVCs. However, the promotional effects of Resv were diminished by AMPK inhibition or AMPKα1 knockout, implying the involvement of AMPKα1 in this process. Resv enhanced brown adipocyte formation and thermogenic function in mouse iBAT by promoting the expression of brown adipogenic markers via activating AMPKα1, which contributed to the anti-obesity effects of Resv. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  6. MODIFYING FAT DIET IN PREGNANT AND LACTATANT WOMEN: DOSE IT AFFECT ON NEONATAL AND INFANTILE LIPID PROFILE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MOHAMMADIFARD

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transferred fats from utroplacental barrier have different concentration about their saturation degree. So, the diet during pregnancy seems to have an important role in determining the serum lipid level of the fetus. This study investigated the influence of modifying the maternal dietary fat on the serum lipids of the cord and one year old infants. Methods: This single blind randomized clinical trail was done on 180 pregnant women who was at 4th month gestational age. All subjects proved to have a fat unmodified diet through a 4-day food record dietary questionnaire. We divided them randomly in two groups. The intervention group was kept on a fat-modified diet including saturated fatty acid < 10 percent, monounsaturated fatty acids: 10-15 percent, polyunsaturated fatty acid up to 10 percent and cholesterol <300 mg/day as well as a dietary advice for the pregnancy period. The control group were given. only the latter advice. All subjects were followed up monthly. The blood samples were done at delivery from cords and after one year from infants. The serum lipids including total cholesterol (T.cho, triglyceride (TG, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C were analyzed through enzymatic methods. The level of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C was calculated by Friedewald formula. Results: The mean level of T.cho in the interventional and control group was 70.3±15. 9,81.4±17.2 mg/dl, respectively (P<0.01. TG (85.3±16.7 VS 97.5± 18.2 mg/dl, LDL-C(27.8 ± 15.2 VS 34.8± 17.1 mg/dl and non-HDL-C (44.5±7.2 VS 54.5 ± 8.1 wre higher in cord blood samples of unmodified dietary fat. In one year old infant the comparison of serum lipids were as follow: T.cho (145.7 ± 51.4 VS 161.4 ± 56.2, P<0.003, TG (90.1 ± 31.8 VS 98.3±33.1, P<0.02, LDL-C (85.6± 20.4 VS 92.3±19.6, P < 0,05 and non-HDL-C (113.6±30.2 VS 128.8±34.8,P < 0.04. There was no significant difference in HDL-C. Discussion: According to the results, there is a significant decrease of T.cho, TG

  7. Maternal low protein diet reduces birth weight and increases brown adipose tissue UCP-1 and FNDC5 gene expression in male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  8. Decreased concentrations of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor angiopoietin-like protein 4 and increased serum triacylglycerol are associated with increased neonatal fat mass in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Schaefer-Graf, Ute; Meitzner, Katrin; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an extracellular inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. No studies have been done in pregnancy in which hypertriglyceridemia and tissue-specific changes in LPL activity are present. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between neonatal fat mass (FM) and concentrations of ANGPTL4 and triacylglycerols (TAG) in maternal and cord serum of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with controls. Maternal blood samples (control, n = 90, and GDM, n= 80) and umbilical cord blood were drawn before and after vaginal delivery, respectively. Control and GDM subjects were grouped separately into 3 subgroups, according to neonatal FM: 0-25th percentiles, 25th-75th percentiles, and 75th-100th percentiles. Glucose, insulin, TAG, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and ANGPTL4 were determined in maternal and neonatal serum. Age and pregestational body mass index did not differ between GDM and control women in any subgroups. Maternal serum of GDM pregnant women who delivered the newborn with the highest FM showed the highest concentrations of TAG and NEFAs and lowest concentration of ANGPTL4, despite glucose and insulin concentrations being independent of changes in neonatal FM. However, cord serum of neonates of GDM patients with the highest FM showed higher concentrations of insulin and lower concentrations of TAG than those with lower neonatal FM but no significant differences in NEFAs or ANGPTL4 concentrations. In well-controlled GDM pregnancies, decreased maternal ANGPTL4 concentrations and a gradient of TAG toward the fetus are related with higher neonatal FM. However, in GDM fetuses with the highest FM, the potential effect of ANGPTL4 inhibiting adipose tissue LPL activity could be overcome by their hyperinsulinemia.

  9. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  10. Rictor/mTORC2 Loss in the Myf5 Lineage Reprograms Brown Fat Metabolism and Protects Mice against Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Hung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo functions of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 and the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT fuel utilization and activity are not well understood. Here, by conditionally deleting Rictor in the Myf5 lineage, we provide in vivo evidence that mTORC2 is dispensable for skeletal muscle development and regeneration but essential for BAT growth. Furthermore, deleting Rictor in Myf5 precursors shifts BAT metabolism to a more oxidative and less lipogenic state and protects mice from obesity and metabolic disease at thermoneutrality. We additionally find that Rictor is required for brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and that the mechanism specifically requires AKT1 hydrophobic motif phosphorylation but is independent of pan-AKT signaling and is rescued with BMP7. Our findings provide insights into the signaling circuitry that regulates brown adipocytes and could have important implications for developing therapies aimed at increasing energy expenditure as a means to combat human obesity.

  11. TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, HAIYING; Wan, Bo; Grubisic, Ivan; Kaplan, Tommy; Tjian, Robert

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Mammals produce two distinct types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (white fat) is the more common type and is used to store energy; brown adipose tissue (brown fat) is mostly found in young animals and infants, and it plays an important role in dissipating energy as heat rather than storing it in fat for future use. In adults, higher levels of brown fat are associated with lower levels of fat overall, so there is considerable interest in learning more about this form of f...

  12. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

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    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  13. Comparison of brown and white adipose tissue fat fractions in ob, seipin, and Fsp27 gene knockout mice by chemical shift-selective imaging and (1)H-MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin-Gui; Ju, Shenghong; Fang, Fang; Wang, Yu; Fang, Ke; Cui, Xin; Liu, George; Li, Peng; Mao, Hui; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2013-01-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in thermogenesis to protect the body from cold and obesity. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides. To better understand the genetic effect on regulation of WAT and BAT, we investigated the fat fraction (FF) in two types of adipose tissues in ob/ob, human BSCL2/seipin gene knockout (SKO), Fsp27 gene knockout (Fsp27(-/-)), and wild-type (WT) mice in vivo using chemical shift selective imaging and (1)H-MR spectroscopy. We reported that the visceral fat volume in WAT was significantly larger in ob/ob mice, but visceral fat volumes were lower in SKO and Fsp27(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. BAT FF was significantly higher in ob/ob mice than the WT group and similar to that of WAT. In contrast, WAT FFs in SKO and Fsp27(-/-) mice were lower and similar to that of BAT. The adipocyte size of WAT in ob/ob mice and the BAT adipocyte size in ob/ob, SKO, and Fsp27 mice were significantly larger compared with WT mice. However, the WAT adipocyte size was significantly smaller in SKO mice than in WT mice. Positive correlations were observed between the adipocyte size and FFs of WAT and BAT. These results suggested that smaller adipocyte size correlates with lower FFs of WAT and BAT. In addition, the differences in FFs in WAT and BAT measured by MR methods in different mouse models were related to the different regulation effects of ob, seipin, or Fsp27 gene on developing WAT and BAT.

  14. Deletion of the gene encoding G0/G 1 switch protein 2 (G0s2) alleviates high-fat-diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, and promotes browning of white adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Assaad, Wissal; El-Kouhen, Karim; Mohammad, Amro H; Yang, Jieyi; Morita, Masahiro; Gamache, Isabelle; Mamer, Orval; Avizonis, Daina; Hermance, Nicole; Kersten, Sander; Tremblay, Michel L; Kelliher, Michelle A; Teodoro, Jose G

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic resulting from increased energy intake, which alters energy homeostasis and results in an imbalance in fat storage and breakdown. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0s2) has been recently characterised in vitro as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting step in fat catabolism. In the current study we aim to functionally characterise G0s2 within the physiological context of a mouse model. We generated a mouse model in which G0s2 was deleted. The homozygous G0s2 knockout (G0s2 (-/-)) mice were studied over a period of 22 weeks. Metabolic variables were measured including body weight and body composition, food intake, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, energy metabolism and thermogenesis. We report that G0s2 inhibits ATGL and regulates lipolysis and energy metabolism in vivo. G0s2 (-/-) mice are lean, resistant to weight gain induced by a high-fat diet and are glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive. The white adipose tissue of G0s2 (-/-) mice has enhanced lipase activity and adipocytes showed enhanced stimulated lipolysis. Energy metabolism in the G0s2 (-/-) mice is shifted towards enhanced lipid metabolism and increased thermogenesis. G0s2 (-/-) mice showed enhanced cold tolerance and increased expression of thermoregulatory and oxidation genes within white adipose tissue, suggesting enhanced 'browning' of the white adipose tissue. Our data show that G0s2 is a physiological regulator of adiposity and energy metabolism and is a potential target in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  15. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kolumam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  16. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Chen, Mark Z; Tong, Raymond; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Ross, Jed; Wyatt, Shelby K; Gandham, Vineela D; Carano, Richard A D; Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Wu, Ai-Luen; Haley, Benjamin; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Søren; Rairdan, Xin Y; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Zhang, Yingnan; Gutierrez, Johnny; Baruch, Amos; Gelzleichter, Thomas R; Stevens, Dale; Rajan, Sharmila; Bainbridge, Travis W; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y Gloria; Ziai, James; Soriano, Robert H; Brauer, Matthew J; Chen, Yongmei; Stawicki, Scott; Kim, Hok Seon; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Luis, Elizabeth; Spiess, Christoph; Wu, Yan; Ernst, James A; McGuinness, Owen P; Peterson, Andrew S; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2015-07-01

    Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  17. Effects of glucocorticoids on human brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Johanna L; Agada, Hadiya; Jang, Christina; Ward, Micheal; Wetzig, Neil; Ho, Ken K Y

    2015-02-01

    Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of brown adipocytes. Human brown adipocytes sourced from supraclavicular fat biopsies were grown in culture and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Human white adipocytes sourced from subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were cultured as controls. Effects of dexamethasone on growth, differentiation (UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A expression), and function (oxygen consumption rate (OCR)) of brown adipocytes were quantified. Dexamethasone (1 μM) significantly stimulated the proliferation of brown preadipocytes and reduced that of white preadipocytes. During differentiation, dexamethasone (at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) stimulated the expression of UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by fourfold to sixfold the OCR of brown adipocytes. Isoprenaline (100 nM) significantly increased (POCR of brown adipocytes. These effects were significantly reduced (Pbiology of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and for the involvement of the BAT system in the metabolic manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Exendin-4 improves fat metabolism of brown adipose tissue in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice%胰高血糖素样肽1受体激动剂exendin-4增加高脂喂养的C57BL/6J小鼠棕色脂肪脂代谢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琼; 陈济安; 孙玉香; 王少华; 李玲; 孙子林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of exendin-4 treatment on fat metabolism of brown adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice induced with high-fat diet. Methods Thirty six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups(10 mice in each group):control group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, and HFD group treated with exendin-4. After 16 weeks, the body weight, body fat composition, free fatty acids, leptin, triglycerides level of each group were measured. The mRNA and protein expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ2(PPAR-γ2), perilipin and uncoupling protein 1(UCP-1) in the scapular brown adipose tissue were detected with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and Western blotting methods. One-way ANOVA was used when data were compared among multiple groups and t analysis was applied for comparison between two groups. Results Compared with those in control group, the body weight, body fat composition, free fatty acids, leptin and triglyceride levels increased significantly in the HFD group (t=7.34, 6.11, 8.33, 10.51, 4.19, all P<0.05);the mRNA and protein expression of GLUT-4, PPAR-γ2, perilipin and UCP-1 in the scapular brown adipose tissue in HFD group decreased significantly when compared with those in control group (t=7.15-34.79, all P<0.05). Compared with those in the HFD group, the body weight, body fat composition, free fatty acids, leptin and triglyceride levels decreased significantly in the exendin-4-treating group(t=5.63, 4.04, 8.85, 6.06, 3.07, all P<0.05), while the mRNA and protein expression of GLUT-4, PPAR-γ2, perilipin and UCP-1 increased significantly in the scapular brown adipose tissue in the exendin-4-treating group(t=5.38-21.69, all P<0.05). Conclusion GLP-1 receptor agonist may reduce body weight via regulating lipid metabolism in brown fat.%目的:观察胰高血糖素样肽1(GLP-1)受体激动剂exendin-4干预对高脂饮食喂养的C57BL/6J小鼠棕色脂肪

  19. Reduction of the {sup 18}FDG uptake by the brown fat with the help of propranolol in a difficult case of lymphoma with residual disease suspicion; Reduction de la captation du 18FDG par la graisse brune grace au propranolol dans un cas difficile de lymphome avec suspicion de maladie residuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervueren, L.; Berthelot, C.; Rakotonirina, H.; Lacoeuille, F.; Cahouet Vannier, A.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Couturier, O. [Service de medecine nucleaire et biophysique, CHU d' Angers, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The oncology group of the French Society of nuclear medicine implemented evaluation criteria of the lymphomas therapy response. The problem often encountered is this one of identification of minimum residual fixations in PET-F.D.G., considered as the residual disease in the non Hodgkin lymphomas. we report the case of a thirty four years old patient treated for diffuse at big B cells non Hodgkin lymphoma, in failure after the first line of treatment and with persistence of a hyper-metabolism in pre and post graft at the level of a para-cardiac residual mass. The post auto graft PET examination showed an important activation of the brown fat, able to question the origin of the residual para-cardiac hyper-metabolism in this dramatic situation, for a young patient and potentially still in therapy failure. In order to reduce the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, it was proposed a new PET evaluation with propranolol administration (beta blocking) before the tracer injection. The intake of propranolol allowed to reduce in an important way, the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, without modifying the residual hyper-metabolism. This result is going to lead to the realisation of a surgical biopsy. (N.C.)

  20. The role of brown adipose tissue in temperature regulation. [of hibernating and hypothermic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The thermogenetic capacities of brown adipose tissue were studied on marmots, rats and monkeys in response to cold exposure. All experiments indicated that the brown fat produced heat and slowed the cooling of tissues.

  1. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  2. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Isoform-4 (GPAT4) Limits Oxidation of Exogenous Fatty Acids in Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel E; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-06-12

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4 (GPAT4) null pups grew poorly during the suckling period and, as adults, were protected from high fat diet-induced obesity. To determine why Gpat4(-/-) mice failed to gain weight during these two periods of high fat feeding, we examined energy metabolism. Compared with controls, the metabolic rate of Gpat4(-/-) mice fed a 45% fat diet was 12% higher. Core body temperature was 1 ºC higher after high fat feeding. Food intake, fat absorption, and activity were similar in both genotypes. Impaired weight gain in Gpat4(-/-) mice did not result from increased heat loss, because both cold tolerance and response to a β3-adrenergic agonist were similar in both genotypes. Because GPAT4 comprises 65% of the total GPAT activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we characterized BAT function. A 45% fat diet increased the Gpat4(-/-) BAT expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR) target genes, Cpt1α, Pgc1α, and Ucp1, and BAT mitochondria oxidized oleate and pyruvate at higher rates than controls, suggesting that fatty acid signaling and flux through the TCA cycle were enhanced. To assess the role of GPAT4 directly, neonatal BAT preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes. Compared with controls, Gpat4(-/-) brown adipocytes incorporated 33% less fatty acid into triacylglycerol and 46% more into the pathway of β-oxidation. The increased oxidation rate was due solely to an increase in the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids. These data suggest that in the absence of cold exposure, GPAT4 limits excessive fatty acid oxidation and the detrimental induction of a hypermetabolic state.

  3. Browning effects of (-)-epicatechin on adipocytes and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Claudia Elena; Rodriguez, Alonso; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Mansour, Christina; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin (Epi), a cacao flavanol, induces the browning of fat by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing indicators of mitochondrial structure and function, increasing fatty acid metabolism and upregulating the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific proteins in a high-fat diet mouse model of obesity and in cultured human adipocytes. Epi treatment significantly improved mitochondrial function, as measured by citrate synthase activity, and also reduced protein acetylation of total and specific regulators in both adipose tissue and human adipocytes. Browning of fat via Epi was evidenced by the increased expression of key thermogenic genes, phosphorylation of upstream regulators of fatty acid oxidation, and reduced triglyceride levels. Properly designed clinical trials are needed to explore the potential of Epi as an agent that promotes the browning of fat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Intact brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is required for restorative sleep responses after sleep loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kapás, Levente; Szentirmai, Éva

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates the importance of brown fat in creating and maintaining a metabolic environment which is permissive for optimal restorative sleep after sleep loss. The authors propose that impaired brown fat function could be a common underlying cause of poor sleep and metabolic disorders.

  5. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  6. MicroRNAs are required for the feature maintenance and differentiation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J; Nguyen, Long N; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L; Lodish, Harvey; Sun, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes.

  7. MicroRNAs Are Required for the Feature Maintenance and Differentiation of Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J.; Nguyen, Long N.; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X.; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L.; Lodish, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue–specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes. PMID:25008181

  8. Brown Adipogenic Reprogramming Induced by a Small Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR agonist, bexarotene (Bex, that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells. Bex-treated mice exhibited enlarged BAT mass, enhanced BAT function, and a modest browning effect in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Expression analysis showed that Bex initiated several “browning” pathways at an early stage during brown adipocyte reprogramming. Our findings suggest RXRs as new master regulators that control brown and beige fat development and activation, unlike the common adipogenic regulator PPARγ. Moreover, we demonstrated that selective RXR activation may potentially offer a therapeutic approach to manipulate brown/beige fat function in vivo.

  9. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  10. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  11. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  12. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  13. Thyroid function and body weight programming by neonatal hyperthyroidism in rats - the role of leptin and deiodinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E G; Santos, R S; Lisboa, P C; Alves, S B; Bonomo, I T; Fagundes, A T S; Oliveira, E; Passos, M C F

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have shown that secondary hypothyroidism was programed by neonatal thyroxine (T4) treatment. However, the associated changes of body weight (BW) were less studied, especially those related to the body fat proportion. Here, we have evaluated the effect of neonatal thyroxine treatment on BW, fat proportion, serum leptin, and thyroid function of 60-day-old rats. Wistar rats were treated with thyroxine (50 microg/100 g BW, ip) (T) or saline (S), during the first 10 days of life. BW, nose-rump length (NRL), and food consumption were monitored for 60 days, when the animals were sacrificed. Thyroid function was evaluated by thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU), serum T3, T4, TSH, and liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) and type 1 and 2 deiodinases (D1 and D2) activities, which are thyroid hormone-dependent enzymes. T animals showed lower food intake, BW and NRL, but higher total fat mass (+33%) and serum leptin (+46%). They also showed lower serum T3 (-23%), T4 (-32%), TSH (-36%), RAIU (-29%) and mGPD activity (-22%). Hypothalamic and pituitary D2 activities were higher (+24% and 1.4 fold, respectively), while brown adipose tissue (BAT) D2 and skeletal muscle D1 activities were lower (-30% and -62%, respectively). Thus, neonatal hyperthyroidism programs for a higher fat proportion and hyperleptinemia, which can explain the lower food intake. The TH-dependent enzymes activities changed accordingly, except for the decrease in BAT D2, which may be due the role played by the hyperleptinemia. Finally, the decrease in peripheral deiodination may contribute to a lower me-tabolic rate that may increase the adiposity.

  14. Neonatal anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Sanjay; Malwatkar, Kedar; Kadam, Sandeep

    2008-08-01

    Neonatal anemia and the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are very common in neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal anemia can be due to blood loss, decreased RBC production, or increased destruction of erythrocytes. Physiologic anemia of the newborn and anemia of prematurity are the two most common causes of anemia in neonates. Phlebotomy losses result in much of the anemia seen in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW). Accepting a lower threshold level for transfusion in ELBW infants can prevent these infants being exposed to multiple donors.

  15. Metabolism and nutritional support in the surgical neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Agostino

    2002-06-01

    Various factors can influence the metabolism of surgical neonates. These include prematurity, operative stress, critical illness, and sepsis. The nutritional management of surgical infants with congenital or acquired intestinal abnormalities has improved after the introduction of parenteral nutrition. This article is focused on the energy and protein metabolism of surgical neonates with particular reference to the metabolic response to operative trauma and sepsis. The metabolic utilization of intravenous nutrients also is discussed. The metabolic response to operative trauma is different between neonates and adults. Infants have high rates of protein turnover and are avid retainers of nitrogen. Energy expenditure increases only transiently (4 to 6 hours) after major surgery in neonates. Protein turnover and catabolism seems not to be affected by major operative procedures in neonates. In neonates on parenteral nutrition, carbohydrate and fat have an equivalent effect on protein metabolism. The main determinants of fat utilization are carbohydrate intake and resting energy expenditure. Parenteral nutrition in surgical neonates is associated with increased production of oxygen-free radicals. This seems to be related to intravenous fat administration. Promoting fat utilization by reducing the carbohydrate to fat ratio in the intravenous diet reduces free radical activity to a similar extent as fat exclusion. Glutamine appears to be safe for use in neonates and infants and is "conditionally essential" in very-low birth weight infants and in septic neonates. Enteral glutamine supplementation in very-low birth weight infants reduces the risk of sepsis. The metabolism of surgical neonates is affected by operative trauma, critical illness, and sepsis. Nutritional support in surgical neonates has a profound impact on outcome. Exogenous glutamine can modulate immune, metabolic, and inflammatory responses. Further investigations are needed to clarify the clinical benefit of

  16. Functional and anatomical characteristics of the nerve-brown adipose interaction in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaim, K. E.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on 12 male rats to study the coupling of signals from the sympathetic nervous system to the brown adipose tissue. Analysis of electron photomicrographs revealed considerable morphological heterogeneity among the nerves entering and leaving the interscapular fat pad. In response to electrical simulation of the nerves, the temperature of the brown fat increased following a rapid but transient temperature drop. Such changes were observed only on the ipsilateral side, indicating that the innervation to the interscapular brown fat of the rat is functionally bilateral rather than diffuse. The finding that brown fat is capable of responding in a graded fashion correlates well with observations suggesting that clusters of brown adipocytes may be electrically coupled.

  17. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  18. Cdkn1c Boosts the Development of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of Silver Russell Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Pette, Matthew; Tunster, Simon J; McNamara, Grainne I; Shelkovnikova, Tatyana; Millership, Steven; Benson, Lindsay; Peirson, Stuart; Christian, Mark; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; John, Rosalind M

    2016-03-01

    The accurate diagnosis and clinical management of the growth restriction disorder Silver Russell Syndrome (SRS) has confounded researchers and clinicians for many years due to the myriad of genetic and epigenetic alterations reported in these patients and the lack of suitable animal models to test the contribution of specific gene alterations. Some genetic alterations suggest a role for increased dosage of the imprinted CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR 1C (CDKN1C) gene, often mutated in IMAGe Syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS). Cdkn1c encodes a potent negative regulator of fetal growth that also regulates placental development, consistent with a proposed role for CDKN1C in these complex childhood growth disorders. Here, we report that a mouse modelling the rare microduplications present in some SRS patients exhibited phenotypes including low birth weight with relative head sparing, neonatal hypoglycemia, absence of catch-up growth and significantly reduced adiposity as adults, all defining features of SRS. Further investigation revealed the presence of substantially more brown adipose tissue in very young mice, of both the classical or canonical type exemplified by interscapular-type brown fat depot in mice (iBAT) and a second type of non-classic BAT that develops postnatally within white adipose tissue (WAT), genetically attributable to a double dose of Cdkn1c in vivo and ex-vivo. Conversely, loss-of-function of Cdkn1c resulted in the complete developmental failure of the brown adipocyte lineage with a loss of markers of both brown adipose fate and function. We further show that Cdkn1c is required for post-transcriptional accumulation of the brown fat determinant PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and that CDKN1C and PRDM16 co-localise to the nucleus of rare label-retaining cell within iBAT. This study reveals a key requirement for Cdkn1c in the early development of the brown adipose lineages. Importantly, active BAT consumes high amounts of energy to

  19. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  20. Effect of Brown Rice Protein and Its Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in High-fat Diet on Syrian hamsters%糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对喂食高脂饲料叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; Wally Yokoyama; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brown rice protein(BRP) and BRP hydrolysates(BRPH)on lipoprotein metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets compared to casein.The supplements of brown rice protein and its hydrolysates reduced hepatic total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content of hamster.Meanwhile,the BRP and BRPH diet increased the fecal total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content.Moreover,BRPH significantly reduced the hamster body weight compared to control.%以动物性蛋白酪蛋白为对照,研究了糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响。糙米蛋白及其酶解产物降低了仓鼠肝脏中总脂肪、总胆固醇和游离胆固醇含量,同时增加了粪便中脂肪及胆固醇的排出量。糙米蛋白酶解产物还可以显著降低仓鼠的体重。

  1. Tirosinemia neonatal Neonatal tyrosinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la técnica de Udenfriend y Cooper, se midieron los niveles de tirosina en la sangre del cordón de 26 prematuros y 31 niños de término, con el fin de comparar las concentraciones según la edad gestacional y detectar la presencia de la tirosinemia neonatal. Se encontró un caso de esta entidad en un niño de 31 semanas de edad gestacional, lo cual correspondió al 3.8% de los prematuros y al 1.8% del grupo total. La concentración de tirosina en el paciente fue de 53 JJ.M. El promedio de las concentraciones en los prematuros menores de 32 semanas fue de 16.8 :t 6.3 JJ.M; el de los niños entre 33 y 36 semanas fue de 19.3 :t 7.6 JJ.M y el de los niños de término, de 17.2 :t 9.4 JJ.M. Las pruebas estadísticas no mostraron tendencias ni diferencias significativas entre estas concentraciones. El promedio ponderado para el grupo total fue 17.7 :t 7.3 JJ.M. Se recomienda establecer programas de tamizaje para detectar este problema porque puede presentar repercusiones neurológicas posteriores.

    By means of the Udenfriend-Cooper technique, levels of tyrosine were measured in the cord blood of 26 preterm and 31 term Infants; the objective was to compare tyrosine concentrations according to gestational age and to detect the presence of neonatal tyrosinemia. A case of this disease was found In an Infant with 31 weeks of gestational age; this case represented 3.8% of preterm Infants and 1.8% of the total group. Average tyrosine concentration according to age was as follows: 16.8: ± 6.3  µM in Infants under 32 weeks of gestational age; 19.3: ±: 7.6 µM In those between 33 and 36 weeks and 17.2 : ±: 9.4 µM In the term Infants

  2. Neonatal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, Erich [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A8036 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail: erich.sorantin@meduni-graz.at; Brader, Peter [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A8036 Graz (Austria); Thimary, Felix [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A8036 Graz (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    A variety of traumatic lesions can occur during the neonatal period. Some of those lesions are clearly birth injuries due to delivery and others are caused by necessary procedures during intensive care in critically ill neonates. As usual patient history must be known and knowledge about the typical complications is necessary in order to select the appropriate imaging modality and thus enabling correct interpretation of those investigations by the radiologist. The purpose of this article is to present typical neonatal injuries, describe the underlying pathomechanisms and aetiology as well as the imaging findings.

  3. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  4. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal Jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Væth, Michael; Schendel, Diana

    2008-01-01

    .7]). No associations were found between infantile autism and low Apgar scores, acidosis or hypoglycaemia. Our findings suggest that hyperbilirubinaemia and neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period are important factors to consider when studying causes of infantile autism....

  6. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a premature baby include pneumonia (a lung infection), sepsis (a blood infection) and meningitis (an infection in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord). What birth defects most often cause neonatal death? The most common birth defects that cause ...

  7. Aspectos produtivos da raça Pardo-Suíça no Brasil: Fatores de ajustamento, produção de leite e de gordura, e parâmetros genéticos Productive aspects of the brown Swiss Breed in Brazil: Adjustment factors, milk and fat yields, and genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça com o objetivo de estimar fatores de ajustamento, avaliar fatores de ambiente e genéticos que influenciam a produção de leite, de gordura e a porcentagem de gordura, e estimar parâmetros genéticos para estas características produtivas. Foram avaliadas 11189 lactações de 5382 vacas Pardo-Suíças, de 1980 a 1999, oriundas de 201 rebanhos, sendo os registros de produção do serviço de controle leiteiro realizado pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Gado Pardo-Suíço. As lactações foram ajustadas por meio de fatores multiplicativos de ajustamento para duas ordenhas, períodos de lactação de 305 dias e produção a idade adulta. As médias estimadas, os respectivos desvios-padrão e os coeficientes de variação da produção de leite, produção de gordura e percentagem de gordura foram 5791,50 ± 1211,58 kg e 20,92%; 217,25 ± 47,36 kg e 21,80% e 3,78 ± 0,34 e 9,16%, respectivamente. Os efeitos de ano e época de partos, interação ano-época de partos, rebanho e grupo genético influenciaram as características estudadas, com exceção da época de partos sobre a percentagem de gordura. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade e repetibilidade estimados para a produção de leite e gordura foram 0,37e 0,40, e 0,36 e 0,37, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre a produção de leite e de gordura encontrada neste estudo foi de 0,96. Os resultados obtidos revelam a necessidade do ajustamento das produções de leite e gordura para os efeitos avaliados. As médias de produção de leite, de gordura e à percentagem de gordura apresentada demonstram o elevado desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça nos rebanhos brasileiros.A study was carried on performance of the Brown Swiss cattle with the objective of estimating adjustment factors, evaluate some environment and genetics factors that affect milk and fat yields and fat percentage, and estimate

  8. Reduction of FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in clinical patients by a single dose of propranolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, Veli [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Uptake in brown adipose tissue (hibernating fat) is sometimes seen at FDG-PET examinations. Despite a characteristic appearance, this may hide clinically relevant uptake. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases glucose uptake of brown fat. We now re-examine patients with brown fat activity that could disguise tumour uptake after pre-treatment with propranolol (a non-selective {beta}-blocker) in order to reduce the uptake. Our first examinations of this kind are reported. Eleven patients with strong brown fat uptake were studied. There was a mean of 5 days (range 2-8) between the examinations. At the second examination, 80 mg of propranolol was given orally 2 h before FDG administration. In addition to visual evaluation of the brown fat uptake, SUV assessments of the uptake in brown fat, lung, heart, liver, spleen and bone marrow were made. All patients showed complete or almost complete disappearance of the brown fat activity at the second examination (p < 0.001) both upon visual evaluation and when comparing SUVs. In seven patients there was also uptake in a known or strongly suspected malignancy, which remained unchanged between the examinations. Beyond an insignificant decrease in the myocardial uptake, there was no redistribution to the various examined organs at the second examination. Pre-treatment with a single dose of propranolol blocks the FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue, thereby increasing the specificity of the examination. The tumour uptake seems not to be impaired. (orig.)

  9. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  10. The formation of brown adipose tissue induced by transgenic over-expression of PPARγ2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Jinzeng; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Ting; Xu, Dequan; Zuo, Bo; Hou, Liming; Wu, Wangjun; Zhang, Lin; Xia, Xiaoliang; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ren, Zhuqing; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2014-04-18

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate energy as heat, therefore reducing fat deposition and counteracting obesity. Brown adipocytes arise from myoblastic progenitors during embryonic development by the action of transcription regulator PRDM16 binding to PPARγ, which promotes BAT-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. To investigate the capability of converting white adipose tissue to BAT or browning by PPARγ in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with over-expressed PPARγ2. The transgenic mice showed strong brown fat features in subcutaneous fat in morphology and histology. To provide molecular evidences on browning characteristics of the adipose tissue, we employed quantitative real-time PCR to determine BAT-specific gene expressions. The transgenic mice had remarkably elevated mRNA level of UCP1, Elovl3, PGC1α and Cebpα in subcutaneous fat. Compared with wild-type mice, UCP1 protein levels were increased significantly in transgenic mice. ATP concentration was slightly decreased in the subcutaneous fat of transgenic mice. Western blotting analysis also confirmed that phosphorylated AMPK and ACC proteins were significantly (P<0.01) increased in the transgenic mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that over-expression of PPARγ2 in skeletal muscle can promote conversion of subcutaneous fat to brown fat formation, which can have beneficial effects on increasing energy metabolisms and combating obesity.

  11. Neonatal neurosonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Paediatric and particularly neonatal neurosonography still remains a mainstay of imaging the neonatal brain. It can be performed at the bedside without any need for sedation or specific monitoring. There are a number of neurologic conditions that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants related to the brain and the spinal cord; most of them can be addressed by ultrasonography (US). However, with the introduction of first CT and then MRI, neonatal neurosonography is increasingly considered just a basic first line technique that offers only orienting information and does not deliver much relevant information. This is partially caused by inferior US performance – either by restricted availability of modern equipment or by lack of specialized expertise in performing and reading neurosonographic scans. This essay tries to highlight the value and potential of US in the neonatal brain and briefly touching also on the spinal cord imaging. The common pathologies and their US appearance as well as typical indication and applications of neurosonography are listed. The review aims at encouraging paediatric radiologists to reorient there imaging algorithms and skills towards the potential of modern neurosonography, particularly in the view of efficacy, considering growing economic pressure, and the low invasiveness as well as the good availability of US that can easily be repeated any time at the bedside.

  12. Neonatal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback.

  13. Turning up the heat : role of brown adipose tissue in metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mariëtte Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In 1551, the Swiss naturalist Konrad Gessner first described brown adipose tissue (BAT) as being “neither fat, nor flesh (nec pinguitudo, nec caro), but something in between”. Now, some 460 years later, we know that Gessner had guessed the origin of brown adipocytes correctly. A unique property of t

  14. Ictericia Neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco de la Fuente, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    El motivo que ha llevado a la realización de este trabajo fin de grado sobre el tema de la ICTERICIA NEONATAL se debe a la elevada frecuencia de su aparición en la población. Un porcentaje elevado de RN la padecen al nacer siendo, en la mayor parte de los casos, un proceso fisiológico resuelto con facilidad debido a una inmadurez del sistema hepático y a una hiperproducción de bilirrubina. La ictericia neonatal es la pigmentación de color amarillo de la piel y mucosas en ...

  15. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  16. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  17. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  18. Neonatal hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Miller, Jacob; Vogel, Adam M

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal hematology is a complex and dynamic process in the pediatric population. Surgeons frequently encounter hematologic issues regarding hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing. This publication provides a surgeon-directed review of hematopoiesis in the newborn, as well as an overview of the current understanding of their hemostatic profile under normal and pathologic conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Neonatal Kraniefraktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine Marie Harries; Stantchev, Hristo

    2015-01-01

    During the latest decades the incidence of birth traumas has decreased significantly. Even so the traumas still contribute to an increased mortality and morbidity. We present a case of spontaneous neonatal skull fracture following a normal vaginal delivery. Abnormal facial structure was seen...

  20. Reliability and agreement of adipose tissue fat fraction measurements with water-fat MRI in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssens, Bas T; Eikendal, Anouk L; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072825847; Visseren, Frank L J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166267678; Hoogduin, J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/158071956

    2016-01-01

    The supraclavicular fat depot is known for brown adipose tissue presence. To unravel adipose tissue physiology and metabolism, high quality and reproducible imaging is required. In this study we quantified the reliability and agreement of MRI fat fraction measurements in supraclavicular and subcutan

  1. Reliability and agreement of adipose tissue fat fraction measurements with water-fat MRI in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssens, Bas T; Eikendal, Anouk L; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Hoogduin, J M

    2016-01-01

    The supraclavicular fat depot is known for brown adipose tissue presence. To unravel adipose tissue physiology and metabolism, high quality and reproducible imaging is required. In this study we quantified the reliability and agreement of MRI fat fraction measurements in supraclavicular and subcutan

  2. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  3. Neonatal infectious diseases: evaluation of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres; Spearman, Paul W; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains a feared cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Maternal, neonatal, and environmental factors are associated with risk of infection, and a combination of prevention strategies, judicious neonatal evaluation, and early initiation of therapy are required to prevent adverse outcomes. This article reviews recent trends in epidemiology and provides an update on risk factors, diagnostic methods, and management of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  5. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  6. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  7. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity. In response to cold or exercise, brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (WAT; also known as beige cells), a process known as browning. Here we show that the development of functional beige fat in the inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ingSAT) and perigonadal visceral adipose tissue (pgVAT) is promoted by the depletion of microbiota either by means of antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice. This leads to improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice, obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Such metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration, enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by the suppression of type 2 cytokine signaling, and they are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into the microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige-fat development in health and metabolic disease.

  8. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Marcelo A; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K; Cypess, Aaron M; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-08-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.

  9. Neonatal Kraniefraktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine Marie Harries; Stantchev, Hristo

    2015-01-01

    During the latest decades the incidence of birth traumas has decreased significantly. Even so the traumas still contribute to an increased mortality and morbidity. We present a case of spontaneous neonatal skull fracture following a normal vaginal delivery. Abnormal facial structure was seen......, and the fracture was identified with an MRI. The fractures healed without neurosurgical intervention. Case reports show that even in uncomplicated vaginal deliveries skull fractures can be seen and should be suspected in children with facial abnormalities....

  10. Neonatal Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western developed countries, Listeria monocytogenes is not an uncommon pathogen in neonates. However, neonatal listeriosis has rarely been reported in Taiwan. We describe two cases collected from a single medical institute between 1990 and 2005. Case 1 was a male premature baby weighing 1558 g with a gestational age of 31 weeks whose mother had fever with chills 3 days prior to delivery. Generalized maculopapular rash was found after delivery and subtle seizure developed. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture collected on the 1st day yielded L. monocytogenes. In addition, he had ventriculitis complicated with hydrocephalus. Neurologic development was normal over 1 year of follow-up after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Case 2 was a 28-weeks' gestation male premature baby weighing 1180 g. Endotracheal intubation and ventilator support were provided after delivery due to respiratory distress. Blood culture yielded L. monocyto-genes. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis but the culture was negative. Brain ultrasonography showed ventriculitis. Sudden deterioration with cyanosis and bradycardia developed on the 8th day and he died on the same day. Neonatal listeriosis is uncommon in Taiwan, but has significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of perinatal infection relies on high index of suspicion in perinatal health care professionals. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:161-164

  11. The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: An evolutionary road not taken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaratilake Jaliya S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermogenic brown adipose tissue has never been described in birds or other non-mammalian vertebrates. Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. Results We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we show here, lizard species lack the gene for UCP1, although it is present in amphibian and fish species. While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical to brown fat differentiation in mammals: both the common adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, and a coactivator of that factor specific to brown fat differentiation in mammals, PGC1α, are elevated in expression, as are mitochondrial volume and DNA. Furthermore, ABALCs induction resulted in strong transcription from a transfected mouse UCP1 promoter. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that the brown fat differentiation pathway evolved in a common ancestor of birds and mammals and its thermogenicity was lost in the avian lineage, with the degradation of UCP1, after it separated from the mammalian lineage. Since this event occurred no later than the saurian ancestor of birds and lizards, an implication of this is that dinosaurs had neither UCP1 nor canonically thermogenic brown fat.

  12. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate.

  13. Neonatal circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, S E; Liao, J C

    2001-12-01

    The merits of neonatal circumcision continue to be debated hotly. Some argue that circumcision is a "uniquely American medical enigma." Most of the world's male population remains uncircumcised; however, most boys born in the United States continue to undergo neonatal circumcision. Review of existing literature supports that most children who are uncircumcised do well from a medical standpoint and, thus, the question of whether US health care practitioners are subjecting neonates to an unnecessary surgical procedure remains. The medical benefits of circumcision are multiple, but most are small. The clearest medical benefit of circumcision is the relative reduction in the risk for a UTI, especially in early infancy. Although this risk [figure: see text] is real, the absolute numbers are small (risk ranges from 1 in 100 to 1 in 1000), and one investigator has estimated that it may take approximately 80 neonatal circumcisions to prevent one UTI. In the case of a patient with known urologic abnormalities that predispose to UTI, neonatal circumcision has a clearer role in terms of medical benefit to the patient. Most of the other medical benefits of circumcision probably can be realized without circumcision as long as access to clean water and proper penile hygiene are achieved. Proper penile hygiene should all but eliminate the risk for foreskin-related medical problems that will require circumcision. Moreover, proper hygiene and access to clean water has been shown to reduce the rate of development of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in the uncircumcised population. Proper techniques on the care of the foreskin are illustrated in the American Academy of Pediatrics pamphlet titled "How to care for the uncircumcised penis." Regarding the relationship between STDs and circumcision, patient education and the practice of low-risk sexual behavior make a far greater impact than does routine circumcision in hopes of reducing the spread of HIV and other STDs. Nevertheless

  14. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  15. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Dissecting the brown adipogenic regulatory network using integrative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rachana N.; Bues, Johannes J.; Gardeux, Vincent; Schwalie, Petra C.; Alpern, Daniel; Chen, Wanze; Russeil, Julie; Raghav, Sunil K.; Deplancke, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling, which makes them attractive therapeutic targets to tackle obesity. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying brown adipogenesis are still poorly understood. To address this, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin state during mouse brown fat cell differentiation, revealing extensive gene expression changes and chromatin remodeling, especially during the first day post-differentiation. To identify putatively causal regulators, we performed transcription factor binding site overrepresentation analyses in active chromatin regions and prioritized factors based on their expression correlation with the bona-fide brown adipogenic marker Ucp1 across multiple mouse and human datasets. Using loss-of-function assays, we evaluated both the phenotypic effect as well as the transcriptomic impact of several putative regulators on the differentiation process, uncovering ZFP467, HOXA4 and Nuclear Factor I A (NFIA) as novel transcriptional regulators. Of these, NFIA emerged as the regulator yielding the strongest molecular and cellular phenotypes. To examine its regulatory function, we profiled the genomic localization of NFIA, identifying it as a key early regulator of terminal brown fat cell differentiation. PMID:28181539

  17. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  18. Not all fats are created equal: adipose vs. ectopic fat, implication in cardiometabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, Melania; Saponaro, Chiara; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ that acts not only as a fuel storage but also is able to secrete adipokines that can modulate inflammation. Most of the fat is composed of white adipocytes (WAT), although also brown/beige adipocytes (BAT/BeAT) have been found in humans. BAT is located close to the neck but also among WAT in the epicardial fat and perivascular fat. Adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of macrophages impair adipose tissue metabolism determining "adiposopathy" (i.e., sick fat) and increasing the risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review was to search and discuss the available literature on the impact of different types of fat and fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in liver, muscle and heart, can increase the risk to develop insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Results recently published showed that BAT could have an impact on cardiometabolic risk, not only because it is implicated in energy metabolism but also because it can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Therapeutical interventions that can increase energy expenditure, successfully change fat distribution and reduce ectopic fat, also through BAT activation, were discussed.

  19. Carnitine in neonatal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, P R

    1995-11-01

    Experimental evidence from several investigators suggests that carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient for neonates. If carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient for the neonate, most neonates on total parenteral nutrition in the United States are not receiving adequate nutritional support. The metabolic functions of carnitine are varied and important in several aspects of neonatal physiology. All neonates receiving breast milk receive dietary carnitine and most neonates receiving enteral infant formulas receive dietary carnitine at a level similar to that of the breast-fed neonate. However, most neonates on total parenteral nutrition receive no dietary carnitine. Investigators have been testing the working hypothesis that carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient for the neonate for many years. This review discusses (1) data supporting the hypothesis, (2) reasons why it has not been either proved or disproved by now, and (3) the author's view of a prudent approach to dietary carnitine supplementation of neonates.

  20. Neonatal lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, David T; Jaramillo, Lorena; Hornung, Robin L

    2006-12-10

    An otherwise healthy 5-week-old infant with erythematous plaques predominantly on the face and scalp presented to our dermatology clinic. The mother had been diagnosed with lupus erythematosus 2 years earlier but her disease was quiescent. Neonatal lupus is a rare condition associated with transplacental transfer of IgG anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Active connective tissue disease in the mother does not have to be present and in fact is often absent. Although the cutaneous, hematologic and hepatic manifestations are transient, the potential for permanent heart block makes it necessary for this to be carefully ruled out. As in this case, the dermatologist may be the one to make the diagnosis and should be aware of the clinical presentation, work-up, and management of this important disease.

  1. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  2. Fat tissues, the brite and the dark sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Pan, Ruping; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Fat tissue is well known for its capacity to store energy and its detrimental role in obesity and metaflammation. However, humans possess different types of fat that have different functions in physiology and metabolic diseases. Apart from white adipose tissue (WAT), the body's main energy storage, there is also brown adipose tissue (BAT) that dissipates energy as a defense against cold and maintains energy balance for the whole body. BAT is present not only in newborns but also in adult humans and its mass correlates with leanness. Moreover, "brown-like" adipocytes have been detected in human WAT. These "brown-in-white" (brite) or beige cells can be induced by cold and a broad spectrum of pharmacological substances and, therefore, they are also known as "inducible brown adipocytes." Activation of brown and/or brite adipocytes reduces metabolic diseases, at least in murine models of obesity. Thus, brown/brite adipocytes represent the "brite" side of fat and are potential targets for novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of obesity and obesity-associated diseases.

  3. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  4. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  5. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  6. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-10-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through nonshivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent observations indicate the importance of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in thermoregulation. We have found that the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the DMH has distinct actions in modulating adiposity and BAT thermogenesis. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH elevates the thermogenic activity of classic BAT and promotes the development of brown adipocytes in WAT, leading to increased thermogenesis. These findings identify a novel potential target for combating obesity.

  7. Fats and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with “good” unsaturated fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid “bad” trans fat. “Good” unsaturated fats — ... have been eliminated from many of these foods. Saturated fats , while not as harmful as trans fats, by ...

  8. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J; Zhang, Yun; Cao, Yihai

    2017-02-23

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet-fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning-related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature-increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat-associated obesity and diabetes.

  9. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  10. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  11. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  12. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengliang; Gao, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  13. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Wang

    Full Text Available Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  14. Efeito da interação reprodutor x rebanho sobre as produções de leite e de gordura na raça Pardo-Suíça Effects of sire x herd interaction on milk and fat yields in Brown-Swiss herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Leme Franco Geraldini Sirol

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Dados de 4.959 lactações de 2.414 vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça, filhas de 70 reprodutores, distribuídos em 51 rebanhos, foram utilizados para se estimar o componente de variância para a interação reprodutor x rebanho das produções de leite e de gordura e verificar o efeito desta interação sobre a avaliação genética dos reprodutores, por meio de modelos que diferiam na presença e ausência do termo de interação. As produções de leite e de gordura foram ajustadas para duas ordenhas diárias, 305 dias de lactação e idade adulta da vaca. O teste da razão de verossimilhança foi utilizado na verificação da efetividade da inclusão da interação no modelo. As médias das produções de leite e de gordura foram 6085,79 ± 1629,73 kg e 225,61 ± 60,44 kg, respectivamente. A proporção da variância total decorrente da interação reprodutor x rebanho foi 0,4%, para a produção de leite, e 1%, para a produção de gordura. A estimativa de herdabilidade foi 0,38, para a produção de leite, utilizando-se ambos os modelos, e reduziu de 0,40 para 0,39, para a produção de gordura, quando o modelo com interação foi considerado. A função de verossimilhança aumentou significativamente com a inclusão da interação no modelo. A correlação de Spearman foi próxima de um para ambas as características, quando todos os reprodutores foram considerados. Houve redução de 1% na estimativa de acurácia dos valores genéticos preditos para ambas as características, porém, a correlação de Pearson estimada entre as acurácias obtidas para cada modelo estudado foi próxima à unidade. A interaçãoreprodutor x rebanho não afetou as estimativas de componentes de variâncias genética e residual e a ordem de classificação dos reprodutores para ambas as características.Data comprising 4,959 lactations of 2,414 Brown-Swiss cows, daughters of 70 sires, from 51 herds, were used to estimate the variance component for sire x herd

  15. Brown and brite adipocytes: Same function, but different origin and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dinh-Toi; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Inducing brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues is a promising target to combat obesity and its related disorders in human beings. This goal has been especially encouraged by new important discoveries of human brown adipose tissues. The accumulating evidence confirms the presence of active brown adipocytes, not only in newborns, but also in adult humans. In rodents, there are two populations of the Ucp1-expressing adipocytes with well characterized-thermogenic functions, classical interscapular brown adipocytes and brite/beige adipocytes (brown adipocytes that are induced in white adipose tissues). Importantly, the anatomical localization, gene expression profiling and functional characterization of Ucp1-expressing fat cells indicates brite and brown adipocytes coexist in human beings. Therefore, the research directions of brown and brite adipogenesis provide lead to potential new therapies to fight obesity and its related metabolic diseases in human being. The objectives of this review are (1) to discuss the fate of primary adipocytes based on tissue origins, and (2) to discuss mechanisms of brown and brite adipogenesis which could lead to their different responses to browning reagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. Brown fat in a protoendothermic mammal fuels eutherian evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Oelkrug, Rebecca; Goetze, Nadja; Exner, Cornelia; Lee, Yang; Ganjam, Goutham K.; Kutschke, Maria; Müller, Saskia; Stöhr, Sigrid; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Crichton, Paul G.; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Jastroch, Martin; Meyer, Carola W.

    2013-01-01

    Endothermy has facilitated mammalian species radiation, but the sequence of events leading to sustained thermogenesis is debated in multiple evolutionary models. Here we study the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a phylogenetically ancient, 'protoendothermic' eutherian mammal, in which constantly high body temperatures are reported only during reproduction. Evidence for nonshivering thermogenesis is found in vivo during periodic ectothermic-endothermic transitions. Anatomical studi...

  17. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  18. Routine neonatal circumcision?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, P. T.; Giacomantonio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Routine neonatal circumcision is still a controversial procedure. This article attempts to clarify some of the advantages and disadvantages of neonatal circumcision. The increased rate of penile cancer among uncircumcised men appears to justify the procedure, but that alone is not sufficient justification. The final decision on neonatal circumcision should be made by parents with balanced counsel from attending physicians.

  19. Efeito da interação reprodutor x rebanho sobre os valores genéticos de reprodutores para produção de leite e gordura na raça Pardo-Suíça Effect of sire x herd interaction on genetic values for milk and fat yields of Brown Swiss breed sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Santos Bueno

    2005-08-01

    study the effects of sire x herd and sire x herd-year interactions on genetic values of Brown Swiss breed sires. The (covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method, by using three models with multitrait. In these models, the genetic group, season of calving and herd-year class were considered as fixed effects, while the animal effects, the permanent environment, the interaction of either sire x herd or sire x herd-year were considered as random ones, when the interaction was considered in the model, and the error as well. The likelihood ratio test was used to verify the effectiveness in including the interaction effects into models. The estimates of components of the genetic addictive and residual (covariances did not change when the models were adjusted for the interaction effects. Therefore, the heritability coefficients approximated to each others. The heritability estimate were of 0.40 for both characteristics, and the genetic correlation among the characteristics of 0.94, except when the model considered the effect of the interaction sire x herd. The heritability of fat yield was of 0.39, and the genetic correlation among the characteristics of 0.95. The proportion of the total variance explained by the sire x herd and the sire x herd -year interactions was low, but almost null for milk yield, and about 1% for fat yield. The natural logarithm of likelihood function increased, when the interaction effects were included in the models. Pearson and Spearman correlations among the genetic values obtained by these models were superior than 0.99 for both milk and fat yields, and above 0.897 among the studied characteristics.

  20. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  1. Pref-1 in brown adipose tissue: specific involvement in brown adipocyte differentiation and regulatory role of C/EBPδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Jordi; Villena, Josep A; Hondares, Elayne; Carmona, María C; Sul, Hei Sook; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1) is known to play a central role in regulating white adipocyte differentiation, but the role of Pref-1 in BAT (brown adipose tissue) has not been analysed. In the present study we found that Pref-1 expression is high in fetal BAT and declines progressively after birth. However, Pref-1-null mice showed unaltered fetal development of BAT, but exhibited signs of over-activation of BAT thermogenesis in the post-natal period. In C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) α-null mice, a rodent model of impaired fetal BAT differentiation, Pref-1 was dramatically overexpressed, in association with reduced expression of the Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1) gene, a BAT-specific marker of thermogenic differentiation. In brown adipocyte cell culture models, Pref-1 was mostly expressed in pre-adipocytes and declined with brown adipocyte differentiation. The transcription factor C/EBPδ activated the Pref-1 gene transcription in brown adipocytes, through binding to the proximal promoter region. Accordingly, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced C/EBPδ knockdown led to reduced Pref-1 gene expression. This effect is consistent with the observed overexpression of C/EBPδ in C/EBPα-null BAT and high expression of C/EBPδ in brown pre-adipocytes. Dexamethasone treatment of brown pre-adipocytes suppressed Pref-1 down-regulation occurring throughout the brown adipocyte differentiation process, increased the expression of C/EBPδ and strongly impaired expression of the thermogenic markers UCP1 and PGC-1α [PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) co-activator-α]. However, it did not alter normal fat accumulation or expression of non-BAT-specific genes. Collectively, these results specifically implicate Pref-1 in controlling the thermogenic gene expression program in BAT, and identify C/EBPδ as a novel transcriptional regulator of Pref-1 gene expression that may be related to the specific role of glucocorticoids in BAT differentiation.

  2. Neonatal Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Haley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE, and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults. Platelet function, pro- and anticoagulant proteins concentrations, and fibrinolytic pathway protein concentrations are developmentally regulated and generate a hemostatic homeostasis that is unique to the neonatal time period. The clinical picture of a critically ill neonate combined with the physiologically distinct neonatal hemostatic system easily fulfills the criteria for Virchow’s triad with venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury and puts the neonatal patient at risk for VTE development. The presentation of a VTE in a neonate is similar to that of older children or adults and is dependent upon location of the VTE. Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool employed in identifying neonatal VTE, but relatively small vessels of the neonate as well as frequent low pulse pressure can make ultrasound less reliable. The diagnosis of a thrombophilic disorder in the neonatal population is unlikely to change management or outcome, and the role of thrombophilia testing in this population requires further study. Treatment of neonatal VTE is aimed at reducing VTE-associated morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for treating, though, cannot be extrapolated from guidelines for older children or adults. Neonates are at risk for bleeding complications, particularly younger neonates with more fragile intracranial vessels. Developmental alterations in the

  3. Reliability and agreement of adipose tissue fat fraction measurements with water-fat MRI in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssens, Bas T; Eikendal, Anouk L; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Hoogduin, J M

    2016-01-01

    The supraclavicular fat depot is known for brown adipose tissue presence. To unravel adipose tissue physiology and metabolism, high quality and reproducible imaging is required. In this study we quantified the reliability and agreement of MRI fat fraction measurements in supraclavicular and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 25 adult patients with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease. MRI fat fraction measurements were made under ambient temperature conditions using a vendor supplied mDixon chemical-shift water-fat multi-echo pulse sequence at 1.5 T field strength. Supraclavicular fat fraction reliability (intraclass correlation coefficientagreement , ICCagreement ) was 0.97 for test-retest, 0.95 for intra-observer and 0.56 for inter-observer measurements, which increased to 0.88 when ICCconsistency was estimated. Supraclavicular fat fraction agreement displayed mean differences of 0.5% (limit of agreement (LoA) -1.7 to 2.6) for test-retest, -0.5% (LoA -2.9 to 2.0) for intra-observer and 5.6% (LoA 0.4 to 10.8) for inter-observer measurements. Median fat fraction in supraclavicular adipose tissue was 82.5% (interquartile range (IQR) 78.6-84.0) and 89.7% (IQR 87.2-91.5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (p fat MRI has good reliability and agreement to measure adipose tissue fat fraction in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease. These findings enable research on determinants of fat fraction and enable longitudinal monitoring of fat fraction within adipose tissue depots. Interestingly, even in adult patients with manifest cardiovascular disease, supraclavicular adipose tissue has a lower fat fraction compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue, suggestive of distinct morphologic characteristics, such as brown adipose tissue.

  4. MicroRNA-455 regulates brown adipogenesis via a novel HIF1an-AMPK-PGC1α signaling network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Guan, Meiping; Townsend, Kristy L

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy as heat and can counteract obesity. MicroRNAs are emerging as key regulators in development and disease. Combining microRNA and mRNA microarray profiling followed by bioinformatic analyses, we identified miR-455 as a new regulator of brown...... adipogenesis. miR-455 exhibits a BAT-specific expression pattern and is induced by cold and the browning inducer BMP7. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function studies show that miR-455 regulates brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific miR-455 transgenic mice display marked browning...... of subcutaneous white fat upon cold exposure. miR-455 activates AMPKα1 by targeting HIF1an, and AMPK promotes the brown adipogenic program and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concomitantly, miR-455 also targets the adipogenic suppressors Runx1t1 and Necdin, initiating adipogenic differentiation. Taken together...

  5. Increased Mitochondrial Activity in BMP7-Treated Brown Adipocytes, Due to Increased CPT1- and CD36-Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Kristy L; An, Ding; Lynes, Matthew D.; Huang, Tian Lian; Zhang, Hongbin; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Brown adipose tissue dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat and regulates triglyceride and glucose metabolism in the body. Factors that regulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation in brown adipocytes have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is a growth factor capable of inducing brown fat mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation from adipocyte progenitors. Administration of BMP7 to mice also results in increased energy expenditure. To determine...

  6. Sonographic findings of coccygeal abscess in the neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Gi; Kim, Ji Hye; Chun Seok; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Sang Hi [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the sonographic findings of neonatal coccygeal abscess, previously not described. Eighteen neonates (5-18 days old) presented with swelling in the coccygeal area and by either open drainage (n=13) or follow-up after antibiotic therapy (n=5), this was diagnosed as coccygeal abscess. We retrospectively reviewed the size, shape, location, echo pattern and marginal characteristics of the abscesses, as seen on sonography, as well as their intradural content and relationship with the spine. Additional MR images (n=5) were separately reviewed. Coccygeal abscesses were confined to the subcutaneous fat layer and were either isoor hypoechoic compared with surrounding fat. In neonates, abscess formation in the coccygeal area is possible and coccygeal abscess should therefore be included in the differentiation of coccygeal masses. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  8. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other ... as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  9. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  10. Effects of vitamin a status on expression of ucp1 and brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in white adipose tissues of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yohei; Yamada, Tomoya; Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Qiao, Yuhang; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Tomonaga, Shozo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported the presence of brown/beige adipocytes in the white fat depots of mature cattle. The present study examined the effects of dietary vitamin A on the expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in the white fat depots of fattening cattle. No significant differences were observed in the expression of Ucp1 between vitamin A-deficient cattle and control cattle. However, the expression of the other brown/beige adipocyte-related genes was slightly higher in the mesenteric fat depots of vitamin A-deficient cattle. The present results suggest that a vitamin A deficiency does not markedly affect the expression of Ucp1 in white fat depots, but imply that it may stimulate the emergence of beige adipocytes in the mesenteric fat depots of fattening cattle.

  11. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  12. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    hamster or rat. However, the role of adenosine in human BAT is unknown. Here we show that adenosine activates human and murine brown adipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. Adenosine is released in BAT during stimulation of sympathetic nerves as well as from brown adipocytes. The adenosine A2A...... of A2A receptors or injection of lentiviral vectors expressing the A2A receptor into white fat induces brown-like cells-so-called beige adipocytes. Importantly, mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with an A2A agonist are leaner with improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate...... that adenosine-A2A signalling plays an unexpected physiological role in sympathetic BAT activation and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Those findings reveal new possibilities for developing novel obesity therapies....

  13. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  14. Neonatal septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, D; Seng, Q B; Malik, A S; Choo, K E

    1996-09-01

    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.

  15. Enterotoxemia in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S

    1985-11-01

    The incidence, bacterial characteristics, disease syndromes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of enterotoxemia of neonatal calves caused by Clostridium perfringens (Types A, B, C, D, and E) are reviewed.

  16. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  17. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  19. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J.; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature–dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet–fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning–related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature–increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat–associated obesity and diabetes. PMID:28239649

  20. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  1. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  2. Brown and white adipose tissues: intrinsic differences in gene expression and response to cold exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Meritxell; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Okolo, Anthony; Chan, Yi-Wah; Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Millership, Steven; Fenech, Matthew E; MacIntyre, David; Turner, Jeremy O; Moore, Jonathan D; Blackburn, Edith; Gullick, William J; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G; Christian, Mark

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipocytes dissipate energy, whereas white adipocytes are an energy storage site. We explored the plasticity of different white adipose tissue depots in acquiring a brown phenotype by cold exposure. By comparing cold-induced genes in white fat to those enriched in brown compared with white fat, at thermoneutrality we defined a "brite" transcription signature. We identified the genes, pathways, and promoter regulatory motifs associated with "browning," as these represent novel targets for understanding this process. For example, neuregulin 4 was more highly expressed in brown adipose tissue and upregulated in white fat upon cold exposure, and cell studies showed that it is a neurite outgrowth-promoting adipokine, indicative of a role in increasing adipose tissue innervation in response to cold. A cell culture system that allows us to reproduce the differential properties of the discrete adipose depots was developed to study depot-specific differences at an in vitro level. The key transcriptional events underpinning white adipose tissue to brown transition are important, as they represent an attractive proposition to overcome the detrimental effects associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Oxygen deprivation and the cellular response to hypoxia in adipocytes - perspectives on white and brown adipose tissues in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayhurn, Paul; Alomar, Suliman Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Relative hypoxia has been shown to develop in white adipose tissue depots of different types of obese mouse (genetic, dietary), and this leads to substantial changes in white adipocyte function. These changes include increased production of inflammation-related adipokines (such as IL-6, leptin, Angptl4, and VEGF), an increase in glucose utilization and lactate production, and the induction of fibrosis and insulin resistance. Whether hypoxia also occurs in brown adipose tissue depots in obesity has been little considered. However, a recent study has reported low pO2 in brown fat of obese mice, this involving mitochondrial loss and dysfunction. We suggest that obesity-linked hypoxia may lead to similar alterations in brown adipocytes as in white fat cells - particularly changes in adipokine production, increased glucose uptake and lactate release, and insulin resistance. This would be expected to compromise thermogenic activity and the role of brown fat in glucose homeostasis and triglyceride clearance, underpinning the development of the metabolic syndrome. Hypoxia-induced augmentation of lactate production may also stimulate the "browning" of white fat depots through recruitment of UCP1 and the development of brite adipocytes.

  4. Brown Adipose YY1 Deficiency Activates Expression of Secreted Proteins Linked to Energy Expenditure and Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Francisco; Soustek, Meghan S; Hatting, Maximilian; Blättler, Sharon M; McDonald, Devin; Barrow, Joeva J; Puigserver, Pere

    2015-10-26

    Mitochondrial oxidative and thermogenic functions in brown and beige adipose tissues modulate rates of energy expenditure. It is unclear, however, how beige or white adipose tissue contributes to brown fat thermogenic function or compensates for partial deficiencies in this tissue and protects against obesity. Here, we show that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in brown adipose tissue activates the canonical thermogenic and uncoupling gene expression program. In contrast, YY1 represses a series of secreted proteins, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), bone morphogenetic protein 8b (BMP8b), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-like 6 (Angptl6), neuromedin B, and nesfatin, linked to energy expenditure. Despite substantial decreases in mitochondrial thermogenic proteins in brown fat, mice lacking YY1 in this tissue are strongly protected against diet-induced obesity and exhibit increased energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in beige and white fat depots. The increased expression of secreted proteins correlates with elevation of energy expenditure and promotion of beige and white fat activation. These results indicate that YY1 in brown adipose tissue controls antagonistic gene expression programs associated with energy balance and maintenance of body weight. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  6. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging to Detect and Quantify Adipose Tissue Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinish, U. S; Wong, Chi Lok; Sriram, Sandhya; Ong, Wee Kiat; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Sugii, Shigeki; Olivo, Malini

    2017-01-01

    Adipose (fat) tissue is a complex metabolic organ that is highly active and essential. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is deemed metabolically beneficial because of its ability to burn calories through heat production. The conversion of WAT-resident adipocytes to “beige” or “brown-like” adipocytes has recently attracted attention. However, it typically takes a few days to analyze and confirm this browning of WAT through conventional molecular, biochemical, or histological methods. Moreover, accurate quantification of the overall browning process is not possible by any of these methods. In this context, we report the novel application of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and multispectral imaging (MSI) to detect and quantify the browning process in mice. We successfully demonstrated the time-dependent increase in browning of WAT, following its induction through β-adrenergic agonist injections. The results from these optical techniques were confirmed with those of standard molecular and biochemical assays, which measure gene and protein expression levels of UCP1 and PGC-1α, as well as with histological examinations. We envision that the reported optical methods can be developed into a fast, real time, cost effective and easy to implement imaging approach for quantification of the browning process in adipose tissue. PMID:28145475

  7. Complications in neonatal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Mauricio A; Caty, Michael G

    2016-12-01

    Neonatal surgery is recognized as an independent discipline in general surgery, requiring the expertise of pediatric surgeons to optimize outcomes in infants with surgical conditions. Survival following neonatal surgery has improved dramatically in the past 60 years. Improvements in pediatric surgical outcomes are in part attributable to improved understanding of neonatal physiology, specialized pediatric anesthesia, neonatal critical care including sophisticated cardiopulmonary support, utilization of parenteral nutrition and adjustments in fluid management, refinement of surgical technique, and advances in surgical technology including minimally invasive options. Nevertheless, short and long-term complications following neonatal surgery continue to have profound and sometimes lasting effects on individual patients, families, and society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of colostral fat level on fat deposition and plasma metabolites in the newborn pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dividich, J; Esnault, T; Lynch, B; Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Peiniau, J

    1991-06-01

    The effects of colostral fat level on fat deposition and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined in 28 newborn pigs during the first postnatal day. Soon after birth, pigs were allotted to four treatments groups. Group 1 was killed at birth. The remaining pigs were fed intragastrically sow colostrum that contained high (10.2%; HFC), normal (4.8%; NFC) or low (1.0%; LFC) levels of total fat at the rate of 15 to 18 g/kg birth weight at 65- to 70-min intervals. A total of 21 feedings was provided and pigs were killed 1 h after the last feeding. Body fat deposition increased linearly (P less than .01) with the amount of ingested fat by .32 (+/- .04) g per 1-g increase in fat intake. Fatty acid composition of the pigs changed toward that of the colostrum with increased fat in colostrum. More liver glycogen was lost (P less than .01) in pigs given LFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were similar in pigs fed HFC and NFC. After the 11th feeding (14 h postnatal), LFC resulted in lower plasma glucose concentrations (P less than .05) than HFC or NFC. Plasma insulin concentrations also were lower in pigs fed LFC. Plasma FFA concentrations remained unchanged in pigs fed LFC but increased with both fat content in colostrum (P less than .05) and time (P less than .05) in the other two groups. Colostral fat plays a major role in the supply of energy and in glucose homeostasis in the neonatal pig.

  9. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  10. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  11. Notch Signaling Rescues Loss of Satellite Cells Lacking Pax7 and Promotes Brown Adipogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasut, Alessandra; Chang, Natasha C; Rodriguez, Uxia Gurriaran; Faulkes, Sharlene; Yin, Hang; Lacaria, Melanie; Ming, Hong; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2016-07-12

    Pax7 is a nodal transcription factor that is essential for regulating the maintenance, expansion, and myogenic identity of satellite cells during both neonatal and adult myogenesis. Deletion of Pax7 results in loss of satellite cells and impaired muscle regeneration. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the constitutively active intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD1) rescues the loss of Pax7-deficient satellite cells and restores their proliferative potential. Strikingly NICD1-expressing satellite cells do not undergo myogenic differentiation and instead acquire a brown adipogenic fate both in vivo and in vitro. NICD-expressing Pax7(-/-) satellite cells fail to upregulate MyoD and instead express the brown adipogenic marker PRDM16. Overall, these results show that Notch1 activation compensates for the loss of Pax7 in the quiescent state and acts as a molecular switch to promote brown adipogenesis in adult skeletal muscle.

  12. Differentiating brown and white adipose tissues by high-resolution diffusion NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Nagashima, Kaz; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Michael, Navin; Lee, Swee Shean; Xianfeng, Tian; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Anantharaj, Rengaraj; Velan, S Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    There are two types of fat tissues, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which essentially perform opposite functions in whole body energy metabolism. There is a large interest in identifying novel biophysical properties of WAT and BAT by a quantitative and easy-to-run technique. In this work, we used high-resolution pulsed field gradient diffusion NMR spectroscopy to study the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of fat molecules in rat BAT and WAT samples. The ADC of fat in BAT and WAT from rats fed with a chow diet was compared with that of rats fed with a high-fat diet to monitor how the diffusion properties change due to obesity-associated parameters such as lipid droplet size, fatty acid chain length, and saturation. Feeding a high-fat diet resulted in increased saturation, increased chain lengths, and reduced ADC of fat in WAT. The ADC of fat was lower in BAT relative to WAT in rats fed both chow and high-fat diets. Diffusion of fat was restricted in BAT due to the presence of small multilocular lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that in vivo diffusion might be a potential way for better delineation of BAT and WAT in both lean and obese states.

  13. The neonatal chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Luisa [Servico de Imagiologia Geral do Hospital de Santa Maria, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mluisalobo@gmail.com

    2006-11-15

    Lung diseases represent one of the most life threatening conditions in the newborn. Important progresses in modern perinatal care has resulted in a significantly improved survival and decreased morbidity, in both term and preterm infants. Most of these improvements are directly related to the better management of neonatal lung conditions, and infants of very low gestational ages are now surviving. This article reviews the common spectrum of diseases of the neonatal lung, including medical and surgical conditions, with emphasis to the radiological contribution in the evaluation and management of these infants. Imaging evaluation of the neonatal chest, including the assessment of catheters, lines and tubes are presented.

  14. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  15. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fit Fats and Your Family en español Las grasas y su hijo As with carbohydrates in recent ... and increase the risk of heart disease. 3. Trans fats: Found in margarine (especially the sticks), commercial ...

  16. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  17. M1-M2 balancing act in white adipose tissue browning – a new role for RIP140

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pu-Ste; LIN, YI-WEI; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    A “Holy Grail” sought in medical treatment of obesity is to be able to biologically reprogram their adipose tissues to burn fat rather than store it. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores fuel and its expansion underlines insulin resistance (IR) whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fuel and stimulates insulin sensitivity. These two types of fats seesaw within our bodies via a regulatory mechanism that involves intricate communication between adipocytes and blood cells, particularly macrophage...

  18. Differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into brite (brown-in-white adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier F Pisani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well established now that adult humans possess active brown adipose tissue which represents a potential pharmacological target to combat obesity and associated diseases. We had shown previously that human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS cells are able to differentiate into cells which exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, and to convert into functional brown adipocytes upon PPARγ activation that could explain UCP1-expressing cells within islets surrounded by white adipocytes. Herein we further characterize hMADS cells differentiation into brown adipocytes that behave like mouse brite adipocytes previously described. We analyzed the expression of gene markers known to be associated with mouse white and brown adipocytes. When shifting from a white to a brown fat cell phenotype, the striking enhancement of uncoupling activity appears mainly due, if not all, to an increase in UCP1 expression whereas induction of UCP2 is weak and UCP3 expression is unchanged. Conversion of white hMADS adipocytes is dependent on PPARγ activation with rosiglitazone as the most potent agonist and is inhibited by a PPARγ antagonist. Furthermore our data show that, in contrast to mouse cellular models, hMADS cells conversion into brown adipocytes is not induced by BMP7 treatment and not modulated by activation of the Hedgehog pathway. No primary or clonal precursor cells of human brown adipocytes have been obtained so far that can be used as a tool to develop therapeutic drugs and to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of brown adipogenesis in humans. Thus hMADS cells represent a suitable cell model to delineate the formation and/or the uncoupling capacity of human brown/brite adipocytes that could help to dissipate caloric excess intake among individuals.

  19. Fat embolism syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob George; Reeba George; Dixit, R; Gupta, R C; Gupta, N.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonar...

  20. Ras signalling regulates differentiation and UCP1 expression in models of brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Hansen, Jacob B

    2010-01-01

    on two unrelated models of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation. RESULTS: A constitutively active H-Ras mutant (Ras V12) caused a complete block of adipose conversion, as manifested by a lack of both lipid accumulation and induction of adipocyte gene expression. The Ras V12-mediated impediment......-Ras mutant (Ras N17) did not inhibit differentiation, but led to increased expression of genes important for energy dissipation in brown fat cells, including UCP1. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the intensity of Ras signalling is important for differentiation and UCP1 expression in models...

  1. Brown adipose tissue: a potential target in the fight against obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poekes, Laurence; Lanthier, Nicolas; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2015-12-01

    BAT (brown adipose tissue) is the main site of thermogenesis in mammals. It is essential to ensure thermoregulation in newborns. It is also found in (some) adult humans. Its capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glucose without ATP production contributes to energy expenditure and glucose homoeostasis. Brown fat activation has thus emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we integrate the recent advances on the metabolic role of BAT and its relation with other tissues as well as its potential contribution to fighting obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Carnitine and total parenteral nutrition of the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Penn, D

    1990-01-01

    The newborn is dependent upon fat for energy production. Fatty acid oxidation requires the cofactor carnitine. The preterm infant is born with limited carnitine reserves. During total parenteral nutrition (TPN) plasma and tissue carnitine concentrations decrease indicating that rates of carnitine biosynthesis are inadequate. The ability of the premature infant to oxidize fatty acids is related to the carnitine status. Several studies suggest an improvement of fatty acid oxidation after a fat challenge if TPN is supplemented with L-carnitine. Nitrogen balance may also be improved but this needs confirmation. It remains to be established whether routine L-carnitine supplementation is needed in neonatal TPN.

  3. Monitoring neonates for ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garinis, Angela C; Kemph, Alison; Tharpe, Anne Marie; Weitkamp, Joern-Hendrik; McEvoy, Cynthia; Steyger, Peter S

    2017-06-22

    Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at greater risk of permanent hearing loss compared to infants in well mother and baby units. Several factors have been associated with this increased prevalence of hearing loss, including congenital infections (e.g. cytomegalovirus or syphilis), ototoxic drugs (such as aminoglycoside or glycopeptide antibiotics), low birth weight, hypoxia and length of stay. The aetiology of this increased prevalence of hearing loss remains poorly understood. Here we review current practice and discuss the feasibility of designing improved ototoxicity screening and monitoring protocols to better identify acquired, drug-induced hearing loss in NICU neonates. A review of published literature. We conclude that current audiological screening or monitoring protocols for neonates are not designed to adequately detect early onset of ototoxicity. This paper offers a detailed review of evidence-based research, and offers recommendations for developing and implementing an ototoxicity monitoring protocol for young infants, before and after discharge from the hospital.

  4. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  5. Sonomammography in Neonatal Mastauxe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Ghanshyam Kachewar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prominence or even enlargement of one or both breasts is known in neonates. It is believed to be a physiological response to falling levels of maternal estrogen towards last trimester of pregnancy. This input stimulates prolactin release from the newborn's pituitary leading to transient neonatal breast enlargement. This phenomenon is independent of the gender of the neonate. It presents in the first few weeks of life and resolves subsequently. Often fluid discharge is noted from the prominent or swollen breast that resolves without treatment in subsequent weeks. Manual breast manipulation for discharge removal may lead to undesirable effects like local irritation, enhanced enlargement, prolonged tissue hypertropy or even mastitis. A case of such 7-days female neonate is presented here backed with imaging evaluation for confirmation of diagnosis. Typical sonomammographic findings are described. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 22-24

  6. Maternal and neonatal tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58 000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  7. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  8. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  9. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La mayoría de las veces la ictericia en el recién nacido es un hecho fisiológico, causado por una hiperbilirrubinemia de predominio indirecto, secundario a inmadurez hepática e hiperproducción de bilirrubina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en los años 2007 a 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 173 recién nacidos que ingresaron al Departamento de Neonatología con diagnóstico de hiperbilirrubinemia agravada. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada fue del 3,67 % y predominó en hermanos con antecedentes de ictericia (56,65 %. El tiempo de aparición fue de 48 a 72 h (76,87 % y entre los factores agravantes se hallaron el nacimiento pretérmino y el bajo peso al nacer. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con luminoterapia (90,17 %. CONCLUSIÓN. La hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada constituye un problema de salud. Los factores agravantes son la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer. La luminoterapia es una medida terapéutica eficaz para su tratamiento.INTRODUCTION. Most of times jaundice in newborn is a physiological fact due to hyperbilirubinemia of indirect predominance, secondary to liver immaturity and to bilirubin hyperproduction. The aim of present of present study was to determine the behavior of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from 2007 to 2009. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in 173 newborn patients admitted in the Neonatology Department diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS. The incidence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was of 3,67% with predominance in brothers with a history of jaundice (56,65%. The time of appearance was of 48 to 72 hrs (76,87% and among the aggravating factors were the preterm birth and

  10. Impaired thermogenesis and adipose tissue development in mice with fat-specific disruption of insulin and IGF-1 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jeremie; Mori, Marcelo A; Lee, Kevin Y; Smyth, Graham; Liew, Chong Wee; Macotela, Yazmin; Rourk, Michael; Bluher, Matthias; Russell, Steven J; Kahn, C Ronald

    2012-06-12

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have important roles in adipocyte differentiation, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Here to assess how these pathways can compensate for each other, we created mice with a double tissue-specific knockout of insulin and IGF-1 receptors to eliminate all insulin/IGF-1 signalling in fat. These FIGIRKO mice had markedly decreased white and brown fat mass and were completely resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity and age- and high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Energy expenditure was increased in FIGIRKO mice despite a >85% reduction in brown fat mass. However, FIGIRKO mice were unable to maintain body temperature when placed at 4 °C. Brown fat activity was markedly decreased in FIGIRKO mice but was responsive to β3-receptor stimulation. Thus, insulin/IGF-1 signalling has a crucial role in the control of brown and white fat development, and, when disrupted, leads to defective thermogenesis and a paradoxical increase in basal metabolic rate.

  11. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  12. A Fat Higgs with a Fat Top

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, A; Delgado, Antonio; Tait, Tim M.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new variant of the supersymmetric Fat Higgs model is presented in which the MSSM Higgses as well as the top quark are composite. The underlying theory is an s-confining SU(3) gauge theory with the MSSM gauge groups realized as gauged sub-groups of the chiral flavor symmetries. This motivates the large Yukawas necessary for the large top mass and SM-like Higgs of mass>>M_Z in a natural way as the residual of the strong dynamics responsible for the composites. This removes fine-tuning associated with these couplings present in the original Fat Higgs and New Fat Higgs models, respectively.

  13. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT. Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conclusively that adult humans have functional BAT. BAT is important for thermogenesis and energy balance in small mammals and its induction in mice promotes energy expenditure, reduces adiposity and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. The thermogenic capacity of BAT is impressive. In humans, it has been estimated that as little as 50g of BAT could utilize up to 20% of basal caloric needs if maximally stimulated. SUMMARY: The obesity pandemic requires new and novel treatments. The past few years have witnessed multiple studies conclusively showing that adult humans have functional BAT, a tissue that has a tremendous capacity for obesity-reducing thermogenesis. Novel therapies targeting BAT thermogenesis may be available in the near future as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. Thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. KEYWORDS: brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, energy expenditure, antiobesity therapy.

  14. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  2. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  3. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than.......05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1) min(-1), respectively; P

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  6. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  7. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  8. De Novo Reconstruction of Adipose Tissue Transcriptomes Reveals Long Non-coding RNA Regulators of Brown Adipocyte Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Bai, Zhiqiang; Xu, Dan; Yuan, Bingbing; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Yoon, Myeong Jin; Lim, Yen Ching; Knoll, Marko; Slavov, Nikolai; Chen, Shuai; Chen, Peng; Lodish, Harvey F; Sun, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) protects against obesity by promoting energy expenditure via uncoupled respiration. To uncover BAT-specific long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), we used RNA-seq to reconstruct de novo transcriptomes of mouse brown, inguinal white, and epididymal white fat and identified ∼1,500 lncRNAs, including 127 BAT-restricted loci induced during differentiation and often targeted by key regulators PPARγ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPβ. One of them, lnc-BATE1, is required for establishment and maintenance of BAT identity and thermogenic capacity. lnc-BATE1 inhibition impairs concurrent activation of brown fat and repression of white fat genes and is partially rescued by exogenous lnc-BATE1 with mutated siRNA-targeting sites, demonstrating a function in trans. We show that lnc-BATE1 binds heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U and that both are required for brown adipogenesis. Our work provides an annotated catalog for the study of fat depot-selective lncRNAs and establishes lnc-BATE1 as a regulator of BAT development and physiology.

  9. Brown Algae Polyphenol, a Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Inhibitor, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuko; Saeki, Toshiyuki; Ikuji, Hiroko; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background While screening for an inhibitor of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase, Pin1, we came across a brown algae polyphenol that blocks the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipocytes. However, its effectiveness on the accumulation of fat in the body has never been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Oral administration of brown algae polyphenol to mice fed with a high fat diet, suppressed the increase in fat volume to a level observed in mice fed with a normal diet. We speculate that Pin1 might be required for the differentiation of stem cell to adipocytes. We established wild type (WT) and Pin1-/- (Pin1-KO) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) lines and found that WT ASCs differentiate to adipocytes but Pin1-KO ASCs do not. Conclusion and Significance Oral administration of brown algae polyphenol, a Pin1 inhibitor, reduced fat buildup in mice. We showed that Pin1 is required for the differentiation of stem cells into adipocytes. We propose that oral intake of brown algae polyphenol is useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:28036348

  10. Second messenger signaling mechanisms of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program: an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fubiao; Collins, Sheila

    2017-09-26

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat. The discovery of functional brown adipocytes in humans and inducible brown-like ('beige' or 'brite') adipocytes in rodents have suggested that recruitment and activation of these thermogenic adipocytes could be a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure for obesity therapy. More recently, the cardiac natriuretic peptides and their second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) have gained attention as a parallel signaling pathway in adipocytes, with some unique features. In this review, we begin with some important historical work that touches upon the regulation of brown adipocyte development and physiology. We then provide a synopsis of some recent advances in the signaling cascades from β-adrenergic agonists and natriuretic peptides to drive thermogenic gene expression in the adipocytes and how these two pathways converge at a number of unexpected points. Finally, moving from the physiologic hormonal signaling, we discuss yet another level of control downstream of these signals: the growing appreciation of the emerging roles of non-coding RNAs as important regulators of brown adipocyte formation and function. In this review, we discuss new developments in our understanding of the signaling mechanisms and factors including new secreted proteins and novel non-coding RNAs that control the function as well as the plasticity of the brown/beige adipose tissue as it responds to the energy needs and environmental

  11. Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mella MT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa Mella, Keith A Eddleman Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia occurs in one in 1,000–1,500 live births and is the most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage in term infants. It is the equivalent of red blood cell alloimmunization and is due to transplacental passage of maternal antibodies against paternally derived fetal platelet antigens. A diagnosis of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia should be considered for any neonate with unexplained thrombocytopenia. Once the diagnosis is made, it is known that all subsequent pregnancies are at risk for severe disease. In order to prevent the devastating and potentially life-threatening manifestations of the disease, the goal is to initiate treatment early with serial percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, intravenous immunoglobulin administration, prednisone, and/or fetal platelet transfusions. Timing of delivery is variable with delivery for severe disease recommended at an earlier gestational age. Vaginal delivery can be considered if the fetal platelet count is greater than 50,000–100,000 µL. Thrombocytopenia due to neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia usually resolves spontaneously within 1–2 weeks after delivery, but a platelet transfusion may be necessary to prevent a serious hemorrhagic event. In all cases, a multidisciplinary approach to care should be undertaken with delivery at a tertiary care center. Keywords: neonatal thrombocytopenia, fetal therapy, intracranial hemorrhage, intravenous immunoglobulin, alloimmunization

  12. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  13. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aBarts Health NHS Trust, The Royal London Hospital, London, United Kingdom ... Differences from adults and children in physiology and anatomy of neonates inform our ..... this as a reliable monitor for fluid responsiveness in neonates.

  14. The value of neonatal autopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.

  15. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen

    2009-01-01

    adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta......In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent......-agonists and atrial natriuretic peptide, and release of adiponectin and leptin. Herein, we show that, upon chronic exposure to a specific PPARgamma but not to a PPARbeta/delta or a PPARalpha agonist, hMADS cell-derived white adipocytes are able to switch to a brown phenotype by expressing both uncoupling protein one...

  16. Dynamic changes in lipid droplet-associated proteins in the "browning" of white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneda, David; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Christian, Mark

    2013-05-01

    The morphological and functional differences between lipid droplets (LDs) in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues will largely be determined by their associated proteins. Analysing mRNA expression in mice fat depots we have found that most LD protein genes are expressed at higher levels in BAT, with the greatest differences observed for Cidea and Plin5. Prolonged cold exposure, which induces the appearance of brown-like adipocytes in mice WAT depots, was accompanied with the potentiation of the lipolytic machinery, with changes in ATGL, CGI-58 and G0S2 gene expression. However the major change detected in WAT was the enhancement of Cidea mRNA. Together with the increase in Cidec, it indicates that LD enlargement through LD-LD transference of fat is an important process during WAT browning. To study the dynamics of this phenotypic change, we have applied 4D confocal microscopy in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells under sustained β-adrenergic stimulation. Under these conditions the cells experienced a LD remodelling cycle, with progressive reduction on the LD size by lipolysis, followed by the formation of new LDs, which were subjected to an enlargement process, likely to be CIDE-triggered, until the cell returned to the basal state. This transformation would be triggered by the activation of a thermogenic futile cycle of lipolysis/lipogenesis and could facilitate the molecular mechanism for the unilocular to multilocular transformation during WAT browning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  17. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Campo González; Rosa María Alonso Uría; Rafael Amador Morán; Irka Ballesté López; Rosa Díaz Aguilar; Mercedes Remy Pérez

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN. La mayoría de las veces la ictericia en el recién nacido es un hecho fisiológico, causado por una hiperbilirrubinemia de predominio indirecto, secundario a inmadurez hepática e hiperproducción de bilirrubina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en los años 2007 a 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 173 recién nacidos que ingresaron al ...

  18. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    María Calderon-Dominguez; David Sebastián; Raquel Fucho; Minéia Weber; Mir, Joan F.; Ester García-Casarrubios; María Jesús Obregón; Antonio Zorzano; Valverde, Ángela M.; Dolors Serra; Laura Herrero

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmit...

  19. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  20. Neonatal brucellosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdul Rahman M; Hadid, Adnan; Hussain, Shaik Asfaq; Somily, Ali M; Sobaih, Badr H; Alrabiaah, Abdulkarim; Alanazi, Awad; Shakoor, Zahid; AlSubaie, Sarah; Meriki, Naema; Kambal, Abdelmageed M

    2017-02-28

    Although brucellosis is not uncommon in Saudi Arabia, neonatal brucellosis has been infrequently reported. In this case of neonatal brucellosis, Brucella abortus was isolated by blood culture from both the mother and the neonate. Serology was positive only in the mother.

  1. M1-M2 balancing act in white adipose tissue browning - a new role for RIP140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    A "Holy Grail" sought in medical treatment of obesity is to be able to biologically reprogram their adipose tissues to burn fat rather than store it. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores fuel and its expansion underlines insulin resistance (IR) whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fuel and stimulates insulin sensitivity. These two types of fats seesaw within our bodies via a regulatory mechanism that involves intricate communication between adipocytes and blood cells, particularly macrophages that migrate into adipose deposits. The coregulator, Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140), plays a key role in regulating this communication. In mice on a high-fat diet, the level of RIP140 in macrophages is dramatically elevated to activate their inflammatory M1 polarization and enhance their recruitment into WAT, facilitating IR. Conversely, lowering the level of RIP140 in macrophages not only reduces M1 macrophages but also expands alternatively polarized, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, triggering white adipose tissue browning, fat burning, and restoration of insulin sensitivity. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing IR, obesity, and atherosclerotic or even cosmetic fat deposits: therapeutic browning of white adipose deposits by diminishing RIP140 levels in macrophages.

  2. Rings in the neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hackett, C B

    2011-02-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an uncommon disease of the neonate. It is believed to be caused by the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies to the ribonucleoproteins (Ro\\/SSA, La\\/SSB or rarely U RNP) as these are almost invariably present in NLE sera. The most common clinical manifestations include cutaneous lupus lesions and congenital complete heart block. Hepatobiliary and haematologic abnormalities are reported less frequently. We describe a patient with cutaneous NLE to illustrate and raise awareness of the characteristic annular eruption of this condition. We also emphasize the need for thorough investigation for concomitant organ involvement and for maternal education regarding risk in future pregnancies.

  3. Ultrasonography of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is as an important tool for differentiation of obstructive and non-obstructive causes of jaundice in infants and children. Beyond two weeks of age, extrahepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis are the two most common causes of persistent neonatal jaundice: differentiation of extrahepatic biliary atresia, which requires early surgical intervention, is very important. Meticulous analysis should focus on size and configuration of the gallbladder and anatomical changes of the portahepatis. In order to narrow the differential diagnosis, combined approaches using hepatic scintigraphy, MR cholangiography, and, at times, percutaneous liver biopsy are necessary. US is useful for demonstrating choledochal cyst, bile plug syndrome, and spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct

  4. Tumour-derived PTH-related protein triggers adipose tissue browning and cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kir, Serkan; White, James P; Kleiner, Sandra; Kazak, Lawrence; Cohen, Paul; Baracos, Vickie E; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2014-09-04

    Cachexia is a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle tissues that leads to profound weight loss and frailty. About half of all cancer patients suffer from cachexia, which impairs quality of life, limits cancer therapy and decreases survival. One key characteristic of cachexia is higher resting energy expenditure levels than in healthy individuals, which has been linked to greater thermogenesis by brown fat. How tumours induce brown fat activity is unknown. Here, using a Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia, we show that tumour-derived parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has an important role in wasting, through driving the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in adipose tissues. Neutralization of PTHrP in tumour-bearing mice blocked adipose tissue browning and the loss of muscle mass and strength. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP mediates energy wasting in fat tissues and contributes to the broader aspects of cancer cachexia. Thus, neutralization of PTHrP might hold promise for ameliorating cancer cachexia and improving patient survival.

  5. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  6. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 Deletion Induces Adipose Browning and Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangang Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6, a monoacylglycerol (MAG hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning. Adipose browning and cold-induced thermogenesis are replicated by the ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 and by antisense oligonucleotides targeting ABHD6. Our evidence suggests that one mechanism by which the lipolysis derived 1-MAG signals intrinsic and cell-autonomous adipose browning is via PPARα and PPARγ activation, and that ABHD6 regulates adipose browning by controlling signal competent 1-MAG levels. Thus, ABHD6 regulates energy homeostasis, brown adipose function, and white adipose browning and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Neonatal Sepsis and Neutrophil Insufficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Bagby, Gregory J.; Welsh, David A.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis has continuously been a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite current advances in chemotherapy and patient intensive care facilities. Neonates are at high risk for developing bacterial infections due to quantitative and qualitative insufficiencies of innate immunity, particularly granulocyte lineage development and response to infection. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment, adjuvant therapies enhancing immune function have shown promise in treating sepsis in neonates. This chapter reviews current strategies for the clinical management of neonatal sepsis and analyzes mechanisms underlying insufficiencies of neutrophil defense in neonates with emphasis on new directions for adjuvant therapy development. PMID:20521927

  8. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP.

  9. blood in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the total of 548 male and 659 female neonates 10.2% males and 8% females had TSI-I ... congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Ethiopia situation where hospital discharges are within 24 ... counting weeks of pregnancy from the first day.

  10. Neonatal typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, K C; Simmonds, E J; Tarlow, M J

    1986-01-01

    Three infants of Pakistani immigrant mothers developed typhoid fever in the neonatal period. All three survived, but two became chronic excretors of Salmonella typhi. The risk of an outbreak of typhoid fever in a maternity unit or special care baby unit is emphasized.

  11. Epigenetics in neonatal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xue-feng; DU Li-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the role of epigenetic regulation in neonatal diseases and better understand Barker's "fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis".Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles published in Medline/PubMed between January 1953 and December 2009.Study selection Articles associated with epigenetics and neonatal diseases were selected.Results There is a wealth of epidemiological evidence that lower birth weight is strongly correlated with an increased risk of adult diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This phenomenon of fetal origins of adult disease is strongly associated with fetal insults to epigenetic modifications of genes. A potential role of epigenetic modifications in congenital disorders, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have been studied.Conclusions Acknowledgment of the role of these epigenetic modifications in neonatal diseases would be conducive to better understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention of later adult diseases.

  12. Fatal neonatal parechovirus encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. van Zwol (Arjen); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); C.D. Tesselaar (Coranne); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); G.J.A. Driessen (Gertjan); M. de Hoog (Matthijs); P. Govaert (Paul)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo infants developed encephalitis in the late neonatal period due to human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV-3). This finally resulted in intractable seizures leading to death. Both presented with classical signs and symptoms. HPeV-3 was detected in nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs,

  13. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palm kernel oil (often called tropical oils) and cocoa butter. For people who need to lower their ... fat. Guidelines for Fats For adults who would benefit from lowering their LDL cholesterol, the American Heart ... This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  14. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A A A What's in ... Kid's Guide to Eating Right MyPlate Food Guide Learning About Proteins Nutrition & Fitness Center Learning About Carbohydrates ...

  15. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  16. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  17. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...... participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care...... with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when...

  18. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  19. Detection of prion infectivity in fat tissues of scrapie-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Race

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of prion infectivity in organs and tissues is important in understanding prion disease pathogenesis and designing strategies to prevent prion infection in animals and humans. Transmission of prion disease from cattle to humans resulted in banning human consumption of ruminant nervous system and certain other tissues. In the present study, we surveyed tissue distribution of prion infectivity in mice with prion disease. We show for the first time detection of infectivity in white and brown fat. Since high amounts of ruminant fat are consumed by humans and also incorporated into animal feed, fat-containing tissues may pose a previously unappreciated hazard for spread of prion infection.

  20. [Recommendations for neonatal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-08-01

    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital.

  1. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  2. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  3. Curcumin promotes browning of white adipose tissue in a norepinephrine-dependent way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiuchao; Ye, Zichen; Xu, Chengming; Zhang, Ming; Ruan, Banjun; Wei, Ming; Jiang, Yinghao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Li; Lei, Xiaoying; Lu, Zifan

    2015-10-16

    Brown adipose tissue converts energy from food into heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1, defending against cold. In some conditions, inducible 'brown-like' adipocytes, also known as beige adipocytes, can develop within white adipose tissue (WAT). These beige adipocytes have characteristics similar to classical brown adipocytes and thus can burn lipids to produce heat. In the current study, we demonstrated that curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased bodyweight and fat mass without affecting food intake in mice. We further demonstrated that curcumin improves cold tolerance in mice. This effect was possibly mediated by the emergence of beige adipocytes and the increase of thermogenic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in inguinal WAT. In addition, curcumin promotes β3AR gene expression in inguinal WAT and elevates the levels of plasma norepinephrine, a hormone that can induce WAT browning. Taken together, our data suggest that curcumin can potentially prevent obesity by inducing browning of inguinal WAT via the norepinephrine-β3AR pathway.

  4. Thermogenic activity of UCP1 in human white fat-derived beige adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Stefano; Hallen, Stefan; Huang, Li; Svensson, Per-Arne; Momo, Remi A; Wallin, Simonetta; Carlsson, Eva K; Forslöw, Anna; Seale, Patrick; Peng, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Heat-producing beige/brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes in white adipose tissue have the potential to suppress metabolic disease in mice and hold great promise for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (hASCs) from subcutaneous white adipose tissue can be efficiently converted into beige adipocytes. Upon pharmacological activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, hASC-derived adipocytes activated beige fat-selective genes and a brown/beige fat-selective electron transport chain gene program. Importantly, hASC-derived beige fat cells displayed the bioenergetic characteristics of genuine brown fat cells, including a capacity for increased respiratory uncoupling in response to β-adrenergic agonists. Furthermore, knock-down experiments reveal that the thermogenic capacity of human beige fat cells was entirely dependent on the presence of Uncoupling protein 1. In summary, this study reveals that hASCs can be readily differentiated into beige adipocytes that, upon activation, undergo uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis.

  5. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  6. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  7. Blockade of the activin receptor IIb activates functional brown adipogenesis and thermogenesis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Brigitte; Murray, Ben; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Marcaletti, Stefan; Marcellin, David; Bergling, Sebastian; Brachat, Sophie; Persohn, Elke; Pierrel, Eliane; Bombard, Florian; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Trendelenburg, Anne-Ulrike; Morvan, Frederic; Richardson, Brian; Glass, David J; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Feige, Jerome N

    2012-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key tissue for energy expenditure via fat and glucose oxidation for thermogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the myostatin/activin receptor IIB (ActRIIB) pathway, which serves as an important negative regulator of muscle growth, is also a negative regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation. In parallel to the anticipated hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, the pharmacological inhibition of ActRIIB in mice, using a neutralizing antibody, increases the amount of BAT without directly affecting white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, inhibition of ActRIIB inhibits Smad3 signaling and activates the expression of myoglobin and PGC-1 coregulators in brown adipocytes. Consequently, ActRIIB blockade in brown adipose tissue enhances mitochondrial function and uncoupled respiration, translating into beneficial functional consequences, including enhanced cold tolerance and increased energy expenditure. Importantly, ActRIIB inhibition enhanced energy expenditure only at ambient temperature or in the cold and not at thermoneutrality, where nonshivering thermogenesis is minimal, strongly suggesting that brown fat activation plays a prominent role in the metabolic actions of ActRIIB inhibition.

  8. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  9. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  10. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  11. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  12. Neonatal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B; Treharne, L

    2016-09-01

    A term neonate was born with a grossly swollen and discoloured left hand and forearm. He was transferred from the local hospital to the plastic surgical unit, where a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent emergency forearm fasciotomies at six hours of age. Following serial debridements of necrotic tissue, he underwent split-thickness skin grafting of the resultant defects of his forearm, hand and digits. At the clinic follow-up appointment two months after the procedure, he was found to have developed severe flexion contractures despite regular outpatient hand therapy and splintage. He has had further reconstruction with contracture release, use of artificial dermal matrix, and K-wire fixation of the thumb and wrist. Despite this, the long term outcome is likely to be an arm with poor function. The key learning point from this case is that despite prompt transfer, diagnosis and appropriate surgical management, the outcome for neonatal compartment syndrome may still be poor.

  13. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  14. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...

  15. Expression of “brown-in-white” adipocyte biomarkers shows gender differences and the influence of early dietary exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Servera, María; López,Nora; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    Induction of brown-like adipocytes (brite) in white adipose tissues may allow the conversion of lipid storage cells in fat-burning cells. Little is known concerning browning potential in males compared with females. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether gender differences were present in gene expression of “brite” markers as well as the impact of dietary manipulation at both early stages and adulthood in rats. We have determined the expression of brite markers and genes associated with l...

  16. Effects of Vitamins K in Neonates and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is required for the hepatic production of blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The term vitamin K refers to a variety of fat-soluble 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone derivatives. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone occurs in green plants, while vitamin K2 (menaquinone is synthesized by microbial in the gut. The recommended dose of vitamin K in neonates is 1 mg intramuscularly. For infants below 2.5 kg, the dose is 0.3 mg/kg to a maximum dose of 1 mg. Vitamin K crosses the placenta poorly, and neonates are relatively deficient of vitamin K at birth. Human milk contains about 1.5 µg/l of vitamin K, whereas most formula milks contain about three times as much as this. Vitamin K1 prophylaxis with 0.2 mg administered intramuscularly maintains adequate vitamin K1 status of preterm infants until a median age of 25 postnatal days and did not cause early vitamin K1 2, 3-epoxide accumulation. There is need for intramuscularly vitamin K prophylaxis for all newborns in order to eradicate hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Some authors found that the antenatal administration of vitamin K1 to pregnant women in preterm delivery increases the blood coagulation activity in neonates whereas other authors found that the antennal administration of vitamin K1 has no effects on neonates. Vitamin K1 crosses the placenta poorly and it is not surprising that vitamin K1 has limited effects on neonates. The aim of this study was to review the effects of vitamins K in neonates and young infants.

  17. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  18. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  19. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home...... visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...... participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care...

  20. Anorectal malformations in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anorectal malformations (ARM are associated with congenital anomalies and other risk factors, yielding a poor prognosis, especially in neonatal life. Objectives: This study was performed to identify the congenital anomalies as a factor of poor prognosis (mortality in such patients. Settings: Department of Pediatric surgery, The Children′s Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore. Design: Prospective observational study, with statistical support. Materials and Methods: The information on the demography, clinical features, investigations, management performed, and outcome was entered in the designed proforma and analysed with the help of statistical software EpiInfo version 3.5.1. Statistical test: Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance of the results. Results : Of 100 neonates with ARM, 77 were male and 23, female (3.4:1. The mean age at presentation was 3.4 days (range, 12 hrs to 28 days. In 60 patients (60%, the presentation was imperforate anus without a clinically identified fistula. In 28 patients (28%, associated anomalies were present. The common associated anomalies were urogenital (10%, cardiovascular (8%, and gastrointestinal (6%. Down′s syndrome was present in 8 (8% patients. A total of 15 (15% deaths occurred in this study. In patients having associated congenital anomalies, 11 deaths occurred, whereas, 4 deaths were in patients without associated anomalies (P < 0.5. Conclusion : The mortality is higher in neonates with ARM having associated congenital anomalies.

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of CH in neonates. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units of the Department of Pediatrics Unit-I, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore and Lady Willington Hospital Lahore in 6 months (January-June 2011. Materials and Methods: Sample was collected by non-probability purposive sampling. After consent, 550 newborn were registered for the study. Demographic data and relevant history was recorded. After aseptic measures, 2-3 ml venous blood analyzed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level by immunoradiometric assay. Treatment was started according to the individual merit as per protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and Chi-square test was applied to find out the association of CH with different variables. Results: The study population consisted of 550 newborns. Among 550 newborns, 4 (0.8% newborns had elevated TSH level. CH had statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism (P value 0.000 and mother′s drug intake during the pregnancy period (P value 0.013. Conclusion: CH is 0.8% in neonates. It has statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism and mother′s drug intake during pregnancy.

  2. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  3. How to Lose Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Maxwell; 钱俊

    2005-01-01

    Here is yet another article about losing body fat. The Interact is riddled with such articles, Some propose complex diets; others give worth while valuable advice and most are trying to sell something.

  4. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  5. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  6. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biscuits, sweet rolls, and donuts Breads and crackers Frozen foods, such as frozen dinners, pizza, ice cream, frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and ...

  7. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of ... pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm kernel oils (found in packaged ...

  8. The Possible Potentiating Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Inhibitors in Trans-Differentiation of white to Brown Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown adipose tissue (BAT is an organ with the specialised function of intracellular fat oxidation; in other words, brown fat points to a potential natural tool by which energy expenditure is being stimulated. Obesity is a serious illness which can lead to many medical complications such as cardiovascular disorders. The BAT production, therefore, could be a promising therapeutic strategy for managing obesity. While different approaches have been examined to generate brown adipocytes from various precursor cells, no study has proposed an efficient procedure for direct trans-differentiation of white to brown adipocytes. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP-7 is a possible potential agent by which most of the main factors involved in induction of brown adipocytogenesis such as early regulators of brown fat fate, positive regulatory domain containing 16 (PRDM16 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α are stimulated, but the rate of success was not so promising. It has been documented that mature white adipocytes exert endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ESR and consequently unfolded protein response (UPR becomes activated for the purpose of ESR recovery since the ESR exceeds the capacity of UPR to overcome the imposed stress, and in turn disables the cell to manage the protein synthesis cascade including those required for BMP-7 induction of brown adipogenesis. This was performed using three main ESR sensors: PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1 and activating transcription factor 6 alpha (ATF-6α resulting in attenuation of protein translation by blocking the activation of transcriptional machinery of UPR genes and the cell behaviour would also be changed towards apoptosis.It may suggest and propose the hypothesis that pretreatment of the white adipocyte with an ESR inhibitor such as salubrinal by reducing ESR and turning on the protein synthesis machinery

  9. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of neonatal hypocalcemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Won Im; Yu, Hyeoh Won; Chung, Hye Rim; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Beyong Il

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of full-term neonates with hypocalcemia and to suggest factors associated with neonatal hypocalcemia The medical records of full-term neonates with hypocalcemia were reviewed...

  10. Presentation of Neonatal Sinovenous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Signs, risk factors, comorbidities, and radiographic findings in 59 neonates presenting with sinovenous thrombosis are reported from Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

  11. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  12. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  13. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  14. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  15. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  16. HARPERS FERRY, A PLAY ABOUT JOHN BROWN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAVIS, BARRIE

    THIS PLAY IS A DRAMATIC RENDERING OF JOHN BROWN'S ATTACK ON THE ARMORY AT HARPERS FERRY AND HIS SUBSEQUENT TRIAL FOR TREASON. ALTHOUGH IT ADHERES TO THE FACTS OF HISTORY, THEY ARE NOT TREATED REALISTICALLY. "HARPERS FERRY" PORTRAYS BROWN AS POSSESSING A PURE IDEALISM UNTAINTED IN THE SLIGHTEST DEGREE BY MATERIALISM OR SELF-SEEKING, WHICH…

  17. John Brown and the Abolitionist Ministry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Stuart

    1982-01-01

    John Brown's death did not cause the Civil War; it precipitated the conflict. Many ministers anticipated the war and hurried its outbreak by canonizing a fanatic. By 1859, the abolitionists needed a martyr to infuse new emotion into their cause and seized upon John Brown to fill this role. (Author/GC)

  18. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  19. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  20. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  1. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  2. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  3. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  4. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C

    2014-11-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Neonatal haemostasis and the management of neonatal thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Two detailed reviews of the management of neonatal thrombosis were published in 2012; one was an up-dated version of guidance first issued in 2004 and the other was a comprehensive review. Both of these publications gave very similar advice regarding the practical aspects of the indications, dosage and management of antithrombotic therapy. The authors stated that the evidence supporting most of their recommendations for anti-thrombotic therapy in neonates remained weak and so the therapy for a neonate with a thrombosis has to be based on an individualized assessment of estimated risk versus potential benefit. The aim of this present review is to give the treating physician an outline of the unique physiology of neonatal coagulation and how this affects the monitoring, dosing and even the choice of therapeutic strategy for the management of thrombosis in the neonate.

  6. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F.; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M.; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders. PMID:27438137

  7. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  8. AHNAK deficiency promotes browning and lipolysis in mice via increased responsiveness to β-adrenergic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Seo Hyun; Kim, Yo Na; Kim, Il Yong; Kim, Youn Ju; Kyeong, Dong Soo; Lim, Hee Jung; Cho, Soo Young; Choi, Junhee; Wi, Young Jin; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Bae, Yun Soo; Seong, Je Kyung

    2016-03-18

    In adipose tissue, agonists of the β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) regulate lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and thermogenesis. The deficiency in the thermogenesis induced by neuroblast differentiation-associated protein AHNAK in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that AHNAK may stimulate energy expenditure via development of beige fat. Here, we report that AHNAK deficiency promoted browning and thermogenic gene expression in WAT but not in brown adipose tissue of mice stimulated with the ADRB3 agonist CL-316243. Consistent with the increased thermogenesis, Ahnak(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in energy expenditure, accompanied by elevated mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT depots in response to CL-316243. Additionally, AHNAK-deficient WAT contained more eosinophils and higher levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4/IL-13) to promote browning of WAT in response to CL-316243. This was associated with enhanced sympathetic tone in the WAT via upregulation of adrb3 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in response to β-adrenergic activation. CL-316243 activated PKA signalling and enhanced lipolysis, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and release of free glycerol in Ahnak(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Overall, these findings suggest an important role of AHNAK in the regulation of thermogenesis and lipolysis in WAT via β-adrenergic signalling.

  9. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calderon-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO, in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  10. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  11. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  12. The Effect of Neonatal Leptin Antagonism in Male Rat Offspring Is Dependent upon the Interaction between Prior Maternal Nutritional Status and Post-Weaning Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beltrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies report associations between overweight mothers and increased obesity risk in offspring. It is unclear whether neonatal leptin regulation mediates this association between overweight mothers and offspring obesity. We investigated the effect of neonatal treatment with a leptin antagonist (LA on growth and metabolism in offspring of mothers fed either a control or a high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed either a control (CON or a high fat diet (MHF during pregnancy and lactation. Male CON and MHF neonates received either saline (S or a rat-specific pegylated LA on days 3, 5, and 7. Offspring were weaned onto either a control or a high fat (hf diet. At day 100, body composition, blood glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma leptin and insulin were determined. In CON and MHF offspring, LA increased neonatal bodyweights compared to saline-treated offspring and was more pronounced in MHF offspring. In the post-weaning period, neonatal LA treatment decreased hf diet-induced weight gain but only in CON offspring. LA treatment induced changes in body length, fat mass, body temperature, and bone composition. Neonatal LA treatment can therefore exert effects on growth and metabolism in adulthood but is dependent upon interactions between maternal and post-weaning nutrition.

  13. Inhibition of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation by second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jee-Eun; Cho, Yoon Mi; Kwak, Su-Nam; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyung Won; Jung, Hyosan; Jeong, Seong-Whan; Kwon, Oh-Joo

    2012-09-30

    Brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are the most commonly used drugs for schizophrenia with several advantages over first-line drugs, however, it can cause clinically-significant weight gain. To reveal the involvement of brown adipocytes in SGA-induced weight gain, we compared the effect of clozapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone, SGA with different propensities to induce weight gain, on the differentiation and the expression of brown fat-specific markers, lipogenic genes and adipokines in a mouse brown preadipocyte cell line. On Oil Red-O staining, the differentiation was inhibited almost completely by clozapine (40 μM) and partially by quetiapine (30 μM). Clozapine significantly down-regulated the brown adipogenesis markers PRDM16, C/EBPβ, PPARγ2, UCP-1, PGC-1α, and Cidea in dose- and time-dependent manners, whereas quetiapine suppressed PRDM16, PPARγ 2, and UCP-1 much weakly than clozapine. Clozapine also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of lipogenic genes ACC, SCD1, GLUT4, aP2, and CD36 as well as adipokines such as resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. In contrast, quetiapine suppressed only resistin and leptin but not those of lipogenic genes and adiponectin. Ziprasidone (10 μM) did not alter the differentiation as well as the gene expression patterns. Our results suggest for the first time that the inhibition of brown adipogenesis may be a possible mechanism to explain weight gain induced by clozapine and quetiapine.

  14. Rapamycin negatively impacts insulin signaling, glucose uptake and uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casarrubios, Ester; de Moura, Carlos; Arroba, Ana I; Pescador, Nuria; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Garcia, Laura; Herrero, Laura; Serra, Dolors; Cadenas, Susana; Reis, Flavio; Carvalho, Eugenia; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Valverde, Ángela M

    2016-12-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a metabolic disorder that affects 40% of patients on immunosuppressive agent (IA) treatment, such as rapamycin (also known as sirolimus). IAs negatively modulate insulin action in peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle, liver and white fat. However, the effects of IAs on insulin sensitivity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) have not been investigated. We have analyzed the impact of rapamycin on insulin signaling, thermogenic gene-expression and mitochondrial respiration in BAT. Treatment of brown adipocytes with rapamycin for 16h significantly decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein expression and insulin-mediated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. Consequently, both insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake were decreased. Early activation of the N-terminal Janus activated kinase (JNK) was also observed, thereby increasing IRS1 Ser 307 phosphorylation. These effects of rapamycin on insulin signaling in brown adipocytes were partly prevented by a JNK inhibitor. In vivo treatment of rats with rapamycin for three weeks abolished insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation in BAT. Rapamycin also inhibited norepinephrine (NE)-induced lipolysis, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipocytes. Importantly, basal mitochondrial respiration, proton leak and maximal respiratory capacity were significantly decreased in brown adipocytes treated with rapamycin. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time the important role of brown adipocytes as target cells of rapamycin, suggesting that insulin resistance in BAT might play a major role in NODAT development.

  15. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Emily A.; Stroup, Bridget M.; Murali, Sangita G.; O’Neill, Lucas M.; Ntambi, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. Objective To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone. Methods Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal) or control diets (13% Fat Kcal) with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test. Results Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat

  16. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  17. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  18. The conundrum of neonatal coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel-Vilk, Shoshana

    2012-01-01

    The maturation and postnatal development of the human coagulation system was first studied and described more than 20 years ago. These older studies, supported by more recent data, confirm the significant and important differences in the physiology of coagulation and fibrinolysis in neonates and young children compared with older children and adults. Subsequently, significant differences were also described in the physiology of primary hemostasis and in global in vitro tests for hemostasis. These differences, which mostly reflect the immaturity of the neonatal hemostasis system, are functionally balanced. Healthy neonates show no signs of easy bruising or other bleeding diathesis and no increased tendency to thrombosis for any given stimulus compared with adults. Systemic diseases may affect hemostasis, predisposing ill neonates to increased hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. The immaturity of the hemostasis system in preterm and very-low-birth-weight neonates may contribute to a higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage. Therapies targeting the hemostasis system can be effective for preventing and treating these events. The concept of "neonatal coagulopathy" has an important impact on both the diagnosis and management of hemorrhagic or thrombotic events in neonates. For diagnosis of hemostasis disorders, diagnostic laboratories processing pediatric samples should use age-, analyzer-, and reagent-appropriate reference ranges. Age-specific guidelines should be followed for the management of neonates with hemostatic disorders.

  19. Bacterial sepsis in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Christensen, Carla M; Riley, Cheryl

    2017-09-21

    Neonatal bacterial infections leading to sepsis occur frequently in the first few days or weeks of life. NPs must be able to recognize the early signs of sepsis and understand the need for rapid evaluation and treatment. This article discusses antibiotic treatments for various types and locations of bacterial infections and sepsis in the neonate.

  20. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  1. Hemolysis in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M

    2016-06-01

    Hemolysis can be an important cause of hyperbilirubinemia in premature and term neonates. It can result from genetic abnormalities intrinsic to or factors exogenous to normal to red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can lead to a relatively rapid increase in total serum/plasma bilirubin, hyperbilirubinemia that is somewhat slow to fall with phototherapy, or hyperbilirubinemia that is likely to rebound after phototherapy. Laboratory methods for diagnosing hemolysis are more difficult to apply, or less conclusive, in preterm infants. Transfusion of donor RBCs can present a bilirubin load that must be metabolized. Genetic causes can be identified by next-generation sequencing panels.

  2. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  3. Effects of Vitamins K in Neonates and Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K is required for the hepatic production of blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The term vitamin K refers to a variety of fat-soluble 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone derivatives. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) occurs in green plants, while vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is synthesized by microbial in the gut. The recommended dose of vitamin K in neonates is 1 mg intramuscularly. For infants below 2.5 kg, the dose is 0.3 mg/kg to a maximum dose of 1 mg. Vitamin K crosses the placenta poorl...

  4. Effects of Vitamin A in Neonates and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is the generic name given to a group of fat-soluble compounds including retinol (the alcohol form, retinyl esters, retinaldehyde and retinol acid. Deficiency, first recognized in 1912, can damage the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract. It can also affect immunocompetence, the reproductive function, growth and vision. The dose of vitamin A for neonates is 5,000 IU given intramuscularly 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. Retinol concentrations < 0.70 µmol/l in serum and

  5. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  6. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  7. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  8. Browning of white adipose tissue uncouples glucose uptake from insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössenböck, Karin; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Rose, Adam J; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Herzig, Stephan; Schafmeier, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Presence of thermogenically active adipose tissue in adult humans has been inversely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. While it had been shown that insulin is crucial for the development of classical brown fat, its role in development and function of inducible brown-in-white (brite) adipose tissue is less clear. Here we show that insulin deficiency impaired differentiation of brite adipocytes. However, adrenergic stimulation almost fully induced the thermogenic program under these settings. Although brite differentiation of adipocytes as well as browning of white adipose tissue entailed substantially elevated glucose uptake by adipose tissue, the capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake surprisingly was not higher in the brite state. Notably, in line with the insulin-independent stimulation of glucose uptake, our data revealed that brite recruitment results in induction of solute carrier family 2 (GLUT-1) expression in adipocytes and inguinal WAT. These results for the first time demonstrate that insulin signaling is neither essential for brite recruitment, nor is it improved in cells or tissues upon browning.

  9. Browning of white adipose tissue uncouples glucose uptake from insulin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Mössenböck

    Full Text Available Presence of thermogenically active adipose tissue in adult humans has been inversely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. While it had been shown that insulin is crucial for the development of classical brown fat, its role in development and function of inducible brown-in-white (brite adipose tissue is less clear. Here we show that insulin deficiency impaired differentiation of brite adipocytes. However, adrenergic stimulation almost fully induced the thermogenic program under these settings. Although brite differentiation of adipocytes as well as browning of white adipose tissue entailed substantially elevated glucose uptake by adipose tissue, the capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake surprisingly was not higher in the brite state. Notably, in line with the insulin-independent stimulation of glucose uptake, our data revealed that brite recruitment results in induction of solute carrier family 2 (GLUT-1 expression in adipocytes and inguinal WAT. These results for the first time demonstrate that insulin signaling is neither essential for brite recruitment, nor is it improved in cells or tissues upon browning.

  10. Browning of White Adipose Tissue Uncouples Glucose Uptake from Insulin Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössenböck, Karin; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Rose, Adam J.; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P.; Herzig, Stephan; Schafmeier, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Presence of thermogenically active adipose tissue in adult humans has been inversely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. While it had been shown that insulin is crucial for the development of classical brown fat, its role in development and function of inducible brown-in-white (brite) adipose tissue is less clear. Here we show that insulin deficiency impaired differentiation of brite adipocytes. However, adrenergic stimulation almost fully induced the thermogenic program under these settings. Although brite differentiation of adipocytes as well as browning of white adipose tissue entailed substantially elevated glucose uptake by adipose tissue, the capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake surprisingly was not higher in the brite state. Notably, in line with the insulin-independent stimulation of glucose uptake, our data revealed that brite recruitment results in induction of solute carrier family 2 (GLUT-1) expression in adipocytes and inguinal WAT. These results for the first time demonstrate that insulin signaling is neither essential for brite recruitment, nor is it improved in cells or tissues upon browning. PMID:25313899

  11. Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Festuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT non-shivering thermogenesis impacts energy homeostasis in rodents and humans. Mitochondrial UCP1 in brown fat cells produce heat by dissipating the energy generated by the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose. In addition to thermogenesis and despite its small relative size, sympathetically activated BAT constitutes an important glucose, fatty acid and triacylglycerol-clearing organ, and such function could potentially be used to alleviate dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. To date, chronic sympathetic innervation and PPARγ activation are the only recognized inducers of BAT recruitment. Here, we review the major differences between these two inducers of BAT recruitment in the regulation of lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, lipid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis, glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Whereas BAT recruitment through sympathetic drive translates into functional thermogenic activity, PPARγ-mediated recruitment is associated with a reduction in sympathetic activity leading to increased lipid storage in brown adipocytes. The promising therapeutic role of brown adipose tissue in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic and hyperglycaemic conditions are also discussed.

  12. Contrasting effects of cold acclimation versus obesogenic diets on chemerin gene expression in brown and brite adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ida R; Jansson, Kim M; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Based on results from a signal sequence trap, we investigated chemerin gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Male NMRI mice were exposed to 30, 22 or 4 °C for 3 weeks, or were fed control (chow) diet, cafeteria diet or high-fat diet at thermoneutrality for the same time. In brown adipose tissue, cold acclimation strongly diminished chemerin gene expression, whereas obesogenic diets augmented expression. Qualitatively, changes in expression were paralleled in brite/beige adipose tissues (e.g. inguinal), whereas white adipose tissue (epididymal) and muscle did not react to these cues. Changes in tissue expression were not directly paralleled by alterations in plasma levels. Both these intact animal studies and brown adipocyte cell culture studies indicated that the gene expression regulation was not congruent with a sympathetic/adrenergic control. The data are discussed in relation to suggested endocrine, paracrine and autocrine effects of chemerin.

  13. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital and University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Vic. 3052 (Australia)]. E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au

    2006-11-15

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child.

  14. Neonatal status of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb, as a result of the ovulation and fertilization of more than one egg. It is relatively rare in humans and represents the rest of the phylogenetic stages. The most common are twins and they indicate the development of two fetuses in the womb. The frequency of twin pregnancies is about 1%. Multiple pregnancies belong to a group of high-risk pregnancies because of the many complications that occur during the pregnancy: higher number of premature deliveries, bleeding, early neonatal complications and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Such pregnancies and infants require greater supervision and monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of baby twins born at the maternity ward of the General Hospital in Prokuplje and their morbidity and mortality. Data on the total number of deliveries, number of twins, parity and maternal age, gestational age, body weight of twins, method of delivery, Apgar score and perinatal mortality were collected and statistically analyzed by means of retrospective analysis of operative birth and neonatal protocol for 6 years (2005 of 2010. Out of 4527 mothers who gave birth 43 were pairs of twins, or 0.95% of women gave birth to twins. These babies are more likely born by Caesarean section, but delivered with slightly lower birth weight.

  15. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  16. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  17. Influence of the Brown Marine Algae on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristcs of the Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Sălăgean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to asses the influence of the brown algae on the quality in manufacturing of a certain halfsmoked sausages assortment.  Exploiting the natural plant resources as well as reducing the animal fat in the finished product by replacing it with proteins, fibers and minerals (provided by the brown marine algae were also intended. Two technological variants with different ratios of algae (V1-10% respectively V2-15% from those 25% of fat (the remaining of 75% beeing represented, in each case, by beef were experienced and compared with the control sample (VM, without algae, 75% beef and 25% fat. The finished products were analyzed in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical, in different stages of storage, at 24 hours after obtaining and seven days of storage at 10 to 12 degrees. The correlations between investigated quality parameters and the ratios of algae were also established. The physicochemical analysis highlighted the highest values regarding the protein, moisture, sodium chloride and the lowest fat content values in the case of the V2 variant compared to the V1 and VM variants. Furthermore, an increase in protein, fat, sodium chloride and a decrease of the moisture content have been found in all variants observed during the storage. The shelf life of the product was not negatively affected by the addition of algae due to their antimicrobial activity. The addition of algae in combination with beef components led to obtaining a higher quality product with functional characteristics.

  18. Assessing the effect of a high-fat diet on rodents' adipose tissue using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Gobbell, Cassidy; Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-lipid diet on elasticity of adipose tissue. We employed dual Raman/Brillouin microspectroscopy to analyze brown and white adipose tissues obtained from adult rats. The rats were divided into two groups, one of which received a high-fat feed, while the other served as a control. We hypothesized that the changes in the elasticity of adipose tissues between the two groups can be successfully assessed using Brillouin spectroscopy. We found that the brown adipose tissue possessed a lesser Brillouin shift than the white adipose within each group and that the elastic modulus of both adipose tissues increases in the high-fat diet group. The Raman spectra provided supplementary chemical information and indicated an increase in the lipid-to-protein ratio in the brown adipose, but not in the white adipose.

  19. Fatty acid metabolism and the basis of brown adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan F; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, leading to severe associated pathologies such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue has become crucial due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and traditionally white adipose tissue has captured the most attention. However in the last decade the presence and activity of heat-generating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has been rediscovered. BAT decreases with age and in obese and diabetic patients. It has thus attracted strong scientific interest, and any strategy to increase its mass or activity might lead to new therapeutic approaches to obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In this review we highlight the mechanisms of fatty acid uptake, trafficking and oxidation in brown fat thermogenesis. We focus on BAT's morphological and functional characteristics and fatty acid synthesis, storage, oxidation and use as a source of energy.

  20. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Felix; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ilkayeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed...... the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes. Several metabolites involved in lipid metabolism, including...... triglycerides, cholesterol, and bile acids, were also affected by hibernation. Transplantation of the bear microbiota from summer and winter to germ-free mice transferred some of the seasonal metabolic features and demonstrated that the summer microbiota promoted adiposity without impairing glucose tolerance...

  1. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  2. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  3. A Story in Brown and White Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Brown Adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mössenböck, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue exists in three shades: White adipose tissue (WAT), the site of energy storage, brown adipose tissue (BAT), which burns nutrients to generate heat and maintain body temperature, and brown in white adipose tissue (brite AT), which represents WAT adapting BAT features in cold exposure. Thermogenically active BAT has been discovered in adult humans and inversely correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The link between impaired insulin sensitivity and the browning of adipos...

  4. Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

  5. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  6. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help f...... future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively....

  7. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  8. Browns Park Bottomlands Amendment : April 7, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The University of Wyoming proposed a two year research project to address identified vegetation monitoring needs of the Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  9. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  11. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  12. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  13. Common and distinct regulation of human and mouse brown and beige adipose tissues: a promising therapeutic target for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejiao; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation. In this review, we summarize the evolution of human brown adipose tissue (hBAT) research and discuss new in vivo methodologies for evaluating energy expenditure in patients. We highlight the differences between human and mouse BAT by integrating and comparing their cellular morphology, function, and gene expression profiles. Although great advances in hBAT biology have been achieved in the past decade, more cellular models are needed to acquire a better understanding of adipose-specific processes and molecular mechanisms. Thus, this review also describes the development of a human brown fat cell line, which could provide promising mechanistic insights into hBAT function, signal transduction, and development. Finally, we focus on the therapeutic potential and current limitations of hBAT as an anti-glycemic, anti-lipidemic, and weight loss-inducing 'metabolic panacea'.

  14. Brown but not white adipose cells synthesize omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xia; Park, Hui Gyu; Zhang, Ji Yao; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Guowen; Subramanian, Nivetha; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ which coordinates several crucial biological functions including fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, and immune function. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is most abundant in young infants during the brain growth spurt when demands for omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is greatest for brain structure. Our aim was to characterize relative biosynthesis of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from precursors in cultured white (WAT) and brown (BAT) cells and study relevant gene expression. Mouse WAT and BAT cells were grown in regular DMEM media to confluence, and differentiation was induced. At days 0 and 8 cells were treated with albumin bound d5-18:3n-3 (d5-ALA) and analyzed 24h later. d5-ALA increased cellular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in undifferentiated BAT cells, whereas differentiated BAT cells accumulated 20:4n-3, EPA and DPA. DHA as a fraction of total omega-3 LCPUFA was greatest in differentiated BAT cells compared to undifferentiated cells. Undifferentiated WAT cells accumulated EPA, whereas differentiated cells accumulated DPA. WAT accumulated trace newly synthesized DHA. Zic1 a classical brown marker and Prdm16 a key driver of brown fat cell fate are expressed only in BAT cells. Ppargc1a is 15 fold higher in differentiated BAT cells. We conclude that in differentiated adipose cells accumulating fat, BAT cells but not WAT cells synthesize DHA, supporting the hypothesis that BAT is a net producer of DHA.

  15. EVALUATION OF NEONATAL CARDIAC MURMURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaiah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular malformations are the most common cause of congenital malformations, the diagnosis of which requires a close observation in the neonatal period. Early recognition of CHD is important in the neonatal period, as many of them may be fatal if undiagnosed and may require immediate intervention. The objectives of this study are to study the epidemiology of neonatal cardiac murmurs, to identify clinical characteristics which differentiate pathological murmur from functional murmurs and to assess the reliability of clinical evaluation in diagnosing CHD. Method of study included all neonates admitted to the NICU, postnatal ward, attending pediatric OPD or neonatal follow up clinic and were detected to have cardiac murmurs. It was a cross sectional study over a period of 16months. A clinical diagnosis was made based on history and clinical examination. Then Chest X-ray and ECG, Echocardiography was done in all neonates for confirmation of the diagnosis. These neonates were again examined daily till they were in hospital and during the follow-up visit at 6 weeks. The results of 70 neonates in this study conducted over a period of 24 months included the incidence of cardiac murmurs among intramural neonates which was 13.5 for 1000 live births. Most frequent symptom was fast breathing in 10(14.3% cases. VSD was the most common diagnosis clinically in 23 (33% babies. The most frequent Echo diagnosis was acyanotic complex congenital heart disease in 25(36% cases followed by 12(17% cases each of VSD and ASD respectively. Overall in our study 77.1% (54cases of the murmurs were diagnosed correctly and confirmed by Echocardiography The study concluded that it is possible to make clinical diagnosis in many cases of congenital heart diseases, the functional murmurs could be differentiated from those arising from structural heart disease and evaluation of the infants based only on murmurs, few congenital heart diseases can be missed.

  16. Oxidative stress in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, R; Palomino, N; Robles, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the oxidative state of term and preterm neonates at the moment of birth and during the first days of life, and the influence of exposure to oxygen on the premature neonates.A total of 20 neonates were selected. Group A: 10 healthy full-term neonates, and Group B: 10 preterm neonates with no other pathology associated, requiring oxygen therapy. Venous samples were taken in cord at 3 and 72 h in Group A, and in cord at 3, 24 and 72 h and 7 days in Group B.Hydroperoxides, Q10 coenzyme (Co Q10) and alpha-tocopherol were measured within the erythrocyte membrane. Levels of hydroperoxides present in erythrocyte membrane were higher than normal both in Group A and in Group B at birth. This increase was greater in the group of premature neonates. Levels of alpha-tocopherol at birth increase significantly at 72 h in term neonates. Among the premature newborns, alpha-tocopherol levels are two to three times lower at birth and do not rise to higher levels as in the term neonate group. Fall in levels of Co Q10 in erythrocyte membranes is observed, and perhaps is due to the role of Co Q10 in maintaining the pool of reduced tocopherol. At birth, the neonate presents an increase of markers of oxidative stress and a decrease of their antioxidant defenses. This difference is greater as gestational age decreases. The application of oxygen therapy resulted in these levels which remain low throughout the study period.

  17. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and down the soccer field. So what's the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  18. What Brown saw and you can too

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  19. The Relationship between Neonatal Jaundice and Maternal and Neonatal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Garosi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Since factors such as mode of delivery, oxytocin induction, and neonate's gender could contribute to jaundice, continuous assessment of newborns after birth could facilitate early diagnosis, promote disease management, and reduce the subsequent complications.

  20. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  1. Neonatal sensitization to latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, J

    2000-05-01

    Babies born in delivery rooms of hospitals are exposed to latex through skin and mucous membrane contact with prepowdered latex gloves worn by midwives and doctors, and through the inhalation of latex-bound starch powder in the air of the delivery room. This paper examines the hypothesis that they are at risk for latex sensitization, and that part of the sharp increase of childhood asthma, eczema and anaphylaxis in the past 30-40 years may be linked. These possibilities seem hitherto unsuspected. In over 700 papers on latex allergy no mention of neonatal exposure to latex has been found. Even obstetric papers discussing the risks for an atopic mother (atopy - a tendency to develop allergies) do not seem to anticipate any risk for the baby, who might also be atopic. Latex allergy is primarily regarded as an occupational hazard. This paper suggests that it is a hazard for every baby handled by latex gloves at birth. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in a Premature Neonate Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of JMML that mimicked neonatal sepsis. Three weeks after birth, JMML was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of JMML presenting in a premature infant in Taiwan.

  3. Neonatal lupus syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyon, J P; Rupel, A; Clancy, R M

    2004-01-01

    The neonatal lupus syndromes (NLS), while quite rare, carry significant mortality and morbidity in cases of cardiac manifestations. Although anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies are detected in > 85% of mothers whose fetuses are identified with congenital heart block (CHB) in a structurally normal heart, when clinicians applied this testing to their pregnant patients, the risk for a woman with the candidate antibodies to have a child with CHB was at or below 1 in 50. While the precise pathogenic mechanism of antibody-mediated injury remains unknown, it is clear that the antibodies alone are insufficient to cause disease and fetal factors are likely contributory. In vivo and in vitro evidence supports a pathologic cascade involving apoptosis of cardiocytes, surface translocation of Ro and La antigens, binding of maternal autoantibodies, secretion of profibrosing factors (e.g., TGFbeta) from the scavenging macrophages and modulation of cardiac fibroblasts to a myofibroflast scarring phenotype. The spectrum of cardiac abnormalities continues to expand, with varying degrees of block identified in utero and reports of late onset cardiomyopathy (some of which display endocardial fibroelastosis). Moreover, there is now clear documentation that incomplete blocks (including those improving in utero with dexamethasone) can progress postnatally, despite the clearance of the maternal antibodies from the neonatal circulation. Better echocardiographic measurements which identify first degree block in utero may be the optimal means of approaching pregnant women at risk. Prophylactic therapies, including treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, await larger trials. In order to achieve advances at both the bench and bedside, national research registries established in the US and Canada are critical.

  4. Arginine nutrition and fetal brown adipose tissue development in nutrient-restricted sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, M Carey; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Keisler, Duane H; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a significant problem worldwide, resulting in increased rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risks for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the role of maternal undernutrition and L-arginine administration on fetal growth and development. Embryo transfer was utilized to generate genetically similar singleton pregnancies. On Day 35 of gestation, ewes were assigned to receive either 50 or 100% of their nutritional requirements. Ewes received i.v. injections of either saline or L-arginine three times daily from Day 100 to Day 125. Fetal growth was assessed at necropsy on Day 125. Maternal dietary manipulation altered circulating concentrations of leptin, progesterone, and amino acids in maternal plasma. Fetal weight was reduced in nutrient-restricted ewes on Day 125 compared with 100% fed ewes. Compared with saline-treated underfed ewes, maternal L-arginine administration did not affect fetal weight but increased weight of the fetal pancreas by 32% and fetal peri-renal brown adipose tissue mass by 48%. These results indicate that L-arginine administration enhanced fetal pancreatic and brown adipose tissue development. The postnatal effects of increased pancreatic and brown adipose tissue growth warrant further study.

  5. Activated Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells regulate Beige Fat Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woo; Odegaard, Justin I.; Mukundan, Lata; Qiu, Yifu; Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Yun, Karen; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), an innate source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and -13, participate in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Although type 2 immunity is critically important for mediating metabolic adaptations to environmental cold, the functions of ILC2s in beige or brown fat development are poorly defined. We report here that activation of ILC2s by IL-33 is sufficient to promote the growth of functional beige fat in thermoneutral mice. Mechanistically, ILC2 activation results in the proliferation of bipotential adipocyte precursors (APs) and their subsequent commitment to the beige fat lineage. Loss- and gain-of-function studies reveal that ILC2-and eosinophil-derived type 2 cytokines stimulate signaling via the IL-4Rα in PDGFRα+ APs to promote beige fat biogenesis. Together, our results highlight a critical role for ILC2s and type 2 cytokines in the regulation of adipocyte precursor numbers and fate, and as a consequence, adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:25543153

  6. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  7. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong [Sansung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment.

  8. Adipogenesis: new insights into brown adipose tissue differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobbio, Stefania; Rosen, Barry; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Confirmation of the presence of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has renewed interest in investigating the potential therapeutic use of this tissue. The finding that its activity positively correlates with decreased BMI, decreased fat content, and augmented energy expenditure suggests that increasing BAT mass/activity or browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) could be a strategy to prevent or treat obesity and its associated morbidities. The challenge now is to find a safe and efficient way to develop this idea. Whereas BAT has being widely studied in murine models both in vivo and in vitro, there is an urgent need for human cellular models to investigate BAT physiology and functionality from a molecular point of view. In this review, we focus on the latest insights surrounding BAT development and activation in rodents and humans. Then, we discuss how the availability of murine models has been essential to identify BAT progenitors and trace their lineage. Finally, we address how this information can be exploited to develop human cellular models for BAT differentiation/activation. In this context, human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells-based cellular models represent a resource of great potential value, as they can provide a virtually inexhaustible supply of starting material for functional genetic studies, -omics based analysis and validation of therapeutic approaches. Moreover, these cells can be readily genetically engineered, opening the possibility of generating patient-specific cellular models, allowing the investigation of the influence of different genetic backgrounds on BAT differentiation in pathological or in physiological states.

  9. Pseudothrombocytopenia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Sola, Martha C; Rimsza, Lisa M; McMahan, Michael J; Calhoun, Darlene A

    2004-07-01

    Severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia is not uncommon among ill preterm infants. Pseudothrombocytopenia, which has the appearance of severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia, has not been described in this population. We observed a preterm neonate who had EDTA-independent pseudothrombocytopenia and conclude that this condition should be considered when severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in a neonate in the absence of clinical signs of platelet-type hemorrhage.

  10. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  11. Parenteral nutrition in preterm neonates with and without carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, L E; Olegård, R; Ljung, B M; Niklasson, A; Rubensson, A; Cederblad, G

    1990-08-01

    The effects of carnitine supplementation on fat and glucose metabolism and carnitine balance were studied in 12 preterm neonates receiving full or partial parenteral nutrition (PN) for 5 to 21 days. The gestational age ranged from 27 to 32 weeks and the birth weight from 790 to 2090 g. The neonates were assigned at random to receive either L-carnitine 10 mg/kg (n = 6) or saline (n = 6). In the carnitine group, increased concentrations in plasma of total and free carnitine were observed. Less than 50% of the given dose was recovered in urine. In the placebo group no changes in the total plasma carnitine concentration were seen. In all neonates plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (BOB), glucose and lactate were measured at predetermined intervals. The only significant difference between the groups was higher BOB-concentrations in the carnitine group 2 days after the start of parenteral nutrition. Elevated BOB concentrations are an indicator of improved fatty acid oxidation in the carnitine group. In this study, only a temporary effect of the carnitine supplementation was found.

  12. Neonatal Sepsis and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; de Menezes, Liliana Borges; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Celes, Mara Rúbia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and its signs and symptoms are nonspecific, which makes the diagnosis difficult. The routinely used laboratory tests are not effective methods of analysis, as they are extremely nonspecific and often cause inappropriate use of antibiotics. Sepsis is the result of an infection associated with a systemic inflammatory response with production and release of a wide range of inflammatory mediators. Cytokines are potent inflammatory mediators and their serum levels are increased during infections, so changes from other inflammatory effector molecules may occur. Although proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as probable markers of neonatal infection, in order to characterize the inflammatory response during sepsis, it is necessary to analyze a panel of cytokines and not only the measurement of individual cytokines. Measurements of inflammatory mediators bring new options for diagnosing and following up neonatal sepsis, thus enabling early treatment and, as a result, increased neonatal survival. By taking into account the magnitude of neonatal sepsis, the aim of this review is to address the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis and its value as a diagnostic criterion. PMID:25614712

  13. Carnitine supplementation and ketogenesis by small-for-date neonates on medium-and long-chain fatty acid formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadaridis, J; Mavridou, I; Sarafidou, G; Alexiou, N; Costalos, C; Michelakakis, H

    2000-01-01

    Carnitine is a key molecule in energy production from various substrates. Although it is generally believed that it plays no role in the metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides, quite a few data exist to the contrary. In the present study we investigated the effect of carnitine on ketogenesis in small-for-date neonates fed formulae of equal caloric value and fat content that was predominantly long-chain triglycerides or medium-chain triglycerides (46% of total fat). According to our results there was a statistically significant interaction between carnitine and the chain length of the administered fat with respect to ketone production. Increased ketogenesis was only shown by the neonates receiving medium-chain triglycerides and carnitine. Our results provide further evidence for the involvement of carnitine in medium-chain triglyceride metabolism.

  14. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  15. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    CERN Document Server

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of this problem, we give different representations of the generalized Brown-Resnick processes - including random shifting and a mixed moving maxima representation - and derive various kinds of finite approximations that can be used for simulation purposes. Furthermore, error bounds are calculated in the case of the original process by Brown and Resnick (1977). For a one-paramatric class of Brown-Resnick processes based on the fractional Brownian motion we perform a simulation study and compare the results of the different met...

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Thyroid hormone acting via TRβ induces expression of browning genes in mouse bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Richard C; Mohan, Subburaman

    2017-04-01

    Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice. Marrow adiposity in TH-deficient (Tshr (-/-)) mice treated with T3/T4, TH receptor β-specific agonist GC-1, or vehicle control was evaluated via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and osmium micro-computed tomography. To further examine the mechanism for thyroid hormone regulation of marrow adiposity, we used real-time RT-PCR to measure the effects of thyroid hormone on adipocyte differentiation markers in primary mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and two mouse cell lines in vitro and in Tshr (-/-) mice in vivo. Marrow adiposity increased >20% (P hormone normally increases (day 5-14) rescued this phenotype. Furthermore, GC-1 rescued this phenotype equally well, suggesting this thyroid hormone effect is in part mediated via TRβ signaling. Treatment of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal or ST2 cells with T3 or GC-1 significantly increased expression of several brown/beige fat markers. Moreover, injection of T3/T4 increased browning-specific markers in white fat of Tshr (-/-) mice. These data suggest that thyroid hormone regulation of marrow adiposity is mediated at least in part via activation of TRβ signaling.

  18. Microlensing Planet Around Brown-Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Batista, V; Christie, G; Choi, J -Y; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Monard, L A G; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Porritt, I; Shin, I -G; Tan, T G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Liebig, C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around brown dwarfs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field brown dwarf via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 +- 0.001), relatively tightly-separated (~0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 +- 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a brown dwarf with a mass 0.022 M_Sun. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the brown dwarf host, in a manner analogous to planets.

  19. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  20. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  1. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. INVISIBLE MURDERER: NEONATAL TETANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonca SONMEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal tetanus (NNT has been secondary in the whole world in the death list of diseases which can be protected by the help of vaccine. It’s an important community health problem in the less-developed countries in which pre-birth care services are limited, assisting a mother at childbirth by uneducated people in dirty atmosphere and the immunity against tetanus is not enough. Studies have shown that minor part of the cases have been expressed in most of the countries. Because of that NNT have been called as “silent/invisible murderer”. In Turkey, in the year of 2003 it has been seen 15 cases, and 12 of them have been resulted in death. The methods which will be applied to carry out the elimination of NNT are; the vaccination of pregnant women with at least two doses tetanus toxoid and providing clean birth conditions for all of the pregnant women. However, in Turkey the proportion of the women who have two doses of tetanus vaccine is 41%. To eliminate NNT in our country, all the pregnant women must be attained, the ones who are attained must be presented with qualified pre-birth care service which also includes tetanus immunity and the births must be carried out under healty conditions. As smallpox and polio eradication, NNT elimination will also be accomplished by self-sacrificing works of personnel in primary health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 229-233

  3. Porcine Neonatal Coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Coccidia were identified in intestinal sections from 82 piglets comprising 37 consignments from 34 farms, and represented a yearly increasing incidence in the three years 1978 to 1980. Piglets were primarily from medium to large farms with intensive, continuous-farrowing, confinement-rearing programs. Piglets, usually five days to 15 days old, had yellow, fluid diarrhea, became unthrifty and sometimes died. In six piglets from two farms, a green, adherent, fibrinonecrotic membrane was seen throughout most of the jejunum and ileum. Significant gross lesions were not observed in the other 76 piglets. Moderate to severe villous atrophy of jejunum and ileum was seen histologically. Various asexual and sexual stages of coccidia were seen within parasitophorous vacuoles of villar epithelial cells. Multifocal erosions with necrosis of villar tips and occasionally more diffuse mucosal necrosis with fibrinocellular exudate were seen. Isospora suis oocysts were identified in feces from several weaners from one farm. Amprolium and decoquinate mixed in the sow ration at 1 kg/tonne for three weeks prior to and postfarrowing was moderately successful in stopping outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea associated with coccidiosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7343074

  4. Neonatal invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronati, M; Decembrino, L

    2006-12-01

    Over the last two decades, systemic fungal infections have emerged to play a primary role in hospital-acquired infections. C. albicans is involved in 75% of neonatal candidiasis; however, the incidence of infection from C. parapsilosis is also increasing significantly. The higher incidence observed in the high-risk group of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is linked to their special physical characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures they undergo. Colonization is a relevant risk factor depending on the colonized site , the fungal species and the type of colonization. Serological tests have a low specificity and sensitivity; in many cases, they do not distinguish between colonization and infection. Blood culture, although the best diagnostic test for determining systemic infection, can result negative, even in cases of deep organ involvement. In addition, fungi grow more slowly than bacteria in cultures. So, the difficulty in diagnosing systemic candidiasis and its aspecific clinical features may make empirical therapy appropriate. Amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined with 5-fluorocytosine remains the drug of choice. Fluconazole represents a valid alternative. Recently developed new formulations of amphotericin incapsulated in liposomes can avoid possible adverse effects. Prognosis depends on the specific micro-organism involved; mortality is higher in the presence of C. albicans. As prognosis is associated with high mortality, prevention measures to reduce risk factors are of critical importance.

  5. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yifu; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Odegaard, Justin I.; Cui, Xiaojin; Tian, Xiaoyu; Locksley, Richard M.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beige fat, which expresses the thermogenic protein UCP1, provides a defense against cold and obesity. Although a cold environment is the physiologic stimulus for inducing beige fat in mice and humans, the events that lead from the sensing of cold to the development of beige fat remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the efferent beige fat thermogenic circuit, consisting of eosinophils, type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4/13 and alternatively activated macrophages. Genetic loss of eosinophils or IL-4/13 signaling impairs cold-induced biogenesis of beige fat. Mechanistically, macrophages recruited to cold-stressed subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production, factors required for browning of scWAT. Conversely, administration of IL-4 to thermoneutral mice increases beige fat mass and thermogenic capacity to ameliorate pre-established obesity. Together, our findings have uncovered the efferent circuit controlling biogenesis of beige fat and provide support for its targeting to treat obesity. PMID:24906148

  6. The relative absorption of fatty acids in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fed a commercial extruded pellet coated with different lipid sources

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Valfré; Vittorio Maria Moretti; Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Sara Panseri; Ivan Giani; Tiziana Mentasti; Giovanni Mario Turchini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid absorption capabilities of brown trout (Salmo trut- ta) fed commercial extruded diets. Five commercial extruded pellets, different only in the lipid sources used for fat coat- ing, were tested on juvenile brown trout for 45 days. The trout were reared in fresh water at 14.6 ± 0.4° C and 7.7 ± 0.3 mg/l, temperature and dissolved oxygen, respectively. The tested lipid sources were fish oil, canola oil, oleine...

  7. Brown Dwarf Companions to White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burleigh, M R; Dobbie, P D; Farihi, J; Napiwotzki, R; Maxted, P F L; Barstow, M A; Jameson, R F; Casewell, S L; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R

    2011-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions to white dwarfs are rare, but recent infra-red surveys are slowly reveal- ing examples. We present new observations of the post-common envelope binary WD0137-349, which reveals the effects of irradiation on the ~ 0.05M* secondary, and new observations of GD 1400 which show that it too is a close, post-comon envelope system. We also present the lat- est results in a near-infrared photometric search for unresolved ultracool companions and to white dwarfs with UKIDSS. Twenty five DA white dwarfs were identified as having photometric excesses indicative of a low mass companion, with 8-10 of these having a predicted mass in the range asso- ciated with brown dwarfs. The results of this survey show that the unresolved (< 2") brown dwarf companion fraction to DA white dwarfs is 0.3 \\leq fWD+BD \\leq 1.3%.

  8. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  9. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  10. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  11. Shaping the Brown Dwarf Desert: Predicting the Primordial Brown Dwarf Binary Distributions from Turbulent Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumper, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ($\\leq 5$ AU) brown dwarf companions to solar-mass stars, known as the brown dwarf desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly-bound than stellar binaries, have been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for brown dwarfs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that brown dwarfs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the brown dwarf desert, as well as wide brown-dwarf binary systems. Further, we demonstrate analytically that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low-mass (VLM) binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly-bound than stellar systems. In addit...

  12. Bacterial Culture of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Movahedian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of bacterial sepsis with focus on Gram negative organisms in neonates admitted at Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, during a 3-yr period, from September 2002 to September 2005. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with risk factors or signs of suggestive sepsis. Blood samples were cultured using brain heart infusion (BHI broth according to standard method. From the 1680 neonates 36% had positive blood culture for Pseudomans aeruginosa, 20.7% for Coagulase negative Staphylococci, and 17% for Klebsiella spp. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 72.1% of all positive cultures. The overall mortality rate was 19.8% (22 /111 of whom 63.6% (14 /22 were preterm. Pseudomona aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. showed a high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin as well as third generation cephalosporins. Continued local surveillance studies are urged to monitor emerging antimicrobial resistance and to guide interventions to minimize its occurrence.

  13. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, R

    2004-01-01

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  14. Milk fat triacyglycerols

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerol composition varies within a population of dairy cows. The variability of MF triacylglycerols and their structure was partially explained by the fatty acid (FA) composition of the MF, and by DGAT1 K232A polymorphism. The FA C16:0 and C18:1cis-9 play a major role in understanding the changes seen in triacylglycerol profile and structure because they are the most abundant FAs in MF and are negatively correlated. MFs with low ratio C16:0/C18:1cis-9 were decreased in ...

  15. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  16. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  17. Connecting the green and brown worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Christian; Ahrestani, Farshid S.; Bahn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    resources (hence, drivers) and more retranslocation of P than of N from leaves will lead to higher N:P in the litter and soil organic matter. Thus, under nutrient-rich conditions, higher foliar concentrations of N and P are reflected by lower N:P in the brown litter, suggesting less P retranslocated than N....... This apparent stoichiometric dichotomy between green and brown could result in shifts in threshold elemental ratios critical for ecosystem functioning. It has important implications for a general food-web model, given that resource C:N:P ratios are generally assumed to reflect environmental C:N:P ratios. We...

  18. The Effects of Increased Maternal Visual Regard of Neonate Upon the Neonate-Mother Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christina M.; And Others

    This study attempts to investigate the effects of increased maternal visual regard on neonatal social visual behavior and upon patterns of mother-neonate interaction within the context of a learning theory paradigm. Subjects were 3-day-old neonates and their mothers; with 10 of the 15 mother-neonate pairs as the experimental group, and 5 as the…

  19. A Rare Cause of Neonatal Liver Failure: Neonatal Hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uluca Ü et al.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH is a severe rare liver disease in neonatal period associated with ekstrahepatic siderosis. This disease is characterized by hepatocellular insufficiency that presented with jaundice, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, low fibrinogen levels, thrombocytopenia, anemia, direct and indirect hyperbilirubinemia from the first days of life. Herein we reported a case with Rh incompatibility whose jaundice was noted at the first day of life and referred to our hospital for exchange transfusion, but thereafter diagnosed as NH and reviewed the literature in the view point of the latest developments related to the topic.

  20. Neonatal pressure ulcers: prevention and treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    García-Molina P; Alfaro-López A; García-Rodríguez SM; Brotons-Payá C; Rodríguez-Dolz MC; Balaguer-López E

    2017-01-01

    .... Neonates often suffer from diaper rash or intravenous drugs extravasation. Recently, hospitalized neonates and especially those in an unstable clinical situation are also at a risk of developing pressure ulcers...

  1. Transcriptional pathways in cPGI2-induced adipocyte progenitor activation for browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem eBayindir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available De novo formation of beige/brite adipocytes from progenitor cells contributes to the thermogenic adaptation of adipose tissue and holds great potential for the therapeutic remodeling of fat as a treatment for obesity. Despite the recent identification of several factors regulating browning of white fat, there is a lack of physiological cell models for the mechanistic investigation of progenitor-mediated beige/brite differentiation. We have previously revealed prostacyclin (PGI2 as one of the few known endogenous extracellular mediators promoting de novo beige/brite formation by relaying beta-adrenergic stimulation to the progenitor level. Here we present a cell model based on murine primary progenitor cells defined by markers previously shown to be relevant for in vivo browning, including a simplified isolation procedure. We demonstrate the specific and broad induction of thermogenic gene expression by PGI2 signaling in the absence of lineage conversion, and reveal the previously unidentified nuclear relocalization of the Ucp1 gene locus in association with transcriptional activation. By profiling the time course of the progenitor response we show that PGI2 signaling promoted progenitor cell activation through cell cycle and adhesion pathways prior to metabolic maturation towards an oxidative cell phenotype. Our results highlight the importance of core progenitor activation pathways for the recruitment of thermogenic cells and provide a resource for further mechanistic investigation.

  2. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  3. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis, browning, and energy balance in adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyi; Lei, Xinnuo; Benson, Tyler; Mintz, James; Xu, Xiaojing; Harris, Ruth B; Weintraub, Neal L; Wang, Xiaoling; Chen, Weiqin

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in BSCL2/SEIPIN cause Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), but the mechanisms whereby Bscl2 regulates adipose tissue function are unclear. Here, we generated adipose tissue (mature) Bscl2 knockout (Ad-mKO) mice, in which Bscl2 was specifically ablated in adipocytes of adult animals, to investigate the impact of acquired Bscl2 deletion on adipose tissue function and energy balance. Ad-mKO mice displayed reduced adiposity and were protected against high fat diet-induced obesity, but not insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. Gene expression profiling and biochemical assays revealed increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue , as well as browning of WAT, owing to induction of cAMP/protein kinase A signaling upon Bscl2 deletion. Interestingly, Bscl2 deletion reduced food intake and downregulated adipose β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) expression. Impaired ADRB3 signaling partially offsets upregulated browning-induced energy expenditure and thermogenesis in Ad-mKO mice housed at ambient temperature. However, this counter-regulatory response was abrogated under thermoneutral conditions, resulting in even greater body mass loss in Ad-mKO mice. These findings suggest that Bscl2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis and β-adrenergic signaling to produce complex effects on adipose tissues and whole-body energy balance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. White, brown and pink adipocytes: the extraordinary plasticity of the adipose organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Antonio; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In mammals, adipocytes are lipid-laden cells making up the parenchyma of the multi-depot adipose organ. White adipocytes store lipids for release as free fatty acids during fasting periods; brown adipocytes burn glucose and lipids to maintain thermal homeostasis. A third type of adipocyte, the pink adipocyte, has recently been characterised in mouse subcutaneous fat depots during pregnancy and lactation. Pink adipocytes are mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells whose role is to produce and secrete milk. Emerging evidence suggests that they derive from the transdifferentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes. The functional response of the adipose organ to a range of metabolic and environmental challenges highlights its extraordinary plasticity. Cold exposure induces an increase in the 'brown' component of the organ to meet the increased thermal demand; in states of positive energy balance, the 'white' component expands to store excess nutrients; finally, the 'pink' component develops in subcutaneous depots during pregnancy to ensure litter feeding. At the cell level, plasticity is provided not only by stem cell proliferation and differentiation but also, distinctively, by direct transdifferentiation of fully differentiated adipocytes by the stimuli that induce genetic expression reprogramming and through it a change in phenotype and, consequently function. A greater understanding of adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms would have the potential to shed light on their biology as well as inspire novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic syndrome (browning) and breast cancer (pinking).

  5. Brown Adipose Tissue Bioenergetics: A New Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon‐Dominguez, María; Alcalá, Martín; Sebastián, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Viana, Marta; Serra, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans and its capacity to oxidize fat and dissipate energy as heat has put the spotlight on its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of several metabolic conditions including obesity and diabetes. To date the measurement of bioenergetics parameters has required the use of cultured cells or extracted mitochondria with the corresponding loss of information in the tissue context. Herein, we present a method to quantify mitochondrial bioenergetics directly in BAT. Based on XF Seahorse Technology, we assessed the appropriate weight of the explants, the exact concentration of each inhibitor in the reaction, and the specific incubation time to optimize bioenergetics measurements. Our results show that BAT basal oxygen consumption is mostly due to proton leak. In addition, BAT presents higher basal oxygen consumption than white adipose tissue and a positive response to b‐adrenergic stimulation. Considering the whole tissue and not just subcellular populations is a direct approach that provides a realistic view of physiological respiration. In addition, it can be adapted to analyze the effect of potential activators of thermogenesis, or to assess the use of fatty acids or glucose as a source of energy. PMID:28435771

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1982. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and...

  8. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  9. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  10. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  11. Neonatal hemophilia: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a X-linked hereditary condition that lead to decreased factor VIII activity, occurs mainly in males. Decreased factor VIII activity leads to increased risk of bleeding events. During neonatal period, diagnosis is made after post-partum bleeding complication or unexpected bleeding after medical procedures. Subgaleal hemorrhage during neonatal period is a rare, severe extracranial bleeding with high mortality and usually related to traumatic labor or coagulation disorders. Subgaleal hemorrhage complications result from massive bleeding. We present a neonate with unremarkable family history and uneventful pregnancy with a vaginal delivery with no instrumentation, presenting with severe subgaleal bleeding at 52 hours of life. Aggressive support measures were implemented and bleeding managed. The unexpected bleeding lead to a coagulation study and the diagnosis of severe hemophilia A. There were no known sequelae. This case shows a rare hemophilia presentation reflecting the importance of coagulation studies when faced with unexplained severe bleeding.

  12. OUTCOME OF NEONATES WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharangouda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine etiology, onset, clinical features and outcome of neonates with thrombocytopenia. METHODS: 140 neonates having bleeding or having platelet count (<1.5lakhs/µl were selected from those admitted to NICU’S attached to MR Medical College, Gulbarga. Initial platelet count was done on admission and counts were repeated 12 hours after any therapeutic intervention. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: Severe thrombocytopenia (<50000/µl was present in 8.5%, moderate (50, 000-1, 00, 000/µl in 17%. Majority (45.33% were preterm and the major cause was sepsis in 51.3%.Mucosal bleed was the most common presentation. Mortality was 37% in severe and 3.9% in moderate thrombocytopenia group. CONCLUSION: Significant association is observed with maternal PIH, Late onset sepsis, NEC and sepsis with DIC .Prematurity, IUGR, Birth asphyxia were common associated morbidities. Severe thrombocytopenia in sick neonates, in NICU, is a poor prognostic indicator.

  13. Two Neonates with Congenital Hydrocolpos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vydehi Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal hydrocolpos is a rare condition. Hydrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina with fluid accumulation due to a combination of stimulation of secretary glands of the reproductive tract and vaginal obstruction. The differential for a neonatal presentation of lower abdominal mass includes urogenital anomalies, Hirschsprung’s, disease or sacrococcygeal teratoma. Prenatal diagnosis and early newborn imaging studies leads to early detection and treatment of these cases. Case. We report here two cases of neonatal hydrocolpos with prenatal diagnosis of lower abdominal mass. Postnatally, ultrasound, MRI imaging, and cystoscopy confirmed large cystic mass as hydrocolpos with distal vaginal obstruction. Both patients had enlarged renal system secondary to mass effect. Conclusion. High index of suspicion for hydrocolpos in a newborn presenting with fetal diagnosis of infraumbilical abdominal mass will facilitate timely intervention and prevention of complications.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of...

  15. Regulation of muscle growth in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review reports recent findings on the multiple factors that regulate skeletal muscle growth in neonates. Skeletal muscle is the fastest growing protein mass in neonates. The high rate of neonatal muscle growth is due to accelerated rates of protein synthesis accompanied by the rapid accumulatio...

  16. The reduction of boar taint in male pigs by neonatal testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bote, C; Ventanas, J

    1988-01-01

    Ten neonatal male pigs were treated with 100 mg of testosterone propionate, and the effects of the treatment on endocrine function, carcass fatness, meat and fat composition were studied. No important changes were found in carcass fatness or in chemical composition of the M. longissimus dorsi. Fatty acid composition of the backfat was modified in the treated pigs, with a decrease in palmitoleic (P < 0·001) and oleic (P < 0·05) acids and an increase in stearic acid (P < 0·05); consequently, the fat had a higher melting point (P < 0·05). Neonatal treatment with testosterone propionate led to a decrease in testicle weight (P < 0·05), testosterone concentration (P < 0·05) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the hypophysis (P < 0·001). Histological evidence of modification of the intertubular area in the testicle was found (P < 0·001). Decrease of endocrine secretion in the testes led to a reduction in the levels of detectable boar taint in treated animals, as assessed by sensory evaluation.

  17. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  18. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  19. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Smeets, Astrid; Lejeune, Manuela P; Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that low dietary fat oxidation makes subjects prone to weight gain. The aim of the study was to determine dietary fat oxidation in normal, overweight, and obese subjects. The subjects were 38 women and 18 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 30+/-12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25+/-4 (range: 18-39). Dietary fat oxidation was measured with deuterated palmitic acid, given simultaneously with breakfast, while the subjects were fed under controlled conditions in a respiration chamber. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Dietary fat oxidation, measured over 12 h after breakfast, ranged from 4% to 28% with a mean (+/-SD) of 16+/-6%. Dietary fat oxidation was negatively related to percentage body fat, and lean subjects had the highest and obese subjects the lowest values (r=-0.65, P<0.001). The observed reduction in dietary fat oxidation in subjects with a higher percentage body fat may play a role in human obesity.

  20. Reference Intervals in Neonatal Hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Erick; Christensen, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    The various blood cell counts of neonates must be interpreted in accordance with high-quality reference intervals based on gestational and postnatal age. Using very large sample sizes, we generated neonatal reference intervals for each element of the complete blood count (CBC). Knowledge of whether a patient has CBC values that are too high (above the upper reference interval) or too low (below the lower reference interval) provides important insights into the specific disorder involved and in many instances suggests a treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.