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Sample records for nelle aree urbane

  1. Uso dello habitat nell'Istrice in due aree della Toscana meridionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novella Franconi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L'istrice, il più grande roditore della fauna italiana, ha colonizzato negli ultimi 30 anni gran parte del territorio italiano, ma ancora scarse sono le conoscenze scientifiche su questa specie. L'istrice, un erbivoro generalista capace di colonizzare habitat molto diversi, mostra una marcata flessibilità nell´uso dello spazio: lo home range può variare da poco più di 10 ha a oltre 700 ha e i siti di alimentazione visitati possono essere localizzati a oltre 4 km dalla tana. Lo studio dell'uso dello habitat di questa specie in ambienti diversi è pertanto un problema scientifico particolarmente interessante. Tra gennaio 1994 e giugno 1995 sono stati monitorati tramite telemetria 6 individui adulti in un'area prevalentemente rurale alla periferia di Siena, mentre tra agosto 1998 e settembre 2001 sono stati monitorati 10 individui adulti nel Parco Regionale della Maremma, un'area costiera mediterranea. L'uso dello habitat è stato studiato al secondo e al terzo livello di selezione, cioè composizione in habitat degli home range e selezione dello habitat all'interno degli home range. Bosco, macchia, prati e pascoli predominavano negli home range individuali, al contrario di coltivi, zone edificate, zone umide e zone dunali. All'interno degli home range in entrambe le aree di studio, nonostante marcate variazioni individuali nell'uso e selezione dello habitat, i coltivi sono stati sotto-utilizzati, mentre boschi, macchia, prati e pascoli sono stati selezionati positivamente o usati secondo la loro disponibilità. Inoltre, la pineta e la zona di spiaggia e duna, presenti solo nel Parco della Maremma, sono stati selezionati negativamente mentre siepi e fossi, presenti solo a Siena, sono stati selezionati positivamente. Questi risultati costituiscono una base di partenza per la gestione di questa specie.

  2. Potenzialità di sviluppo sostenibile nelle aree protette: il caso del parco dell’Etna

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario La Rosa

    2012-01-01

    In the protected area of the Etna territory, of remarkable dimension and which dominates the pedemountain belt, environmental resources have clearly a leading importance. The agriculture and food as well as the tourist sectors, managed according to eco-friendly and product differentiation criteria, are the only ones capable of generating development (sustainable too). This volcanic area is very rich in environmental resources (natural capital) - that is resources which completely lack of huma...

  3. Are Urban Children really healthier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOn average, child health outcomes are better in urban than in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the nature and the causes of this rural-urban disparity is essential in contemplating the health consequences of the rapid urbanization taking place throughout the developing

  4. Viaggio nelle dune: esperienza nelle aree rurali

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    Maria Curia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, who has been working as aid-worker in a mental health project inSomalia for a long time, relates her meeting with north Somalia nomadic shepherds’culture – which is disintegrating but is still alive in some remote areasof the country – and her attempt to reinterpret the meaning of mental healthfrom an ethnological-anthropological standpoint. In this way, symptomatic behaviors,which otherwise would be unexplainable from the western perspective,have an explanation thoroughly coherent with the original context.

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE ROLE OF THE NELL1 GENE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. Y.; Culiat, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nell1{sup 6R} is a chemically-induced point mutation in a novel cell-signaling gene, Nell1, which results in truncation of the protein and degradation of the Nell16R transcript. Earlier studies revealed that loss of Nell1 function reduces expression of numerous extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins required for differentiation of bone and cartilage precursor cells, thereby causing severe skull and spinal defects. Since skeletal and cardiovascular development are closely linked biological processes, this research focused on: a) examining Nell16R mutant mice for cardiovascular defects, b) determining Nell1 expression in fetal and adult hearts, and c) establishing how ECM genes affected by Nell1 infl uence heart development. Structural heart defects in Nell16R mutant fetuses were analyzed by heart length and width measurements and standard histological methods (haematoxylin and eosin staining). Nell1 expression was assayed in fetal and adult hearts using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using public databases (Stanford SOURCE Search, Integrated Cartilage Gene Database, Mouse Genome Informatics, and NCBI UniGene) was undertaken to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular development and each of twentyeight genes affected by Nell1. Nell1-defi cient mice have signifi cantly enlarged hearts (particularly the heart width), dramatically reduced blood fl ow out of the heart and unexpanded lungs. Isolation of total RNAs from hearts of adult (control and heterozygote) and fetal (control and homozygous mutant) mice have been completed and RT-PCR assays are in progress. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the majority of genes with reduced expression in Nell1-defi cient mice are normally expressed in the heart (79%; 22/28), blood vessels (71%; 20/28) and bone marrow (61%; 17/28). Moreover, mouse mutations in seven of these genes (Col15a1, Osf-2, Bmpr1a, Pkd1, Mfge8, Ptger4, Col5a1) manifest

  6. Moss ciliated protozoa as bioindicators. A study on the urban area of Pisa (Italy); Protozoi ciliati del muschio come biondicatori. Uno studio nell'area urbana di Pisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verni, F.; Rosati, G. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Etologia, Ecologia, Evoluzione

    2000-07-01

    Samples of moss were collected, every month for 7 months, from five zones of Pisa (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) and a woody zone (S1) as control. For each sample the type and the number of the ciliate species as well as the number of individuals for each species were determined. Lead content was also measured. The data were statistically elaborated and compared. The diversity Shannon index (H) was calculated to determine the health state of ciliate communities. In any case an inverse correlation between H and the lead content was reported; the highest the H value, the lowest the lead content and vice versa. On the basis of the results here reported the use of Ciliates as biondicators appears suitable for the control of urban soil. An analysis like this appears advantageous as it is rather simple and cheap and allows to determine the possible variations in a real time. [Italian] Sono stati analizzati campioni di muschio prelevati, con cadenza mensile per 7 mesi, in 5 stazioni di Pisa (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) e da una zona boscosa (S1), come controllo. Per ogni campione si e' proceduto all'identificazione dei Ciliati presenti, al conteggio delle specie e del numero di individui per specie, nonche' alla misurazione del piombo presente. I dati sono stati confrontati dopo elaborazione statistica. L'indice della diversita' di Shannon ha fornito informazioni sulla salute della comunita' dei Protozoi delle varie stazioni. In ogni caso risulta una correlazione inversa tra i valori dell'indice di Shannon e la quantita' di piombo: S5, la stazione piu' esposta al traffico, risulta quella piu' degradata. L'uso dei Ciliati come biondicatori risulta quindi appropriato e vantaggioso considerando che e' semplice, poco costoso e permette di valutare in tempi reali variazioni nell'ambiente.

  7. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  8. Diritto e religioni nelle scelte alimentari

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    Antonio Fuccillo

    2016-05-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Diritto, religioni, economie del cibo – 2. La libertà religiosa alimentare nelle “comunità separate”: 2.1 La situazione nelle mense degli istituti di detenzione. 2.2 Nelle mense ospedaliere. 2.3 Nelle mense scolastiche – 3. La libertà religiosa alimentare nello spazio privato: 3.1 Il caso del trasporto aereo. 3.2 Il caso del trasporto marittimo: la Convenzione internazionale sul lavoro marittimo (Maritime Labour Convention - MLC 2006, e la Legge 2 agosto 1952, n. 1035 di Ratifica ed esecuzione della Convenzione I.L.O. n. 68 sul servizio di alimentazione a bordo della navi. 3.3 Il caso dell’offerta alberghiera – 4. Il commercio equo e solidale come “mercato etico” alimentare – 5. Appartenenza religiosa e regole alimentari: le influenze sulla produzione e sui consumi – 6. Diritto e religione nelle sfide della libertà alimentare.

  9. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  10. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  11. Rural-urban migration and child survival in urban Bangladesh: are the urban migrants and poor disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul; Azad, Kazi Md Abul Kalam

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the levels and trends of childhood mortality in urban Bangladesh, and examines whether children's survival chances are poorer among the urban migrants and urban poor. It also examines the determinants of child survival in urban Bangladesh. Data come from the 1999-2000 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that, although the indices of infant and child mortality are consistently better in urban areas, the urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality have diminished in recent years. The study identifies two distinct child morality regimes in urban Bangladesh: one for urban natives and one for rural-urban migrants. Under-five mortality is higher among children born to urban migrants compared with children born to life-long urban natives (102 and 62 per 1000 live births, respectively). The migrant-native mortality differentials more-or-less correspond with the differences in socioeconomic status. Like childhood mortality rates, rural-urban migrants seem to be moderately disadvantaged by economic status compared with their urban native counterparts. Within the urban areas, the child survival status is even worse among the migrant poor than among the average urban poor, especially recent migrants. This poor-non-poor differential in childhood mortality is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The study findings indicate that rapid growth of the urban population in recent years due to rural-to-urban migration, coupled with higher risk of mortality among migrant's children, may be considered as one of the major explanations for slower decline in under-five mortality in urban Bangladesh, thus diminishing urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality in Bangladesh. The study demonstrates that housing conditions and access to safe drinking water and hygienic toilet facilities are the most critical determinants of child survival in urban areas, even after controlling for migration status. The findings of the study may

  12. BMP2-induced inflammation can be suppressed by the osteoinductive growth factor NELL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W; Zara, Janette N; Asatrian, Greg; Khadarian, Kevork; Zhang, James B; Ho, Stephanie; Kim, Hyun Ju; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2013-11-01

    serious public health concern with potentially life-threatening complications. In the present study, we observed that the growth factor, NELL-1, significantly attenuates or completely reverses BMP2-induced inflammation. The mechanisms of NELL-1's anti-inflammatory effect are only partially elucidated, and may include reduction of NF-κB transcriptional activity or ROS generation.

  13. Proverbi italiani nell'Europa del nord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    formazione nelle città universitarie del Nord Italia, così come in altre città europeee (Lione, Basilea, Ginevra), curiosamente l'interesse per l’italiano fu stimolato dal contatto con le corti di Scozia e d’Inghilterra e un protagonista importante di questo fenomeno fu il riformato modenese Giacopo...

  14. Urban environmental history: what lessons are there to be learnt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, D. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, History Dept., Damrmstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The paper traces the emergence of urban environmental history first in the United States and since the 1990s increasingly also in Europe. It identifies the development of large technical networks which provide cities with water and energy and which serve to take problematic substances and waste out of urban areas as a central theme of this new subfield where scholars from urban history, environmental history and history of technology converge. The concepts of 'path dependence' and 'urban metabolism' are introduced as useful heuristic devices to assess long-term effects of these infrastructures in a holistic manner. The paper shows that the implementation of networks and related household technologies was accompanied by comprehensive processes of social and cultural adaptation which fundamentally altered the attitudes and behavioural patterns towards resource use. Lessons of urban environmental history are seen in providing long-term horizons to current debates over urban technologies and their environmental consequences. (orig.)

  15. Diffusione molecolare neLl' alta atmosfera

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    C. ARDUINI

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Le perturbazioni indotte nell'alta atmosfera dall'emissione,
    a mezzo di razzi sonda, di nubi di vapori estranei sono un utile
    mezzo per lo studio simultaneo di alcune caratteristiche fisiche e dinamiche
    degli alti strati.
    La presente relazione illustra in breve i principi di alcune tecniche
    per la misura del coefficiente di diffusione binaria tra l'aria e il vapore
    della nube artificiale.

  16. Are Informal Settlements the Answer to Urban Migrant Influx?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Informal Settlements are ok in China’s big cities.That’s the opinion of Qin Hui,a professor of history at China’s prestigious Tsinghua University.Speaking at a recent public forum on urbanization in Shenzhen

  17. Investigation of urban science teachers' pedagogical engagements: Are urban science teachers culturally responsive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udokwu, Chukwudi John

    This study utilized mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative research approach to explore the current pedagogical engagements of twenty middle school urban science teachers in the Midwest region of the United States. It qualitatively examined twelve of these teachers' knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy. The study investigated the following questions: What are the current pedagogical practices of urban middle school science teachers? To what extent are middle school science teachers' pedagogical practices in urban schools culturally responsive? What are urban students' perspectives of their teachers' current pedagogical engagements? The design of the study was qualitative and quantitative methods in order to investigate these teachers' pedagogical practices. Data collections were drawn from multiple sources such as lesson plans, students' sample works, district curriculum, surveys, observational and interview notes. Analysis of collected data was a mixed methodology that involved qualitative and quantitative methods using descriptive, interpretative, pattern codes, and statistical procedures respectively. Purposeful sampling was selected for this study. Thus, demographically there were twenty participants who quantitatively took part in this study. Among them were seven (35%) males and thirteen (65%) females, three (15%) African Americans and seventeen (85%) Caucasians. In determining to what extent urban science teachers' pedagogical practices were culturally responsive, eight questions were analyzed based on four cluster themes: (a) teachers' social disposition, (b) culturally responsive curriculum, (c) classroom interactions, and (d) power pedagogy. Study result revealed that only five (25%) of the participants were engaged in culturally responsive pedagogy while fifteen (75%) were engaged in what Haberman (1991) called the pedagogy of poverty. The goal was to investigate urban science teachers' pedagogical engagements and to examine urban

  18. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2014-11-04

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  19. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culiat, Cymbeline T [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  20. Proverbi italiani nell'Europa del nord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Alla fine del Cinquecento i nobili danesi che avevano appreso l’italiano in Italia erano numerosi, tanto che si potrebbe parlare di un orientamento "italianista" vigente nella corte di Cristiano IV di Danimarca (1577-1648, re minore 1588 e coronato nel 1596). A parte il ruolo svolto dai viaggi di...... formazione nelle città universitarie del Nord Italia, così come in altre città europeee (Lione, Basilea, Ginevra), curiosamente l'interesse per l’italiano fu stimolato dal contatto con le corti di Scozia e d’Inghilterra e un protagonista importante di questo fenomeno fu il riformato modenese Giacopo...... collezione nostalgica di modi di dire caratteristici nella sua lingua da parte dell'esule, nel «dolce ricordo» della «già felice Italia», con i suoi consigli su come impiegare i proverbi, Il significato d’alquanti belli et vari proverbi dell’italica favella può essere considerato una continuazione pedagogica...

  1. Evoluzione dei Fenomeni sismici nell'Appennino centrale

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    M. C. SPADEA

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available In questo lavoro gli autori studiano la posizione degli epicentri dei terremoti, collegati alla orogenesi in atto nell'Appennino, nell'arco di tempo clic va dal 1900 al 1973. Lo studio eseguito rivela che, da alcuni anni, si verifica uno spostamento dell'attività sismica dalla Marsica alle Marche. Gli autori concludono che è ragionevole aspettarsi che, nel futuro, la principale attività sismica dell'Appennino centrale si manifesterà in quest'ultima zona.

  2. Ricerca e valutazione delle ICT nell'educazione in Europa

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    Sigmund Lieberg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nell'ultimo decennio i politici hanno definito una nuova agenda per la ricerca educativa. Le politiche di innovazione dei sistemi formativi, fortemente focalizzate su questioni che coinvolgono le ICT, hanno avuto l'esigenza di sviluppare una conoscenza sistematica su come le ICT possono contribuire all'apprendimento e allo sviluppo della scuola.

  3. NELL-1, an osteoinductive factor, is a direct transcriptional target of Osterix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    Full Text Available NELL-1 is a novel secreted protein associated with premature fusion of cranial sutures in craniosynostosis that has been found to promote osteoblast cell differentiation and mineralization. Our previous study showed that Runx2, the key transcription factor in osteoblast differentiation, transactivates the NELL-1 promoter. In this study, we evaluated the regulatory involvement and mechanisms of Osterix, an essential transcription factor of osteoblasts, in NELL-1 gene expression and function. Promoter analysis showed a cluster of potential Sp1 sites (Sp1/Osterix binding sites within approximately 70 bp (from -71 to -142 of the 5' flanking region of the human NELL-1 transcriptional start site. Luciferase activity in our NELL-1 promoter reporter systems was significantly decreased in Saos-2 cells when Osterix was overexpressed. Mutagenesis study demonstrated that this suppression is mediated by the Sp1 sites. The binding specificity of Osterix to these Sp1 sites was confirmed in Saos-2 cells and primary human osteoblasts by EMSA in vitro and ChIP assay in vivo. ChIP assay also showed that Osterix downregulated NELL-1 by affecting binding of RNA polymerase II to the NELL-1 promoter, but not by competing with Runx2 binding to the OSE2 sites. Moreover, NELL-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased when Osterix was overexpressed in Saos-2, U2OS, Hela and Glioma cells. Correspondingly, knockdown of Osterix increased NELL-1 transcription and osteoblastic differentiation in both Saos-2 cells and primary human osteoblasts. These results suggest that Osterix is a direct transcriptional regulator with repressive effect on NELL-1 gene expression, contributing to a delicate balance of regulatory effects on NELL-1 transcription with Runx2, and may play a crucial role in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings also extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of Runx2, Osterix, and NELL-1 and demonstrate their crosstalk during

  4. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  5. Il vallese odierno nell'antologia "Istria nobilissima"

    OpenAIRE

    Pavao Tekavčić

    1996-01-01

    Il contributo esamina le caratteristiche (fonologiche, morfologiche, solo marginalmente sintattiche e lessicali) del terzo dei principali dialetti istroromanzi (IR), quello della cittadina di Valle (croato Bale) nell'Istria sudoccidentale, quali esse risultano dai testi vallesi recentemente pubblicati nella Antologia delle opere premiate ai Concorsi d'arte e di cultura Istria Nobilissima (voll. XXI-XXIII e XXV, Trieste-Rovigno 1988-1990 e 1992). Si distinguono i tratti comuni a tutto l'IR da ...

  6. Il vallese odierno nell'antologia "Istria nobilissima"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Tekavčić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo esamina le caratteristiche (fonologiche, morfologiche, solo marginalmente sintattiche e lessicali del terzo dei principali dialetti istroromanzi (IR, quello della cittadina di Valle (croato Bale nell'Istria sudoccidentale, quali esse risultano dai testi vallesi recentemente pubblicati nella Antologia delle opere premiate ai Concorsi d'arte e di cultura Istria Nobilissima (voll. XXI-XXIII e XXV, Trieste-Rovigno 1988-1990 e 1992. Si distinguono i tratti comuni a tutto l'IR da quelli specifici del vallese, e i materiali attuali vengono confrontati in modo sistematico con quelli nelle fonti anteriori (1835-1919, 1900, 1986. Il confronto permette interessanti osservazioni sincroniche e diacroniche nonché sociolinguistiche, illustrando nel contempo l'importanza dei testi studiati. Nei volumi XXI (1988, XXII (1989, XXIII (1900 e XXV (1992 dell'Antologia delle opere premiate ai Concorsi d'arte e di cultura Istria Nobilissima (v. bibliografia; d'ora in poi:Istria Nobilissima sono apparsi alcuni testi in dialetto vallese istroromanzo (IR (o istrioto della cittadina di Valle (in croato Bale, tra DignanoNodnjan e Rovigno/Rovinj nell'Istria sudoccidentale.

  7. NELL-1:a novel highly efficient and specific growth factor%NELL-1:高效特异的新型生长因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦雪嫣; 赵华翔; 张倩; 陈峰; 林久祥

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Regenerationofbonetissue,aswellasothertissues,requiresinvolvementandinteraction of cells,scaffolds and relevant growth factors,among which growth factors play a crucial role in maintai-ning the stability of microenvironment.Nel-like-type 1 molecule (NELL-1 ),a novel growth factor in tis-sue engineering,has been studied intensively in recent years.Researches mainly covered gene and pro-tein structure and their expression profiling,biological function,molecular mechanisms and disease rele-vance.NELL-1 expressed in embryonic tissue is essential for growth and development of bone tissue. NELL-1 presents excellent abilities of inducing bone and cartilage regeneration,especially with high spe-cificity to chondrocyte lineage.Compared with classic osteogenic growth factor bone morphogenetic pro-tein 2 (BMP-2),the process of osteogenesis interacted with NELL-1 exhibits stronger specificity,higher bone density and fewerside effects.Furthermore,a recent study shows synergistic effects of NELL-1 and BMP-2.NELL-1 enhances the osteogenic reaction induced by BMP-2 of cells and notably declines in-flammation response caused by BMP-2.This review evaluates the current research progress of the function and application of NELL-1 by the systematic method of evidence-based medicine.

  8. Leading in Difficult Times: Are Urban School Boards Up to the Task? Policy Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Malia

    This brief describes the challenges facing urban school boards, reviews the governance alternatives being tried in various cities, and highlights some related considerations. The challenges school boards face vary, but some themes are common across urban areas: (1) an ill-defined role can impair effectiveness; (2) competing political interests can…

  9. Consumer resource matching in urbanizing landscapes: are synanthropic species over-matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Amanda D; Shustack, Daniel P

    2008-02-01

    Population responses of synanthropic species to urbanization may be explained by the resource-matching rule, which postulates that individuals should distribute themselves according to resource availability. According to the resource-matching rule, urban habitats will contain greater densities if they provide better resources than rural habitats. However, because resource availability is density dependent, individuals in urban areas would ultimately achieve fitness levels comparable to, but no better than, individuals in less urban areas. Some ecologists suggest that synanthropic birds may not conform to the resource-matching rule and may instead overmatch (i.e., overexploit) in urban habitats, ultimately leading to lower fitness despite greater resource levels. Using the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) as a focal species, we evaluated if Cardinal populations in urban and rural habitats were consistent with predictions of consumer resource matching. During 2003-2006 we documented population density, adult body condition, apparent survival, and annual reproductive productivity of Cardinals in riparian forest stands within urban (n = 8 stands) and rural (n = 6 stands) landscapes in Ohio, USA. Density of Cardinals in urban forests was four times that found in more rural forests. Mark-resight data from 147 males and 125 females over four years indicated that apparent survival rates were similar between urban and rural landscapes (phi = 0.64, SE = 0.039 for males and phi = 0.57, SE = 0.04 for females). Similarly, body condition indices of 168 males, 142 females, and 118 nestlings did not differ significantly between landscapes. Annual reproductive productivity (mean number of fledglings per pair over breeding season) of 294 pairs was comparable for urban (2.4 +/- 0.18 [mean +/- SE] and rural (2.1 +/- 0.18) young birds. Thus, contrary to recent suggestions, we find that high densities of certain synanthropic species in urban landscapes are consistent with

  10. NELL: UMA ANÁLISE SÓCIO-HISTÓRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Delfino Soares da Cunha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A teoria Sócio-histórica de Vygotsky pauta-se na construção do conhecimento mediada pelas relações sociais. Nesse âmbito, destaca-se a importância do outro, da linguagem, do aprendizado e da imitação no desenvolvimento. À luz desses conceitos vygotskyanos, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o filme Nell. O foco do estudo é a protagonista Nell, jovem que foi privada do convívio social e, em razão disso, apresenta um desnível de aprendizagem comparado a pessoas que convivem em um meio socialmente compartilhado. Para dar conta desse objetivo, este estudo é de base bibliográfica, cujos conceitos teóricos são advindos da matriz sócio-histórica vygotskyana. Como procedimento adotado, tem-se  análise de conteúdo fílmico, em que se correlacionam pressupostos teóricos acerca do desenvolvimento e  informações sobre o filme.  A partir desse embasamento teórico, foi possível fazer uma verificação das relações sociais da protagonista, da interação, da sua linguagem e dos mecanismos de imitação por que passou. Conclui-se que  a interação social colabora para o processo de aprendizado e desenvolvimento da personagem Nell.

  11. "Terror and Menace" nell'opera di Harold Pinter

    OpenAIRE

    FAIULO, ELISA

    2010-01-01

    La ricerca si articola nell'ambito dello studio sul teatro inglese contemporaneo. I conflitti storico-sociali del dopoguerra hanno contribuito a creare il senso di vuoto che mette in pericolo l'esistenza dell'uomo. Il maggior interprete di quest'atmosfera minacciosa del quotidiano è senza dubbio Harold Pinter. Il termine "Comedy of Menace", utilizzato per la prima volta dal critico drammaturgico Irving Wardle per definire le opere di Pinter e le definizioni di "teatro della minaccia", dell’"a...

  12. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in Neomys fodiens e Neomys anomalus nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due Neomys italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. N. fodiens appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di N. anomalus. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per N. fodiens, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di N. anomalus con Apodemus sylvaticus.

  13. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  14. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  15. Geographical Constraints Are Stronger than Invasion Patterns for European Urban Floras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Kühn, Ingolf; Rapson, Gillian; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, Frank A.; Thompson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras. PMID:24465640

  16. Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

  17. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  18. Reproductive Contributions of Cardinals Are Consistent with a Hypothesis of Relaxed Selection in Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rodewald

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are leading to rapid environmental change globally and may affect the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes. Theory suggests that increases in environmental heterogeneity should promote variation in reproductive performance among individuals. At the same time, we know that novel environments, such as our urbanizing study system, may represent more benign or predictable environments due to resource subsidies and ecological changes. We tested the hypothesis that reduced environmental heterogeneity and enhanced resource availability in cities relax selective pressures on birds by testing if urban females vary less than rural females in their demographic contributions to local populations. From 2004 to 2014, we monitored local population densities and annual reproductive output of 470 female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis breeding at 14 forested sites distributed across a rural-to-urban landscape gradient in Ohio, USA. Reproductive contribution was measured as the difference between individual and site-averaged annual reproductive output across all nesting attempts, divided by the annual density at each site. We show that among-individual variation in reproductive contribution to the next year's population declined with increasing urbanization, despite similar variability in body condition across the rural-urban gradient. Thus, female cardinals that bred in urban habitats within our study area were more similar in their contribution to the next generation than rural breeders, where a pattern of winners and losers was more evident. Within-individual variation in annual reproductive contribution also declined with increasing urbanization, indicating that performance of females was also more consistent among years in urban than rural landscapes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that urbanized environments offer more homogeneous or predictable conditions that may buffer

  19. Climate change and cities: why urban agendas are central to adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Satterthwaite, David

    2007-12-15

    Cities could hold the key to slowing and eventually stopping global warming. Most greenhouse gas emissions are generated from producing the goods and services used by middle- and upper-income urban consumers. Keeping global warming within safe limits demands far more energy-efficient urban buildings and production systems and urban lifestyles that are far less carbon-intensive. It is up to high-income nations — the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions past and present — to show how such a transformation can be combined with high living standards. However, urgent action is also needed in the urban areas of low- and middleincome countries, both through mitigation to curb greenhouse gas emissions, and adaptation to the serious risks that climate change brings.

  20. Color Doppler US of superficial adenopathies; Il color Doppler nelle adenopatie superficiali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovagnorio, F. [Rome Univ. (Italy). 1. Cattedra di Radiologia

    1999-03-01

    Superficial lymph node are frequently involved in different diseases. Their location makes them suitable for effective assessment with high-resolution US and color Doppler has been recently suggested as a tool for increasing sensitivity in lymph node studies. Thus the author investigated the main vascular patterns detectable in abnormal superficial lymph nodes. [Italian] Numerosa malattie con natura differente coinvolgono i linfonodi superficiali: la localizzazione ne consente l'esplorazione con ecografia con alta risoluzione e lo studio mediante eco color Doppler e' stato proposto negli ultimi anni incontrando notevole sviluppo in tempi recenti. Scopo del lavoro e' illustrare il contributo personale nella definizione dei principali quadri riscontrabili nelle diverse adenopatie superficiali.

  1. These lit areas are undeveloped: Delimiting China's urban extents from thresholded nighttime light imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Delahunty, Tina; Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Nighttime light imagery is a powerful tool to study urbanization because it can provide a uniform metric, lit area, to delimit urban extents. However, lit area is much larger than actual urban area, so thresholds of digital number (DN) values are usually needed to reduce the lit area. The threshold varies greatly among different regions, but at present it is still not very clear what factors impact the changes of the threshold. In this study, urban extent by province for China is mapped using official statistical data and four intercalibrated and geometrically corrected nighttime light images between 2004 and 2010. Lit area in the imagery for most provinces is at least 94% greater than the official amount of urban area. Regression analyses show a significant correlation between optimal thresholds and GDP per capita, and larger thresholds more commonly indicate higher economic level. Size and environmental condition may explain a province's threshold that is disproportionate to GDP. Findings indicate one threshold DN is not appropriate for multiple (adjacent) province urban extent mapping, and optimal thresholds for one year may be notably different than the next. Province-level derived thresholds are not appropriate for other geographic levels. Brightness of nighttime lights is an advantage over imagery that relies on daylight reflection, and decreases in brightness indicate faster growth in the horizontal direction than the vertical. A province's optimal threshold does not always maintain an increase with population and economic growth. In the economically developed eastern provinces, urban population densities decreased (and this is seen in the brightness data), while urban population increased.

  2. Impiego di tramadolo nelle diverse patologie dolorose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain represents a major health problem that afflicts a significant number of patients, resulting in personal suffering, reduced productivity and substantial health care costs, specially in chronic conditions. Chronic pain, such as low back pain, osteoarthritis, neuropathic and oncologic pain, requires a global management based on clinical evaluation, defining of the adequate therapeutic strategy and assiduous cares. Generally, patients with chronic pain need two different analgesic formulation: one at fixed doses and prolonged duration of action for control of baseline pain and one fast-release drug for treatment of breakthrough pain. Main guidelines recommend use of the same active principle for both these formulations. Tramadol, a dual action analgesic agent, used for controlling moderate to severe pain control in acute and chronic diseases, is available in several different oral formulations. This is important because, apart from efficacy and tolerability, that are the most important criteria to evaluate a therapy, the choice of a formulation with an uncomplicated dosing regimen can increase compliance and, consequently, clinical results, and ameliorate patient quality of life. For the treatment of chronic pain, the appropriate analgesic dosage can be achieved through a gradual titration: this permits to minimize adverse effects and cost of therapy.With tramadol this action can be realized with 50 mg extended-release capsules, that represent the minimal effective dose. When adequate pain relief is obtained, it’s possible to reduce frequency and complexity of dosing regimen using a new once-daily tablet of tramadol. Fast-release orodispersible tramadol tablet, with its practical advantage (rapid disintegration in the mouth without need of water, can be used for the control of breakthrough and acute pain. The cost of treatment with tramadol results relatively low, also when two daily episodes of breakthrough pain are considered.

  3. Technology-rich inquiry science in urban classrooms: What are the barriers to inquiry pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler Songer, Nancy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Kam, Rosalind

    2002-02-01

    What are the barriers to technology-rich inquiry pedagogy in urban science classrooms, and what kinds of programs and support structures allow these barriers to be overcome? Research on the pedagogical practices within urban classrooms suggests that as a result of many constraints, many urban teachers' practices emphasize directive, controlling teaching, that is, the pedagogy of poverty (Haberman, [1991]), rather than the facilitation of students' ownership and control over their learning, as advocated in inquiry science. On balance, research programs that advocate standards-based or inquiry teaching pedagogies demonstrate strong learning outcomes by urban students. This study tracked classroom research on a technology-rich inquiry weather program with six urban science teachers. The teachers implemented this program in coordination with a district-wide middle school science reform. Results indicated that despite many challenges in the first year of implementation, students in all 19 classrooms of this program demonstrated significant content and inquiry gains. In addition, case study data comprised of twice-weekly classroom observations and interviews with the six teachers suggest support structures that were both conducive and challenging to inquiry pedagogy. Our work has extended previous studies on urban science pedagogy and practices as it has begun to articulate what role the technological component plays either in contributing to the challenges we experienced or in helping urban science classrooms to realize inquiry science and other positive learning values. Although these data outline results after only the first year of systemic reform, we suggest that they begin to build evidence for the role of technology-rich inquiry programs in combating the pedagogy of poverty in urban science classrooms.

  4. L'introduzione delle tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione nell'insegnamento scolastico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Tagliagambe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available L'introduzione delle tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione nell'insegnamento scolastico: le finalita' da perseguire e le conoscenzee competenze che debbono essere sviluppate

  5. Intimate partner violence in southwestern Nigeria: are there rural-urban differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Mary O; Owoaje, Eme T; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2012-01-01

    The researchers in this study assessed the prevalence of different types and experience of intimate partner violence among 600 women aged 15 to 49 years in selected rural and urban communities in southwestern Nigeria between October and December, 2007. Lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence was 64% in the rural and 70% in the urban areas. Controlling behavior was the most frequently reported type of intimate partner violence experienced by both groups of women, and sexual violence was reported least. More urban women reported sexual violence and controlling behaviors than rural women (16.4% versus 11.6% and 57.7% versus 42.0%, respectively). More rural women had experienced physical violence (28% versus 14%). More urban women experienced controlling behaviors, while more rural women experienced physical violence. In both locations, history of partners' involvement in physical fights was significantly associated with reporting sexual violence (rural: odds ratio [OR] = 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.3; urban: OR = 8.4; 95% CI 1.4-51.8). History of alcohol consumption by partners was significantly associated with reporting physical violence (rural: OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.4; urban: OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.2). However, among rural respondents, younger partners were more likely to perpetuate controlling behavior (OR = 5.1; 95% CI 1.7-15.6) and being in a relationship for ≥10 years was related to psychological and physical violence. Among urban respondents, history of partners' involvement in physical fights was associated with controlling behavior (OR = 8.2; 95% CI 1.1-65.4) and physical violence (OR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-17.3). These results suggest that intimate partner violence is a frequent experience in women in both communities, although the types of intimate partner violence experienced differed, and multidisciplinary strategies are required to reduce intimate partner violence.

  6. Urban Transition Politics : How struggles for sustainability are (re)making urban spaces : Stedelijke transitiepolitiek : Hoe de strijd voor duurzaamheid stedelijke ruimtes (trans)formeert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Jhagroe (Shivant)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis examines the politics of sustainable urban space-making. It focusses on the struggles associated with the ways in which urban spaces are becoming more green, clean and inclusive. Even though cities are increasingly considered as sites that can make societies sustainable,

  7. Are People Responsive to a More Sustainable, Decentralized, and User-Driven Management of Urban Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Chelleri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart, green, and resilient city paradigms have been mainly promoted through top-down and technocratic approaches. However, based on the notion to return to “the right to the city”, emerging community-driven initiatives are providing self-managed infrastructures contributing to urban sustainability transitions. This paper explores the relevance of the behavioral aspects of people-centered approaches in dealing with two different facets of urban metabolism: physical infrastructure (involvement with the management of decentralized infrastructures and consumption patterns (involvement in proactive reduction of resources used. In the first case we assessed community perceptions about the roles, benefits, and willingness to proactively engage in the management of decentralized green infrastructures in Bogotá City, Colombia. For the second facet, we measured the effectiveness of change agents in re-shaping energy consumption decisions within urban social networks in South Africa and Saudi Arabia. This paper’s results show that pre-determined and standardized strategies do not guarantee positive, nor homogeneous, results in terms of meeting sustainability targets, or promoting community involvement. Hence, a better integration of people-centered and top-down approaches is needed through context-dependent policies, for enhancing both users’ appreciation of and commitment to urban metabolism participative management.

  8. Controlled release of NELL-1 protein from chitosan/hydroxyapatite-modified TCP particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Dong, Rui; Park, Yujin; Bohner, Marc; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; Wu, Benjamin M

    2016-09-10

    NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) is a novel osteogenic protein that showing high specificity to osteochondral cells. It was widely used in bone regeneration research by loading onto carriers such as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles. However, there has been little research on protein controlled release from this material and its potential application. In this study, TCP was first modified with a hydroxyapatite coating followed by a chitosan coating to prepare chitosan/hydroxyapatite-coated TCP particles (Chi/HA-TCP). The preparation was characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD, FM and Zeta potential measurements. The NELL-1 loaded Chi/HA-TCP particles and the release kinetics were investigated in vitro. It was observed that the Chi/HA-TCP particles prepared with the 0.3% (wt/wt) chitosan solution were able to successfully control the release of NELL-1 and maintain a slow, steady release for up to 28 days. Furthermore, more than 78% of the loaded protein's bioactivity was preserved in Chi/HA-TCP particles over the period of the investigation, which was significantly higher than that of the protein released from hydroxyapatite coated TCP (HA-TCP) particles. Collectively, this study suggests that the osteogenic protein NELL-1 showed a sustained release pattern after being encapsulated into the modified Chi/HA-TCP particles, and the NELL-1 integrated composite of Chi/HA-TCP showed a potential to function as a protein delivery carrier and as an improved bone matrix for use in bone regeneration research.

  9. Are Safer Looking Neighborhoods More Lively? A Multimodal Investigation into Urban Life

    CERN Document Server

    De Nadai, Marco; Zen, Gloria; Dragicevic, Stefan; Naik, Nikhil; Caraviello, Michele; Hidalgo, Cesar A; Sebe, Nicu; Lepri, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers, urban planners, architects, sociologists, and economists are interested in creating urban areas that are both lively and safe. But are the safety and liveliness of neighborhoods independent characteristics? Or are they just two sides of the same coin? In a world where people avoid unsafe looking places, neighborhoods that look unsafe will be less lively, and will fail to harness the natural surveillance of human activity. But in a world where the preference for safe looking neighborhoods is small, the connection between the perception of safety and liveliness will be either weak or nonexistent. In this paper we explore the connection between the levels of activity and the perception of safety of neighborhoods in two major Italian cities by combining mobile phone data (as a proxy for activity or liveliness) with scores of perceived safety estimated using a Convolutional Neural Network trained on a dataset of Google Street View images scored using a crowdsourced visual perception survey. We find ...

  10. Dispersion of volatile hydrocarbons into the environment; Dispersione di idrocarburi volatili nell'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberti, L.; Gironi, F. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali, delle Materie Prime e Metallurgia

    2001-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the presence of relevant concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether in groundwater. The same researches did not measure significant quantities of the other gasoline hydrocarbons in the samples. The aim of this work is to analyse in which way MTBE can reach the deeper layers of groundwater. Different liquid and vapour losses of hydrocarbons, with a particular attention to MTBE, are studied. In this context, the dispersion into atmosphere of the vapours present in the car gasoline tanks during the refilling of fuel has been estimated and compared to the losses due to imperfect combustion. An estimation of the total hydrocarbons vapours lost into atmosphere because of the evaporation from cars and industrial tanks has been compared with data reported in the European Community Directives. To reduce the losses of hydrocarbons from car gasoline tanks during the refilling of fuel, a recovery system has been suggested, which is based on the adsorption of hydrocarbon vapours on activated carbons. This method can be alternative to that adopted by service station pumps. At the moment, the behaviour of the equipment is being studied in the laboratory, where this research is performed. [Italian] Alcuni studi recenti hanno rilevato la presenza di concentrazioni significative di metil terz-butil etere nelle acque di falda. Al contrario altri composti idrocarburici, quali quelli presenti normalmente nelle benzine, non sono stati individuati. Il presente lavoro ha lo scopo di studiare le modalita' con le quali l'MTBE puo' raggiungere la falda idrica, distinguendo in particolare le perdite in fase liquida dalle perdite in fase vapore. Sono state quantificate le perdite per lo spiazzamento dei vapori presenti nel serbatorio nel momento del rifornimento del carburante e si e' mostrato come questo termine sia confrontabile con quello dovuto alle perdite per imperfetta combustione. La stima delle perdite totali di vapori idrocarburici per

  11. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the osteoinductive protein NELL1 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Imai, Arisa; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2015-12-21

    Neural epidermal growth factor-like (NEL)-like 1 (NELL1) is a secretory osteogenic protein comprising an N-terminal thrombospondin-1-like (TSPN) domain, four von Willebrand factor type C domains, and six epidermal growth factor-like repeats. NELL1 shows heparin-binding activity; however, the biological significance remains to be explored. In this report, we demonstrate that NELL1 binds to cell surface proteoglycans through its TSPN domain. Major heparin-binding sites were identified on the three-dimensional structural model of the TSPN domain of NELL1. Mutant analysis of the heparin-binding sites indicated that the heparin-binding activity of the TSPN domain is involved in interaction of NELL1 with cell surface proteoglycans.

  12. What land covers are effective in mitigating a heat island in urban building rooftop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 20th century, due to the rapid urbanization many urban environment problems have got blossomed and above all heat island has been recognized as an important issue. There are several causes of urban heat island, but land cover change occupies the largest portion of them. Owing to urban expansion, vegetation is changed into asphalt pavements and concrete buildings, which reduces latent heat flux. To mitigate the problems, people enlarge vegetation covers such as planting street trees, making rooftop gardens and constructing parks or install white roofs that feature high albedo on a building. While the white roofs reflect about 70% of solar radiation and absorb less radiation, vegetation has low albedo but cools the air through transpiration and fixes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. There are some studies concerning which one is more effective to mitigate heat island between the green roof and white roof. This study compares the green roof and white roof and additionally considers carbon fixation that has not been treated in other studies. Furthermore, this study ascertains an efficiency of solar-cell panel that is used for building roof recently. The panel produces electric power but has low albedo which could warm the air. The experiment is conducted at the rooftop in Seoul, Korea and compares green roof (grass), white roof (painted cover), black roof (solar panel) and normal painted roof. Surface temperature and albedo are observed for the four roof types and incoming shortwave, outgoing longwave and carbon flux are measured in green roof solely. In the case of solar panels, the electricity generation is calculated from the incoming radiation. We compute global warming potentials for the four roof types and test which roof type is most effective in reducing global warming potential.

  13. Whose banner are we waving? Exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Monica L.; Yerrick, Randy K.

    2016-10-01

    This case study examines after school programming in citizen science from the perspective of Critical Race Theory. During the course of enacting community outreach projects this data was used to examine the positioning of experts, student, and teachers within the program. This study explores the role of race and ethnicity, and the ways in which marginalization can manifest itself with black urban youth and teachers. Implications for partner selection and training are addressed.

  14. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lisboa Nobre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal is a city with environment singularities. The urban legislation tried to preserve the features of the local landscape delimiting “Areas for Controlling Building High”, destined to protect the scenic value of some parts of the city. In 1979 was created a “NonÆdificandi” area to protect the scenery of Ponta Negra beach, one of the most famous view of the city. Since this time, the real state market, the building constructers and the land owners of this area have exerted constant pressure in sense to abolish or to modify this legal instrument.Nowadays, the public administration presented a new project which try to answer public and private interests.This paper is the result of an inclusion of the University in this polemic issue. Architecture and Urban Planning and Statistic students of two universities of the city (UFRN and UNP, helped the process collecting data and producing information. The proposed of the investigation was to know the users of this area and their opinion about the subject. It was done together with the Public agency, Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo. At the end, the students presented their particular solutions for the problem, inside the disciplines of Landscaping and Urban Planning.

  15. Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Mario

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is an emerging problem in urban Indian children and increases in childhood overweight and obesity may be major contributors to the adult obesity epidemic. Thus, identifying potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulating early interventions is crucial in the management of the obesity epidemic. The present study was aimed at evaluating dietary and physical activity patterns as determinants of overweight in a sample of children. Methods Five hundred and ninety eight children aged 6–16 years, visiting St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore City, India for minor complaints or routine checkups were recruited into the study. These children were studied for their physical activity patterns, sleep duration, sedentary habits and eating behaviours as potential determinants of overweight. Results Decreased duration of sleep and increased television viewing were significantly associated with overweight. Among the eating behaviours, increased consumption of fried foods was significantly associated with overweight. Conclusion Our data suggests that duration of sleep, television viewing and consumption of fried foods may be significant factors that contribute to overweight. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Multifunzionalità e conflittualità nelle Zone 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Staricco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Le Zone 30 costituiscono una misura di riorganizzazione e ridisegno dello spazio stradale, volta a migliorare la compatibilità delle diverse funzioni che tale spazio deve assolvere, in termini di mobilità, vita relazionale, qualità ambientale ed estetica del paesaggio urbano. L’imposizione del limite di velocità dei 30 km/h può però innescare la vivace opposizione dei residenti e degli utenti dell’area, perché sembra penalizzare quella funzione di mobilità che attualmente, alla luce del forte squilibrio modale verso il traffico motorizzato privato, risulta predominante – con forme di maggiore o minore incompatibilità  – rispetto alle altre. L’articolo prende in esame queste manifestazioni di conflittualità che possono emergere a fronte di misure di moderazione della velocità, approfondendo in particolare lo studio di caso relativo alla Zona 30 di Mirafiori Nord a Torino. Da tale caso, e dall’analisi delle principali linee guida europee sulla moderazione del traffico, vengono messe in evidenza le condizioni per prevenire o gestire le eventuali opposizioni locali. In particolare, un ruolo importante deve essere svolto dal processo di partecipazione dei cittadini: da un lato, esso deve permettere loro di comprendere la filosofia di fondo delle Zone 30, con gli effettivi costi e benefici che ne possono derivare; dall’altro lato, deve coinvolgerli direttamente nelle scelte volte a fare della messa in sicurezza anche un’occasione di riqualificazione e rigenerazione del quartiere.

  17. Il concetto di storia della lingua nell'opera grammaticale di Benedetto Buommattei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunver Skytte

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Che la storia della lingua sia una disciplina linguistica di data recente, fondata nell'800, soprattutto grazie alle ricerche pionieristiche di insigni filologi tedeschi, è un'opinione comunemente accettata, ed essa è probabilmente anche giustificata attraverso la classificazione datane di disciplina. A questo dato di fatto si deve senz'altro l'opinione altrettanto estesa che prima dell'800 non esistesse il concetto di linguistica diacronica o cambiamento linguistico in senso scientifico, come pure quella non meno erronea che la linguistica, come scienza, sia stata fondata solo nell'800.

  18. Are there urban signatures in the tropospheric ozone column products derived from satellite measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the proposed geostationary satellite missions to monitor air quality from space, it is important to first assess the capability of the current suite of satellite instruments to provide information on the urban scale pollution. We explore the possibility of detecting urban signatures in the tropospheric column ozone data derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS/Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite data. We find that distinct isolated plumes of tropospheric ozone near several large and polluted cities around the world may be detected in these data sets. The ozone plumes generally correspond with the tropospheric column NO2 plumes around these cities as observed by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY instrument. Similar plumes are also seen in tropospheric mean ozone mixing ratio distribution after accounting for the surface and tropopause pressure variations. The total column ozone retrievals indicate fairly significant sensitivity to the lower troposphere over the polluted land areas, which might help explain these detections. These results indicate that ultraviolet (UV measurements may, in principle, be able to capture the urban signatures and may have implications for future missions using geostationary satellites.

  19. Membrane separation in dairy industry; Separazioni su membrana nell'industria lattiero-casearia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, C. [Parmalat SpA, Direzione Scientifica, Parma (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Many different techniques of membrane separation are widely used in the dairy industry. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. Also 'Parmalat' has introduced in its productions of yoghurt, UHT and pasteurized milk some of these techniques, obtaining new-concept products such as Plus milk, very rich in calcium, and a very high quality pasteurized milk, in the Canadian market, under the brand name Lactantia Pure Filtre, characterized by a double life compared to traditional products. As for yoghurt, in some plants, milk pre-concentration through ultra-filtration permits a considerable increase in the product's creaminess. [Italian] Le diverse tecniche di separazione su membrana consentono di operare forti risparmi e sensibili miglioramenti qualitativi. Anche la Parmalat ha inserito nelle produzioni di yogurt, latte UHT e latte pastorizzato, alcune di queste tecniche, ottenendo prodotti di nuova concezione come il latte Plus, particolarmente ricco in Calcio e, sul mercato Canadese, un latte pastorizzato di alta qualita' dal marchio Lactantia Pure Filtre caratterizzato da conservabilita' doppia rispetto al prodotto tradizionale. Nel caso dello yogurt, in alcuni stabilimenti, la preconcezione del latte per ultrafiltrazione aumenta considerevolmente la cremosita' del prodotto.

  20. Soil nitrogen levels are linked to decomposition enzyme activities along an urban-remote tropical forest gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. F. Cusack

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas in tropical regions are expanding rapidly, with significant potential to affect local ecosystem dynamics. In particular, nitrogen (N) availability may increase in urban-proximate forests because of atmospheric N deposition. Unlike temperate forests, many tropical forests on highly weathered soils have high background N availability, so plant growth is...

  1. Monza nelle pellicole cinematografiche. Una risorsa da dilatare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Malvasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Monza offrirebbe diverse location per far da sfondo a chi voglia girare un film. Eppure, la scelta dei produttori è caduta quasi esclusivamente sull’Autodromo e sulla Villa Reale ed ovviamente sulle numerose testimonianze esistenti in città circa la Monaca di Monza, nella quale la città si identifica tout court. C’è, comunque, da osservare che piuttosto scarso sembra, a tutt’oggi, l’interesse dei monzesi verso il cineturismo. Parecchi sono, infatti, i film che hanno come sfondo l’Autodromo, ma, fa notare qualcuno, potrebbero essere molti di più. E, forse, questo dipende da quel rapporto di amore-odio che i cittadini hanno da sempre con il famoso circuito del Gran Premio di Formula 1. Va bene che il cineturismo è ancora un fenomeno ai suoi esordi, ma è ugualmente vero che, e questo vale in particolare per l’Autodromo, non si fa altro che esaltare, una volta di più, proprio un aspetto del capoluogo brianzolo che già i mass-media hanno contribuito a diffondere nelle varie contrade del mondo.   Monza could offer different locations as background for one who wants to make a film. And yet producer's choice has been almost exclusively made in favour of Autodromo (Formula 1 Car Race Circuit and Villa Reale (Royal Castle such as, obviously, of the numerous still existing evidences about Monaca di Monza (Nun of Monza, character into which the town is tout courtidentified. However, we have to observe that up till now Monza townpeople care about tourism cinema remains poor. Numerous remain, as a matter of fact, films which have the Autodromo as background but, as somebody suggests, they could be much more. And, maybe, this depends on love - hate relationship that uninterrupedly Monza citizens demonstrate with regard to Formula ! Grand Prix Circuit. It is true that tourism cinema is for the time being a new phenomenon, but it is in the same way true that, particularly for Autodromo, the aspect already diffused by mass - media all over

  2. Factors That Are Associated With Physical Activity Among Visitors To Urban National Parks: Are There Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    steps, traveled longer distances, and participated in more MVPA minutes than those who reported a non-active visit. Logistic regression models found...higher levels of leisure -time inactivity than their White counterparts. Validated data (through the use of accelerometers) from the 2003- 2004 and...urban parks, a growing collaborative interest among urban planners, leisure scientists and public health researchers (20), has also been linked to

  3. Closing the poor-rich gap in contraceptive use in urban Kenya: are family planning programs increasingly reaching the urban poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean Christophe; Speizer, Ilene S; Mukiira, Carol; Kizito, Paul; Lumumba, Vane

    2013-08-27

    Kenya is characterized by high unmet need for family planning (FP) and high unplanned pregnancy, in a context of urban population explosion and increased urban poverty. It witnessed an improvement of its FP and reproductive health (RH) indicators in the recent past, after a period of stalled progress. The objectives of the paper are to: a) describe inequities in modern contraceptive use, types of methods used, and the main sources of contraceptives in urban Kenya; b) examine the extent to which differences in contraceptive use between the poor and the rich widened or shrank over time; and c) attempt to relate these findings to the FP programming context, with a focus on whether the services are increasingly reaching the urban poor. We use data from the 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008/09 Kenya demographic and health survey. Bivariate analyses describe the patterns of modern contraceptive use and the types and sources of methods used, while multivariate logistic regression models assess how the gap between the poor and the rich varied over time. The quantitative analysis is complemented by a review on the major FP/RH programs carried out in Kenya. There was a dramatic change in contraceptive use between 2003 and 2008/09 that resulted in virtually no gap between the poor and the rich in 2008/09, by contrast to the period 1993-1998 during which the improvement in contraceptive use did not significantly benefit the urban poor. Indeed, the late 1990s marked the realization by the Government of Kenya and its development partners, of the need to deliberately target the poor with family planning services. Most urban women use short-term and less effective methods, with the proportion of long-acting method users dropping by half during the review period. The proportion of private sector users also declined between 2003 and 2008/09. The narrowing gap in the recent past between the urban poor and the urban rich in the use of modern contraception is undoubtedly good news, which

  4. Monitoring of aldehydes in urban and non urban areas from 1997 up to 1999; Monitoraggio di aldeidi in ambiente urbano ed extraurbano nel periodo 1997-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, R.; Porro, E. [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Varese, Varese (Italy). Unita' Operativa Chimica P.M.I.P.; Sesana, G.; Galimberti, E. [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Provincia di Milano, Parabiago, MI (Italy). Unita' Operativa Chimica P.M.I.P.

    1999-10-01

    The results of monitoring of aldehydes in the air from 1997 up to 1999 are showed: passive and active samplers have been employed. The values of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in urban and non urban areas with very little or no traffic at all in the surroundings of Varese and Parabiago (Lombardia region, Italy) were compared. The results do not differ from the ones found in literature in similar situations: highest were noted, as expected, in urban areas. The comparison with meteorological data shows a relationship between measured values of formaldehyde and sun radiation. [Italian] Vengono riportati i risultati di alcune campagne di monitoraggio delle aldeidi in atmosfera nel periodo 1997-1999. Sono stati confrontati i valori medi di formaldeide ed acetaldeide riscontrati in atmosfera in aree urbane ed extraurbane o comunque a ridotto traffico veicolare nei territori di Varese e Parabiago (Lombardia). I rilievi, condotti utilizzando metodi di campionamento attivo e passivo, hanno mostrato una concentrazione maggiore di entrambi gli inquinanti nelle aree urbane; si e' inoltre verificata, per quanto riguarda l'aldeide formica, una associazione fra concentrazione e condizioni di soleggiamento.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in urban parks are similar to those in natural forests but shaped by vegetation and park age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Kotze, D Johan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-09-29

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important mutualists for growth and health of most boreal trees. Forest age and its host species composition can impact the composition of ECM fungal communities. Although plentiful empirical data exist for forested environments, the effects of established vegetation and its successional trajectories on ECM fungi in urban greenspaces remain poorly understood. We analyzed ECM fungi in 5 control forests and 41 urban parks of two plant functional groups (conifer and broadleaf trees) and in three age categories (10, ∼50 and >100 years old) in southern Finland. Our results show that although ECM fungal richness was marginally greater in forests than in urban parks, urban parks still hosted rich and diverse ECM communities. ECM community composition differed between the two habitats, but was driven by taxon rank order reordering, as key ECM taxa remained largely the same. In parks, the ECM communities differed between conifer and broadleaf trees. The successional trajectories of ECM fungi -- as inferred in relation to the time since park construction -- differed among the conifers and broadleaf trees: the ECM fungal communities changed over time under the conifers, whereas communities under broadleaf trees provided no evidence for such age related effects. Our data show that plant-ECM interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar in richness to those in natural forests. This suggests that the presence of host trees, rather than soil characteristics or even disturbance regime of the system, determine ECM fungal community structure and diversity.Importance In urban environments soil and trees improve environmental quality and provide essential ecosystem services. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi enhance plant growth and performance, increasing plant nutrient acquisition and protecting plants against toxic compounds. Recent evidence indicates that soil-inhabiting fungal communities - including

  6. Transit Oriented Development: una soluzione per il governo delle aree di stazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available I processi di diffusione e dispersione insediativa, la crescente crisi da congestione, la disponibilità di aree libere a seguito di dismissione di impianti industriali in aree strategiche della città, i consistenti investimenti in infrastrutture di trasporto su ferro in ambito urbano e regionale sono elementi chiave che hanno contribuito alla diffusione di teorie e pratiche per uno “sviluppo urbano orientato al sistema di trasporto pubblico su ferro”: il Transit Oriented Development- TOD. Questo termine, introdotto per la prima volta da Calthorpe nel 1993, sintetizza teorie e metodi volti a favorire uno sviluppo metropolitano policentrico i cui poli sono i Transit Villages ovvero comunità urbane ad alta densità e mixitè funzionale che si sviluppano intorno alle stazioni della rete su ferro. Nelle aree in espansione o in trasformazione il TOD propone la costruzione di nuovi centri urbani di elevata qualità urbana in aree della città consolidata il TOD prevede il riempimento dei vuoti esistenti ed interventi di riqualificazione urbana. Da molti anni si stanno mettendo in pratica questi principi prevalentemente negli Stati Uniti, dove la disponibilità di suoli e la necessità di limitare fenomeni di sprawl urbano hanno favorito la diffusione delle pratiche TOD in molte città. In Europa questo tipo di interventi non è ancora molto diffuso, a meno di alcuni casi specifici. L’articolo, partendo da queste premesse, vuole contribuire ad affrontare alcune questioni centrali: in quali modo è possibile “esportare” i metodi e le tecniche del TOD nelle città Europee e in particolare in Italia? Quali sono gli strumenti e le procedure per la definizione degli interventi? A partire da uno studio della letteratura scientifica e dall’analisi di casi di studio internazionali il paper propone alcune prime risposte attraverso una proposta di metodo per l’applicazione delle pratiche TOD nelle aree metropolitane italiane.

  7. All slums are not equal: Maternal health conditions among two urban slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfia Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a "high risk" group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India. House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services.

  8. Defecography of rectal wall prolapse conditions; Defecografia nelle malattie parietali del retto da prolasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; Muto, M.; De Rosa, A. [Azienda Sanitaria di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia; Ginolfi, F.; Carbone, M.; Amodio, F.; Rossi, E. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Sanitaria di Rilirvo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). 2. Servizio di Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Pelvic floor and rectal prolapse conditions have greatly benefited by new imaging and instrumental diagnostic approaches, and especially defecography, for both pathophysiological interpretation and differential diagnosis. The authors investigated the efficacy of defecography in the assessment of rectal prolapse, and in particular the role of videproctography in diagnosis such dynamic disorders. The dynamic changes of ampulla are well depicted by videoproctography, which showed anorectum normalization and spontaneous reduction of invagination after intussusception. Defecography exhibited good capabilities in showing rectal wall function abnormalities. Finally, some features of videoproctography such as low radiation dose, non-invasiveness and ease of execution, make the examination acceptable to patients with anorectal disorders and for the follow-up of rectal prolapse. [Italian] Le malattie del pavimento pelvico e dei prolassi del retto hanno tratto numerosi vantaggi da nuovi approcci di diagnostica per immagini e strumentali, specialmente dall'esame defecografico, sia nell'interpretazione fisiopatologica che nella diagnostica differenziale dei disordini anorettali. Scopo del lavoro: valutare l'efficacia della metodica defecografica nel riconoscimento delle malattie da prolasso del retto e in particolare il ruolo svolto dalla videoproctografia nella documentazione diagnostica e nel definire i principali elementi semeiologici riscontrabili in tali malattie in modo dinamico. Le fasi dinamiche della valutazione morfologica e posizionale dell'ampolla rettale sono ben evidenti nella viedeoproctografia, che documenta dopo l'intussuscezione la normalizzazione del complesso anorettale e la riduzione spontanea dell'invaginazione parietale. In questo studio si sottolineano le possibilita' diagnostiche della defecografia integrata da videoproctografia nel riconoscimento delle malattie parietali funzionali del retto e alcune peculiarita

  9. Comporre il diverso: l'idea di 'società' nell'insegnamento della composizione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Guanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La problematica aspirazione a un’arte, e in particolar modo a una musica, universale è pari a quella della prospettiva che le configura come oasi di protezione e conservazione per antonomasia delle singolarità culturali. L’universalismo cosmopolita illuminista, prima, poi gli esasperati nazionalismi ottocenteschi, hanno segnato profondamente la cultura europea fin nelle più capillari declinazioni della didattica musicale. Oggi non si può certo più insegnare a comporre nello stile francese, tedesco o italiano, come pur si faceva sino alla conclusione della Seconda Guerra Mondiale; si possono, e si devono, invece, valorizzare i tratti salienti del “sapere musicale europeo”, che fu e che rimane omogeneo e unitario nelle basilari strutture linguistiche a dispetto di qualsiasi artificiosa enfatizzazione delle sue interne differenziazioni e articolazioni locali.

  10. "Women with self-esteem are healthy women": community development in an urban settlement of Guayaquil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, V F

    1996-02-01

    Guayaquil, home to two million people, is Ecuador's main port city. El Guasmo is an urban settlement in the south of the city. In 1984, CEPAM, an Ecuadorian women's nongovernmental organization, began working in El Guasmo Norte, the oldest and most established area of El Guasmo. CEPAM employs an integrated approach to its work with poor urban women on health issues, legal advice, and group formation, based upon a gender analysis of life in the area. This article describes the group's work in El Guasmo Norte, explaining how women came to understand that their health and well-being were determined by their status as poor urban women, and that as a result, they decided to establish their own health center. Sections cover the determinants of urban women's health, reflection and action, the health center, the concept of integration, participating in health services, and lessons learned.

  11. Culturable bioaerosols along an urban waterfront are primarily associated with coarse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Montero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The source, characteristics and transport of viable microbial aerosols in urban centers are topics of significant environmental and public health concern. Recent studies have identified adjacent waterways, and especially polluted waterways, as an important source of microbial aerosols to urban air. The size of these aerosols influences how far they travel, their resistance to environmental stress, and their inhalation potential. In this study, we utilize a cascade impactor and aerosol particle monitor to characterize the size distribution of particles and culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols along the waterfront of a New York City embayment. We seek to address the potential contribution of bacterial aerosols from local sources and to determine how their number, size distribution, and taxonomic identity are affected by wind speed and wind direction (onshore vs. offshore. Total culturable microbial counts were higher under offshore winds (average of 778 CFU/m3 ± 67, with bacteria comprising the majority of colonies (58.5%, as compared to onshore winds (580 CFU/m3 ± 110 where fungi were dominant (87.7%. The majority of cultured bacteria and fungi sampled during both offshore winds (88% and onshore winds (72% were associated with coarse aerosols (>2.1 µm, indicative of production from local sources. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05 of wind speed with both total and coarse culturable microbial aerosol concentrations. Taxonomic analysis, based on DNA sequencing, showed that Actinobacteria was the dominant phylum among aerosol isolates. In particular, Streptomyces and Bacillus, both spore forming genera that are often soil-associated, were abundant under both offshore and onshore wind conditions. Comparisons of bacterial communities present in the bioaerosol sequence libraries revealed that particle size played an important role in microbial aerosol taxonomy. Onshore and offshore coarse libraries were found to be most similar

  12. Child health interventions in urban slums: are we neglecting the importance of nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J D

    1986-12-01

    During the early part of the twentieth century, there were dramatic falls in the mortality rates in many cities in the West. The reasons for this improvement are of considerable relevance today because the conditions which prevailed at that time in cities such as New York are comparable to those prevailing in many slums of the Third World today. Some early studies linked the improvements in health, as measured by mortality rates, to a better level of nutrition. The importance of nutrition is now widely accepted and there are many studies which show the association between nutrient intake and both mortality and morbidity, and in particular between breast feeding and infant mortality rates. It is sometimes assumed that, because nutrition indicators for city populations have improved, there is no longer a major problem of malnutrition in urban areas. However, it is likely that the figures hide disparities through aggregation, and studies in slums rather than cities as a whole give a much less encouraging picture. Poverty is at the root of many of the nutritional and associated health problems, but the children who will be born over the coming decades cannot afford to wait for a new economic order to provide the solution. Through the promotion of breast feeding, education, growth monitoring and food supplementation, necessary help can be targeted at this vulnerable population.

  13. Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted in ....... Some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals.......Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted...... in families or in individuals. Linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, a population-based cohort of 711,897 people aged 15 years or more was established. Overall, 2,720 persons developed schizophrenia during the period 1970-2001. The authors...

  14. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  15. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  16. Size Matters: What Are the Characteristic Source Areas for Urban Planning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hua; Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W; Wang, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz. the statistical correlation method commonly used by geographers for landscape fragmentation and the mechanistic footprint model by meteorologists for atmospheric measurements. Good agreement was found in the intercomparison of the estimate of source areas by the two methods, based on 2-m air temperature measurement collected using a network of weather stations. The results can be extended to shed new lights on urban planning strategies, such as the use of urban vegetation for heat mitigation. In general, a sizable patch of landscape is required in order to play an effective role in regulating the local environment, proportional to the height at which stakeholders' interest is mainly concerned.

  17. Postacute Stroke Rehabilitation Utilization: Are There Differences between Rural-Urban Patients and Taxonomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huanguang; Cowper, Diane C.; Tang, Yuhong; Litt, Eric; Wilson, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between Veterans Affairs (VA) stroke patients' poststroke rehabilitation utilization and their residential settings by using 2 common rural-urban taxonomies. Methods: This retrospective study included all VA stroke inpatients in 2001 and 2002. Rehabilitation utilization referred to rehabilitation therapy received…

  18. Size Matters: What Are the Characteristic Source Areas for Urban Planning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Wang, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz. the statistical correlation method commonly used by geographers for landscape fragmentation and the mechanistic footprint model by meteorologists for atmospheric measurements. Good agreement was found in the intercomparison of the estimate of source areas by the two methods, based on 2-m air temperature measurement collected using a network of weather stations. The results can be extended to shed new lights on urban planning strategies, such as the use of urban vegetation for heat mitigation. In general, a sizable patch of landscape is required in order to play an effective role in regulating the local environment, proportional to the height at which stakeholders’ interest is mainly concerned. PMID:27832111

  19. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-Garcia, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Velez-Grajales, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (1- and 2-year) effects of the Mexican "Oportunidades" CCT program…

  20. Postacute Stroke Rehabilitation Utilization: Are There Differences between Rural-Urban Patients and Taxonomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huanguang; Cowper, Diane C.; Tang, Yuhong; Litt, Eric; Wilson, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between Veterans Affairs (VA) stroke patients' poststroke rehabilitation utilization and their residential settings by using 2 common rural-urban taxonomies. Methods: This retrospective study included all VA stroke inpatients in 2001 and 2002. Rehabilitation utilization referred to rehabilitation therapy received…

  1. DNA strand breaks in human nasal respiratory epithelium are induced upon exposure to urban pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Osnaya-Brizuela, N.; Ramirez-Martinez, L. [Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Mexico City (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    All organisms have the ability to respond and adapt to a myriad of environmental insults. The human respiratory epithelium, when exposed to oxidant gases in photochemical smog, is at risk of DNA damage and requires efficient cellular adaptative responses to resist the environmentally induced cell damage. Ozone and its reaction products induce in vitro and in vivo DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. To determine if exposure to a polluted atmosphere with ozone as the main criteria pollutant of 19 children and 13 adult males who lived in a low-polluted Pacific port, 69 males and 16 children who were permanent residents of Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), and 22 young males newly arrived to SWMMC and followed for 12 weeks. Respiratory symptoms, nasal cytology and histopathology, cell viabilities, and single-cell gel electrophoresis were investigated. Atmospheric pollutant data were obtained from a fixed-site monitoring station. SWMMC volunteers spent >7 hr/day outdoors and all had upper respiratory symptoms. A significant difference in the numbers of DNA-damaged nasal cells was observed between control and chronically exposed subjects, both in children (p<0.00001) and in adults (p>0.01). SSBs in newly arrived subjects quickly increased upon arrival to the city, from 39.8 {+-}8.34% in the first week to 67.29 {+-}2.35 by week 2. Thereafter, the number of cells with SSBs remained stable in spite of the continuous increase in cumulative ozone, suggesting a threshold for cumulative DNA nasal damage. Exposure to a polluted urban atmosphere induces SSBs in human nasal respiratory epithelium, and nasal SSBs could serve as a biomarker of ozone exposure. Further, because DNA strand breaks are a threat to cell viability and genome integrity and appear to be a critical lesion responsible for p53 induction, nasal SSBs should be evaluated in ozone-exposed individuals. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. How efficient are constructed wetlands in removing pharmaceuticals from untreated and treated urban wastewaters? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Zambello, Elena

    2014-02-01

    This review presents and discusses the data from 47 peer-reviewed journal articles on the occurrence of 137 pharmaceutical compounds in the effluent from various types of constructed wetlands treating urban wastewater. We analyse the observed removal efficiencies of the investigated compounds in order to identify the type of constructed wetland that best removes those most frequently detected. The literature reviewed details experimental investigations carried out on 136 treatment plants, including free water surface systems, as well as horizontal and vertical subsurface flow beds (pilot or full-scale) acting as primary, secondary or tertiary treatments. The occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in sediments and gravel and their uptake by common macrophytes are also presented and discussed. We analyse the main removal mechanisms for the selected compounds and investigate the influence of the main design parameters, as well as operational and environmental conditions of the treatment systems on removal efficiency. We also report on previous attempts to correlate observed removal values with the chemical structure and chemical-physical properties (mainly pKa and LogKow) of pharmaceutical compounds. We then use the literature data to calculate the average pharmaceutical mass loadings in the effluent from constructed wetlands, comparing the ability of such systems to remove selected pharmaceuticals with the corresponding conventional secondary and tertiary treatments. Finally, the environmental risk posed by pharmaceutical residues in effluents from constructed wetlands acting as secondary and tertiary treatment steps is calculated in the form of the risk quotient ratio. This approach enabled us to provide a ranking of the most critical compounds for the two scenarios, to discuss the ramifications of the adoption of constructed wetlands for removing such persistent organic compounds, and to propose avenues of future research. © 2013.

  3. Le lingue straniere nelle aziende salentine. Uno studio sul campo con approfondimenti sull’uso del tedesco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Riso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EnThis paper presents research about using foreign languages in private sector companies in the southern Salento peninsula that have commercial dealings outside Italy, and focuses specifically on German. By means of a questionnaire, a survey was conducted of 80 companies in the province of Lecce, out of almost 2000 that have active dealings abroad. What emerged were the role played and the languages spoken by the staff of those companies who have relations with foreign countries. In addition, it looks at the methods used by the companies to contact their foreign counterparts and the languages used to maintain contact over time. In the specific analysis of the use of German, the following were determined: the percentage of companies visited where the language is spoken; the categories of people working in the companies who speak German, together with their relative levels of competence; the suggested reasons for their pronounced willingness to speak German; the use of German outside work, fundamental for expanding one's lexicon. In addition, the languages spoken between Italian lawyers and their foreign counterparts were also verified for those cases where the surveyed companies made use of such services. Lastly, given the considerable job opportunities for those who speak foreign languages, I have highlighted the need for greater attention to how they are taught in the national school system, with particular reference to the study of German due to its importance on the European level.>>Il lavoro in oggetto illustra una ricerca sull’uso delle lingue straniere nelle aziende del basso Salento che hanno scambi commerciali con l’estero; approfondendo, nel medesimo ambito, l’utilizzo del tedesco. Mediante l’ausilio di un questionario, è stato realizzato un sondaggio presso 80 aziende in provincia di Lecce, delle quasi 2000 attive con l’estero. In primo luogo, sono emersi il ruolo ricoperto e le lingue parlate dalle persone che in azienda si

  4. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-García, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Vélez-Grajales, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (one- and two-year) effects of the Mexican Oportunidades CCT program on urban children/youth. The program provides financial incentives for children/youth to attend school and for family members to visit health clinics. To participate, families had to sign up for the program and be deemed eligible. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates indicate that the program is successful in increasing school enrollment, schooling attainment and time devoted to homework for girls and boys and in decreasing working rates of boys. PMID:25705094

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in some herbaceous plants collected in urban areas; Indagine sull`accumulo di metalli pesanti in piante erbacee raccolte in aree urbane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusto, Domenico; Pedrani, Fabio [Milan, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell`Ambiente e del Territorio

    1997-06-01

    The amount of some heavy metals [zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb)] accumulated in Lolium perenne, Plantago major, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Taraxacum officinale e Trifolium pratense is reported. The herbaceous plants were collected since 1990 three times every year (spring, summer and autumn) in urban areas in Milan and in one area in the countryside near Monza. In this work the data for the year 1994 are reported. In this year a decrease of the amount of lead compared with the previous years is noted.

  6. Systematic association mapping identifies NELL1 as a novel IBD disease gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Franke

    Full Text Available Crohn disease (CD, a sub-entity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, is a complex polygenic disorder. Although recent studies have successfully identified CD-associated genetic variants, these susceptibility loci explain only a fraction of the heritability of the disease. Here, we report on a multi-stage genome-wide scan of 393 German CD cases and 399 controls. Among the 116,161 single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested, an association with the known CD susceptibility gene NOD2, the 5q31 haplotype, and the recently reported CD locus at 5p13.1 was confirmed. In addition, SNP rs1793004 in the gene encoding nel-like 1 precursor (NELL1, chromosome 11p15.1 showed a consistent disease-association in independent German population- and family-based samples (942 cases, 1082 controls, 375 trios. Subsequent fine mapping and replication in an independent sample of 454 French/Canadian CD trios supported the authenticity of the NELL1 association. Further confirmation in a large German ulcerative colitis (UC sample indicated that NELL1 is a ubiquitous IBD susceptibility locus (combined p<10(-6; OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.30-2.11. The novel 5p13.1 locus was also replicated in the French/Canadian sample and in an independent UK CD patient panel (453 cases, 521 controls, combined p<10(-6 for SNP rs1992660. Several associations were replicated in at least one independent sample, point to an involvement of ITGB6 (upstream, GRM8 (downstream, OR5V1 (downstream, PPP3R2 (downstream, NM_152575 (upstream and HNF4G (intron.

  7. School's out: what are urban children doing? The Summer Activity Study of Somerville Youth (SASSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research indicates that in the United States, children experience healthier BMI and fitness levels during school vs. summer, but research is limited. The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess where children spend their time during the months that school is not in session and to learn about the different types of activities they engage in within different care settings. A secondary goal of this pilot study was to learn what children eat during the summer months. Methods A nine-week summer study of 57 parents of second and third grade students was conducted in an economically, racial/ethnically and linguistically diverse US urban city. Weekly telephone interviews queried time and activities spent on/in 1 the main caregiver's care 2 someone else's care 3 vacation 4 and camp. Activities were categorised as sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous (0-3 scale. For each child, a mean activity level was calculated and weighted for proportion of time spent in each care situation, yielding a weighted activity index. On the last phone call, parents answered questions about their child's diet over the summer. Two post-study focus groups were conducted to help interpret findings from the weekly activity interviews. Results The mean activity index was 1.05 ± 0.32 and differed between gender (p = 0.07, education (p = 0.08 and primary language spoken in the household (p = 0.01. Children who spent a greater percentage of time in parent care had on average a lower activity index (β = -0.004, p = 0.01 while children who spent a greater percentage of time in camp had a higher activity index (β = 0.004, p = 0.03. When stratified into type of camp, percentage of time spent in active camp was also positively associated with mean activity index (β = 0.005, p = Conclusions Summer activities and some dietary behaviours are influenced by situation of care and socio-demographic characteristics. In particular, children who spend a greater

  8. C’è spazio per i beni culturali nelle smart cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Costruire una nuova città con i criteri smart è sicuramente più semplice di adattarne una storica. Smart o intelligente può significare ad esempio anche una cosa semplice come ottimizzare i punti di scambio nelle fermate del trasporto pubblico, ove l’impedimento del tessuto storico (o forse anche un po’ di incapacità progettuale vanifica appieno le plurifunzionali app informative dei nostri palmari, dove un'intelligente integrazione di sistemi informativi consente di conoscere quale sia il modo migliore per raggiungere una località desiderata.

  9. Giuliana Benvenuti – Remo Ceserani, La letteratura nell'età globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Weber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quando, nel novembre del 2012, il volume di Giuliana Benvenuti e Remo Ceserani La letteratura nell'età globale venne presentato presso l'Università di Bologna, in uno stimolante dibattito cui presero parte, insieme agli autori, Maurizio Ascari, Mario Domenichelli e Daniele Giglioli, accadde, tra le altre cose, di sentir definire questo studio come un "libro-bussola" (Ascari, definizione alla quale Ceserani, dando prova di ironico understatement, si sottrasse un poco, dicendosi piuttosto "uno specialista di disorientamenti".

  10. Le disuguaglianze sociali nell'abitudine al fumo in Italia, 1980- 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Federico

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: misurare la direzione e l’entità delle disuguaglianze socio-economiche nell’abitudine al fumo in Italia durante gli ultimi due decenni, con attenzione sia al livello nazionale che macro-regionale.

    Metodi: sono stati utilizzati dati provenienti da sei indagini ISTAT sullo stato di salute dal 1980 al 2000. Abbiamo usato il livello di istruzione come indicatore dello stato socio-economico. Per ogni indagine e livello di analisi (nazionale e macroregionale, è stata calcolata la prevalenza, standardizzata per età, del consumo di tabacco in diversi gruppi sociali.

    Per ottenere una misura di sintesi delle disuguaglianze, abbiamo stimato l’Odds Ratio (OR ed il Relative Index of Inequality (con intervallo di confidenza al 95% attraverso un’analisi di regressione logistica.

    Risultati: negli uomini di età compresa tra 25 e 49 anni, l’Odds Ratio del consumo di tabacco di una persona con un basso livello di istruzione confrontata con una di un alto livello è risultato pari a 1,26 (IC 95%: 1,16 - 1,37 nel 1980 ed a 1,71 (IC 95%: 1,62 - 1,80 nel 2000. Nelle donne della stessa fascia di età, l’associazione tra stato sociale ed abitudine al fumo si è trasformata da positiva (OR=0,43 in negativa (OR=1,12. Nelle donne più anziane, la prevalenza di fumatrici è risultata maggiore tra quelle più istruite, con un gap tra classi sociali che si restringe nel tempo. Nel periodo considerato le stime degli OR sono risultate costantemente inferiori nel Sud rispetto al Centro ed al Nord Italia, nonostante la somiglianza nei trend temporali nelle differenti macro-regioni.

    Conclusioni: le disuguaglianze tra gruppi sociali sono aumentate, specialmente nelle giovani generazioni. Le regioni meridionali seguono quelle del centro e nord Italia nel diffondersi dell’epidemia dell’abitudine al fumo.

  11. Civilian cerebral gunshot wounds in rural South African patients are associated with significantly higher mortality rates than in urban patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Bruce, J L; Sartorius, B; Laing, G L; Odendaal, J; Brysiewicz, P; Clarke, D L

    2017-06-13

    This study focuses on a specific and often dramatic injury, namely gunshot wounds (GSW) of the head in order to determine whether there is a discrepancy in outcome between patients who sustain their injury in a rural setting and those who sustain it in an urban setting. This study involves a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained regional electronic trauma registry. All patients who sustained a cerebral GSW from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. During the 5-year study period, a total of 102 patients sustained an isolated cerebral GSW. Ninety-two per cent (94/102) were male and the mean age was 29 years. Ninety-four per cent (94/102) of injuries were related to interpersonal violence. Of the 102 patients in the study, 54% (55/102) were urban and were transported directly to our trauma centre. The remaining 46% (47/102) were rural and were transported to a rural district hospital prior to being referred to our trauma centre. The time of injury was available in 60% (61/102) of patients. The mean time from injury to arrival for all patients was 11 h (SD 7). The mean time from injury to arrival was significantly shorter for urban versus rural, 6 h (SD 5) and 15 h (SD 5), respectively (p urban patients (p = 0.022). The need for neurosurgery, need for ICU admission or length of hospital stay was not significantly different between rural and urban patients. Rural patients have a fourfold higher mortality compared with urban patients (36 vs 9%, p = 0.001). Amongst survivors, there was no significant difference in median length of hospital stay or mean discharge GCS. Cerebral GSWs are highly lethal injuries associated with significant mortality. Rural patients have a significantly longer transfer time, lower GCS on arrival and higher mortality than urban patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the pre-hospital EMS system in order to reduce delay to definitive care so that patient outcome can be optimised.

  12. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees.

  13. Are extreme rainfall intensities more frequent? Analysis of trends in rainfall patterns relevant to urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffol, S; Laghari, A N; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    The fact that climate change is affecting the intensity and frequency of rainfall is well accepted in the scientific community. This is backed by a multitude of reports on the basis of daily rainfall series analysis; however, little research is available for short duration intensities. Due to its significant influence on the behaviour of urban drainage, it is critical to investigate the changes in short duration rainfall intensities. In this study different intensities relevant for the urban drainage and the total rainfall per rain event are analysed. The trend is investigated using the Mann-Kendall test. The rainfall series analysed are from the alpine region Tyrol. The results present differences depending on the duration of the intensity and the series considered, however an increase in the number of extreme events is detectable for short durations for the most series.

  14. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating stre

  15. Il vento (insostenibile: Energie rinnovabili, politica e ontologia nell'Istmo di Tehuantepec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Zanotelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available L’Istmo di Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Messico, è divenuto recentemente il teatro di una contesa tra le imprese multinazionali, i governi statale e nazionale, da un lato, e alcuni settori della popolazione indigena Ikojts e Zapoteca e i movimenti sociali regionali e nazionali, dall’altro. Il conflitto riguarda lo sfruttamento dell’energia eolica nelle terre e nelle lagune di giurisdizione comunitaria. Questo caso mette in evidenza una questione che riguarda il consenso intorno ad un modello di sfruttamento energetico alternativo a quello inquinante. Dalle categorie locali del pensiero che emergono dal repertorio mitologico e dalle pratiche politiche indigene, infatti, si riscontra una rilevante agentività degli elementi ambientali coinvolti, particolarmente il vento e l’acqua. È allora possibile trattare il rapporto tra umano e non-umano e quello delle analogie tra persona/animale/agente atmosferico, attribuito dalla letteratura etnologica all’ontologia mesoamericana, senza separarlo dall’economia morale locale né dai processi politico-economico di scala maggiore. L’obiettivo dell’articolo è mettere al centro dell’analisi quella che possiamo definire l’onto-politica all’interno della quale si colloca la contesa ambientale sopraesposta, allo scopo di rilevare come si va delineando il rapporto tra locale e globale nella nuova frontiera del neoliberismo ecologico.

  16. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  17. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  18. Norma in linguistica e sociolinguistica e incongruenze tra norma e uso nell'ítaliano d'oggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Galli de' Paratesi

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro consta di due parti. Nella prima (par. 1, 2, 3, 4 vorrei tentare una definizione di diversi tipi o aspetti della normatività linguistica, nella seconda (par. 5 vorrei analizzare come i diversi tipi di norma hanno agito e agiscono nell'ambito della lingua italiana d'oggi.

  19. The informatics vulnerability in electric network automation; Le vulnerabilita' informatiche nell'automazione della rete elettrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauri, G.; Dondossola, G. [Cesi SpA, Milan (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The Internet uses to develop the remote communication services for power transmission system automation, but several problems must be solved before using the public communication systems in the electric cabins. [Italian] Svariati problemi rimangono da risolvere prima di utilizzare infrastrutture di comunicazione pubbliche e componenti commerciali nelle stazioni e cabine elettriche.

  20. Il popolamento in Romagna nelle fasi finali della Media età del bronzo e nel Bronzo recente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cattani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta sinteticamente una valutazione delle segnalazioni relative alle fasi finali del Bronzo Medio e del Bronzo Recente in Romagna e nelle zone limitrofe per una ricostruzione delle dinamiche insediative e per un approfondimento dei reperti rinvenuti nel sito di Solarolo.

  1. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  2. An ectopic study of tissue-engineered bone with Nell-1 gene modified rat bone marrow stromal cells in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jing-zhou; ZHANG Zhi-yuan; ZHAO Jun; ZHANG Xiu-li; LIU Gen-tao; JIANG Xin-quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tissue engineering techniques combined with gene therapy have been recently used to improve osteogenesis. NEL-like molecule-1 (Nell-1), a novel growth factor, has been reported to have specificity for osteochondral lineage. The study assessed the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) after Nell-1 gene modification and examined its ectopic bone formation ability in a nude mice model with tissue engineering technique.Methods bMSCs obtained from Fischer 344 rats were transduced with either AdNell-1 (Nell-1 group) or Ad-β-galactosidase (AdLacZ, LacZ group) or left untransduced (untransduced group). The expression of Nell-1 protein was determined by Western blotting and transfer efficiency was assessed, mRNA expressions of osteopontin (OP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC) were assessed by real-time PCR 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after gene transfer. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured and von Kossa test was also conducted. Finally, with a tissue engineering technique, gene transduced bMSCs, combining with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) at a concentration of 2×107 cells/ml, were implanted at subcutaneous sites on the back of nude mice. Four weeks after surgery, the implants were evaluated with histological staining and computerized analysis of new bone formation.Results Under current transduction conditions, gene transfer efficiency reached (57.9±6.8)%. Nell-1 protein was detected in Nell-1 group but not in untransduced group and LacZ group. Induced by Nell-1, BSPand OPexpression were increased at intermediate stage and OC expression was increased at later stage. ALP activity and the number of calcium nodules were highest in Nell-1 group. Four weeks after implanted into nude mice subcutaneously, the percentage of new bone area in Nell-1 group was (18.1±5.0)%, significantly higher than those of untransduced group (11.3±3.2)% and LacZ group (12.3±3.1)% (P<0.05).Conclusions This study has demonstrated

  3. The neuronal EGF-related gene Nell2 interacts with Macf1 and supports survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunari Munemasa

    Full Text Available Nell2 is a neuron-specific protein containing six epidermal growth factor-like domains. We have identified Nell2 as a retinal ganglion cell (RGC-expressed gene by comparing mRNA profiles of control and RGC-deficient rat retinas. The aim of this study was to analyze Nell2 expression in wild-type and optic nerve axotomized retinas and evaluate its potential role in RGCs. Nell2-positive in situ and immunohistochemical signals were localized to irregularly shaped cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and colocalized with retrogradely-labeled RGCs. No Nell2-positive cells were detected in 2 weeks optic nerve transected (ONT retinas characterized with approximately 90% RGC loss. RT-PCR analysis showed a dramatic decrease in the Nell2 mRNA level after ONT compared to the controls. Immunoblot analysis of the Nell2 expression in the retina revealed the presence of two proteins with approximate MW of 140 and 90 kDa representing glycosylated and non-glycosylated Nell2, respectively. Both products were almost undetectable in retinal protein extracts two weeks after ONT. Proteome analysis of Nell2-interacting proteins carried out with MALDI-TOF MS (MS identified microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1 (Macf1, known to be critical in CNS development. Strong Macf1 expression was observed in the inner plexiform layer and GCL where it was colocalizied with Thy-1 staining. Since Nell2 has been reported to increase neuronal survival of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we evaluated the effect of Nell2 overexpression on RGC survival. RGCs in the nasal retina were consistently more efficiently transfected than in other areas (49% vs. 13%; n = 5, p<0.05. In non-transfected or pEGFP-transfected ONT retinas, the loss of RGCs was approximately 90% compared to the untreated control. In the nasal region, Nell2 transfection led to the preservation of approximately 58% more cells damaged by axotomy compared to non-transfected (n = 5, p<0.01 or pEGFP-transfected controls

  4. Intervalli irrisolti nelle città. Aree speciali dismesse e rinnovamento urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Elisabetta Minghini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il ridisegno degli spazi militari ed industriali dismessi propone il tema della defunzionalizzazione come elemento che, da un lato segna il percorso della trasformazione attraverso la successione dei tempi urbani, dall’altro è propulsore di un rinnovamento, non soltanto finalizzato ad un uso razionale della risorsa territorio bensì anche ad occasioni di valorizzazione estetica della città, talvolta di ampliamento di un’offerta culturale e ricreativa.

  5. Urban Slums Are New and Important Areas for Inequalities in Maternal and Newborn Health in Many Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Patel

    2014-06-01

    RESULTS: Coverage and utilization for most of the antenatal care variables like minimum three antenatal visits, antenatal card availability, Tetanus Toxoid immunization and Iron Folic Acid consumption; intranatal care variables like accompanying of pregnant mothers for deliveries to institute by peripheral workers (RR [Relative Risk]=10.01; CI [Confidence Interval]=5.4-18 ; postnatal care variables like post-natal check-ups (RR=1.77; CI=1.54-2.03, and family planning (FP advices (RR=1.65; CI=1.47-1.86; and newborn care indicators like newborn check-ups (RR=1.86; CI=1.61-2.14, early breastfeeding initiation and birth registration were higher in rural areas compared to urban slums; but institutional delivery rate (RR=0.76; CI=0.68-0.84, use of FP methods (RR=0.58; CI=0.42-0.78 and prelacteal feed were better in urban slums. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights that maternal and newborn care services utilization are poorer in urban slums compared to rural areas in Gujarat requiring attention to strategize policies toward reducing these gaps. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 217-224

  6. Determinazione dei salari e contrattazione collettiva nell'industria italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DELL’ARINGA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary work on the role of unions and collective bargaining in the process of wage determination at firm level in Italy. The characteristics of the wage determination process and how it effects the composition of pay in Italian manufacturing  is described. The methodology used to estimate the union/non-union differential and its application to the Italian case is provided. The data set and variables uses are described and regression estimates are presented. A particular focus is placed on the relevance of union density and firm size to the level and composition of pay for both manual and non-manual workers.  JEL Codes: L60Keywords: Collective bargaining, manufacturing, Italy, Unions

  7. L’accertamento del nesso causale nelle malattie professionali

    OpenAIRE

    Callegari, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze the major issues related to the establishment of a causal link in the trials for occupational diseases, in order to verify if the use of criminal law still represents a viable option. The difficulties on the evidence related to the establishment of causation in occupational diseases are closely related to the role of scientific evidence in criminal proceedings. When the science can not provide clear answers to the questions asked by the judge he will be unable t...

  8. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  9. L'oggetto sguardo nell'insegnamento di Lacan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pagliardini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eye occupies a central place in the teaching of Jacques Lacan. In particular, it finds its almost final formulation in Seminar X (1962-63 and Seminar XI (1964. In these Seminars the field of vision is no longer the place of illusion and mirage of the subjective identity, but it becomes the same field crossed by Freud’s Unheimlich, namely that of the sudden apparition of what is invisible. ‘Look’ is the name that Lacan gives to this appearance. The effects of what Lacan calls the ‘look function’ are: a radical alteration of the coordinates of the visual field and an effect of anguish. In such a perspective, the visual field becomes the proper place to radicalize the idea of the ‘subversion of the subject’: the subject doesn’t look, he/she is looked, the gaze looks at the subject, grabs him/her, and, in doing so, it determines the subject. Thus, Lacan reduces the subject to a claim, a need, that crosses and distorts the visual field. This distortion forces the subject to meet his/her condition of object. From this point of view, visual arts are a privileged territory to establish a certain relationship with the constant distortion of the eye (since aesthetics is, after all, ethics, therefore with that objectual condition that each subject embodies.

  10. Manifesto contro la disoccupazione nell'Unione Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Modigliani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this Manifesto, we make a set of proposals to fight unemployment in EU. We believe that the European unemployment problem needs to be attacked on two fronts: through a broad spectrum of supply-side policies and the de-mand management policy. The expansion of aggregate demand is necessary to increase both investment and employment. However, unless supply-side measures are also taken, demand expansion can result in more inflation in-stead of more employment, because of the mismatch between the demand and supply of labour. What is important to stress is that both demand- and supply-side policies must be adopted together by all European countries, in order both to avoid beggar-my-neighbour problems and, at the same time, to catch all the possible complementary effects of these policies.  JEL Codes: E24, E60, J30, J60Keywords:

  11. Inter-individual variability in fear of humans and relative brain size of the species are related to contemporary urban invasion in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Carrete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urbanization is the most prevailing cause of habitat transformation worldwide, differing from others by its intense levels of human activity. Despite its obvious impact on wildlife, it is still unclear why and how some species are able to adapt to urban settings. One possibility is that fear of humans and vehicles could preclude most species from invading cities. Species entering urban environments might be those that are more tolerant of human disturbance (i.e., tame species. Alternatively or in addition, urban invaders could be a fraction of variable species, with "tame" individuals invading urban habitats and other individuals remaining in rural areas. METHODOLOGY: Using the contemporary urban invasion by birds in a recently established South American city, we tested both hypotheses by relating interspecific differences in invasiveness to their flight initiation distances (i.e., the distances at which birds flee from approaching cars, FID, as well as to their relative brain size (RBS, a correlate of measures of behavioral flexibility. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Urban invasiveness was not significantly related to species' average rural FIDs but positively related to their RBS and inter-individual variability in FID. Moreover, FIDs were consistently lower in urban than in rural conspecifics, and the FIDs of urban individuals were within the lower-range distribution of their rural conspecifics. RBS indirectly influenced urban invasion through its positive effect on inter-individual variability in FID. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urban invaders do not appear to be individuals from apparently tame species, but rather tame individuals from species with a variable response regarding fear of people. Given the positive relationship between RBS and inter-individual variability in FID, our results suggest that behavioural flexibility should be regarded as a specific trait encompassing variability among individuals. Further research is needed to

  12. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  13. Memoria e ripetizione come strategie argomentative nelle testimonianze di Galileo Galilei al Santo Offizio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Collina Bastianetto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente trabalho pretende focalizar o percurso discursivo dos depoimentos do astrônomo italiano Galileu Galilei, no julgamento a que foi submetido em Roma, pela Inquisição, em 1633. Visa-se apresentar e analisar alguns dos recursos retóricos e argumentativos adotados em seus depoimentos com a finalidade de defender-se da acusação de heresia.Palavras-chave: Galileu Galilei; argumentação; memória; repetição.Abstract: Le riflessioni che seguono riprendono il percorso discorsivo dell’astronomo Galileo Galilei durante il processo a cui fu sottoposto dall’Inquisizione nel 1633. Presentiamo e analizziamo alcune strategie argomentative adottate dallo scienziato nelle sue testimonianze per difendersi dall’accusa di sospetto di eresia.Parole chiave: Galileo Galilei; argomentazione; memoria; ripetizione.Keywords: Galileo Galilei; argumentation; memory; repetition.

  14. Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2015-01-01

    Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth As pointed out by Hammersley and Atkinson (2007) the field observer can experience being perceived as a spy and feeling undeniably unwelcome, especially in the beginning of observation...... and our role as non-SSP (a special Social services, School and Police unit) and non-police, we repeatedly experienced the youngsters questioning our presence. The confusion and skepticism that we experienced emphasized the importance of reflecting our position as researchers (Bourdieu 1999, Goodson...

  15. School's out: what are urban children doing? The Summer Activity Study of Somerville Youth (SASSY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Lividini, Keith; Economos, Christina D; Folta, Sara; Goldberg, Jeanne; Must, Aviva

    2010-03-24

    Research indicates that in the United States, children experience healthier BMI and fitness levels during school vs. summer, but research is limited. The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess where children spend their time during the months that school is not in session and to learn about the different types of activities they engage in within different care settings. A secondary goal of this pilot study was to learn what children eat during the summer months. A nine-week summer study of 57 parents of second and third grade students was conducted in an economically, racial/ethnically and linguistically diverse US urban city. Weekly telephone interviews queried time and activities spent on/in 1) the main caregiver's care 2) someone else's care 3) vacation 4) and camp. Activities were categorised as sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous (0-3 scale). For each child, a mean activity level was calculated and weighted for proportion of time spent in each care situation, yielding a weighted activity index. On the last phone call, parents answered questions about their child's diet over the summer. Two post-study focus groups were conducted to help interpret findings from the weekly activity interviews. The mean activity index was 1.05 +/- 0.32 and differed between gender (p = 0.07), education (p = 0.08) and primary language spoken in the household (p = 0.01). Children who spent a greater percentage of time in parent care had on average a lower activity index (beta = -0.004, p = 0.01) while children who spent a greater percentage of time in camp had a higher activity index (beta = 0.004, p = 0.03). When stratified into type of camp, percentage of time spent in active camp was also positively associated with mean activity index (beta = 0.005, p =times more likely to eat their meals in front of the TV often/almost all of the time (OR = 4.0, 95%CI 1.0-16.2, p time in structured environments appear to be more active. We believe that this pilot study is an important

  16. Potential of polymeric materials for packaging; L'impiego dei materiali polimerici nell'imballaggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Packaging preserves different kind of materials, from raw materials, and it plays an important role in the presentation of the products to the market, too. That's why packaging should be in charge of responding to marketing requirements by means of a proper design, effective colour choice and material, etc. Nowadays packaging is becoming more and more important in different fields. In Italy, it is a rapid growth of the packaging market and the companies involved are very competitive and efficient, in particular in some market segments. Concerning the application fields it can be asserted that packaging is mostly exploited in the food market which represents the 65% of the whole packaging market. Nearly all types of packaging use plastics as a part of their construction: lightness, chemical inertness, corrosion resistance, molding attitude, the good transparency to light, sound and mechanical insulation, etc. Focusing the attention to the horticultural market, growth in South of Italy in particular, examples of promising research fields to date are: developing of good barrier performance films; developing of suitable modified atmosphere packaging; developing of active plastic films, such as antimicrobic films or antioxidant films. The large amount of plastic films used for packaging create a large waste problem. This can be reduced by: optimising packaging design, avoiding the excessive use of plastics; improvising strength, moisture and heat stability per unit weight in order to reduce plastic waste volume; developing blend of plastics and bio-based polymer in order to increase the biodegradability of packaging after use. [Italian] L'imballaggio e' un prodotto adibito a contenere e a proteggere determinate merci, dalle materie prime ai prodotti finiti, a consentire la loro manipolazione e ad assicurare la loro presentazione. E' una realta' importante del mondo della produzione, delle strutture distributive e della vita quotidiana. Nell

  17. An analysis on Wildland Urban Interface in North Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di

  18. Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in a museum in an urban area; Caratterizzazione del particolato aerosospeso all'interno di un museo situato in area urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In February 2001 the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of ENEA Institute for Radioprotection carried out a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in a museum, in the urban area of Bologna, in the frame of GIANO project of ENEA. The aerosol mass size distribution was measured and a high mass concentration of aerosol, 39.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, with an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.5 {mu}m was found. A comparison with the composition of the outdoor aerosol was made as well. In an urban area fine particles are generally generated by vehicles exhaust (particularly diesel-powered ones) and are constituted essentially of carbon black. Because of their surface adsorption properties these carbon black particles typically contain varying quantities of substances. Deposition of fine particles on the surfaces of works of art can lead to visual degradation and further damages due to chemical reactions with the adsorbed compounds. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto di Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione Giovanile (GIANO) dell'ENEA, il laboratorio di dosimetria interna dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA, che ha competenze nella caratterizzazione fisica dell'aerosol, ha effettuato una campagna preliminare di misura del particolato aerosospeso presente all'interno di un museo nell'area urbana della citta' di Bologna. I dati dei campionamenti hanno rilevato la presenza di un'alta concentrazione in massa, 44.7 {mu}/m{sup 3}, di particolato aerosospeso inferiore a 10.5 {mu}m, composta per circa il 90%, 39.5% {mu}/m{sup 3}, da particelle con diametro aerodinamico inferiore a 0.5 {mu}m. La provenienza dalle emissioni dei motori a combustibili fossili, del particolato con queste dimensioni, ha consentito il confronto con i dati relativi alle misure di concentrazione di particolato aerosospeso effettuate presso un incrocio ad alta intensita' di traffico della citta'. Dalle

  19. Participatory urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas......, which includes awareness of the structures in which we live as well as participation in the public sphere. Locative media projects shape events which seek to address everyday democracy. Specifically engaging in locative media projects can help create leisure experiences in the urban landscape that allow...... cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy...

  20. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  1. Fluvial geomorphology and aquatic-to-terrestrial Hg export are weakly coupled in small urban streams of Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Boaz, Lindsey E.; Hossler, Katie

    2016-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream ecosystems, mechanisms governing bioavailability and bioaccumulation in fluvial systems remain poorly resolved as compared to lentic systems. In particular, streams in urbanized catchments are subject to fluvial geomorphic alterations that may contribute to Hg distribution, bioaccumulation, and export across the aquatic-to-terrestrial boundary. In 12 streams of urban Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the influence of fluvial geomorphic characteristics related to channel geometry, streamflow, and sediment size and distribution on (1) Hg concentrations in sediment and body burdens in benthic larval and adult emergent aquatic insects and (2) aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer to common riparian spiders of the families Pisauridae and Tetragnathidae via changes in aquatic insect Hg body burdens as well as in aquatic insect density and community composition. Hydrogeomorphic characteristics were weakly related to Hg body burdens in emergent insects (channel geometry) and tetragnathid spiders (streamflow), but not to Hg concentrations in sediment or benthic insects. Streamflow characteristics were also related to emergent insect density, while wider channels were associated with benthic insect community shifts toward smaller-bodied and more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironomidae). Thus, our results provide initial evidence that fluvial geomorphology may influence aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant Hg transfer through the collective effects on emergent insect body burdens as well as on aquatic insect community composition and abundance.

  2. Are perceived sensory dimensions a reliable tool for urban green space assessment and planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Ling; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2015-01-01

    Environmental psychologists have developed varying methods for landscape assessment according to how it is perceived and experienced. In the Nordic countries, eight perceived sensory dimensions are increasingly being used as a methodological framework for expert assessments. These are serene...

  3. Buone pratiche didattiche per prevenire falsi positivi nelle diagnosi di discalculia: il progetto “PerContare”

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ethelwyn Baccaglini-Frank; Maria Giuseppina Bartolini Bussi

    2015-01-01

    Per contrastare il fenomeno dei falsi positivi nelle diagnosi di discalculia in Italia, tra i bambini di terza elementare, è stato realizzato un progetto triennale (2011-2014), fondato sulla collaborazione tra ricercatori in psicologia e didattica della matematica. Durante il progetto sono state elaborate e sperimentate pratiche didattiche atte a prevenire e affrontare difficoltà di apprendimento nell’ambito dell’aritmetica all’inizio della scuola primaria. In questo articolo vengono discusse...

  4. Urban traffic pollution and citizens information; Misure anti inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino. Uno studio di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The following report is strictly connected to studies for introducing certain actions useful to effort the problem of urban traffic pollution. Technologies are today available to reduce traffic pollution and it is possible to verify effectiveness during the implementation. On the other hand it is not always possible to verify effectiveness of these measures on the citizen customs and quality of life. Frequently policies aiming to limit environmental risk are viewed by citizens as an insupportable coercion. In the case of urban traffic it is particularly true because the measures in this field are limited to a certain numbers of prohibitions limiting the moving freedom of citizens inside urban areas. This research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome. [Italian] Il lavoro presentato di seguito si inserisce in un filone di studi che tendono a individuare quelle azioni capaci di sciogliere il nodo ormai cruciale dell'inquinamento da traffico nelle aree urbane. Azioni efficaci ne sono state individuate numerose ma, mentre per quanto riguarda le misure tecnologiche l'efficacia intrinseca della misura viene verificata nell'applicazione, non sempre si puo' dire la stessa cosa per quanto riguarda le misure che incidono sulle abitudini di vita dei cittadini. Sempre piu' spesso le politiche tese a limitare i danni ambientali sono vissute dal cittadino come una insopportabile coercizione. Nel caso del traffico urbano cio' e' particolarmente vero proprio perche' le misure di questo settore si limitano spesso a una serie di divieti che oggettivamente limitano la liberta' di movimento del cittadino. I blocchi del traffico, le zone blu, sono gli esempi piu' lampanti di questo tipo di limitazione. Questa ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e

  5. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent years.…

  6. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent…

  7. A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower

  8. “They are poor and violent”: stereotype and the Ibadan urban motor park space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEYEMI JOHNSON ADEMOWO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested in finding out how, and why, the interplay of poverty and violence, the park stereotypes, has problematised the motor park space, and consequently the culture that evolved from the space. Of great concern to us are the origin and theoperation of the park; the existence of these stereotypes, how, if ever, they relate and the implication of the interplay on the organization, operation and representation of the space vis a vis its relationship with the general public and governance in Oyo State. Using Victor Turner’s social drama, we hope to provide explanations for ruptured social relations on the park and why the public is so imbued with the stereotypes that they have refused to appreciate the internal mechanism to redress the ‘constant’ conflicts.

  9. “They are poor and violent”: Stereotypes and the Ibadan urban motor park space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi Johnson Ademowo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in finding out how, and why, the interplay of poverty and violence – the park stereotypes – has problematised the motor park space, and consequently the culture that has evolved from that space. Of great concern to us are the origin and the operation of the park; the existence of these stereotypes, how, if ever, they relate and the implication of the interplay on the organization, operation and representation of the space vis-à-vis its relationship with the general public and government in Oyo State. Using Victor Turner’s concept of social drama, we hope to provide explanations for ruptured social relations on the park and answer why the public is so imbued with the stereotypes that they have refused to appreciate the internal mechanisms for resolving the ‘constant’ conflicts.

  10. To what extent are medicinal plants shared between country home gardens and urban ones? A case study from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Violeta; Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma Ines; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2016-09-01

    Context Worldwide ethnobotanical research has shown the importance of home gardens as sources of medicinal plants. These resources are worthy of further study in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest due to the richness of medicinal flora and their importance for local people. Objective We studied richness, composition, cultural importance and medicinal uses of plants in home gardens of rural, semirural and urban areas in the Iguazú Department (Misiones, Argentina). Our hypothesis claims that people living in different environments have a similar array of medicinal plants in their gardens and they use them in a similar way. Materials and methods The analysis was based on 76 interviews and plant inventories of home gardens. During guided walks in gardens, voucher specimens were collected. To analyse composition, Simpson similarity index was applied and a new index was proposed to measure culturally salient species. Results All the environments had similar species composition with species differing in less than 30% of them. The most culturally salient taxa were Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae), in rural, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), in semirural, and Aloe maculata All. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), in urban areas. The body systems treated with medicinal plants were similar across study sites. Discussion The results suggest a "core repertoire" of medicinal plants and a widespread exchange of plants among local population. The cultural importance index informs us about plant adaptability, based on the efficacy and the versatility of medicinal resources. Conclusion In this changing context where mobility and migrations constitute everyday life, medicinal plants in home gardens are part of local healthcare sovereignty.

  11. Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts including Hispanics. PMID:23784068

  12. Razionalizzazione dell'utilizzo degli antibiotici nell'Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico di Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Vito

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: scopo del nostro lavoro è stato valutare la frequenza dei microrganismi patogeni nelle Unità Operative più rappresentative dell’A.O. Policlinico di Bari e valutare l’appropriatezza delle prescrizioni antibiotiche in relazione agli esami microbiologici effettuati dal luglio 1999 al giugno 2000.

    Metodi: nel periodo considerato sono stati esaminati gli isolamenti microbici, con i relativi antibiogrammi, effettuati presso l’Istituto di Igiene, Cattedra II, della Facoltà di Medicina, Università di Bari, provenienti dalle Unità Operative di Rianimazione, Malattie Infettive, Nefrologia e Urologia, Cliniche Mediche e Cliniche Chirurgiche dell’Azienda Ospedaliera. È stato effettuato un successivo confronto con i dati ricavati dall’analisi delle richieste di prescrizione antibiotica effettuate dalle cliniche considerate e pervenute presso il Servizio di Farmacia nello stesso periodo. I dati sono stati archiviati ed analizzati con Excel X per Macintosh.

    Risultati: sono stati isolati in totale 2.126 microrganismi patogeni, 1.491 (70% gram negativi e 635
    (30% gram positivi. Il 34,0% degli isolamenti proveniva
    dalla Rianimazione, il 23,0% dalle Cliniche Chirurgiche, il 12,6% dalle Cliniche Mediche, il 10,2% dall’Urologia e Nefrologia, il 10,0% dalle Malattie Infettive ed il 9,7% dalla Medicina Generale. Per ogni Clinica sono stati valutati i principali ceppi circolanti con le relative sensibilità antibiotiche. I dati raccolti sono stati confrontati con quelli relativi alle richieste di fornitura di antibiotici pervenute dalle cliniche indagate al Servizio di Farmacia, dell’Azienda
    Ospedaliera, nello stesso periodo.

    Conclusioni: dall’analisi dei dati si evidenzia una notevole discrepanza tra le sensibilità agli antibiotiotici saggiati in laboratorio ed i farmaci utilizzati nelle cliniche coinvolte nello studio. Tale

  13. Cultural attitudes are stronger predictors of bushmeat consumption and preference than economic factors among urban Amazonians from Brazil and Colombia

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    Carla Morsello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bushmeat consumption persists in urban areas in the Neotropics, yet knowledge of its scale and the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in determining consumption and preference remain elusive. Moreover, the roles of cultural beliefs, social norms, and attitudes in driving urban bushmeat consumption are rarely evaluated. Therefore, we explored in this article the factors that influence consumption and preference for bushmeat in Amazonian towns. Given the availability of other sources of animal protein and the cultural and social importance of bushmeat in the region, we hypothesized that cultural attributes should be better predictors than economic factors of bushmeat consumption and preference. Data analysis involved fitting two-level mixed-effects regressions (random intercepts to a structured sample of 227 individuals (99 households from four towns in the Brazilian (Tabatinga and Atalaia do Norte and Colombian (Leticia and Puerto Nariño Amazon. The results indicate that a third of the interviewees had consumed bushmeat in the past month, which had primarily been harvested by the family or received as a gift rather than obtained through trade. In general, both economic and cultural factors predicted bushmeat consumption and preference, but the objective proxy for culture, individual origin, was unimportant. Among the tested indicators, the strongest predictor was the importance of bushmeat to social relations. Moreover, informal social norms, such as the greater importance attributed to taboos, tended to decrease the average number of wild species that a person would eat, whereas attitudes toward the illegality of hunting were less important. The two economic indicators, increased income and wealth, tended to decrease preference for bushmeat and the likelihood of consumption. Our findings highlight the importance of human beliefs, attitudes, and social norms to the understanding of bushmeat consumption and preference and may

  14. Urban interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2008-01-01

    Challenging perspectives on the urban question have arisen in recent years from beyond academic realms through the work of artists and cultural practitioners. Often in dialogue with urban theory and political activism, and employing a range of tactical practices, they have engaged critically...... with cities and with the spatialities of everyday urban life. They are typically concerned less with representing political issues than with intervening in urban spaces so as to question, refunction and contest prevailing norms and ideologies, and to create new meanings, experiences, understandings......, relationships and situations. Such interventionist practices may rarely be seen as part of the traditional purview of urban studies. Yet in asserting their significance here, this essay argues that growing dialogues across and between urban and spatial theory, and artistic and cultural practice, have...

  15. ‘Dance, dance otherwhise we are lost’. A reflection on the times of the city from an Urban Design perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Calabrese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With this article I propose to address the issue of ‘constructing space in time’ from the perspective of urban design. Which means essentially to shift from being an observer of city life to being someone responsible for drafting sensitive and resilient public spaces. Urban designers, perceiving the city mainly as a morphological phenomenon, are primarily concerned with the sensory, and particularly with the visual, qualities of urban space. This view of the city as a spatial-physical structure requires abstraction, to enable comprehension of the complexity and continuity of the urban space, its transparency and its indeterminacy.  However, this abstraction too often fails to take into account the properties of the city as a place of habitation, ignoring the sociocultural specificities of its different users. The reflection I propose attempts to take urban design beyond this abstraction, which is so indifferent to the human element, towards a more concrete and specific approach. It calls for a shift in the rather theoretical postmodern interest in the urban space, important though it is in its morphological inclusiveness, to embody a pluralistic subjective perception of the space and its use, bearing in mind fundamental relationships between space, time and social processes.

  16. Urban Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the court-ordered, multibillion-dollar infusion of funds to New Jersey cities for improving their school facilities and whether these additional funds will cause an urban renaissance. Some examples of New Jersey urban school facility needs are highlighted. (GR)

  17. Abdominal ultrasonography in inheredited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism; Ecografia dell'addome nelle malattie ereditarie del metabolismo dei carboidrati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzato, Carlo; Curti, Alessandra; Cornalba, Gianpaolo [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Milano (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche; Radaelli, Giovanni [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Milano (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Statistica Medica; Fiori, Laura; Rossi, Samantha; Riva, Enrica [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Mialno (Italy). Dipartimento di Pediatria

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of abdominal sonography in inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods: Thirty patients (age range, 4 months to 27 years) with glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, disorders of fructose metabolism were studied with sonography. Echogenicity of the liver, sonographic dimensions of liver, kidneys and spleen were evaluated. Plasma blood parameters (ALT, AST, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were determined. Results: Liver was enlarged in 21/22 patients (95.4%) with glycogen storage diseases, in both subjects with disorders of fructose metabolism, and in 2/6 patients (33.3%) with galactosemia. Hepatic echogenicity was increased in 20/22 patients (90.9%) with glycogen storage diseases, and in the subject with hereditary fructose intolerance. Patients with galactosemia did not show increased liver echogenicity. Both kidney were enlarged in 8/17 patients (47.0%) with glycogen storage disease type I. Subjects with increased hepatic echogenicity exhibited higher plasma concentrations of any blood parameter than the others with normal echogenicity (p<0.05). Conclusions: Sonography can be useful in identification of inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism even if further examinations are necessary for an ultimate diagnosis. [Italian] Scopo: Determinare l'utilita' dell'ecografia addominale nelle malattie ereditarie del metabolismo dei carboidrati. Materiale e metodi: Di 30 pazienti (eta' compresa tra 4 mesi e 27 anni), affetti da malattie di accumulo di glicogeno (glicogenosi), galattosemia, disordini del metabolismo del fruttosio, sono stati valutati tramite ecografia l'ecogenicita' epatica e le dimensioni ecografiche di fegato, reni e milza. Sono stati determinati alcuni parametri ematici (ALT, AST, colesterolo totale, trigliceridi). Risultati: Il fegato e' risultato ingrandito in 21/22 pazienti (95,4%) con malattie da accumolo di glicogeno, in entrambi i soggetti con

  18. Are Today's Mother Aware Enough About Breast Feeding?: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N Gadhavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is a widespread practice in though out India. However it has been changing over the years, particularly in the past few decades. We need to keep exploring Knowledge and practices of mother regarding breast feeding for timely intervention and maintenance of his valuable age old practice. Objective: This study was aimed to explore mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding. Methods: By using pre tested questioner, 200 mother delivered in last one year were interviewed to obtain information regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of breast feeding. The study was conducted in area served by an Urban Health Clinic. Result: Knowledge on proper breast feeding technique was found inadequate in study participants. Only 10% women were aware about intitiation of breast feeding within half hour of delivery. Benefits of colostrums, importance of exclusive breast feeding and benefits of night feeding were known to 25%, 15% and 15% mothers respectively. Less than half (41.4% mother had started breast feeding within half hour of birth while 15% were practicing exclusive breast feeding. Attachment and positioning techniques of 60% mother were found improper. None of the mother interviewed in the study got counseling on breast feeding during ANC visits. Conclusion: Harmful socio-cultural practices like giving prelacteal feeds, delayed initiation of breastfeeding after birth, late introduction of weaning foods and avoidance of exclusive breastfeeding are still common among the mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 396-398

  19. IMPARARE A LEGGERE E SCRIVERE NELLE SCUOLE REGGIMENTALI (1861-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Dota

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Le scuole reggimentali rappresentano la prima esperienza di insegnamento pubblico dell’italiano ad adulti analfabeti non italofoni, iniziata negli anni a cavallo dell’unificazione e durata sino agli anni settanta del Novecento. Le scuole si proponevano il raggiungimento di obiettivi minimi di alfabetizzazione, in particolare relativi alle attività di lettura e scrittura, servendosi di sillabari e manuali pensati per quel particolare dominio educativo. Con questo articolo si vuole indagare la proposta di alcuni di questi testi, pubblicati nel periodo 1861- 1915, relativamente alle questioni di grafia, ortografia, interpunzione e ortoepia, in quanto prerequisiti fondamentalialle attività più esercitate in queste scuole. Inoltre, l’analisi viene inquadrata nell’ambito delle risorse glottodidattiche coeve per l’insegnamento linguistico nelle scuole primarie e popolari, adottate e rielaborate per queste scuole.LEARNING TO READ AND WRITE IN REGIMENTAL SCHOOLS (1861-1915Regimental public schools were places where illiterate Italian adults and non-native speakers were taught, spanning the time period between Italian unification to the 1970s. These schools aimed at minimal literacy, particularly in reading and writing, through the use of materials and textbooks designed for this particular audience. The article includes samples from textbooks published between 1861 and 1915, with regard to handwriting, spelling, punctuation and pronunciation, considered fundamental requirements for the more advanced activities carried out these schools. The analysis is placed in the framework of contemporary language teaching methods employed in primary and popular schools, which were adopted and revised for regimental teaching.

  20. Are We Supporting Teacher Success: Insights from an Alternative Route Mathematics Teacher Certification Program for Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Q.; Brantlinger, Andrew; Haydar, Hanna N.; Smith, Beverly; Gonzalez, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine induction policies and practices for new alternatively certified mathematics teachers in the country's largest urban school district, New York City. Our focus is on the support system for such teachers as it is legislated and as it is enacted. This includes the induction and general supports (e.g., mentoring, coaching,…

  1. Are We Supporting Teacher Success: Insights from an Alternative Route Mathematics Teacher Certification Program for Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Q.; Brantlinger, Andrew; Haydar, Hanna N.; Smith, Beverly; Gonzalez, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine induction policies and practices for new alternatively certified mathematics teachers in the country's largest urban school district, New York City. Our focus is on the support system for such teachers as it is legislated and as it is enacted. This includes the induction and general supports (e.g., mentoring, coaching,…

  2. Fecal calprotectin levels are higher in rural than in urban Chinese infants and negatively associated with growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jin-Rong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established simple biomarker of gut inflammation. To examine a possible relationship between linear growth and gut inflammation, we compared fecal calprotectin levels in 6 month old infants from poor rural vs affluent urban families. Methods The project was a cross-sectional comparison of FC from rural and urban populations in China. The relationship between length-for-age Z-score (LAZ and FC concentrations were also compared. Single fecal samples were assayed for FC using EK-CAL ELISA kits. Results The age of subjects for both locations was 6.1 ± 0.2 mo; all were apparently healthy. The mean ± SD of the LAZ for the rural and urban infants were −0.6 ± 0.9 and 0.4 ± 0.9, respectively. FC had a non-normal distribution. The median FC of 420.9 and 140.1 μg/g for rural and urban infants, respectively, were significantly different (P  Conclusion FC levels were significantly elevated in the rural infants and high concentrations accounted for approximately one-third of the low LAZ scores of these infants.

  3. Performative Urban design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Performative Urban Design seeks to identify emerging trends in urban design as they are reflected in urban architecture and spatial design. Northern European cities are no longer characterized by urban expansion. As factories and other industrial buildings closed or moved, many areas within our...

  4. Why the peri-urban?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosics, Ivan; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding due to a combination of population growth and outward spread of urban activities. The result is that urban and rural areas are no longer seperate territories. The newly emerging 'peri-urban' areas are the site of the most dynamic changes. Peri-urban problems and opportun...... and opportunities are best adressed at the level of the rural-urban region, which includes both peri-urban and rural hinterland areas....

  5. 'We Are Not Here to Claim Better Services than Any Other': Social Exclusion among Men from Refugee Backgrounds in Urban and Regional Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Correa-Velez; R. Spaaij; S. Upham

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of social exclusion experiences among 233 resettled refugees living in urban and regional Queensland, Australia. The findings reported here are drawn from the SettleMEN project, a longitudinal investigation of health and settlement experiences among rece

  6. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  7. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms

  8. Francesco Bruni (a cura di, L'italiano nelle regioni. Lingua nazionale e identità regionali; La Nostra Lingua, Biblioteca storica di linguistica italiana, UTET, Torino 1992; XXXIII + 1038 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Tekavčić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Gli italianisti di tutto il mondo sanno quanto ricca sia in Italia la tradizione della filologia, della critica e della perenne Questione della lingua. Recentemente questi domini scientifici si sono arricchiti di un' opera davvero monumentale come materia, impostazione, trattazione e mole: il volume di formato enciclopedico che qui recensiamo. È un'ennesima storia della lingua italiana, impostata tuttavia da un angolo visuale diverso, quello cioè della diffusione progressiva dell'italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri nelle regioni dello stato italiano e in certe altre aree (Dalmazia e stria, Canton Ticino, Valle d'Aosta, Malta, Corsica. Si esaminano le caratteristiche dell'italianizzazione delle singole aree: da qui il sottotitolo.

  9. Monza nelle pellicole cinematografiche. Una risorsa da dilatare / Monza in films. An asset to promote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Malvasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Monza offrirebbe diverse location per far da sfondo a chi voglia girare un film. Eppure, la scelta dei produttori è caduta quasi esclusivamente sull’Autodromo e sulla Villa Reale ed ovviamente sulle numerose testimonianze esistenti in città circa la Monaca di Monza, nella quale la città si identifica tout court. C’è, comunque, da osservare che piuttosto scarso sembra, a tutt’oggi, l’interesse dei monzesi verso il cineturismo. Parecchi sono, infatti, i film che hanno come sfondo l’Autodromo, ma, fa notare qualcuno, potrebbero essere molti di più. E, forse, questo dipende da quel rapporto di amore-odio che i cittadini hanno da sempre con il famoso circuito del Gran Premio di Formula 1. Va bene che il cineturismo è ancora un fenomeno ai suoi esordi, ma è ugualmente vero che, e questo vale in particolare per l’Autodromo, non si fa altro che esaltare, una volta di più, proprio un aspetto del capoluogo brianzolo che già i mass-media hanno contribuito a diffondere nelle varie contrade del mondo.   Monza could offer different locations as background for one who wants to make a film. And yet producer's choice has been almost exclusively made in favour of Autodromo (Formula 1 Car Race Circuit and Villa Reale (Royal Castle such as, obviously, of the numerous still existing evidences about Monaca di Monza (Nun of Monza, character into which the town is tout courtidentified. However, we have to observe that up till now Monza townpeople care about tourism cinema remains poor. Numerous remain, as a matter of fact, films which have the Autodromo as background but, as somebody suggests, they could be much more. And, maybe, this depends on love - hate relationship that uninterrupedly Monza citizens demonstrate with regard to Formula ! Grand Prix Circuit. It is true that tourism cinema is for the time being a new phenomenon, but it is in the same way true that, particularly for Autodromo, the aspect already diffused by mass - media all over

  10. Ruolo dell’accesso ai Servizi Sanitari nelle disuguaglianze sociali nello stato di salute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Versino

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: misurare la quota di differenza sociale nella salute generata dall’accesso al sistema di cure, attraverso un follow-up dei pazienti ricoverati presso il principale ospedale di Torino.

    Metodi: tutti i primi ricoveri per infarto del miocardio (patologia acuta - AD e per tumori del coloretto (patologia cronica - CD dal 2000 al 2001 erano arruolabili. A questi è stato proposto un questionario sulle modalità di accesso ai servizi sanitari. È stata inoltre analizzata la cartella clinica per la valutazione degli interventi intra-ospedalieri. Indicatore di categoria sociale: titolo di studio.

    Risultati: analizzati 268 pazienti. Il 99% con AD ed il 97.5% di quelli con CD hanno aderito. Arruolati maggiormente uomini pensionati (circa 67%, condizione dovuta al tipo di patologia in studio. Sintomatologia di esordio: tipica della patologia infartuale e del colon-retto. Per questa ultima la lievità, quando unico sintomo, risulta elemento fuorviante. I pazienti con AD si sono rivolti direttamente all’ospedale (87.4%; i pazienti con CD hanno scelto il medico di famiglia (MMG per l’iter diagnostico, una piccola percentuale lo specialista privato (8.6%.

    Il numero di medici consultati in caso di CD è mediamente
    due (prevalentemente soggetti a bassa scolarità.
    Il ritardo diagnostico risulta per la CD nettamente
    più elevato nelle prime tappe della storia dell’accesso
    per le categorie sociali più svantaggiate, con brevissimo
    tempo fra la diagnosi e il ricovero.

    Conclusioni: per le categorie sociali più basse in caso di CD, il tempo fra primo sintomo e contatto con il medico è più lungo (minore sensibilità ai primi segni e sintomi di malattia rispetto agli strati sociali più alti; cosicché il paziente giunge al ricovero con prognosi peggiore; tuttavia, a questo ritardo si contrappone una

  11. Some notions on urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    According to International Federation of Housing and Planning the majority of the population of the planet will be urban in 2007. That definition of the urban, however, is based on zombie categories, to speak as Ulrich Beck. Urbanization and urban areas as we normally understand them are concepts...... as copresence of people in streets and squares and movement economy. About 18 years ago, Bill Hiller gave a definition of urbanity as 'the virtual community'. Since then more aspects have been added to the understanding of the urban within the space syntax community. The field of Urban Design considers a large...

  12. Costi dei figli, valore dei figli. Economia e cultura nelle scelte riproduttive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia D’Aloisio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic aspects are generally considered as important variables in explaining the Italian low fertility rate: the cost of children – either direct or opportunity costs – heavily  influences reproductive choices. Furthermore, we have to take into account both the availability and the costs of family services, which consistently vary across the Italian regions. Literature on family in Italy has often highlighted the importance of kinship support networks, based on the spatial proximity of the family: such networks are effective both in integrating familiar economic resources and in coping with the deficiencies of welfare.Based on an ethnographic research focused on the reproductive behaviours and  structure of the family in two Italian cities, Bologna and Naples, this study compares two groups of families and aims at showing how important role of affective kinship resources and complementary financial contributions can be in providing support and services, to the effect of influencing the household economy. In Naples and in Bologna, which are very different cities as regards income, services availability and general urban organization, kinship solidarities take different shapes and values. Such solidarities consistently support families, women especially, in  affording the  several costs of children, which are distributed at different levels: not only and not necessarily do the economic aspects play in the foreground.

  13. Antibiotic resistance genes in surface water of eutrophic urban lakes are related to heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Xu, Chen; Cao, Xinhua; Lin, Hui; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Urban lakes are impacted by heavy human activities and represent potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, six urban lakes in Wuhan, central China were selected to analyze the distribution of sulfonamide resistance (sul) genes, tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and quinolone resistance (qnr) genes and their relationship with heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact. sul1 and sul2 were detected in all six lakes and dominated the types of antibiotic resistance genes, which accounted for 86.28-97.79% of the total antibiotic resistance gene abundance. For eight tested tet genes, antibiotic efflux pumps (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetG) genes were all observed in six lakes and had higher relative abundance than ribosomal protection protein genes (tetM and tetQ). For 4 plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes, only qnrD is found in all six lakes. The class I integron (intI1) is also found to be a very important media for antibiotic resistance gene propagation in urban lakes. The results of redundancy analysis and variation partitioning analysis showed that antibiotic and co-selection with heavy metals were the major factors driving the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes in six urban lakes. The heavily eutrophic Nanhu Lake and Shahu Lake which located in a high density building area with heavy human activities had the higher relative abundance of total antibiotic resistance genes. Our study could provide a useful reference for antibiotic resistance gene abundance in urban lakes with high anthropic impact.

  14. Are liveable neighbourhoods safer neighbourhoods? Testing the rhetoric on new urbanism and safety from crime in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-09-01

    New urbanism advocates for the design of the compact, pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use developments thought to promote walking. New urbanist proponents also claim their developments incur other social and wellbeing benefits, including enhanced safety from crime; however there is limited empirical evidence supporting this. We tested the premise that new urbanism inhibits crime by examining the relationship between compliance with a planning policy based on new urbanism and: (1) residents' reports of victimisation; and (2) objective crime measures. RESIDE Participants (n = 603) who had lived in their new developments for 36 months completed a questionnaire that included items on their experiences of victimisation. Detailed measures quantifying the degree to which these developments (n = 36) complied with the policy requirements were generated in Geographic Information Systems. Logistic regression examined the associations between policy compliance and self-report victimisation, and negative binomial log-linear models examined area-level associations between compliance and objective crime. For each 10% increase in overall policy compliance, the odds of being a victim reduced by 40% (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.53-0.67, p = 0.000). Findings for the individual policy 'elements' were consistent with this: for each 10% increment in compliance with the community design, movement network, lot layout and public parkland elements, the odds of victimisation reduced by approximately 6% (p = 0.264), 51% (p = 0.001), 15% (p = 0.000) and 22% (p = 0.001) respectively. However, while policy compliance correlated with lower odds of self-report victimisation among residents, the associations between compliance and development-wide (objective) crime were positive but non-significant. The results indicate that planning policies based on new urbanism may indeed deliver other social and wellbeing benefits for residents, however they also hint that the design of an 'objectively' safe

  15. Urban Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built environment characteristics. It then explores how the built environment defines the affordances of urban areas for travelling by particular modes of transport, i.e. its walk-ability, cycleability, drive-ability and transit-ability, by developing a typology of what I call their ‘urban modality’. And finally the work combines this typology with the socio-economic characteristics of urban areas to determine their sustainable mobility potential and performance. It focuses on the case of the Randstad region of the Netherlands and its VINEX neighbourhoods, which are an emblematic example of new urban areas created under a policy programme with sustainable mobility objectives.A key stance in this work is the understanding that the location of an urban area in the region can be indicative of its population’s travel patterns, because the built environment (infrastructural and socio-economic characteristics are interrelated and present strong regional spatial patterns. What types of urban areas support sustainable travel patterns, and what are their spatial characteristics? How do new neighbourhoods compare to the best performing urban areas, and to other areas of the same ‘modality’ type? These are some of the questions addressed in this study. There are two main contributions of this research: the methods for building and analysing integrated multimodal network models, and the framework for contextual performance evaluation using urban area typologies

  16. Recent developments in the techniques of IMAG processing and diagnostic imaging for the cultural heritage; Recenti sviluppi nelle metodologie di elaborazione di immagini e di imaging diagnostico per i beni culturali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maino, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche E. Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Bonifazzi, C. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Biomediche; Sabia, E. [ENEA, Tecnologie Ingegneria e Servizi Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    In this report, the contributions presented to the mini symposium on Recent developments in the techniques of image processing and diagnostic imaging for the cultural heritage are collected. The symposium has been organized within the framework of the V National Congress of SIMAI Italian Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics (SIMAI 2000), held in Ischia from June 5 to 9, 2000, and shows the main scientific results obtained relevant to the research activities carried out in the frame of sub project 3 of research project GIANO (Advanced Graphics for the National cultural heritage and Employment), jointly funded by MURST (Ministry of University, Scientific and Technological Research) EC (law 488/92). The GIANO-ENEA project contributed, together with CRS4, GNIM-IndAM, Ministero degli Affari Esteri and ST-Microelectronics, to the organization of SIMAI 2000. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono raccolti i contributi presentati al minisimposio su Recenti sviluppi nelle metodologie di elaborazione di immagini e di imaging diagnostico per i beni culturali, organizzato nell'ambito del 5. Congresso Nazionale della SIMAI Societa' Italiana di Matematica Applicata e Industriale (SIMAI 2000), svoltosi a Ischia dal 5 al 9 giugno 2000. Il simposio illustra i principali risultati scientifici ottenuti nel quadro delle attivita' di ricerca del sottoprogetto 3 del piano nazionale GIANO (Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione giovanile), finanziato dal MURST e dall'UE (legge 488/92). Il progetto GIANO-ENEA ha contribuito, insieme con CRS4, GNIM-IndAM, Ministero degli Affari Esteri e ST-Microelectronics, alla realizzazione di SIMAI 2000.

  17. La mobilità negli strumenti di governo delle trasformazioni urbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La riorganizzazione del sistema della mobilità è spesso una delle chiavi interpretative più rilevanti nelle scelte di governo delle trasformazioni urbane. Nella gran parte degli interventi di trasformazione urbana orientati alla riqualificazione della città il ruolo delle scelte connesse al sistema della mobilità è sempre più incidente anche per la definizione del disegno urbano delle aree di trasformazione, ma soprattutto per migliorare l’efficienza e la vivibilità del sistema urbano. Il ruolo della pianificazione del sistema della mobilità rappresenta l’oggetto di questo lavoro. In particolare, l’articolo si sofferma su alcuni piani urbanistici di recente produzione elaborati per città italiane di grandi dimensioni (Roma, Bologna, Milano per i quali la pianificazione del sistema della mobilità ha costituito l’occasione per rilanciare una nuova visione della città. Gli esempi riportati in questo articolo rappresentano il tentativo di mostrare come, in qualche misura, la pratica urbanistica stia rispondendo alla necessità di integrare obiettivi di sviluppo urbano ed esigenze della pianificazione dei trasporti orientandoli verso obiettivi comuni tesi al raggiungimento di una maggiore vivibilità.

  18. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  19. Newly described human polyomaviruses Merkel Cell, KI and WU are present in urban sewage and may represent potential environmental contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carratala Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, three new polyomaviruses (KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus have been reported to infect humans. It has also been suggested that lymphotropic polyomavirus, a virus of simian origin, infects humans. KI and WU polyomaviruses have been detected mainly in specimens from the respiratory tract while Merkel cell polyomavirus has been described in a very high percentage of Merkel cell carcinomas. The distribution, excretion level and transmission routes of these viruses remain unknown. Here we analyzed the presence and characteristics of newly described human polyomaviruses in urban sewage and river water in order to assess the excretion level and the potential role of water as a route of transmission of these viruses. Nested-PCR assays were designed for the sensitive detection of the viruses studied and the amplicons obtained were confirmed by sequencing analysis. The viruses were concentrated following a methodology previously developed for the detection of JC and BK human polyomaviruses in environmental samples. JC polyomavirus and human adenoviruses were used as markers of human contamination in the samples. Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 7/8 urban sewage samples collected and in 2/7 river water samples. Also one urine sample from a pregnant woman, out of 4 samples analyzed, was positive for this virus. KI and WU polyomaviruses were identified in 1/8 and 2/8 sewage samples respectively. The viral strains detected were highly homologous with other strains reported from several other geographical areas. Lymphotropic polyomavirus was not detected in any of the 13 sewage neither in 9 biosolid/sludge samples analyzed. This is the first description of a virus isolated from sewage and river water with a strong association with cancer. Our data indicate that the Merkel cell polyomavirus is prevalent in the population and that it may be disseminated through the fecal/urine contamination of water. The procedure developed may

  20. Audiovisivi per línsegnamento e nuove tecnologie nelle classi 2.0 della regione Emilia-Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corazza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I bambini e i ragazzi nel nuovo millennio sono forse più avvezzi alla visione di un film o di una trasmissione televisiva che non alla lettura di un libro. Quello che è certo, è che sono sottoposti a un bombardamento mediatico senza precedenti grazie a canali televisivi specializzati nella produzione di programmi per l’infanzia e l’adolescenza, alla Rete Internet e ai dispositivi mobili di ultima generazione. E a scuola? Come cambia la didattica? Al laboratorio Mela abbiamo documentato con un video l’avvio della prima esperienza delle Cl@ssi 2.0 in Emilia-Romagna nelle scuole secondarie inferiori. Alla fine dei 3 anni di sperimentazione, durante i quali gli insegnanti hanno utilizzato LIM, computer in classe e Moodle per l’insegnamento a distanza, abbiamo invece cercato di capire, con un questionario, come e quanto vengano utilizzati i video per la didattica. Ne sono seguite alcune riflessioni.

  1. Consapevolezza e atteggiamento delle studentesse verso la prevenzione del cancro cervicale nelle scuole medie inferiori e superiori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottino, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivi: Il cancro cervicale è il secondo tumore più comune tra le donne in tutto il mondo e la causa è data dal Papilloma virus. Il Papillomavirus genitale umano (chiamato anche HPV è la più comune infezione a trasmissione sessuale (STI e la vaccinazione offre un’opportunità unica per la prevenzione primaria del cancro cervicale. L’obiettivo di questa ricerca, è un’indagine conoscitiva sulla conoscenza che hanno le giovani donne dell’HPV e la sua prevenzione, nello specifico nelle ragazze di età compresa tra i 13-19anni che frequentano le scuole medie inferiori e superiori di Alessandria. Metodologia: Questionario somministrato in forma anonima nel periodo che va da maggio a giugno, con una popolazione target composta da circa 210 adolescenti delle scuole medie inferiori e superiori di sesso femminile con lo scopo di valutare il grado di conoscenza sull’infezione da Papilloma Virus e la sua prevenzione mediante vaccino nelle ragazze di età compresa tra i 13-19 anni. Risultati: Dallo studio condotto, si è riscontrato che le studentesse hanno sentito parlare del Papilloma, in misura maggiore questo è emerso fra le giovani con età >16 anni e del relativo vaccino fra quelle aventi la madre con titolo di studio superiore alla scuola media. Il 70% farebbe il vaccino, fra queste: il 53% per prevenire le malattie a trasmissione sessuale e solo il 12% per prevenire un’infezione potenzialmente cancerogena.A confronto sono state più favorevoli le giovani con età >16anni. Conclusioni: In conclusione, possiamo dire che è un problema del quale si sente parlare ma che crea ancora oggi un po’ di confusione fra le giovani donne.

  2. Osteoporosis and prevention. Assessment of mineral density, geometry and biomechanics of bone by means of peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) in premenopausal women assuming phytoestrogens; Osteoporosi e fitoestrogeni: valutazione della densita' minerale ossea mediante tomografia computerizzata quantitativa periferica nelle donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, C.; Tarolo, G.L.; Bestetti, A.; Tagliabue, L.; Del Sole, A.; Alberti, G. [Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Cestaro, B. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Cattedra e Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina Nucleare; Pepe, L. [ACN-L' Accessorio Nucleare, Cerro Maggiore, MI (Italy). Lab. Nucleari

    2000-04-01

    Aim of the work was to describe the noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biochemical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with Mediterranean dietary intake lacking in these substances. Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius of the non dominant forearm. pQCT showed higher bone mineral density (total and trabecular) and SSI values in premenopausal with dietary intake of phytoestrogens. Despite the lack of statistical significance, these preliminary results, should further support the few literature findings about the potential role of phytoestrogens consumption in preventing trabecular bone loss. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate definitively postmenopausal osteoporosis. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di studiare in modo non-invasivo la densita' minerale, le caratteristiche geometriche e biomeccaniche dell'osso in donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa che assumevano con la dieta fitoestrogeni e confrontare questi dati con quelli di donne anch'esse in premenopausa, con dieta di tipo mediterraneo assolutamente priva di questi elementi con azione simil-ormonale. La densita' minerale, le proprieta' geometriche meccaniche dell'osso sono state valutate a livello del radio ultradistale non dominante mediante tomografia computerizzata (TC) quantitativa periferica, che nelle donne in premenopausa con dieta ricca di fitoestrogeni ha evidenziato valori della densita' minerale ossea totale, trabecolare e di resistenza ossea piu' elevati, anche se in modo non significativo, rispetto a quelli dei controlli con dieta mediterranea. Questi risultati preliminari suggerirebbero come l'assunzione quotidiana di fitoestrogeni

  3. Statistical elements in calculations procedures for air quality control; Elementi di statistica nelle procedure di calcolo per il controllo della qualita' dell'aria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mura, M.C. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The statistical processing of data resulting from the monitoring of chemical atmospheric pollution aimed at air quality control is presented. The form of procedural models may offer a practical instrument to the operators in the sector. The procedural models are modular and can be easily integrated with other models. They include elementary calculation procedures and mathematical methods for statistical analysis. The calculation elements have been developed by probabilistic induction so as to relate them to the statistical analysis. The calculation elements have been developed by probabilistic induction so as to relate them to the statistical models, which are the basis of the methods used for the study and the forecast of atmospheric pollution. This report is part of the updating and training activity that the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' has been carrying on for over twenty years, addressed to operators of the environmental field. [Italian] Il processo di elaborazione statistica dei dati provenienti dal monitoraggio dell'inquinamento chimico dell'atmosfera, finalizzato al controllo della qualita' dell'aria, e' presentato in modelli di procedure al fine di fornire un sintetico strumento di lavoro agli operatori del settore. I modelli di procedure sono modulari ed integrabili. Includono gli elementi di calcolo elementare ed i metodi statistici d'analisi. Gli elementi di calcolo sono sviluppati con metodo d'induzione probabilistica per collegarli ai modelli statistici, che sono alla base dei metodi d'analisi nello studio del fenomeno dell'inquinamento atmosferico anche a fini previsionali. Il rapporto si inserisce nell'attivita' di aggiornamento e di formazione che fin dagli anni ottanta l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' indirizza agli operatori del settore ambientale.

  4. Functional Limitations, Depression, and Cash Assistance are Associated with Food Insecurity among Older Urban Adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Martínez-Martínez, Oscar; Orta-Alemán, Dania; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    To examine factors associated with food insecurity among urban older adults (65 years and older). Three hundred and fifty two older adults attending community centers in a neighborhood of Mexico City were surveyed for food insecurity, functional impairments, health and mental health status, cash-transfer assistance, socio-demographic characteristics, social isolation, and the built food environment. Having at least primary education and receiving cash-transfers were significantly associated with a lower probability of being moderately-severely food insecure (OR=0.478 and 0.597, respectively). The probability of moderate-severe food insecurity was significantly higher among elderly at risk of depression (OR=2.843), those with at least one activity of daily living impaired (OR=2.177) and those with at least one instrumental activity of daily living impaired (OR=1.785). Higher educational attainment and cash-transfers may have a positive influence on reducing food insecurity. Depression and functional limitations may increase the likelihood of food insecurity among older adults.

  5. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.u [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: nickandeileenlepp@hotmail.co [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  6. Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan, Reeman Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability in the urban image is one of the most important strategies for sustainable urban design. Most of cities are trying to strengthen its visual image to achieve a sustainable urban image by integrating non physical elements such as culture, economic, social aspects and activities through some of new strategies. One of these strategies is urban branding strategy. Urban branding is a new approach toward urban development of sustainable cities. City branding, a novel aspect of urba...

  7. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  8. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    , and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...... urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures...

  9. Digital film viewer conventional view boxes in the identification of bone and joint disorders; Diafanoscopio digitale vs tradizionale nell'identificazione delle malattie osteo-articolari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magarelli, N. [Chieti Univ. G. D' Annunzio, Chieti (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche e Formazione dell' Immagine; Guglielmi, G. [IRRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, S. Giovanni Rotondo, FG (Italy); Mattei, P.A. [Chieti Univ. G. D' Annunzio, Chieti (Italy). Facolta' di Medicina e Chirurgia; Mattioli, M.G.; Riario Sforza, A.

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this report is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a digital film viewer (Smartlight 2000 Plus) versus a conventional view box for the identification of bone and joint disorders. [Italian] Scopo di questo studio e' confrontare l'accuratezza del diafanoscopio digitale (Smartlight 2000 Plus) con quella del diafanoscopio tradizionale nell'identificazione delle lesioni osteo-articolari.

  10. Parametrics in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The design of urban space has always been contested. Whether imposed by autocratic rulers, emerged as a result of market forces, or implemented as a result of democratic planning processes, urban space design shapes the lives of urban dwellers. Yet rarely does the average urban dweller have any r...... implementation by means of CityEngine is given and discussed with respect to it pros and cons. And finally, the potential implications of this approach are touched as an outline for further research....

  11. Malawi Urbanization Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The Malawi Urbanization Review aims to provide fresh perspectives on urbanization in Malawi, by analyzing the current and potential contribution of urbanization to long-term national development and the current institutional and financial capacity of local governments to manage the process. Analyses presented in this report are particularly timely as Malawi is planning for the coming half ...

  12. Virtual Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirc, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers how visual literacy implies a poetics of technology, one rooted in basic human passion. Notes that most academic forms sanctioned for students to inhabit are as monumentally dull as the urban forms in which they pass an extra-academic portion of their lives. Concludes that technology is most useful when it allows the poetic spirit to…

  13. A Multilevel Ecological Model of HIV Risk for People Who Are Homeless or Unstably Housed and Who Use Drugs in the Urban United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Elevated HIV prevalence has been observed among urban U.S. individuals who use drugs and who lack stable housing. This article synthesizes extant research on this population and situates it in a multilevel, ecologically based model of HIV risk. Based on a multidisciplinary review of the literature, the model applies social-ecological theory on human development to identify factors shaping the HIV risk context for individuals who use drugs and who are unstably housed at global, societal, neighborhood, household, and individual levels of influence. At the global level, the model includes neoliberal ideologies contributing to the social inequalities that frame the HIV epidemic. U.S. housing and drug policy, including urban renewal, HOPE VI, and the War on Drugs, is the focus of the societal level. At the neighborhood level, mechanisms of the built environment and psychosocial mechanisms are explored for their salience to HIV risk. Research on the association between housing instability and HIV risk is reviewed at the household level. At the last level, relevant individual differences in biology, psychology, and cognition are discussed. Modeling risk at multiple levels of the environment underscores the need to expand the focus of research, treatment, and prevention interventions for HIV/AIDS and addictions beyond individuals and their risk behaviors to address facets of structural violence and incorporate the broader social, political, and economic contexts of risk and health.

  14. Adult pulmonary sequestration: diagnostic role of angiography; Il sequestro polmonare nell'adulto. Contributo diagnostico dell'angiografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettorre, G.C.; Francioso, G.; Fracella, M.R.; Strada, A.; Rizzo, A. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina Interna e Medicina Pubblica, Sezione Diagnostica per Immagini

    2000-02-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration is based on demonstration of mal developed lung tissue, feeding on abnormal systemic level. It has been investigated the role of angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients. 1987 to 1998 it was examined 9 patients with suspected pulmonary sequestration who were subsequently submitted to surgery. The patients were 3 women and men; 6 of them were symptomatic and 3 asymptomatic. Six patients were examined with CT of chest and upper abdomen, thoracoabdominal aortography and selective arteriography of the abnormal vessel; one patient also submitted to left angiopneumography. One patient underwent bronchography and another one MRI. An unquestionable diagnosis was made in 8 cases, namely 6 of intralobar and 2 of extralobar sequestration, and confirmed surgically. The only questionable case was diagnosed at histology as extralobar pulmonary sequestration atypically fed by thin branches from the left diaphragmatic artery. Angiography demonstrated the abnormal arterial feeding typical of pulmonary sequestration in all cases but one. The evidence of venous drainage was the key sign to diagnose extra- versus intralobar sequestration. Therefore it can be concluded that angiography remains an essential tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration, notwithstanding the great potentials of Helical CT of MR angiography. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' presentare la diagnosi di sequestro polmonare che si basa sulla dimostrazione di tessuto polmonare displasico irrorato da un vaso anomalo d'origine sistemica. Si riporta il ruolo sostenuto dall'angiografia nella diagnosi e nell'inquadramento nosologico di tale malattia nei soggetti adulti. Dal 1987 al 1998, sono stati osservati con il sospetto di sequestro polmonare e successivamente sottoposti a intervento chirurgico 9 pazienti, 3 femmine e 6 maschi: 6 erano sintomatici, 3 asintomatici. Sono stati studiati con TC del torace e dell

  15. Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Warber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.

  16. Performative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Performative Urban Design seeks to identify emerging trends in urban design as they are reflected in the city's architecture and spatial design. A “cultural grafting” of the inner city is taking place; architecture and art are playing a crucial, catalytic role in urban development. On the one hand......, this development has been rooted in massive investments in “corporate architecture.” On the other, cities themselves have invested heavily in new cultural centers and performative urban spaces that can fulfil the growing desire for entertainment and culture. The anthology Performative Urban Design addresses...

  17. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  18. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  19. Gli antagonisti del recettore GPIIb/IIIa: farmacologia, clinica ed economia nelle sindromi coronariche acute NSTEMI e nelle rivascolarizzazioni per via percutanea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa receptor prevents platelet aggregation by controlling its final common pathway, the cross-binding of fibrinogen, bridging across adjacent platelets. Three pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting GP IIb/IIIa are available for use in Italy: abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban. In this paper, some relevant studies on the pharmacology of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors are summarized, as well as the main clinical trials assessing their use in the management of unstable angina (UA and during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI. Furthermore, the recommendations on their appropriate use in UA and PCI issued by authoritative scientific societies are presented. Finally, some of the pharmacoeconomic evidence published in the international literature is reviewed and implications in the Italian health care setting are discussed.

  20. Parametrics in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, the design of urban space happens in a space of power. And this is something which traditionally the average urban dweller does not have. Urban designers communicate about urban space design in a professional language and through graphics which are not always intelligible to laypersons...... the given time and resource limits. And again, the lay person, whether she is a resident, a local business person, or a NGO representative, is left with little influence, when it comes to the design of urban space. With the advent of parametric design tools, this need no longer be the case. Rather than...

  1. Concentrations and δ13C values of atmospheric CO2 in a less-urbanized environment: Are they different from large metropolitan areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childree, P.; FENG, W.; Thieme, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon isotope compositions (δ13C values) and CO2 concentrations were measured for seventy-four atmospheric samples collected in the city of Valdosta to evaluate the sources of CO2 input in a less developed urban environment. The results are compared to studies conducted in larger metropolitan areas to evaluate possible difference in sources and concentrations. Sixty-one of the samples were collected at four "outdoor" sites within a ~100 km2 area around the city, while thirteen "indoor" samples were collected in classrooms on the Valdosta State University campus, located north of downtown. Four sample collection trips were made from March to April of 2012. The samples were collected from 5 AM to 6 PM to encompass possible diurnal changes in atmospheric CO2. The thirteen indoor air samples had concentrations ranging from 429 to 681 ppmV with δ13C values ranging from -14.0 to -10.3 ‰. The sixty-one outdoor samples ranged from 397 to 539 ppmV with δ13C values ranging from -13.0 to -7.0 ‰. The higher outdoor CO2 concentrations (> 450 ppmV) correspond to lower δ13C values and are for samples collected during prolonged calm periods (wind speed Mexico) were carried into the region, which led to decreased CO2 levels and increased δ13C values. Therefore, the elevated CO2 readings likely reflected influx of locally produced CO2. On a diagram of δ13C vs.104/CO2 (Keeling plot), the domain occupied by the Valdosta samples is mostly located within the boundaries of two endmember mixing lines: 1) mixing between global atmospheric background and petroleum burning; 2) mixing between global atmospheric background and natural gas burning. Results are compared to those from a Dallas, Texas study that showed more contribution of CO2 from soil respiration and petroleum burning. This study suggests that even in a smaller urban area, fossil fuel consumptions are still the main source of the CO2 input. Furthermore, significant amounts of CO2 may be introduced into the

  2. Buone pratiche didattiche per prevenire falsi positivi nelle diagnosi di discalculia: il progetto “PerContare”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ethelwyn Baccaglini-Frank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Per contrastare il fenomeno dei falsi positivi nelle diagnosi di discalculia in Italia, tra i bambini di terza elementare, è stato realizzato un progetto triennale (2011-2014, fondato sulla collaborazione tra ricercatori in psicologia e didattica della matematica. Durante il progetto sono state elaborate e sperimentate pratiche didattiche atte a prevenire e affrontare difficoltà di apprendimento nell’ambito dell’aritmetica all’inizio della scuola primaria. In questo articolo vengono discusse le basi su cui si fonda il progetto, in particolare le basi scientifiche dei materiali didattici elaborati, di cui verranno proposti alcuni esempi. Tali esempi sono prototipici rispetto all’attenzione verso un approccio cinestetico-tattile e visuo-spaziale alla matematica. Le pratiche didattiche proposte hanno portato gli studenti ad interiorizzare relazioni parte-tutto e a pensare alla moltiplicazione in maniera strutturale, attraverso appositi diagrammi. Saranno forniti dati quantitativi e discussi brevemente dati qualitativi che confermano l’efficacia delle pratiche didattiche proposte.

  3. Partnerships for Urban Forestry and Green Infrastructure Delivering Services to People and the Environment: A Review on What They Are and Aim to Achieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Partnerships are a key mechanism in the planning, delivery and management of urban forestry (UF and green infrastructure (GI. They can facilitate locally rooted co-management and polycentric governance. They can also achieve synergies by combining the resources, commitment and expertise of diverse stakeholder groups in order to generate valuable outcomes and build social capital. Unfortunately, the term “partnerships” is not used consistently in literature and requires clarification. The characteristics which distinguish a partnership approach from other modes of co-operation are identified and described. The diversity of existing UF and GI oriented partnerships is outlined, with reference to their stakeholders, drivers, activities and goals, together with potential advantages of the partnership approach. Considerations to be made in their evaluation are derived from this background analysis and possible success factors are discussed. Materials and Methods: The diversity, aims and defining characteristics of a partnership approach are based on an extensive literature review. Results: Partnerships focus on diverse aspects and delivery phases of UF, ranging from the planning, design and creation of urban forests and GI to their management and use. Benefits delivered by such partnerships include environmental and economic services as well as social and cultural services such as environmental education, health, leisure and tourism. Generating valuable services whilst at the same time nurturing relationships between stakeholders helps to develop social capital and build capacity. In addition to environmental, economic and social benefits, the evaluation of partnerships may also address internal process variables such as social learning, the relationship between partners, and motivational outcomes that can influence future co-operation. Conclusions: Co-operative partnerships offer a promising approach for delivery in UF

  4. Credere nel mercato, credere nella "respublica". La comunità catalano-aragonese nelle proposte e nell'azione politica di un esponente del francescanesimo mediterraneo: Francese Eiximenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelisti, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesc Eiximenis is considered a leading figure of a Western Mediterranean Franciscan élite who contribute to the formation of the political and economic identity of the Catalan-Aragonese Community. Key-lexemes such as caritat, fealtat, profit comú are analysed within Eiximenis's political discourse. An analysis is also made of the role they play in the definition of an exclusively Christian community organization connoted by a close interdependence between res publica and market, i.e. the validation paradigms of the political institution and the paradigms that legitimate a reliable trading space. Moreover, the ideas and projects of the Minorite from Gerona are tested in the actual institutional context in which he acts: the Kingdom of Valencia and that of Sicily after the 1392 Conquest.

    Francese Eiximenis è considerato qui come esponente di un'elite francescana del Mediterraneo occidentale che contribuisce alla formazione dell'identità politica ed economica della comunità catalano-aragonese. Si analizza la funzione di lessemi-chiave: caritat, fealtat, profit comú all'interno del discorso politico eiximeniano e il ruolo che essi assumono nella definizione di una organizzazione comunitaria esclusivamente cristiana connotata da una stretta interdipendenza tra res publica e mercato, cioè tra i paradigmi di validazione dell'istituzione politica e quelli che legittimano e rendono credibile lo spazio degli scambi e del commercio. Le idee ed i progetti del Gerundense sono inoltre verificati nel concreto contesto istituzionale in cui egli opera: il regno di Valencia e quello di Sicilia all'indomani della conquista del 1392.

  5. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  6. Are we Drowning? Urban Land Subsidence in Thyboron, Denmark, from ERS-2 and Sentinel-1 Imagery and Precision Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Broge, N. H.; Sorensen, C.; Dehls, J.; Marinkovic, P.; Larsen, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We assess the potential in information on rates of vertical land deformation, which is useful for, e.g., climate change adaptation. The optimal results are obtained from observations with a high spatial coverage, such as those from Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) data. However, challenges exist in creating an awareness of the data and ensuring that end-users at a local level can accurately interpret and efficiently implement them into their respective businesses. We address these challenges via a case study over the low-lying Danish coastal town Thyborøn. This is situated on a sandy coastal barrier on the high- energy North Sea coast by the entrance to the Limfjord. Deformation rates are obtained from time series of precision leveling and GPS measurements as well as ERS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data. The study points to a potential solution for obtaining a public awareness and use of deformation maps.

  7. Integrating Urban Heat Assessment in Urban Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Echevarría Icaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is increasingly concerned with sustainability issues. Climate change is not the least of these concerns. The complexity of these issues is such that data and information management form an important means of making the right decisions. Nowadays, however, the sheer quantity of data is overwhelming; large quantities of data demand means of representation that are comprehensible and effective. The above dilemma poses questions as to how one incorporates unknown climatologic parameters, such as urban heat, in future urban planning processes, and how one ensures the proposals are specific enough to actually adapt cities to climate change and flexible enough to ensure the proposed measures are combinable and compatible with other urban planning priorities. Conventional urban planning processes and mapping strategies are not adapted to this new environmental, technological and social context. In order come up with more appropriate urban planning strategies, in its first section this paper analyzes the role of the urban planner, reviews the wide variety of parameters that are starting to be integrated into the urban planners practice, and considers the parameters (mainly land surface temperature, albedo, vegetation, and imperviousness and tools needed for the assessment of the UHI (satellite imagery and GIS. The second part of the study analyzes the potential of four catalyzing mapping categories to integrate urban heat into spatial planning processes: drift, layering, game-board, and rhizome.

  8. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model.

  9. Humans (really are animals: Picture-book reading influences five-year-old urban children’s construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R Waxman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between humans and nonhuman animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing nonhuman animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey 1985. But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban five-year-olds, is not evident in three-year-olds (Herrmann et al. 2010. This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children’s reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether five-year-olds’ reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children’s books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia. The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban five-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children’s books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children’s attention to a biological model.

  10. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children’s construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children’s reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds’ reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children’s books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children’s books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children’s attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

  11. Access to Social Insurance in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Rural-Urban and Urban-Urban Migrants in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiming Cheng; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth

    2013-01-01

    Since 1958 the hukou (household registration) system has assigned Chinese citizens either a rural or urban status. Some studies argue that the rural-to-urban migrants in China who do not have urban hukou are not entitled to urban social insurance schemes, due to institutional discrimination, which applies differing treatment to urban and rural hukou (chengxiang fenge). Although rural-urban migrants participate less in the social insurance system than their counterparts with urban hukou, a clo...

  12. Biokinetic of plutonium in human beings. Analysis and modification of ICRP 67 model; Biocinetica del plutonio nell'organismo umano. Analisi e modifica del modello ICRP 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A.; Castellani, C.M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A preliminary research of the available data and empirical functions for the plutonium excretion after injection was carried out. The ICRP model presented in the Publication no. 67 was then analyzed comparing its predictions for the activity in urine and, at a lesser extent, in feces and blood, with the collected data and empirical curves. The model was modified and an optimized age-related compartmental model was developed. A new skeletal model recently developed was also introduced and age depending bone remodelling rates were assumed on the basis of the ICRP Publication 70. This model provides a better agreement with measured urinary excretion data than the current ICRP 67 model, avoiding unphysiological assumptions such as the transfer of activity from soft tissue to urinary bladder, that were part of the ICRP model. The new optimized model predictions of the activity in faeces and in blood after an injection are also closer to the available data than the ICRP 67 estimations. A good agreement with the partitioning factor of plutonium between skeleton and liver obtained from different autopsy studies was also observed. [Italian] E' stata effettuata preliminarmente una ricerca bibliografica dei dati e delle funzioni di escrezione del plutonio attualmente disponibili in letteratura. Sulla base dei risultati di tale ricerca e' stato verificato il modello proposto dall'ICRP nella Pubblicazione n. 67. Tale modello e' stato quindi modificato al fine non solo di avere una piu' realistica descrizione dei valori predetti per l'escrezione urinaria, ma anche di modellare la cinetica del plutonio evitando quelle assunzioni introdotte appositamente nel modello dell'ICRP per correggere le previsini del modello ma che mancano di una chiara spiegazione di carattere fisiologico. Esso fornisce valutazioni piu' realistiche anche per l'attivita' nelle feci e nel sangue. Il modello sviluppato comprende un modello scheletrico

  13. Automation and remote control of waste-water treatment plants. Application to the WWTP of Genoa-Sturla; Automazione e telecontrollo degli impianti di trattamento per reflui urbani. Applicazioni nell'impianto di Genova-Sturla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvicini, V.; Siri, R.; Sammartino, P. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua, Genoa (Italy); Capodaglio, A.G.; Cavagliano, P. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica e Ambientale

    2001-08-01

    A characteristic of the upgrading carried out on the wastewater treatment plant of Genoa-Sturla lies in the fact that the facility has been fitted with a completely automatic operating and managing system capable of reducing all manual interventions in normal operating conditions to a minimum, while maintaining the requested degree of operational safety. The development of a program for the elaboration of raw data transmitted to the user by the remote control system was made possible through a critical analysis of the functional tests conducted on the electromechanical equipment and of the related signals, and by an in-depth study of the available remote control tools and operating logics that are used to adjust wastewater treatment processes dynamics. The monitoring of several characteristic parameters of the plant has been organized in such a way that it will be of better operational use to the plant operating Agency, in order to optimize the efficiency of the depuration processes, to further improve the technical and financial management of the facility and to prevent or promptly resolve possible occasional malfunctions. [Italian] Una particolarita' dell'intervento di completa ristrutturazione del depuratore di Genova-Sturla consiste nell'aver dotato la struttura di un sistema di conduzione di gestione completamente automatico tale da minimizzare le operazioni di tipo manuale nelle condizioni di esercizio ordinario assicurando, nel contempo, il richiesto grado di sicurezza. Un'analisi critica della fase di collaudo funzionale dei macchinari elettro-meccanici e dei relativi segnali, un approdondito studio degli strumenti di telegestione e delle logiche di funzionamento che regoleranno la dinamica dei processi di trattamento del liquame, hanno consentito di sviluppare un programma di elaborazione dei dati originari trasmessi all'utente dall'apparato di supervisione. Il monitoraggio dei numerosi parametri caratteristici dell

  14. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  15. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari

  16. Plagio e commercio nelle guide tardocinquecentesche dedicate a Napoli e Pozzuoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Hendrix

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism and commerce in late sixteenth-century guides to the city of Naples and its districtThis essay illustrates how strongly chorographical texts depend on intertextual borrowings from previous materials, up to the point of becoming a patchwork of quotations from earlier texts. It highlights how this characteristic feature of chorography becomes the object of an unusually early debate on plagiarism. This polemic between two clearly competing Neapolitan intellectuals, Tomaso Costo and Scipione Mazzella, denotes how in the 1590s the status of chorography was changing considerably. Hendrix argues that the growing numbers of visitors to a city like Naples, particularly those coming from far away, lured publishers and authors alike as of the 1580s to transform conventional chorography conceived in a context of local pride into a commercially attractive product targeting this new audience. This went along with a re-framing of existing chorographical materials, not only causing concern with regard to its dubious status oscillating between intertextuality and plagiarism, but also in view of the urban identity presented no longer to wellinformed citizens but rather now to foreign visitors much more dependent on the accuracy and reliability of the given information.

  17. Urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  18. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  19. Impiego di materiali plastici nell'industria alimentare: rilascio di 'Endocrine Disruptors' valutato mediante test a breve termine in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reali

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione del rischio di esposizione della popolazione a composti chimici estrogenomimetici rilasciati da materiali plastici utilizzati nell’industria delle bevande e nel packaging di alimenti

    Metodi: messa a punto di un metodo di estrazione di composti organici da flussi acquosi tramite l’uso di resine di amberlite® XAD®-2 con passaggio di matrice acquosa (50ml/min attraverso tubi di adduzione. L’analisi chimica di eventuali composti chimici migranti da tubi e contenitori per bevande è stata effettuata con GC/MS e arricchimento con tecnica SPME. L’attività estrogeno mimetica degli estratti è stata saggiata con un test biologico a breve termine, il Yeast Estrogen Screen. Il costrutto di Saccharomyces cerevisiae è vettore di sequenze di DNA che codificano il recettore estrogenico alfaumano e i rispettivi response elements legati alla regione promotrice del gene reporter LacZ per la ßgalattosidasi. L’induzione di sintesi di ß-galattosidasi dipende dall’attivazione del gene reporter conseguente all’affinità di legame ligando-recettore e viene misurata spettrofotometricamente. La potenza estrogenica viene calcolata in riferimento all’attività elicitata dall’ormone naturale 17ß-estradiolo nelle stesse condizioni sperimentali preso come controllo positivo di riferimento (RIE.

    Risultati preliminari e Conclusioni: l’analisi tossicologica in vitro ha evidenziato che nell’acqua che è stata a contatto con silicone e PVC in condizioni dinamiche sono presenti composti chimici (1-10 μg/lt: con attività estrogeno-mimetica (RIE= 87.31;44.28. Sono emersi aspetti interessanti da studiare ulteriormente nell’ottica della promozione della sicurezza alimentare.

  20. Le Metamorfosi di Ovidio e la Saffo di Alessandro Verri nelle stanze di Palazzo Azzolino a Fermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Donati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palazzo Azzolino, appartenuto ad una importante famiglia gentilizia di Fermo, viene restaurato nel 1779. In seguito, nella prima metà dell’Ottocento, è interessato da una campagna decorativa di cui restano solo due stanze: la prima con soggetti mitologici tratti in gran parte dalle Metamorfosi di Ovidio, la seconda con temi che derivano dalla Saffo di Alessandro Verri. La prevalenza in entrambe le stanze del tema amoroso permette di ipotizzare una committenza legata ad un’occasione matrimoniale. Grazie ad una ricerca d’archivio, condotta nell’Archivio di Stato di Fermo, nell’Archivio Storico Arcivescovile di Fermo e nell’Archivio Azzolino di Jesi, è stato possibile proporre per questi dipinti murali almeno due ipotesi di committenza, che vedono nelle figure di Giovan Battista Azzolino e di suo figlio Pompeo i probabili ideatori del ciclo.   Palazzo Azzolino, which belonged to an important family of Fermo, was restored in 1779. During the first half of the XIXth century, it was then subject to a decorative campaign. The available proof is represented by two rooms only. One room represents Ovidio’s Methamorphosis, the second one Alessandro Verri’s Saffo. Since in both rooms the main theme is love, it’s possible to suppose that they were created because of a marriage. Thanks to an archival research, conducted in the State Archives of Fermo, in the Historical Archiepiscopal Archives of Fermo and in the Azzolino Archives of Jesi, it was possible to figure out two ipothesis about the commissioners. The first refers to Giovan Battista Azzolino, while the second refers to his son Pompeo. They were probably the creators of the iconographical project of the cycle.

  1. UrbanTransformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    Due to the economical and political changes marked by globalization, neo-liberalism and, post-industrialism a changed spatial configuration is emerging in which an increased division is taking place, into on the one hand, economical and demographical growing urban areas, where the urban fabric...... is being concentrated, and on the other, into declining urban areas that experience a dilution of the urban fabric and a de-concentration of people and capital. This gives an uneven spatial geography where some places are becoming nodal points in the global society and others are left behind. But the urban...... situation of concentration and de-concentration is also closely connected where there is a dynamic relation between the two. Decline might in some cases even be seen as an aspect of growth, where the growth of some places influence the decline in others. With this approach the urban fabric can, therefore...

  2. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...... the prevalence and determinants of urban collectors of wild plants in Kampala, Uganda. During February to August 2015, 93 structured interviews were conducted in inner, outer, and peri-urban areas of the city. The findings in this study show that urban wild plants are used by almost half (47%) of the respondents......, mainly for medicinal purposes but also as a complement to diets. The findings further indicate that residents with lower income, of younger age (urban areas are more likely to be urban collectors. Seasonality appears to be of greater importance...

  3. Lead sources in airborne particulate matter from urban areas of Sicily; Livelli di piombo nel particolato atmosferico dei centri urbani della Sicilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuppa, A.; Dongarra' , G.; Varrica, D. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Fisica della Terra; Monna, G. [Univ. de Bourgougne, Geosol, CST, Dijon (France); Sabatino, G. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    2001-01-01

    Pb isotopic studies, measurements of Pb/Br ratios and enrichment factors have been used to discriminate the origin of lead in the urban atmosphere of several cities of Sicily. The acquired data confirm that, although the relative importance of gasoline-derived Pb is decreased in time, lead still remains one of the most significant trace elements in airborne particulate matter. The chemical and isotopic data show that gasoline and industrial activities makes a major contribution to particulate Pb, while the crustal source is of minor importance. The correlation between lead and antimony is also presented. [Italian] Le differenti fonti che contribuiscono al contenuto di piombo nel particolato atmosferico di alcune citta' della Sicilia sono state discriminate mediante l'utilizzo di opportuni marker chimici: il rapporto Pb/Br ed i rapporti isotopici del piombo. I rapporti Pb/Br osservati nel particolato atmosferico risultano prossimi al rapporto tipico presente nelle benzine. I dati isotopici confermano il limitato contributo crostale rispetto a quello proveniente dal traffico autoveicolare e mettono in evidena come in alcune aree sia particolarmente significativo anche il contributo delle attivita' industriali. Viene inoltre presentata la correlazione esistente fra i contenuti di piombo e antimonio, come risultato delle attivita' antropiche.

  4. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    creates an intensive space for the empowerment and liberation of the body. Occupy Wall street and its action in the autumn 2001 is the ultimate example of how urban political performances intensifies and transform every day spaces. Through examples of how OWS tactically appropriates and transforms urban....... Whereas urban planners and architects worldwide call for user participation governed by the authorities, these urban performances act. On the backdrop of their acting of ideas in public, I propose a potential for urban transformation taking urban social diversity as its point of departure....

  5. Are your asset data as good as you think? Conducting a comprehensive census of built assets to improve urban population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makelarski, Jennifer A; Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Fabbre, Vanessa D; Grogan, Colleen M; Sadhu, Eugene M; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Van Haitsma, Martha; Whitaker, Eric; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Secondary data sources are widely used to measure the built asset environment, although their validity for this purpose is not well-established. Using community-engaged research methodology, this study conducted a census of public-facing, built assets via direct observation and then tested the performance of these data against widely used secondary datasets. After engaging community organizations, a community education campaign was implemented. Using web-enabled cell phones and a web-based application prepopulated with the secondary data, census workers verified, modified, and/or added assets using street-level observation, supplementing data with web searches and telephone calls. Data were uploaded to http://www.SouthSideHealth.org . Using direct observation as the criterion standard, the sensitivity of secondary datasets was calculated. Of 5,773 assets on the prepopulated list, direct observation of public-facing assets verified 1,612 as operating; another 653 operating assets were newly identified. Sensitivity of the commercial list for nonresidential, operating assets was 61 %. Using the asset census as the criterion standard, secondary datasets were incomplete and inaccurate. Comprehensive, accurate built asset data are needed to advance urban health research, inform policy, and improve individuals' access to assets.

  6. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  7. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  8. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  9. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  10. Role of land filling in the modern strategies for solid waste management; Il ruolo della discarica nelle moderne strategie di smaltimento dei rifiuti solidi urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossu, R.; Lavagnolo, M. C.; Raga, R. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria, Idraulica, Marittima, Ambientale e Geotecnica

    2001-09-01

    The new environmental regulations in Europe require higher standards for design and management of new landfills. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have to be pretreated before land filling, in order to enable strong reduction of landfill emissions and environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the role of new landfills in solid waste management and the influence of some measures on the reduction of emissions and environmental impact. [Italian] In base alle nuove Direttive italiane e comunitarie, la discarica controllata e' destinata ad avere anche in futuro un ruolo di primo piano nella gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani. In particolare, saranno destinati a smaltimento in discarica rifiuti pretrattati che garantiscano limitata putrescibilita' e minore impatto ambientale della discarica. Nell'articolo vengono esposte alcune considerazioni sul ruolo delle discariche nelle moderne strategie di smaltimento dei rifiuti solidi urbani, sugli effetti del pretrattamento dei rifiuti sulle emissioni di biogas e percolato dalle discariche e sulle caratteristiche idrauliche e meccaniche delle discariche per rifiuti pretrattati.

  11. Urban Jamification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2013-01-01

    and the configuration of urban space influence the design and performance of location-based mobile games; and (2) how the urban and socio-economic context of developing countries, specifically Brazil, shape mobile technology appropriation and location-based mobile game design. We demonstrate that urban spaces can...

  12. Are Spatial Planning Objectives Reflected in the Evolution of Urban Landscape Patterns? A Framework for the Evaluation of Spatial Planning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona R. Grădinaru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of spatial planning results, or outcomes, has been rather neglected by scholars and practitioners. The causes of this neglect are linked to the characteristics of the planning systems in use or difficulties in quantifying results. To advance the state of the art of outcome evaluation, this paper focuses on assessing the implementation of national spatial planning objectives in urban landscapes through the use of an evaluation framework, which makes use of spatially explicit information. The framework is built around four dimensions, which reflect the main domains of spatial planning: efficient built-up development, conservation of agricultural land, landscape preservation and human perception. Indicators that are capable of capturing landscape changes in both time and space are used to verify the degree of conformance between adopted objectives and actual development patterns. We make use of spatially explicit data, as well as assess whether and where landscape changes occurred, by integrating the framework into a multi-criteria analysis. In the present study, the framework is tested in two study areas located in Switzerland and Romania, while the results are interpreted from the perspective of spatial planning approaches in the two countries. The efficiency and utility of the framework are demonstrated by the ability to provide valuable information that facilitates improvement in the performance of planning processes, such as identifying where the implementation of objectives is less effective, and the domains of affected spatial planning. Our findings indicate that the distance between objectives and outcomes can be attributed to differences in countries’ spatial planning approaches, which should also be placed into the wider economic, institutional and legislative context. Our study provides valuable insights for the integration of time series of spatial data into the evaluation procedure.

  13. From marginal and depressed areas to the exploitation of local areas; Dalle aree depresse e marginali alla valorizzazione delle realta' locali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.; Colucci, G.B.; Mancini, L.; Montante, S. [Eurispes, Rome (Italy); Padovani, L.; Carrabba, P. [ENEA, Dipt. Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines the problems of depressed areas and marginal territories, and their possible solutions. [Italian] Prima, lo studio esamina una serie di percorsi di lettura del problema delle aree depresse e dei territori marginali, attraverso le connessioni tra fattori di carattere strutturale e di tipo culturale, poi tenta di impiegarli nell'ambito di soluzioni integrate.

  14. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker c

  15. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker

  16. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker c

  17. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  18. VT Federal Aid Urban Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Federal Aid Urban boundaries are defined based on US Census data. The roadways within these boundaries have urban classifications. These FAU boundaries were updated...

  19. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  20. Contested Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pløger, John

    2010-01-01

    of city dynamism, architectural identity and market competitiveness is expressed in discourses and visual signs in space—be it cyberspace, on location, in newspapers or debates. The articulation of representations and meaning can produce conflicts which show the voids, ruptures, and rational generatives...... at play. This article will exemplify how actors' use of a specific spatial dispositif of visibility and legibility may be intertwined with particular discourses on community, architectural heritage and identity of place. Two cases are chosen, the first concerns resistance towards high-rise buildings...... intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning...

  1. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  2. Analytical functions in non-canonical two dimensional algebras; Funzioni analitiche nelle algebre a due componenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, Francesco; Zampetti, Paolo [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Cannata, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale INFO; Nichelatti, Enrico [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-10-01

    Systems of two-dimensional hypercomplex numbers are usually studied in their canonical form, i.e. according to the multiplicative rule for the ``imaginary``versor i{sup 2} = {+-} 1, 0. In this report those systems for which i{sup 2} = {alpha} + {beta}i are studied and expressions are derived for functions given by series expansion as well as for some elementary functions. The results obtained for systems which can be decomposed are then extended to all systems.

  3. Recent trends in Namibian urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, D

    1982-01-01

    "The theoretical debates on urbanization and spatial inequalities in development are sketched in relation to the Namibian (South West African) situation. 1951, 1960 and 1970 Population Census data as well as 1976 estimates for urban centres are analysed and interpreted, revealing growth trends in the urban hierarchy and in the three main racial groups in each town." excerpt

  4. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    which forms of ‘urban life’ are suitable for the suburbs and discusses which urban life activities are resilient in the suburbs. What do the residents of respectively single-family housing areas and social housing areas want? Does the idea of vibrant urban qualities in suburban areas, that today...

  5. Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R Y

    1987-10-01

    The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.

  6. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    multiple index fuzzy evaluation warning method, and referred to as DMFEW method. DMFEW first selects 5 evaluation indexes based on the DPSIR model for flood risk warning evaluation, including driving force index, pressure index, state index, impact index and response index. Based on the values of all evaluation indexes, one evaluation index for the whole system evaluation result is determined by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The flood risk level is divided into 4 levels, having Level 1 the most serious. Every evaluation index is also categorized as 4 levels, and a linear fuzzy subjection function is proposed to do the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Dongguan City is used as the study case to validate the proposed method. The urban flood forecasting model is set up with the topographic data, the city map, the underground pipelines and land cover types, and two flood events are simulated with observed precipitation, one is interpolated from the rain gauges data, and another is estimated by digital weather radar. The simulated results are compared with the investigated water depth, and the results show the model has very good performances. The results are further used for the flood risk warning simulation, and are very reasonable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  8. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    are exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey...

  9. Are Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Distinct for Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools? A Multilevel Study among Secondary School Students in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin P.; Leatherdale, Scott; Manske, Steve; Dubin, Joel A.; Elliott, Susan; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined differences in students' time spent in physical activity (PA) across secondary schools in rural, suburban, and urban environments and identified the environment-level factors associated with these between school differences in students' PA. Methods: Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to examine the…

  10. Sustainable Urban Biophilia: The Case of Greenskins for Urban Density

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Revell; Martin Anda

    2014-01-01

    Green infrastructure ameliorates the urban heat island effect, contributes positively to liveability and enables sustainability in higher density urban environments. Greenskins (living architectures) are a more specific form of green infrastructure, including green walls and green roofs, for dense urban areas. These offer a new approach for sustainable urban biophilia and some forms can be built using the ecological design principles of constructed wetlands. The paper compares findings from t...

  11. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  12. Urban heat : natural and anthropogenic factors influencing urban air temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    The urban heat island effect is a phenomenon observed worldwide, i.e. evening and nocturnal temperatures in cities are usually several degrees higher than in the surrounding countryside. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the processes that drive the urban air temperature and the urban he

  13. The Urban Food Hubs Solution: Building Capacity in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Access to affordable fresh food is an ongoing challenge for underserved urban neighborhoods across the United States. Several are designated food deserts with no access to a full-service grocery store within a one-mile radius. The Urban Food Hubs of the College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) of the…

  14. Are decreases in drug use risk associated with reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors among adults in an urban hospital primary care setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wangari Walter, PhD, MPH, MSW

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug use is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. We examined whether decreases in drug use risk are associated with reduction in HIV-related sex risk behaviors among adults. Data was from a cohort of participants (n = 574 identified by drug use screening in a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug use in an urban primary care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between decreases in drug use risk and sex-related HIV risk behavior reduction from study entry to six months. Weights were derived from propensity score modeling of decreases in drug use risk as a function of potential confounders. Thirty seven percent of the study participants (213/574 reported a decrease in drug use risk, and 7% (33/505 reported decreased sex-related HIV risk behavior at the six-month follow-up point. We did not detect a difference in reduction of risky sexual behaviors for those who decreased drug use risk (unadjusted: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.65–2.70; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.54–2.36. Adults who screened positive for high drug use risk had greater odds of reducing sex risk behavior in unadjusted analyses OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.81–7.60; but the results were not significant after adjusting for confounding AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.85–7.30. In this primary care population, reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors have complex etiologies and reductions in drug use risk do not appear to be an independent predictor of them.

  15. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and refined carbohydrates are associated with risk of stroke: a prospective cohort study in urban Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Xianglan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Ding, Ding; Hong, Zhen; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40-70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer. A validated, interviewer-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes at baseline and during follow-up. Incident stroke cases and deaths were identified via follow-up interviews and death registries and were confirmed by review of medical records and death certificates. During mean follow-ups of 10 y for stroke incidence and 12 y for stroke mortality, we ascertained 2991 stroke cases (2750 ischemic and 241 hemorrhagic) and 609 stroke deaths. After potential confounders were controlled for, we observed significant positive associations of dietary GI and GL with total stroke risk; multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high compared with low levels (90th compared with 10th percentile) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.36) for GI and 1.27 (1.04, 1.54) for GL (both P-linearity carbohydrates but not for total carbohydrates. No significant associations were found for stroke mortality after multivariable adjustment. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and GL, primarily due to high intakes of refined grains, are associated with increased risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke in middle-aged and older urban Chinese women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.

    2007-01-01

    biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... be important habitats and valuable corridors for both common and less common species. At the same time a comprehensive, functional and viable green structure is important for urban populations to whom it serves many functions and offers a whole range of benefits. Urban green structure should serve both...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  17. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.

    2007-01-01

    the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...... be important habitats and valuable corridors for both common and less common species. At the same time a comprehensive, functional and viable green structure is important for urban populations to whom it serves many functions and offers a whole range of benefits. Urban green structure should serve both...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...

  18. Slowflow fingerprints of urban hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stuart S.; Smith, Brennan

    2014-07-01

    Urban streamflow is commonly characterized by increased peak discharges and runoff volumes. Slowflow integrates altered storage and transit times affecting urban recharge and drainage, resulting in a highly variable indeterminate urban slowflow response. This study introduces the use of multiple baseflow metrics to characterize and interpret the dominant processes driving urban slowflow response. Slowflow characteristics derived from USGS streamflow records are used to quantify the patterns of hydrologic alteration across the rural-to-urban landuse gradient in the Piedmont watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), an NSF Urban Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Baltimore Metropolitan area. We interpret multimetric slowflow response from a top-down perspective, learning from data, in order to draw dominant process inferences from observed slowflow. When characterized by a single slowflow metric such as the baseflow index, urban slowflow response can exhibit equifinality and is not reliably predicted a priori. Multimetric analysis quantifies distinct differences in urban slowflow response, framing testable hypotheses and refined experimental designs to elucidate the dominant processes driving urban slowflow. Multimetric fingerprinting offers a consistent framework for interpreting urban slowflow response, constrained by the equifinality of single slowflow metrics and the inherent limitations on process inferences that can be drawn from gauged streamflow alone. Heterogeneity of observed slowflow belies the simple paradigm of a single consistent type of urban slowflow response. In contrast, we suggest a conceptual typology of urban slowflow response, framing a conceptual mixing model of dominant process endpoints that shape the slowflow fingerprints of urban hydrology.

  19. The role of composting in sustainable agriculture; Il ruolo del compostaggio nell`agricoltura sostenibile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sequi, P.; Benedetti, A.; Canali, S.; Tittarelli, F. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    Incineration, landfill and recycling are three main strategies to face the problem of waste disposal, and may co-exist. However, it is essential to encourage recycling, the only sustainable practice among the three cited above which avoids the existence itself of wastes by transforming possible waste materials in a series of products. Composting, as sustainable transformation of potential wastes in organic fertilizers, tunes up with sustainable agriculture, and must be optimised and developed. The three requisites needed in order that agriculture can be considered sustainable are discussed, and the use of compost is shown to enhance sustainability, not only of the agricultural activity, but of a more general context of sustainable society.

  20. Spunti per la didattica del libro antico a stampa nelle biblioteche scolastiche

    OpenAIRE

    Tavoni, Maria Gioia

    2003-01-01

    The ancient books hold in the scholastic libraries they may be used in the didactics even as material object. Indicative in this sense is the experience of Maria Boccanera and Antonella Lignani of the Umbria IRRE. In particular the signs present on an ancient book are a fascinating world, they can be used as a powerful key to different didactic goals.

  1. Modello predittivo di idoneità ambientale per il cervo nell'Appennino centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Opramolla

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In un?area di studio ampia ca. 250 km², situata tra il Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo e quello della Majella, è stata studiata la densità del cervo in 84 unità di campionamento (ampiezza = 1 km² selezionate in maniera sistematica partendo dal reticolato geografico UTM. In ogni unità di campionamento sono stati individuati tre transetti paralleli orientati da Est a Ovest (lunghezza= 1 km/transetto e 33 plot circolari, ogni 100 m lungo i transetti. La presenza del cervo è stata rilevata tramite segni di presenza e avvistamenti. Sono stati effettuati tre campionamenti: giugno ? agosto 1999, settembre-ottobre 1999 e maggio - luglio 2000. Il cervo è risultato essere presente in 39 unità di campionamento e assente in 35. Sono state calcolate dalla cartografia numerica tramite GIS 69 variabili ambientali. La relazione tra variabili ambientali e presenza/assenza del cervo è stata analizzata con l?analisi della varianza univariata (anova e con l?analisi di regressione logistica dicotomica (rld. Sono state riscontrate differenze significative (anova tra le aree in cui è stata riscontrata la presenza del cervo ed aree in cui il cervo è risultato assente per le variabili relative alle attività antropiche, superficie delle radure, quota, esposizione, estensione delle colture, estensione e struttura del bosco e presenza di pecore al pascolo. Il modello di regressione logistica ha selezionato solo 3 variabili: superficie del bosco di latifoglie, indice medio della forma dei poligoni di bosco, superficie delle aree esposte a sud-ovest. Il modello spiega il 76% della varianza della variabile indipendente, e tutti i coefficienti di regressione sono correlati significativemente e positivamente alla probabilità di presenza del cervo. Il modello ha classificato correttamente il 91% dei casi in cui il cervo è risultato assente e il 92% dei casi in cui è risultato presente (percentuale media di classificazione= 91,9%. L?importanza del bosco nel condizionare

  2. Intelligence Support to Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    in and around urban environments are toxic industrial materials. These include such materials as aviation fuel, pesticides , ammonia, chlorine...the urban environment :  Restricted or limited landing zones and pickup zones.  Increased tower, antenna, and wire hazards.  Foreign object damage ...Chapter 1 INTELLIGENCE AND THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT ....................................... 1-1 Overview

  3. FOTOGRAFI URBAN LANDSCAPE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAMERA LOMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cito Yasuki Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape photography is not a new thing in photography. It’s similar with temple or street photography, only that the objects in focus are in urban regions. By using lomography camera the urban landscapes are caputered in special manners that new, extraordinary images appear. They are like unnatural colour, fish eye effects, and others. Keywords: Urban landscape, Lomography

  4. Costi dei figli, valore dei figli. Economia e cultura nelle scelte riproduttive

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvia D’Aloisio

    2014-01-01

    Economic aspects are generally considered as important variables in explaining the Italian low fertility rate: the cost of children – either direct or opportunity costs – heavily  influences reproductive choices. Furthermore, we have to take into account both the availability and the costs of family services, which consistently vary across the Italian regions. Literature on family in Italy has often highlighted the importance of kinship support networks, based on the spatial proximity of the ...

  5. L’efficacia diagnostica dei test nelle infezioni da H.pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giocoli GdL EBM AMCLI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models are necessary in diagnostic research.The efficacy of tests must be studied first in terms of analytical accuracy and diagnostic efficacy, then in terms of clinical impact, where the value of a test is considered in terms of different patient outcomes. The issue of diagnostic efficacy is described here, by taking diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection as an example.

  6. Etnoarcheologia dei Paesaggi Pastorali nelle Alpi: Strategie Insediative Stagionali d'Alta Quota in Trentino

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the study of current pastoral seasonal settlement patterns in the uplands of Val di Fiemme (Trentino province), in order to create a quantitative locational model for predicting archaeological pastoral site locations. In fact, few archaeological sites related to pastoral economy are known in the Alps, and this lack of data affects the interpretation of the ancient pastoral strategies. A predictive model could be useful to identify new sites and to optimize archaeologi...

  7. Genitori nella complessità: resilienza e benessere nelle allergie alimentari gravi

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, E.

    2016-01-01

    The food allergies are a very common illness; their incidence is increasing at around 8% of the pediatric population (Branum and Lukacs, 2009; Sicherer, 2011). The food allergies have a strong impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The recent literature has extensively documented the impact of illness’ management; it feeds and makes chronic the feelings of uncertainty (Kemp and Hu, 2008) and insecurity (Marklund et al., 2007), the symptoms of stress and anxiety (Teuf...

  8. Utopia e distopia nella prosa di Vladimir Odoevsky. Alcuni indizi nelle opere giovanili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Mingati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia and Dystopia in V.F. Odoevsky's Fiction: some Clues in his Early Writing In Russian literature utopia and dystopia are often tightly interwoven. Also in the work of V.F. Odoevsky (1804-1869 some texts commonly defi ned as ‘utopian’ are in fact intertwined with a dark irony that seemingly leaves very little room for hope. However, Odoevsky’s dystopias should never be taken literally, on the contrary it is necessary to consider the specifi c cultural context in which they are placed, i.e., the paradoxical debate inspired by Menippean satire. The purpose of this paper is to identify in the writer’s two early texts, The Old People, or The Isle of Panchaia (1824 and Two Days in the Life of the Terrestrial Globe (1828, the presence of narrative elements which can be attributed to the utopian/dystopian topos and to define their principal features and probable derivative texts. In so doing, all the clues indispensable for an exhaustive reconstruction of the artistic process will be brought together, a process which, at the end of the 1830s, led to the genesis of two of Odoevsky’s famous dystopias set in the frame novel Russian Nights (1844, i.e, The Last Suicide and The City Without a Name (first published in 1839, as well as the unfinished The Year 4338 (1835-40.

  9. New technologies on eggs manufacturing; Innovazione tecnologica nell`industria di lavorazione delle uova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M.; Serse, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Marcolini, P.; Erbisti, P. [Soc. Coop. Avicola Lessinia, Pigozzo, Verona (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    Objective of this paper is innovate the industrial manufacturing process, up grading the white egg commercial value according the following points: - improve the albumen rheological properties (whippability); - concentrate the white eggs without damaging the protein functional properties; - fractionate eggs white proteins to improve the useful application range in the pharmaceutical industry. The albumen chemical-physical properties and the protein separation technologies, based mainly on membrane techniques, are discussed. This paper represents a first technical overview on eggs manufacturing, carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and the Avicola Lessinia, with the objective to develop a new production process.

  10. La storia dell'omosessualità nell'Italia moderna: un bilancio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Scaramella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gay studies are a young research field in international historiography. Over the past few years, after a period of relative silence, historical studies on homosexuality have begun to develop also in Italy. The aim of this article is to review recent research in Italian early modern homosexuality, comparing contexts and considering methodological issues. The paper highlights the lack of gender-oriented works in a historiography which has mostly been dominated by sexual crimes analysis. In addition, it discusses some of the potential ways in which the cultural history approach might be applied in LGBT research.

  11. Lo specchio e lo schermo: riflessi rubati nelle distopie del XX secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantalea Mazzitello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The totalitarian States, which are represented in the dystopian narrations of the Nineteen Century, use as a strategic rhetoric the personification of the Power in a body-object that it could not be represented, but it is operative at all. This un-corporal body has the sight as the first sense. Screens and cameras are all-present in '1984' and in the comics and movie 'V for vendetta', they act as defective mirrors because they run only for entry: they do not give back the mirrored image, they hold back it, stealing its property from the reflected subjects. This misappropriation leads to a potential unlimited decoupling of the shot image, by its conservation, re-use and counterfeiting. Instead, the power of the antagonist-State remains invisible, its spy-mirrors disassociate the pair seen/see, and that creates a control connection in favour of the second term. The redemption of the individuals could be possible only using the some vehicles: mirroring and getting recorded reflections of hidden, falsified and decoupled faces.

  12. Thermal and spatial effects in chemisorption measurements; Effetti termici e spaziali nelle misure di chemisorbimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, S. [Stazione sperimentale per i Combustibili, S.Donato Milanese, Milano (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    A new application of infrared thermography in catalyst characterization is described, in which an experimental set-up featuring high spatial resolution and capability of revealing dynamic effects and performing real time image analysis is adopted. Some significant results obtained in the study of acid-base properties of catalysts and solid materials, metal dispersion, reaction mechanism and deactivation processes are discussed. [Italiano] Viene illustrata una nuova applicazione della tecnica di termografia infrarossa, attuata con un`apparecchiatura ed un assetto sperimentale che presentano caratteristiche peculiari quali: elevata risoluzione spaziale, descrizione accurata di fenomeni dinamici, analisi delle immagini in tempo reale. Vengono presentati alcuni esempi significativi di impiego nei seguenti campi: catatterizzazioni di catalizzatori e materiali solidi in termini di proprieta` acido-base e di dispersione dei metalli supportati; studi cinetici-meccanicistici, studio della disattivazione del letto catalitico.

  13. Squilibri demografici e scarsità di risparmio nell'economia mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ALESSANDRINI

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is twofold. First, the possible links between the feared decrease of the formation of savings and the strong territorial imbalances that characterised the demographic evolution are examined. Second, the authors aim to demonstrate that it makes sense to address the problem of lack of savings in the global economy above all if it is seen in relative terms, comparing it with the specific investment needs that must be met in order to mitigate economic and demographic imbalances. Attention is focused on a specific and particularly significant aspect of the problem: that of the relationship between family savings and optimal accumulation of human capital at different stages of economic development and population growth. The authors conclude that more than a problem of absolute world savings scarcity, there is a predominant redistributive problem, in the face of a marked economic and demographic dualism that takes on a worrisome destabilising potential.

  14. Trend emergenti nelle produzioni artistiche. Logiche partecipate e creazione del valore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Calcagno

    2012-07-01

    The paper focuses on the study of the innovation issue in arts productions, and identifies the participative model as a form of radical innovation. This model is able to activate a process of value creation, which is meant as not only referring to the single organization implementing it but also to the context which the organisation is based on. As in other contexts, arts productions are deeply affected by these innovative dynamics based on higher levels of participation and openness, thus creating value in different manners.The present study is an attempt to analyse a process which emerges as an heterogeneous and fragmented route, but nevertheless diffused cross the whole spectrum of creative industries.

  15. Le ‘convenienze teatrali’: i cantanti nelle caricature di Anton Maria Zanetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Stefani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Venetian engraver and collector Anton Maria Zanetti, quondam Girolamo the Elder, amused himself by caricaturing well known people of his time, above all operatic singers and other figures from musical theatre at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Zanetti’s graphic satire can be considered the visual equivalent of the famous Teatro alla moda by Benedetto Marcello: there are exact similarities between the biting literary portraits of male and female singers by the aristocratic Venetian composer and the figurative caricatures of castrati and prime donne by Zanetti. The works of both, full of hilarious wit and inveterate prejudices, are part of that satirical movement which accompanied the commercial musical theatre from its beginnings. This critical essay analyses some caricatures of the most famous singers of the time by Zanetti, and appraises the importance of the satirizing of the so-called convenienze teatrali shared by Marcello’s Teatro alla moda.L’incisore e collezionista veneziano Anton Maria Zanetti quondam Girolamo il vecchio si divertì a mettere in caricatura protagonisti del suo tempo, soprattutto cantanti d’opera e altre figure attinenti al teatro musicale del primo Settecento. La satira grafica zanettiana può considerarsi per molti aspetti l’equivalente visivo del celebre Teatro alla moda di Benedetto Marcello: puntuali le corrispondenze tra i graffianti ritratti letterari di virtuosi e canterine dell’aristocratico musicista veneziano e le icastiche caricature di castrati e primedonne di Zanetti. Gli uni e le altre, colmi di arguzie impagabili e inossidabili pregiudizi, rientrano in quel filone satirico che accompagna il teatro d’opera dei circuiti commerciali fin dai suoi esordi. Il saggio prende in considerazione alcune caricature zanettiane dei più noti cantanti dell’epoca, ponendo in valore quella satira delle cosiddette ‘convenienze teatrali’ condivisa dal libello marcelliano.  

  16. Urban Scaling in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography, and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the for...

  17. L'Islam nell'editoria italiana. Anni 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Galleri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L'evoluzione della produzione libraria sull'Islam e sul Mondo arabo-islamico in Italia dopo l'11 Settembre 2001 presenta degli interessanti spunti di valutazione per quanto riguarda lo stretto rapporto fra Oriente e l'immagine che il lettore ha dell'Oriente. Dallo studio in questione emerge come, le aree geoeditoriali di approvvigionamento, le lingue dalle quali sono tradotti i testi, le principali case editrici e gli autori più prolifici siano orientati in gran parte verso una ben precisa direzione culturale. Le evidenze statistiche dimostrano come il rapporto fra il nostro Occidente e quel particolare Oriente che è l'Islam, presenta ancora degli evidenti punti oscuri. L'aumento quasi incontrollato del numero di titoli e del numero di autori sembra non aver portato alla nascita di una consapevolezza differente nel lettore. Scarseggiano le iniziative programmate nel tempo e le colanne con una vita e una ragion d'essere ben precisa. L'improvvisazione e gli istant book rappresentano dei casi piuttosto frequenti. L'assunzione di figure giornalistiche a veri e propri cultori della materia, combinata con i giochi di potere della distribuzione, disegna infine l'ultima tendenza, che svuota le università e le accademie di gran parte del proprio diritto a divulgare, per donare al lettore una visione dell'Oriente creata quasi dal nulla dall'intellettuale di turno.  

  18. Squilibri demografici e scarsità di risparmio nell'economia mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ALESSANDRINI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is twofold. First, the possible links between the feared decrease of the formation of savings and the strong territorial imbalances that characterised the demographic evolution are examined. Second, the authors aim to demonstrate that it makes sense to address the problem of lack of savings in the global economy above all if it is seen in relative terms, comparing it with the specific investment needs that must be met in order to mitigate economic and demographic imbalances. Attention is focused on a specific and particularly significant aspect of the problem: that of the relationship between family savings and optimal accumulation of human capital at different stages of economic development and population growth. The authors conclude that more than a problem of absolute world savings scarcity, there is a predominant redistributive problem, in the face of a marked economic and demographic dualism that takes on a worrisome destabilising potential.  JEL Codes: E21, J24, O16Keywords: savings, family savings, human capital, economic growth

  19. La strategia del questioning nell'interazione dialogica: verso una definizione di continua pragmatico-funzionali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Alfano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This work investigates the Questioning strategy within dialogical speech, considered the prototypical verbal interaction. In order to implement this communicative strategy, speakers need to take care of different kinds of aspects: information exchange involves interpersonal aspects as well as the propositional content connected with the specific communicative aims (in our case, the solution of the task-oriented dialogue. Therefore, we present an analysis considering these two levels in which interlocutors cooperate: an interactional and relational level, as well as a task-oriented level. These aspects are obviously related to idiosyncratic characteristics of each speaker and depend on social, cultural, relational and situational factors too. In spite of all this variability, we present some functional-pragmatic continua as a valid and accurate interpretation key of the dynamics of the Questioning strategy. They reflect  two different and often opposite forces acting simultaneously: on the one hand, the need to communicate a specific message to reach a common goal and, on the other hand, the effort to maintain the relationship with the interlocutor.

  20. Urban growth modeling to predict the changes in the urban microclimate and urban water cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, W.; Denekew, H.B.; Pathirana, A.; Brdjanovic, T.; Zevenbergen, C.; Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of urban growth on the exposure, sensitivity but also as a driver of flooding are often underexposed. Yet, the rate of current urbanization is unprecedented and might increase future flood risk dramatically. To gain insight in this issue, a study on urban development has been perfor

  1. Urban Growth Modeling to Predict the Changes in the Urban Microclimate and Urban Water Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, W.; Denekew, H.; Pathirana, A.; Brdjanovic, D.; Zevenbergen, C.; Bacchin, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of urban growth on the exposure, sensitivity but also as a driver of flooding are often underexposed. Yet, the rate of current urbanization is unprecedented and might increase future flood risk dramatically. To gain insight in this issue, a study on urban development has been perfor

  2. Programma di insegnamento della lingua italiana nelle scuole secondarie della Polonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kozik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In Polonia, a partire dal 2009/2010, i docenti della scuola pubblica possono utilizzare manuali didattici per l’insegnamento delle lingue solo se approvati dal Ministero e accompagnati da un programma. Il lavoro svolto da D. Kozik ha l’obiettivo, partendo dal manuale  Affresco Italiano,  di essere guida e strumento per la pianificazione di percorsi e la produzione di attività didattiche per l’insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano LS. Per la stesura sono stati presi in considerazione  sia le indicazioni del Quadro Comune Europeo di riferimento sia i suggerimenti  di alcuni sillabi per l’italiano L2/LS e da questo confronto è nato uno strumento flessibile e rigoroso che il Ministero polacco ha approvato. La versione integrale in lingua polacca è a disposizione in Intenet e sarà presto pubblicata.   Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} As from 2009/2010, state-school teachers in Poland are not permitted to use language-teaching textbooks unless they have been approved by the Ministry and are accompanied by a programme.  Starting out from the textbook Affresco Italia,  D. Kozik’s work aims to become a guide and a tool for planning learning routes and for the production of learning/teaching activities for

  3. Indagine retrospettiva sul fenomeno del suicidio nelle diverse regioni italiane nel periodo 1993 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ventura Spagnolo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Il tasso dei suicidi viene considerato un importante indicatore dello stato di salute di una collettività. Osservando le caratteristiche e le forme adottate nella realizzazione dell’insano gesto, è possibile delineare un quadro delle principali aree a rischio, raccogliendo informazioni utili a comprendere meglio l’atto suicidiario. Sulla base di queste premesse utilizzando i dati ISTAT abbiamo condotto un’analisi retrospettiva riguardante gli anni 1993- 2002. Abbiamo considerato genere, età, modalità, movente.

    È stato effettuato un confronto fra le diverse regioni: nord, centro e sud calcolando il PYLL, il tasso x 100.000 abitanti, il tasso percentuale. Nel periodo considerato il fenomeno è aumentato con lenta e sistematica progressione. A livello regionale è la Lombardia a registrare il maggior numero di casi (17,5%, seguita dal Piemonte (10,8%, dall’Emilia Romagna (9,5% e dal Veneto (8,6%, osservando però i tassi di suicidio per 100 mila abitanti è il Friuli a presentare il tasso più elevato (13,8, seguito dall’Umbria (12 e dalla Liguria (11,4.

    Interessante è la differenza tra il tasso di suicidi delle regioni del Nord rispetto a quelle del Centro e del Sud: il Nord presenta un tasso superiore a quello medio nazionale (9,3 contrariamente al Sud (5,1. La fascia di età più colpita è quella 18-30 anni per le donne e 31-45 per gli uomini. Al primo posto ci sono i suicidi motivati dalla depressione (15,2% seguiti da quelli per motivi passionali (12,1%, economici (9,8% e disoccupazione (6,3%. Le modalità di suicidio più frequente: impiccagione (29,8%, armi da fuoco (22,3% e precipitazione (15,2%.

  4. Sostenibilità e mercati nelle teorie del benessere e del comportamento dei consumatori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Menghini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the market and sustainable development is strictly linked with the comparison between the private interests, direct towards the economic growth, and the public interests, orientated instead towards the maximization of the public welfare, according to a vision of development which considers not only the economic growth, but also the environmental and social preservation. As part of this comparison, it has to be taken into account the failure of the market, because of information asymmetries and the presence of certain elements, such as public goods and externalities, that are fundamental for the achievement of sustainability but not allocated by markets. In the paper the evolution of food demand is examined, highlighting the significant changes in the consumer behavior, linked with the post-modern tendencies and the modern vision of well being. In the face of this new demand characterized by more responsible consumers, on the other side, the supply has the opportunity to improve its competitiveness by adopting strategies of diversification, with the ideal extension of the boundaries of the farms from a conventional towards a multifunctional agriculture. Through the description of these dynamics of supply and demand, it is highlighted that such an extension of the ideal boundaries of farms can provide an opportunity to create synergies between the objectives of competitiveness of the primary sector with the public expectations of sustainability: this is possible thanks to the reduction of the market failure due to the expansion of farm boundaries, through which certain public goods and externalities, that agriculture produces, become productive resources for the same farms, contributing to expand the assortment of goods and/or increase their quality and, consequently, increase the revenues of farms.

  5. Rapporti tra opera e fruitore nelle origini dell’installazione sonora (1900–1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert, Giacomo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One feature that defines sound installation as a genre is the participation of the user. Upon entering the space of a work, the user assumes an active role. Thereby the work takes on a theatrical and formative dimension: an art initially defined through space reveals its temporality. This essay analyzes the theatrical dimension, that is, the "modal structure," of works up to 1967, the first period of the sound installation genre. Both interactive and non-interactive works are considered. The analysis shows various models of theatricality for the first years of the genre, during which a diversity of origins and genealogy is reflected. What is common to these experiments is that they seek to involve the viewers, a strategy whose roots lie in the aesthetics and experiments of the first half of the twentieth century, but which since 1955 has become conspicuous.Ein Merkmal, das die Klanginstallation als Gattung definiert, ist die Beteiligung des Zuschauers an dem Werk: Er nimmt, nachdem er in den Raum des Werkes eingetreten ist, eine aktive Rolle an. Das Werk erhält dadurch eine theatralische und erfahrungsgestaltende Dimen­sion, eine zunächst über den Raum definierte Kunst erschließt die Zeitlichkeit. Dieser Beitrag analysiert die theatralische Dimension, das heißt die "modale Struktur" der Klanginstallationen aus der ersten Periode der Gattung bis 1967 (sowohl interaktive, als auch nicht-interaktive Werke. Die Analyse zeigt verschiedene Modelle von Theatralität für die ersten Jahre der Gattung, welche die Vielfältigkeit der Wurzeln der Gattung spiegeln. Gemeinsam ist diesen Experimenten, dass sie die Beteiligung des Zuschauers anstreben: eine Strategie, dessen Ursprünge in der Ästhetik und in den Experimenten der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts liegen, aber seit 1955 deutlich hervortritt.

  6. Monitoraggio virologico dellíinfluenza in Emilia Romagna nellíinverno 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Affanni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: è stata organizzata su base regionale la sorveglianza virologica dell’influenza, al fine di verificare la comparsa e diffusione di virus influenzali nella popolazione ed individuare eventuali nuove varianti.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza si è basata sulle segnalazioni di ILI (influenza like illness da parte di 28 medici sentinella distribuiti in diverse città della regione (Parma, Modena, Ravenna, Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, Piacenza; la raccolta dei campioni, iniziata nella quarantaseiesima settimana del 2002, si è protratta fino alla diciassettesima settimana del 2003. I virus isolati in cellule MDCK (e/o PCR sono stati identificati con reazioni di IEA e quindi inviati all’ ISS per una più precisa caratterizzazione antigenica. Risultati: dai 220 tamponi faringei eseguiti sono stati isolati 49 ceppi virali (pari al 22,3%; di questi 39 sono risultati essere H3N2, 8 H1N1, ed 1 di tipo B; uno dei virus isolati è risultato appartenere al nuovo ceppo H1N2 recentemente isolato in altre aree del mondo. Cinque dei virus isolati provenivano da soggetti vaccinati.

    Conclusioni: per quanto le segnalazioni di ILI siano iniziate precocemente nella stagione, il primo isolamento virale ed il picco di massima circolazione dei virus sono risultati tardivi in Emilia Romagna (rispettivamente: 5° e 10° settimana 2003. L’epidemia influenzale, sia come segnalazioni di ILI sia come isolamenti virali, non ha raggiunto i livelli degli anni precedenti (1,2. Nel corso della stagione hanno circolato, tra gli H3N2, diversi tipi e varianti virali di ceppi antigenicamente correlati ai virus A/New York/55/01 e A/Panama/2007/99. Tranne un caso tutti i virus sono stati isolati in giovani adulti confermando dati provenienti da altre regioni.

  7. "You Are a Part of the Solution": Negotiating Gender-Based Violence and Engendering Change in Urban Informal Settlements in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Proshant; Daruwalla, Nayreen; Jayaraman, Anuja; Pantvaidya, Shanti

    2016-08-04

    This article explores how women front-line workers engage with domestic and gender-based violence in the urban informal settlements of Dharavi in Mumbai, India. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 voluntary front-line workers, along with ethnographic fieldwork in Dharavi, as a part of a pilot study. Our findings contribute to literature on context-specific approaches to understanding gender-based violence and "models" to prevent domestic violence in urban micro-spaces. Furthermore, we also discuss notions of "change" (badlaav) that the front-line workers experience. Finally, this article presents implications for socially engaged ethnographic research, as well as contextual and grounded insights on ways to reduce gender-based and domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. [Urban ecosystem services: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.

  9. US studies of the pediatric thymus; Valutazione ecografica del timo nell'eta' pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamasi, S.; Rossis, E.; Carbone, M.; Amodio, F.; Mattace Raso, M.; Brunese, L.; Ciccarelli, R.; Vallone, G. [Naples Univ. Federico II, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali, Servizio di Radiologia

    2000-05-01

    The thymus is a linphoepithelial organ located mostly in the anterior mediastinum and, for a smaller part, in the neck. The gland is particularly developed in the fetus and in children, while it shrinks in young adults following an involution process. It has been investigated the US appearance of the thymus in normal pediatric subjects to gather information for use in pediatric patients with suspected thymus conditions, using a safe, irradiation-free, technique. It has performed a US examination of the anterior mediastinum and the neck in 30 children (14 males and 16 females) ranging in age 6 months to 11 years. It was used a Sonora Logic 700 MD General Electric's unit with 7.5-13 MHz linear probes and acquired transverse and longitudinal scans on the chest wall and the neck, integrated with intercostal scans. The thymus had the same echogenicity as the liver parenchyma in 22 children (73.3%), lower echogenicity in 2 (6.6%, age range 6-12 months) and higher echogenicity with heterogenous structure in 6 children (20%, age range 8-11 years). The gland was in central and symmetric localization in 20 children (66.6%) while it exhibited a slight deviation leftwards in 7 (23.3%) nd rightwards in 3 children (10%). It was considered as normal the following values: in the right lobe 1.4 cm for the AP diameter and 2.5 cm for the longitudinal one; in the left lobe, 1.4 cm for the AP diameter and 2.9 cm for the longitudinal one. Radiological studies of the thymus are really difficult to perform because the gland is extremely variable in size, extension and page. The thymus has the same echogenicity as the liver parenchyma and lower echogenicity than the thyroid parenchyma. It has believed that US is an effective technique for studying the thymus in all its involution stages and that provides similar information to CT and MRI. Also, US does not use radiations and needs no sedation, which improves safety for young patients. [Italian] Il timo localizzato prevalentemente nel

  10. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Holly; Davey, Adam; Fisher, Jennifer O; Polonsky, Heather; Sherman, Sandra; Abel, Michelle L; Dale, Lauren C; Foster, Gary D; Bauer, Katherine W

    2016-03-01

    Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions. The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households. A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure. Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security. Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be

  11. MRI with SPIR sequences of optic nerve lesions; Utilita' delle sequenze 'Selective Partial Inversion Recover' (SPIR) nelle mallattie del nervo ottico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierallini, A.; Piattella, M.C.; Polli, N.S.A.; Bonamini, M.; Angeloni, U. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche. Cattedra di Neuroradiologia e Istituto di Oftalmologia. Servizio di Radiologia; David, V.; Bozzao, L. [IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    To evaluate the yield of SPIR sequences with fat suppression in the diagnosis of optic nerve lesions. T1 and T2 weighted fat suppressed SPIR imaging of the optic nerve improves anatomical definition, lesion detection and characterization in optic nerve conditions. [Italian] L'articolo analizza i vantaggi ricavabili dall'utilizzazione delle sequenze SPIR nella documentazione del decorso del nervo ottico e delle sue alterazioni nei pazienti con sospetto clinico e strumentale di malattia retrobulbare. L'utilizzo delle sequenze SPIR consente ottimale visualizzazione del nervo ottico e delle sue eventuali alterazioni senza gli artefatti che limitavano la qualita' delle immagini nelle prime sequenze RM con soppressione del segnale del grasso.

  12. La valutazione della ricerca nelle Scienze umane: uno studio empirico sulle principali liste di riviste di Storia e filosofia della scienza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piazza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo si concentra sull’uso di liste di riviste per la valutazione della ricerca nell’ambito delle Scienze umane e in particolare nel settore di Storia e filosofia della scienza. A un panorama delle principali problematiche inerenti l’uso delle liste di riviste con particolare attenzione alle iniziative di valutazione della ricerca in Italia segue uno studio che ha messo a confronto le liste di riviste ERIH, Norwegian list, CIRC e ANVUR. Nelle conclusioni vengono proposte considerazioni sull'uso delle liste di riviste per la valutazione della ricerca del settore considerato, anche in relazione al dibattito internazionale originato dal Manifesto di Leiden, e alcune riflessioni sui database internazionali e gli strumenti in uso nel sistema della valutazione scientifica in Italia.

  13. Raggiungimento degli obiettivi vaccinali nell'integrazione dei servizi sanitari aziendali: igienisti, pediatri e medici di famiglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cinquetti

    2003-05-01

    la seguente griglia di competenze/responsabilità: Servizi Vaccinali (afferenti funzionalmente/gerarchicamente ai Dipartimenti di Prevenzione: costituiscono il momento organizzativo ed operativo del programma vaccinale definito dall’Autorità Regionale.

    Curano l’approvvigionamento e la custodia dei vaccini, garantiscono il counselling prevaccinale, effettuano le vaccinazioni obbligatorie e raccomandate,
    curano il sistema informativo (anche in riferimento alle segnalazioni di reazioni avverse.

    Pediatri di Libera Scelta: costituiscono un anello fondamentale della catena organizzativa del sistema
    vaccinale, ovviamente in riferimento alla parte del
    programma inerente l’età evolutiva. Il loro coinvolgimento
    nella definizione dei programmi vaccinali deve avere carattere formale (devono essere inseriti nelle Commissioni Vaccinazioni nazionale, regionali e delle singole Aziende Sanitarie. Le decisioni strategiche sulla materia devono ottenere il consenso della categoria.

    Dal punto di vista operativo costituiscono
    compiti specifici dei Pediatri di Libera Scelta:
    la presentazione ai genitori dei nuovi nati del programma vaccinale, la verifica di eventuali controindicazioni
    all’immunizzazione (da segnalare al Servizio Vaccinale, la sorveglianza delle reazioni avverse. Medici di Medicina Generale: rappresentano la modalità più razionale per l’effettuazione di campagne vaccinali di massa su soggetti adulti ed anziani (esempio specifico la campagna di vaccinazione antinfluenzale, che richiede la somministrazione di enormi numeri di vaccino in poche settimane.
    Questo ruolo operativo dei Medici di Famiglia dovrebbe essere inserito in un più ampio pacchetto di interventi coordinati di prevenzione e di promozione della salute (collaborazione ai programmi di screening, prevenzione del tabagismo e dell’alcolismo, prevenzione dei traumi stradali, ecc..

  14. Maremoto nell'universo

    CERN Multimedia

    Valsecchi, Maria-Cristina

    2002-01-01

    It seemed only a different signal. But the anomaly, registered both by the Nuclear Physics Institute in Rome and the CERN in Geneva may hide something else: the first disclosure of gravitational waves (4 pages)

  15. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...... of urban architecture be developed? This research project attempts to answer these questions through a discourse on theories and methods and the development of "dialogue methods" by which professionals can learn about residents' perception of the urban architecture of their area, thus achieving a better...

  16. E – urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and tele-communication technology are increasingly affecting life and employment. According to predictions, more than 80% of all business operations will be carried out electronically through so called e-business. Recently even in Slovenia discussions have begun on “e-government”. Despite desired or undesired control, virtual networks are changing urban systems into e-urban systems. The extent of benefits to the public also depend on planners. The article presents concepts with the signature “e” to describe urban systems, day-to-day life, real-estate and simulation.

  17. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  18. Migrant Workers: Urban Underclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ACCORDING to official statistics, there are now 130 million (equivalent to half the American population) migrant workers in Chinese cities. This means that China has more migrant than urban workers, and that they constitute the main Chinese industrial workforce.

  19. China's urban transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in urban patterns in Shanghai-Nanjing, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Canton-Hong Kong, and Dalian-Shenyang. The urban patterns in these metropolitan areas are viewed as part of an urban transition that is responding to population growth, a structural shift in employment, relaxed rules on migration and household registration, and foreign investment and trade. It is argued that these metropolitan coastal areas will form the key growth centers and will lead China's economic development. Urban transition is defined as the shift from rural to urban and from agricultural employment to industrial, commercial, or service employment. China's large cities always dominated as important centers of politics and trade. The recent shift is from interior to coastal cities due to a new world view and a movement away from the isolationism of prior centuries. It is assumed that cities are formed to take advantage of economies of scale in production, consumption, and distribution and to conform to regional specialization. Governments can intervene in growth processes. China's development of cities reflects state controls and market forces. The size and scale of China's population influenced the development process, which resulted in differences in the shape and process of the urban transition. It was under Chinese communism that cities became more than a set of discrete regional urban systems. Reference is made to Oshima's model of change that is specific to monsoon countries. Oshima argues that monsoon agricultural conditions require a distinct strategy based on full employment in order to achieve industrial transition. Rice cultivation requires a large and disciplined labor force. The discussion focuses on other models as well, such as the McGee's model of the extended metropolis and its extension by Zhou Yixing to China. China's changes may not follow Skeldon's models of urbanization in developing countries, because of state control of migration

  20. Monitoring of pesticides and nitrates on water, soil and agricultural production in the Bracciano lake district; Monitoraggio di pesticidi e nitrati nelle acque, suolo, e prodotti agricoli nel bacino del lago di Bracciano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffarelli, V.; Correnti, A. [ENEA, Div. Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Cecchini, G.; Frugis, A.; Segatori, M. [WRc Italia SpA, Gruppo ACEA, Centro di Ricerca e Sviluppo, Rome (Italy); Conte, E.; Milani, R.; Morali, G. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Rome (Italy); Ciampi, G. [Agenzia Regionale per l' Innovazione e lo Sviluppo in Agricoltura del Lazio, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Bracciano Lake district, in actuation of the 2081/93 EEC, obj. 5b, a study was carried out, aimed to the realisation of a territorial informative system and supply technical support to the farmers for phyto pathological problems. A monitoring program has been realized for pesticide and nitrate in environmental samples and agricultural products. Five hundred and sixteen samples have been collected and analysed, from march 1999 to October 2000: 191 samples of water (ground and surface water), 20 samples of soil, 340 samples of agricultural products (vegetables and fruit). Pesticides were found in irrigation water and soil samples; the irregularities on agricultural products, 3% could disappear if the treatments are correct and respect the label indications. [Italian] In attuazione del regolamento 2081/93 ECC ob.5 b, nel bacino del lago di Bracciano, e' stato realizzato uno studio mirato alla realizzazione di un sistema informativo territoriale e a fornire un supporto tecnico per la gestione della difesa fitosanitaria della produzione agricola. Una campagna di monitoraggio e' stata realizzata per l'analisi della presenza di pesticidi in campioni ambientali e nei prodotti agricoli. Sono stati prelevati e analizzati 516 campioni nel periodo marzo '99. Ottobre 2000: 191 campioni di acque superficiali e di falda, 20 campioni di suolo, 340 campioni (frutta e vegetali). Pesticidi sono stati ritrovati nelle acque di irrigazione e nel suolo; la presenza di irregolarita' riscontrate nel 3% dei prodotti agricoli, e' da attribuire a un uso non corretto dei prodotti fitosanitari.

  1. Urban Agriculture, Commons and Urban Policies: Scaling up Local Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available May urban agriculture be the cornerstone that helps reconfigure more sustainable cities and if so, under which conditions? And if so, what type of urban agriculture? Such are the two issues underlying this article. Why not counteracting urban sprawl by fostering what could be called “rural sprawl”, by introducing nature and rural characteristics such as farming within the city, in its interstitial areas and wastelands? In this perspective, urban agriculture becomes a common good, bringing people together and reshaping the whole urban fabric that would eventually propose a radical remaking of the urban. Urban agriculture lends particularly well to long-lasting urban policies, especially those turning environmental “bads”—such as brownfields and wastelands—into environmental “goods” and urban amenities. Urban agriculture in interstitial abandoned urban areas may be one of cities’ main seedbeds of creative innovation. It is all about the right to decide and the power to create, renewing and deepening what Henri Lefebvre called The Right to the City.

  2. Urban Fields in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    A recent study of transportation and urban structure in a larger Danish city concludes that the location vis-à-vis attractions far beyond the city borders, has a detectable bearing on the inhabitants transport patterns inside the city. This indicates a high degree of functional integration between...... cities and accentuates the concept of the ?urban field? suggested by John Friedmann (1978). The concept of ?urban field? suggest that mobility has been democratizised and increased to a level where several cities can be part of the same functionally integrated urban field. As a consequence...... the significance of the single urban centre and the city as an entity will change markedly. This paper aims to analyse the development towards urban travel- and commuter fields in Denmark. The question asked is to what degree urban fields are emerging? ? And what is the speed of this development....

  3. Introducing Urban Cultural Heritage Management into Urban Planning Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    properties existing in human settlements such as historic cities, districts, town, villages, relics, buildings and structures, as well as landscapes, which could demonstrate the history of an area and the people who live there from generation to generation. Regarding that the spatial layout and the land-use arrangement of these urban cultural heritages are included in urban plan-ning management, the management of these urban cultural heritages should also be a part of urban planning management. Therefore, based on the comparison of the concepts, urban cultural heritage management could be regarded as a kind of integrated management that combines cultural heritage management and urban planning management. 2. Relationship between two kinds of managementAs the contents of urban cultural heritage expanding, especially being more rela-tive to the historic buildings in cities, the object of urban cultural heritage manage-ment has been increased, among which the overlapped part with that of urban planning management is becoming bigger and big-ger, resulting in the even closer relationship between the two kinds of management.

  4. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  5. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably......In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... shows the impact of urban stormwater infiltration on the groundwater flux in an area in the south of the Netherlands. To relate the different results from the three studies an analogy is introduced with the human body. The combination of problems results in a so-called urban hang-over. It is shown...

  6. An empirical research of urbanization and urban-rural gap in China:1952-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are two important problems of urban-rural relationship in China nowadays:the accelerated urbanization process and an enlarged urban-rural gap.The researchers can be divided into two schools according to their emphasis.One emphasizes particularly the urban development,and the other pays attention to the urban-rural inncome gap.However,there is a very strong association between urbanization rate and urban-rural inequality.As far as it goes,there is a paradox between urbanization and urban-rural inequality in China.This main reason lies in the different temporal and spatial scales chosen by the scholars.Making use of correlative analysis and wavelet method,this paper rethinks and sums up the commonly evolving characteristics and trends between urbanization ard urban-rural gap from 1950s to now.There is an intensively positive correlation between urbanization and urbanrural consumption gap.In general,with the acceleration of urbanization,urban-rural gap of China has undergone three stages of cyclical fluctuations.The rapid urbanization results in the increase of urban-rural inequalities,so it is highly risky.In addition,the special stage of urbanization is the other reason that expands" urban-rural gap.

  7. Urban Health in Tanzania: Questioning the Urban Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levira, Francis; Todd, Gemma

    2017-06-01

    How are health inequalities articulated across urban and rural spaces in Tanzania? This research paper explores the variations, differences, and inequalities, in Tanzania's health outcomes-to question both the idea of an urban advantage in health and the extent of urban-rural inequalities in health. The three research objectives aim to understand: what are the health differences (morbidity and mortality) between Tanzania's urban and rural areas; how are health inequalities articulated within Tanzania's urban and rural areas; and how are health inequalities articulated across age groups for rural-urban Tanzania? By analyzing four national datasets of Tanzania (National Census, Household Budget Survey, Demographic Health Survey, and Health Demographic Surveillance System), this paper reflects on the outcomes of key health indicators across these spaces. The datasets include national surveys conducted from 2009 to 2012. The results presented showcase health outcomes in rural and urban areas vary, and are unequal. The risk of disease, life expectancy, and unhealthy behaviors are not the same for urban and rural areas, and across income groups. Urban areas show a disadvantage in life expectancy, HIV prevalence, maternal mortality, children's morbidity, and women's BMI. Although a greater level of access to health facilities and medicine is reported, we raise a general concern of quality and availability in health services; what data sources are being used to make decisions on urban-rural services, and the wider determinants of urban health outcomes. The results call for a better understanding of the sociopolitical and economic factors contributing to these inequalities. The urban, and rural, populations are diverse; therefore, we need to look at service quality, and use, in light of inequality: what services are being accessed; by whom; for what reasons?

  8. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...... discursive perceptions of the concept would foster greater insight into and understanding of both the challenges and potentials that it represents. It focused on some of the key themes currently facing cities and the urban: the transformation of the city and our built environment; migration; rural decline......; the interaction between city, architecture, and inhabitants; the role of architects and architecture in the creation of democratic and sustainable urban contexts; the city and its representation; the politics of intervention; and the actions of governing and developing. This proceedings publication from...

  9. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  10. Revisiting Urban Dynamics through Social Urban Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achilleas Psyllidis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of dynamic spatial and social phenomena in cities has evolved rapidly in the recent years, yielding new insights into urban dynamics. This evolution is strongly related to the emergence of new sources of data for cities (e.g. sensors, mobile phones, online social media etc., which have potential to capture dimensions of social and geographic systems that are difficult to detect in traditional urban data (e.g. census data. However, as the available sources increase in number, the produced datasets increase in diversity. Besides heterogeneity, emerging social urban data are also characterized by multidimensionality. The latter means that the information they contain may simultaneously address spatial, social, temporal, and topical attributes of people and places. Therefore, integration and geospatial (statistical analysis of multidimensional data remain a challenge. The question which, then, arises is how to integrate heterogeneous and multidimensional social urban data into the analysis of human activity dynamics in cities? To address the above challenge, this thesis proposes the design of a framework of novel methods and tools for the integration, visualization, and exploratory analysis of large-scale and heterogeneous social urban data to facilitate the understanding of urban dynamics. The research focuses particularly on the spatiotemporal dynamics of human activity in cities, as inferred from different sources of social urban data. The main objective is to provide new means to enable the incorporation of heterogeneous social urban data into city analytics, and to explore the influence of emerging data sources on the understanding of cities and their dynamics. In mitigating the various heterogeneities, a methodology for the transformation of heterogeneous data for cities into multidimensional linked urban data is, therefore, designed. The methodology follows an ontology-based data integration approach and accommodates a variety of

  11. Urban Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The catalogue is one of the results of a small taught course at teh Aarhus School of Architecture. The course was offered to bachelor students and was specific focused on harvesting materials in an urban context and on building with waste.......The catalogue is one of the results of a small taught course at teh Aarhus School of Architecture. The course was offered to bachelor students and was specific focused on harvesting materials in an urban context and on building with waste....

  12. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  13. Sustainable Urban Biophilia: The Case of Greenskins for Urban Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Revell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure ameliorates the urban heat island effect, contributes positively to liveability and enables sustainability in higher density urban environments. Greenskins (living architectures are a more specific form of green infrastructure, including green walls and green roofs, for dense urban areas. These offer a new approach for sustainable urban biophilia and some forms can be built using the ecological design principles of constructed wetlands. The paper compares findings from two urban centres in warm Mediterranean climates. In general from Adelaide, South Australia and more specifically from university collaborative projects on particular technical and social parameters necessary to sustain Greenskins in dense urban conditions in Fremantle, Western Australia. Results from trials of a prototype greywater Greenskin using vertical constructed wetland cells are reported. Through an experimental investigation of designing living green walls in urban Fremantle, this paper challenges the conventional “triple-bottom-line” approach to sustainable dense urban systems by addressing the greater aesthetic needs of sustainability and its thinking. Here landscape aesthetics looks to the collaborative fields of urban design, environmental engineering and landscape architecture to design new urban biophilic experiences and restorative landscapes for regenerative cultural pleasure, ecological responsibility, environmental stewardship and intellectual gain.

  14. Defining Urban and Rural Regions by Multifractal Spectrums of Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns correlated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on a generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanism. The census data of America and China are used to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is a normative study rather than a positive study, and it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  15. The cosmopolitan contradictions of planetary urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Gareth

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the empirical, conceptual and theoretical gains that can be made using cosmopolitan social theory to think through the urban transformations that scholars have in recent years termed planetary urbanization. Recognizing the global spread of urbanization makes the need for a cosmopolitan urban sociology more pressing than ever. Here, it is suggested that critical urban sociology can be invigorated by focusing upon the disconnect that Henri Lefebvre posits between the planetarization of the urban - which he views as economically and technologically driven - and his dis-alienated notion of a global urban society. The first aim of this paper is to highlight the benefits of using 'cosmopolitan' social theory to understand Lefebvre's urban problematic (and to establish why this is also a cosmopolitan problematic); the second is to identify the core cosmopolitan contradictions of planetary urbanization, tensions that are both actually existing and reproduced in scholarly accounts. The article begins by examining the challenges presented to urban sociology by planetary urbanization, before considering how cosmopolitan sociological theory helps provide an analytical 'grip' on the deep lying social realities of contemporary urbanization, especially in relation to questions about difference, culture and history. These insights are used to identify three cosmopolitan contradictions that exist within urbanized (and urbanizing) space; tensions that provide a basis for a thoroughgoing cosmopolitan investigation of planetary urbanization.

  16. Foresighted urban planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Bardauskienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania is urbanized country, about 70 % of poluation lives in urban areas. Curent urbanization is organized  by the new territorial planning law, which came into force in 1995. New system was applied on the developing market and democracy conditions, why it is not fully developed till nowadays. New urban planning and management system are rapidly changing the spatial patterns of Lithuania. How much those changes are foresighted in transformation process towards sustainable development? What actions are needed and whom participation is necessary to avoid the influence of current trends? The analyses of demographic trends and the Master plans of Lithuanian metropolitan cities and suburban municipalities shows unconformity to the existing social and economical trends. While the population is decreasing the huge need of land for new developmet had been planned. The spread of urban structures to the rural areas had raised the need and price of infrastructure and public services, it induced inhabitants dependence from own cars, enhanced environment pollution and consumption of energy resources. Current EU policy documents and the expert organizations the suburbanization are describing as „urban sprawl"which does not meet the principles of sustainable development [1,2,3,6]. Urban sprawl is a matter of concern in Europe, but only few cities (notably in Northern Europe are coping well. The sprawl in cities of Eastern Europe iliustrate the developmet of "free for all" of 1990 and impact of transition from socialist to free-market economy with its effect on local economies, social patterns and planning system. [4]. The growth of suburbanization, when the local economy and population decline, in Lithuania had occurred not long ago, urban dictionaries do not include the precise equivalent for the term above. Local specialists call it as "urban chaos" or "spread of compact urban structures", etc. [5]. The contributors think the guide for the foresighted

  17. Hospital effluents are one of several sources of metal, antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial markers disseminated in Sub-Saharan urban rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Laffite

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the occurrence of emerging biological contaminants such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB in aquatic environments in Sub-Saharan African countries is limited. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance remains a worldwide problem which may pose serious potential risks to human and animal health. Consequently, there is a growing number of reports concerning the prevalence and dissemination of these contaminants into various environmental compartments. Sediments provide the opportunity to reconstruct the pollution history and evaluate impacts so this study investigates the abundance and distribution of toxic metals, FIB, and ARGs released from hospital effluent wastewaters and their presence in river sediments receiving systems. ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and aadA, total bacterial load, and selected bacterial species FIB (E. coli, Enterococcus (ENT and Pseudomonas species (Psd were quantified by targeting species specific genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR in total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from 4 hospital outlet pipes (HOP and their river receiving systems in the City of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The results highlight the great concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching the values (in mg kg-1 of 47.9 (Cr, 213.6 (Cu, 1434.4 (Zn, 2.6 (Cd, 281.5 (Pb, and 13.6 (Hg. The results also highlight the highest (P˂0.05 values of 16S rRNA, FIB, and ARGs copy numbers in all sampling sites including upstream (control site, discharge point, and downstream of receiving rivers, indicating that the hospital effluent water is not an exclusive source of the biological contaminants entering the urban rivers. Significant correlation were observed between (i all analyzed ARGs and total bacterial load (16S rRNA 0.51 to 0.72 (p<0.001, n=65; (ii ARGs (except blaTEM and FIB and Psd 0.57 < r < 0.82 (p<0.001, n=65; and (iii ARGs (except blaTEM and toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Cu

  18. Urban land grab or fair urbanization? : Compulsory land acquisition and sustainable livelihoods in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Quang, P.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization often goes hand in hand with a growing demand for housing, urban infrastructure and other facilities that are necessary for sustainable urban development. This has created numerous pressures on land, especially in peri-urban areas where land, traditionally used for agriculture, is still

  19. Urban land grab or fair urbanization? : Compulsory land acquisition and sustainable livelihoods in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Quang, P.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization often goes hand in hand with a growing demand for housing, urban infrastructure and other facilities that are necessary for sustainable urban development. This has created numerous pressures on land, especially in peri-urban areas where land, traditionally used for agriculture, is still

  20. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  1. Towards a sustainable urban transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Cappellaro, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Never as today the discourse about uncertainty is permeating and affecting traditional paradigms of urban planning. Predictable futures are no longer possible, sufficient to understand it in the long term and adequate. If the future looks uncertain, the debate on sustainable development has...... contributed to render the situation even more complex and planning practitioners are now navigating between an unclear perception of future risks and the hope for results and visions for long-term perspectives of urban futures. Among scholars engaged in the study of sustainable transitions in urban areas...... the challenges for planning urban transitions with an analytic based on how professional practitioners actually think and reflect on a set of projects in view of integral urban planning actions in Bologna. Through a critical reading of transition studies in urban contexts and a dialogue with policy actors...

  2. Un progetto per l'attivazione di Agenda 21 Locale: monitoraggio della mammalofauna nell'area del Parco Regionale del Monte Cucco (Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mazzei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nell?ambito del progetto ?Attivazione Agenda 21 Locale? finalizzato alla realizzazione di studi per la certificazione e contabilizzazione ambientale, nel Parco Regionale del Monte Cucco, si è dato il via, a partire dal novembre del 2001, ad un?indagine di tipo qualitativo, mirata alla caratterizzazione dell?area Parco per quel che riguarda la presenza di specie di Mammiferi appenninici di interesse conservazionistico e naturalistico. Nel periodo che va dall?8 febbraio 2002 al 5 ottobre dello stesso anno, sono stati effettuati 16 transetti faunistici, distribuiti nell?arco delle quattro stagioni. Sono stati raccolti indici di presenza di 11 specie di Mammiferi appartenenti agli ordini degli Artiodattili, Carnivori, Lagomorfi, Insettivori e Roditori e i relativi IKA (indici chilometrici di abbondanza. I dati raccolti unitamente ad una ricognizione bibliografica, mirata a reperire informazioni pregresse e aggiornate sulla teriofauna locale, attraverso inoltre, l?effettuazione di interviste e il coinvolgimento della popolazione locale, hanno portato alla definizione di una Check-list della Mammalofauna del Parco, rappresentativa per il 56% di quella della Regione. La ricerca ha permesso di confermare per l?area la presenza del Lupo (Canis lupus e di evidenziare l?espansione a Sud del Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus. Parte integrante del progetto ?Cucco 21? era la definizione di proposte gestionali volte a migliorare il rapporto uomo-ambiente, laddove fossero state individuate situazioni di criticità oggettive o potenziali, in un?ottica di conservazione della risorsa naturale e di sviluppo delle attività antropiche. Significativi a tale proposito sono stati il caso del Cinghiale (Sus scrofa con l?osservazione del danno alle fitocenosi, soprattutto ai prati e pascoli cacuminali e del Capriolo. Per quest?ultima specie in funzione della sua espansione verso la parte meridionale del Parco, sono state avanzate delle

  3. Sorveglianza attiva prospettica delle infezioni ospedaliere nelle unità di terapia intensiva: studio multicentrico e proposta di una rete italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sodano

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: la proposta di attivare una rete di sorveglianza delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO nelle Unità di Terapia Intensiva (UTI, preceduta da uno studio multicentrico di sei mesi, ha i seguenti obiettivi: 1 sorveglianza attiva prospettica, secondo un protocollo elaborato sul modello del National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS System degli USA; 2 caratterizzazione epidemiologica dei microrganismi associati alle IO identificate durante la sorveglianza.

    Metodi: il GISIO individuerà un gruppo di coordinamento centrale ed eventuali referenti periferici con le specifiche funzioni di: a elaborare un protocollo operativo per l’attuazione della sorveglianza, con l’obiettivo principale di costruire gli indicatori previsti dal NNIS System per la componente UTI; b formare il personale addetto alla rilevazione dei dati e alla validazione dei casi d’infezione; c allestire un foglio elettronico per l’input dei dati, curarne l’elaborazione e la restituzione ai centri partecipanti; d individuare il laboratorio che effettuerà la tipizzazione dei ceppi, mediante Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, e curare l’analisi dei risultati, integrandola con quella relativa alla sorveglianza attiva prospettica. Risultati: lo studio consentirà la costruzione dei tassi di IO per categorie cliniche omogenee di rischio, in modo da rendere possibili confronti nel tempo e nello spazio. I ceppi microbici associati alle IO, collezionati dalle UTI partecipanti, verranno identificati in cloni distinti (pulsotipi mediante criteri internazionali. Per le specie microbiche più rappresentative verrà eseguita l’analisi filogenetica per descrivere le correlazioni genetiche ed epidemiologiche tra i diversi stipiti, con l’obietivo di identificare eventuali cluster.

    Conclusioni: il progetto del GISIO risponde all’esigenza di un confronto a livello nazionale, attraverso la creazione di una sorta

  4. Biomonitoring of tropospheric ozone in the Pistoia district (Tuscany, Italy); Biomonitoraggio dell`ozono troposferico nell`area pistoiese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toncelli, Maria Letizia [Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento `S. Anna`, Pisa (Italy); Lorenzini, Giacomo [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose. Sez. Patologia Vegetale; Corsini, Adelmo [ARPAT, Pisa (Italy). Unita` Operativa di Biotossicologia

    1997-04-01

    The distribution of surface ozone was monitored in the summer 1995 in the Pistoia district (Tuscany, Italy) using vascular plants as biological indicators. The leaf injury index of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 plants allowed to evaluate the distribution of ozone effects, in spite of the absence of any automatic analyser. Fairly homogeneous phytotoxic levels of ozone were found in all the monitoring sites, located in urban, suburban and remote areas, indicating the possibility of medium-long range transport of polluted air masses, No symptoms were detected on resistant tobacco Bel-B plants.

  5. Strategic analysis on urban mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Tiago Duarte de Carvalho Brojo

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics African urban cities are growing very rapidly. By 2050, 1.2 billion people, or 60 percent of all Africans, will live in urban areas.1 We are witnessing an unprecedented pace of urbanization in Africa and we have seen similar movements in other continents before. This report presents a strategic and broad analysis on the problem of urban m...

  6. L'uso del doppiaggio e del sottotitolaggio nell'insegnamento della L2: Il caso della piattaforma ClipFlair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupe Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The purpose of this paper is to present the Clipflair project, a web platform for foreign language learning (FLL through revoicing and captioning of clips. Using audiovisual material in the language classroom is a common resource for teachers since it introduces variety, provides exposure to nonverbal cultural elements and, most importantly, presents linguistic and cultural aspects of communication in their context. However, teachers using this resource face the difficulty of finding active tasks that will engage learners and discourage passive viewing. ClipFlair proposes working with AV material productively while also motivating learners by getting them to revoice or caption a clip. Revoicing is a term used to refer to (rerecording voice onto a clip, as in dubbing, free commentary, audio description and karaoke singing. The term captioning refers to adding written text to a clip, such as standard subtitles, annotations and intertitles. Clips can be short video or audio files, including documentaries, film scenes, news pieces, animations and songs. ClipFlair develops materials that enable foreign language learners to practice all four standard CEFR skills: writing, speaking, listening and reading. Within the project’s scope, more than 350 ready-made activities, which involve captioning and/or revoicing of clips, has been created. These activities has been created for more than 16 languages including English, Spanish and Italian, but focus is placed on less widely taught languages, namely Estonian, Greek, Romanian and Polish, as well as minority languages, i.e. Basque, Catalan and Irish. Non-European languages, namely Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Ukrainian are also included. The platform has three different areas: The Gallery offers the materials and the activities; the Studio area, offers a captioning and revoicing tools, in order to create or practice and learn languages by using the activities; the Social Network area

  7. Computational Design of Urban Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wonka, Peter

    2015-10-07

    A fundamental challenge in computational design is to compute layouts by arranging a set of shapes. In this talk I will present recent urban modeling projects with applications in computer graphics, urban planning, and architecture. The talk will look at different scales of urban modeling (streets, floorplans, parcels). A common challenge in all these modeling problems are functional and aesthetic constraints that should be respected. The talk also highlights interesting links to geometry processing problems, such as field design and quad meshing.

  8. Challenges of urbanization and peri-urban development in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation has arguably been the most significant process of land use change in Europe since Second World War. Over 70% of Europe's population now lives in urban areas, which in turn, have grown in area by almost 80% over the last fifty years (EEA 2006). Urban areas cover approximately five per...... percent of the territory of the European Union (EU25), and are growing more than twice as fast as the European population. A general consequence of the urbanisation trend and increasing wealth and mobility is urban sprawl, as well as the emergence of peri-urban areas....

  9. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    to design, which promises further from the level of analysis in relation to the development of strategic regeneration where place with its many dimensions play a vital role. The model can be used as a strategic tool in relation to designing how projects can be handled in the network. The network model.......How does changing rationales for urban projects and urban discourses correspond with changed economic con- ditions and the narratives associated with this? In what ways does social change, broadly considered, affect place perceptions and planning discourses? Three case studies about urban projects...... rationale’. The Kennedy Arcade which opened in 2004, consisting of a hub for public transport combined with a shopping and cinema centre and offices, is a representative of a project run by a ’mobility rationale’. Finally Nord- kraft, a former heat and power station converted into a culture house which...

  10. Urbane spil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssing, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    PhD afhandling: 1: Urbane spil 2: [brand TILST] - den nye forstad. 3: 6400:Kollision - udstilling på Sønderborg Slot 2001 4: 4: [0.2:Kollision] - Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling 2002 5: Havnen på spil - debatten om de bynære havnearealer i Århus 2002-2004 Manual - uddybet guide til PhD-projektet......PhD afhandling: 1: Urbane spil 2: [brand TILST] - den nye forstad. 3: 6400:Kollision - udstilling på Sønderborg Slot 2001 4: 4: [0.2:Kollision] - Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling 2002 5: Havnen på spil - debatten om de bynære havnearealer i Århus 2002-2004 Manual - uddybet guide til Ph......D-projektet Urbane spil Se også www.urbanespil.dk...

  11. Urban Jamification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2013-01-01

    with the game space through solving location-based tasks about the countries’ history and culture. By exploring the history of Brazilian gincanas and how they have evolved through the spread and appropriation of mobile technologies, this article addresses two main research questions: (1) how mobility...... and the configuration of urban space influence the design and performance of location-based mobile games; and (2) how the urban and socio-economic context of developing countries, specifically Brazil, shape mobile technology appropriation and location-based mobile game design. We demonstrate that urban spaces can...... convey a multiplicity of performances, encompassing a vast arrange of applications, ranging from education and philanthropic to marketing oriented....

  12. Urban structure, energy and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    these cities go ahead when it comes to their national climate and energy policies and aim to establish urban planning as an instrument to regulate and influence the city’s transition in a sustainable way. At the same time, the cities are constantly facing goal conflicts and limitations to their scope of action......Transforming energy use in cities to address the threats of climate change and resource scarcity is a major challenge in urban development. This study takes stock of the state of energy in urban policy and planning and reveals potentials of and constraints to energy-efficient urban development....... The relationship between energy and urban structure provides a framework for discussing the role of urban planning to increase energy efficiency in cities by means of three in-depth case studies of medium-sized cities in Northern Europe: Eskilstuna in Sweden, Turku in Finland and Tartu in Estonia. In some ways...

  13. Towards a sustainable urban transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Cappellaro, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Never as today the discourse about uncertainty is permeating and affecting traditional paradigms of urban planning. Predictable futures are no longer possible, sufficient to understand it in the long term and adequate. If the future looks uncertain, the debate on sustainable development has......, the ‘systeminc thinking’ has irrupted in town. A new vocabulary of ‘the city’ as a systemic and functional hub of technology, economy, and social organization has replaced an integral view on the urban complexity. This article returns back to the urban as an integral project. It aims to contribute understanding...... the challenges for planning urban transitions with an analytic based on how professional practitioners actually think and reflect on a set of projects in view of integral urban planning actions in Bologna. Through a critical reading of transition studies in urban contexts and a dialogue with policy actors...

  14. Densification Versus Urban Sprawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Coppola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urban sprawl that consumes land and don’t create urban quality is definitely one of the most serious crisis in the territory, historically became from the American model of the CBD (Central Business District associated with dense and low-density suburbs boundless, achievable through the use of the car, which extended the size of the city - the shape and extension of American cities would be inconceivable without the car. A model that has spread to Europe after World War II, implemented in a very wide range, from the policy of the Grand ensembles in French to the several models of New Towns in Britain.In Italy, municipalities and governments, from different scales, had to do a choice: let advancing evolution spontaneous, sometimes wild, of employment land or prevented a proliferation of the city and to plan the development. After the Second World War, urban development is under the control of the plans (Milan, Rome, Naples.The '80s and '90s have seen the urban planning trend in the dispersion as urbanized countryside and urban sprawl. Even today we witness the phenomenon that the municipalities dramatically urbanized always new agricultural areas to cash related expenses of urbanization (which does not receive if re-building in existent areas.The demolition and rebuild seems less convenient to consume new agricultural land, hardly ever accepted the idea of reusing sites in favor of the environment and quality of life. The same policy of "smart-growth", in the '90s, are systems of rules designed to reduce suburban sprawl.Yet the recovery of degraded areas to build dense and modern buildings seem the only option to go, but unfortunately is not convenient enough.The densification can represent a policy to counter urban sprawl that consumes land and don't create urban quality and that is -no doubt-one of the most serious crisis in the territory. The return of the theme of the density to determine a  control of building to ensure better

  15. Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Donald C; Kark, Salit

    2010-04-01

    In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in urban versus nonurban landscapes? The answer should depend on the goals that drive our conservation actions, yet proponents of urban conservation often fail to specify the motivation for protecting urban biodiversity. This is an important shortcoming on several fronts, including a missed opportunity to make a stronger appeal to those who believe conservation biology should focus exclusively on more natural, wilder landscapes. We argue that urban areas do offer an important venue for conservation biology, but that we must become better at choosing and articulating our goals. We explored seven possible motivations for urban biodiversity conservation: preserving local biodiversity, creating stepping stones to nonurban habitat, understanding and facilitating responses to environmental change, conducting environmental education, providing ecosystem services, fulfilling ethical responsibilities, and improving human well-being. To attain all these goals, challenges must be faced that are common to the urban environment, such as localized pollution, disruption of ecosystem structure, and limited availability of land. There are, however, also challenges specific only to particular goals, meaning that different goals will require different approaches and actions. This highlights the importance of specifying the motivations behind urban biodiversity conservation. If the goals are unknown, progress cannot be assessed.

  16. Urban Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Siegfried Kracauer’s seminal essay “Das Ornament der Masse” of 1927 is widely known for its analysis of the so-called Tiller Girls as an expression of Taylorism in modern culture. But “Das Ornament der Masse” is first of all a program for the critical intellectual in the age of mass culture....... Kracauer’s essay may even provide a conceptual basis for critical studies of modern urbanity. Yet one has to establish a clear distinction between culture industry (e.g. the Tiller Girls) and urban culture. In everyday life as well as in Kracauer’s writings about it, the sphere of city culture may...

  17. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-03-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t- and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.

  18. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  19. Agricultural land loss in China's urbanization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoyun; Cai Yinyin; Zhu Daolin; Zhang Anlu

    2006-01-01

    In China, urbanization of agricultural land around city agglomerations increases rapidly. Rapid urbanization of agricultural land affects food supply, land value and ecological balance in the society. In China, the urban builtup area had increased by 40% from 1996 to 2003. This increase came predominantly from farmland surrounding the cities. How the ongoing urbanization of China affects its agricultural land is the focus of this paper. In current studies, we have found that population density; urbanization degree and personal income are key factors that influence the urbanization process. Based on this, relation model has been established and to predict the general trends of the urban area expansion in China in 2020. In 2020, the constructed urban area of China would be increased by 1.3 times compared with 2003. In 2020, this study anticipates the conversion of about 32, 562 sq. km. agricultural land of China for urban use.

  20. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  1. L'atteggiamento interlinguistico nell'ares-altoatesina e italo-albanese (Interlinguistic Attitudes in the Alto Adige and Italian Albanian Areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiriglio, Giuseppe

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the psychological or sociopsychological problems of two bilingual areas in Italy: The Alto Adige area and the Italian-Albanian area. The extremely important role of interlinguistic attitudes in attaining and maintaining bilingual status is explored. (92 references) (CFM)

  2. Urban Spaces and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Grazia De Paoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of vulnerability understood in the traditional sense as a “single manufactured good” is insufficient when it comes to describing the real conditions of an urban system’s vulnerability within which an indefinite variable of factors interact with one another thereby determining the damage caused by an earthquake. These interacting factors constitute so-called “urban vulnerability” which town planners use in order to contribute to the field in the form of analysis definition and interventions in the mitigation of seismic risk on an urban scale. The research paper “Relational Spaces as Safe Places” positions itself firmly in the vein of town planning research which focuses on the mitigation of seismic risk, and which intends to blaze a new methodological trail that aims to identify safety traits in urban spaces. The research paper’s starting point is the assumption that empty urban spaces, given the indications provided by the principal organs for Civic Protection, have come to be seen as the spaces designed to accommodate the public in cases of emergency. This can generate new thought regarding town planning by reviewing early post-earthquake urban designs where the rules were laid out for earthquake-proof cities: a “chessboard” plan with wide streets, both straight and perpendicular, empty spaces like squares and markets positioned along the longitudinal streets, and buildings with regular layouts all at right-angles. These simple guidelines, which are often disregarded and distorted in modern towns, are extraordinarily relevant and oriented towards new definitions of the urban traits of quality and security.

  3. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  4. The urban forest and ecosystem services: impact on urban water, heat, and pollution cycles at the tree, street, and city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. J. Livesley; E. G. McPherson; C. Calfapietra

    2016-01-01

    Many environmental challenges are exacerbated within the urban landscape, such as stormwater runoff and flood risk, chemical and particulate pollution of urban air, soil and water, the urban heat island, and summer heat waves. Urban trees, and the urban forest as a whole, can be managed to have an impact on the urban water, heat, carbon and pollution cycles. However,...

  5. GIS and Urban Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are a kind of location intelligence technology that supports systematic collection, integration, analysis and sharing of spatial data. They provide an effective tool for characterising and visualising geographical distributions of recyclable resources or materials dispersed across urban environments in what may be described as “urban mines”. As logistics can be a key barrier to recycling, GIS are critical for capturing and analysing location intelligence about the distribution and values of recyclable resources and associated collection systems to effectively empower and inform the policy makers and the broader community with comprehensive, accurate and accessible information. This paper reviews the functionality of modern GIS, discusses the potential role of GIS in urban mining studies, and describes how GIS can be used to measure, report, analyse and visualise the spatial or geographical characteristics of dispersed stocks of recyclable waste and their collection and recovery systems. Such information can then be used to model material flows and assess the social and environmental impacts of urban mining. Issues and challenges in the use of GIS for urban mining are also to be addressed.

  6. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020” (NNUP. NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive suggestions for the achievement of sustainable new urbanization. A three-level index system which is based on six fundamental elements in a city and a Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator evaluation method are adopted. The results show that China is undergoing a new urbanization process with a low level of sustainability and there are many problems remaining from traditional urbanization processes. There exists a polarized phenomenon in the urbanization of 20 urban agglomerations. Based on their own development patterns, the 20 urban agglomerations can be divided into seven categories. Every category has its own development characteristics. The analyses also show that waste of water resources, abuse of land resources, and air pollution are three big problems that are closely linked to traditional Chinese urbanization processes. To achieve sustainable new urbanization in China, four relevant suggestions and comments have been provided.

  7. Urban Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Bermúdez, Juan Carlos Carvajal; Fernández, Manu;

    This book is an effort to explore the newly emerging field of urban interaction design that addresses these issues. In the first part of the book, 'Foundations', we look into its origins. Where do its practitioners come from? How are they working together? What methodologies do they bring...... to the table? What are the key concepts they are addressing in their work? In the second part of the book named 'Trends', we go into current developments in the networked city and how urban interaction design as a field addresses these. Taken together, these sections will not give the definite definition...

  8. Urban Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Bermúdez, Juan Carlos Carvajal; Fernández, Manu

    This book is an effort to explore the newly emerging field of urban interaction design that addresses these issues. In the first part of the book, 'Foundations', we look into its origins. Where do its practitioners come from? How are they working together? What methodologies do they bring...... to the table? What are the key concepts they are addressing in their work? In the second part of the book named 'Trends', we go into current developments in the networked city and how urban interaction design as a field addresses these. Taken together, these sections will not give the definite definition...

  9. Defining Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Hristić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban legends are friend-of-a-friend stories (FOAFS that are told to describe strange, but supposedly real events, when in fact they are fictional through word of mouth invention or distortion. There is usually a true element to the legend, but it becomes fictional as it is passed from one person to the next. Core elements in most urban legends remain similar, but the details of the story can differ from one milieu to the next. In the following paper focus is brought upon the naming, and subsequent debaurban legends, folklore tes that emerged in this, par excellence folklore genre.

  10. Urban Agrarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kerry A.

    1996-01-01

    Chicago's High School for Agricultural Sciences is a popular and successful urban school devoted to agriculture. This agriculturally focused high school features a tough academic curriculum and hands-on learning designed to prepare the predominantly Black and Hispanic student body for college and careers in agriculture. (SM)

  11. Urban Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssing, Tobias; Nielsen, Rune

    2004-01-01

    Gennem udviklingen af en række spilprototyper, undersøges nye arbejdsmetoder for fremtidens arkitekter indenfor planlægning og design. Områder som borger/brugerinddragelse, informationsvisualisering, interaktion mellem fysiske og digitale artefakter og processtyring. Udviklingen af spillene, Urban...

  12. Urbanization and the wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Fink, Günther

    2008-02-01

    The proportion of a country's population living in urban areas is highly correlated with its level of income. Urban areas offer economies of scale and richer market structures, and there is strong evidence that workers in urban areas are individually more productive, and earn more, than rural workers. However, rapid urbanization is also associated with crowding, environmental degradation, and other impediments to productivity. Overall, we find no evidence that the level of urbanization affects the rate of economic growth. Our findings weaken the rationale for either encouraging or discouraging urbanization as part of a strategy for economic growth.

  13. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  14. High resolution urban morphology data for urban wind flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionco, Ronald M.; Ellefsen, Richard

    The application of urban forestry methods and technologies to a number of practical problems can be further enhanced by the use and incorporation of localized, high resolution wind and temperature fields into their analysis methods. The numerical simulation of these micrometeorological fields will represent the interactions and influences of urban structures, vegetation elements, and variable terrain as an integral part of the dynamics of an urban domain. Detailed information of the natural and man-made components that make up the urban area is needed to more realistically model meteorological fields in urban domains. Simulating high resolution wind and temperatures over and through an urban domain utilizing detailed morphology data can also define and quantify local areas where urban forestry applications can contribute to better solutions. Applications such as the benefits of planting trees for shade purposes can be considered, planned, and evaluated for their impact on conserving energy and cooling costs as well as the possible reconfiguration or removal of trees and other barriers for improved airflow ventilation and similar processes. To generate these fields, a wind model must be provided, as a minimum, the location, type, height, structural silhouette, and surface roughness of these components, in order to account for the presence and effects of these land morphology features upon the ambient airflow. The morphology of Sacramento, CA has been characterized and quantified in considerable detail primarily for wind flow modeling, simulation, and analyses, but can also be used for improved meteorological analyses, urban forestry, urban planning, and other urban related activities. Morphology methods previously developed by Ellefsen are applied to the Sacramento scenario with a high resolution grid of 100 m × 100 m. The Urban Morphology Scheme defines Urban Terrain Zones (UTZ) according to how buildings and other urban elements are structured and placed with

  15. Stormwater quality characteristics in (Dutch) urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans van de Ven; Jeroen G. Langeveld; ir. Floris Boogaard; Nick van de Giesen

    2014-01-01

    Stormwaters, flowing into storm sewers, are known to significantly increase the annual pollutant loads entering urban receiving waters and this results in significant degradation of the receiving water quality. Knowledge of the characteristics of stormwater pollution enables urban planners to

  16. Paradox and Controversy of Urban Design Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Along with the incredible "explosive" urban development, Chinese cities are suffering from lots of urban problems, such as space disarray, environment deteriora-tion and cultural-heritage destruction.

  17. Urban transportation: Perspectives on mobility and choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor); Arnold, G. R.; Bird, J. W.; Brooks, C. M. (Editor); Cobb, W. E.; Cross, J. E.; Darby, L. F.; Erb, N. H.; Ficht, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of urban transportation systems are presented characterized by intensive scrutiny of many ideas, philosophies, and academic perspectives. This report is intended to communicate some dimensions of the urban transportation problem to the general public.

  18. Urban land planning in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the capitalization, urban land management and planning routine have been explored. The focus dwells on the praxis and urban planning perspectives as a link and means for realizing the public interest in space and the role of 'urban transplants' as a lever of urban development. It has also been pointed to a certain discrimination of the property status and property rights through the category of 'public interest', which is articulated by way of urban planning. The unfairness of the existing planning system towards private property and 'taxation' of entrepreneurial activities is evident, especially in urban land use i.e. installing the height of the land rent. It is expected that urban planning is competent upon the background of societal democratization, privatization and introduction of market institutions where the perspectives shift towards democratic transformation, the regulatory role and protection of property rights and different actors’ interests in using urban land. The conclusion is that changes in the management of urban land are required with recommendations to consider public-private sector partnerships.

  19. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  20. Urban energy planning in Eskilstuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian

    as an important instrument for sustainability. Urban densification and urban connectivity to transport routes facilitated by public transport are the two main principles. Policies of sustainability are of ‘second-order’ as compared to the economic driven changes of the urban system. A prime ‘first......-order’ development is regional enlargement synonymous with increased transport. Second-order policies are modal split initiatives aiming at public rather than private transportation facilitated by infrastructure and infrastructure lead urban development. The largest amount of energy consumption is in the sectors...... as a stakeholder of energy initiatives towards the general public. The efficiency of the first is very high, due to an omnipresence of ‘sustainability thinking’. The total effect of the latter is, however, much larger, due to the size of the arena. Principles of urban development are generally acknowledged...

  1. Performative Urban Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne; Jensen, Ole B.

    The paper explores how performative urban architecture can enhance community-making and public domain using socio-technical systems and digital technologies to constitute an urban reality. Digital medias developed for the web are now increasingly occupying the urban realm as a tool for navigating...... using sensor technologies opening up for new access considerations in architecture as well as the ability for a local environment to act as real-time sources of information and facilities. Starting from the NoRA pavilion for the 10th International Architecture Biennale in Venice the paper discusses...... couple relationships between architecture, humans and society. These performative relationships between digital and physical environments are seen as illustrative of the social production of space by performance and the creative production of identity. The paper reflects on the perspectives...

  2. Performative urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the background of contemporary life, i.e., the urban teoretical and analytical framework that shows the nee for a pluralistic and open city life. possibilities for developing performative places and spaces for social and cultural exchange will be suggested. The article...... for establishing 'open -minded' urban spaces and public domains. In the fifth section, I present and define a series of analytical concepts related to the experience city's stages and cultural projects. The article ends with a short conclusion and recapitulation....... is divided into 6 sections. it begins by addressing ongoing development in the modern city. In section two a number of sociological discussions of urban life are presented, viewed as 'gemeinschaft' and 'gesellschaft', respectively. In section three and four, these concepts are related to strategies...

  3. Gwangju Urban Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The book is a reflective representation of students work in Studio Context Spring 2016 at Aarhus School of Architecture conserning the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. The design works are considered to be genetic urban acupuncture, which is intended to develop over time.......The book is a reflective representation of students work in Studio Context Spring 2016 at Aarhus School of Architecture conserning the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. The design works are considered to be genetic urban acupuncture, which is intended to develop over time....

  4. Nineteenth-century transnational urban history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2016-01-01

    contributions to urban history in a transnational perspective are analysed. Approaches to urban planning history that focus on transnational linkages and international organization are discussed. Approaches to urban history within enlarged geographical scales that go beyond the nation-state framework...

  5. Review on Urban GHG Inventory in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yang; Yan, Li; Jiangang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization progress of China, a study on an urban GHG inventory is of great significance. However, related studies in China are still in the exploratory stage. This paper firstly introduces three major urban GHG inventory accounting methods and related issues with regard to Chinese cities, and then reviews the published studies of urban GHG inventories in China in the past few years. Methodology frameworks, gas types, emission scopes, geographical boundaries are examined and ...

  6. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide applications for disinfection by-products control in drinking water; Applicazioni con ozono e perossido di idrogeno per il controllo dei sottoprodotti di disinfezione nelle acque potabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, C.; Sorlini, S. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile; Colombino, M. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua, Genoa (Italy); Riganti, V. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Generale

    2001-04-01

    A great interest has been developed during the last years for ozone in drinking water treatments thanks to its strong oxidant and disinfectant power and for its efficiency in disinfection by-products (DBPs) precursors removal. However ozonization produces some specific DBPs, such as aldehydes and ketones; moreover, the presence of bromide in raw water engages ozone in a complex cycle in which both organic bromide and inorganic bromate are end products. In this paper the combination of hydrogen peroxide with ozone (known as peroxone process) and the ozone alone process were experimented on one surface water coming from the lake of Brugneto (Genova) in order to investigate bromate formation and trihalomethanes precursors removal during the oxidation process. The results show that the advanced peroxone process can be applied for bromate reduction (about 30-40%) with better results in comparison with the ozone alone process, while no advantages are shown for THMs precursors removal. The addition of in-line filtration step after pre-oxidation improves both bromate and THMs precursors removal, particularly with increasing hydrogen peroxide/ozone ratio in the oxidation step. [Italian] Un notevole interesse e' stato mostrato di recente per l'utilizzo dell'ozono nei trattamenti di potabilizzazione sia per il suo forte potere ossidante e disinfettante sia per la capacita' di rimuovere alcuni precursori di formazione dei sottoprodotti di ossidazione (OBPs). Tuttavia, anche l'ozono puo' produrre a sua volta alcuni specifici sottoprodotti, quali aldeidi e chetoni; inoltre, la presenza di bromuro nell'acqua grezza coinvolge l'ozono in una serie di reazioni che portano alla formazione di composti organici bromurati e di sottoprodotti inorganici, i piu' noti tra i quali sono i bromati. In questo articolo vengono presentati i risultati di alcuni trattamenti di ossidazione convenzionali a base di ozono combinato con perossido di idrogeno

  7. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  8. The urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    Since the majority of the population of Nordic countries, and indeed most of Western Europe, reside in towns and cities, decontamination and reclamation of urban areas must figure prominently in nuclear accident contingency planning. If clean-up is to be both efficient and cost-effective a number of factors must be taken into account. They are: distribution of the deposited radionuclide(s) on the various urban surfaces (roofs, soil, walls, roads etc.); radiation levels on the various surfaces; attenuation of radiation through shielding by urban structures (e.g. walls); habits of the populace with respect to time spent indoors and outdoors and time spent on various floors within buildings typical of particular urban complexes; decontamination by natural processes, described as weathering (which includes rain, traffic, routine cleaning); diminution in radiation levels through radioactive decay; decontamination achievable by artificial means. Of all the radioactive materials which might be released in the event of a severe accident, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs would present the greatest radiation hazard to the populace of a contaminated urban complex in both the medium and long-term. (EG). 27 refs.

  9. Designing a New Urban Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauren

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web site design and information architecture in light of principles of New Urbanism that are being applied in urban planning situations. Topics include networked electronic environment design; user-centered network design; multidisciplinary approaches; knowledge access and collaboration; and the Global Information Infrastructure…

  10. Parametric Thinking in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    the application of complex and expensive technolo- gies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban de- sign. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and para- metric thinking to urban design forms the argument...

  11. Identity, Inequality, and Happiness: Evidence from Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shiqing; Lu, Ming; Sato, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of income inequality on the subjective wellbeing of three different social groups in urban China. We classify urban social groups according to their hukou status: rural migrants, gborn h urban residents, and gacquired h urban residents who had changed their hukou identity from rural to urban. We focus on how the income disparity between migrants and urban residents affects individual happiness. The main results are as follows. People feel unhappy if inequality i...

  12. Unsustaineble pseudo-urban consequences of legal and urban terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimović Velimir Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City planning is a complex task and through this work we face the space and natural resources that expose the exploitation (that are to be exploited and prone to unsustainable change. Often without environmental responsibility and the imperative of creating certain measures we make superstructure no matter how much the environment may be disrupted, and whether such relationships create a better society, better network of urban settlements and a better man. At that may also affect our knowledge which is often due to a variety of doctrines and legislative regulations that are applied in the planning and management space. From this it can be seen that modern architecture did not contribute to the creation of better cities. Also, urban planning is mainly restricted to the regulation and it neglected the creative action, regional-planning is lost in theoretical research, while the consideration of the whole problem is abandoned. In addition to this, in today’s transitional terms and the domineering (dominant urban crisis unsustainable combination and identification of the “2D” and the “3D” terminology is recognizable, which is only indicators that in the field of urban planning some transitional trends are prevailing. This unsustainable state of affairs in the transitional planning of urban areas can be applied in the most suitable way to pseudo-urbanization, sub-urbanization, unbalanced eco-reciprocity, non-standard construction of the urban tissue, discontinuity inherited and newly constructed urban substance. In this regard, consequently expressed negative environmental legacy of reproduction and the increased effect of the negative consequences of greenhouse gases from the threatening climate change, only shows that urban planners are not sinless and, they more or less (unconsciously complicit and participate in the contamination of urban and environment. In the end, it definitely guides us to the need to leave or transformation of the

  13. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  14. Urban FIFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandby, Michael Williams; Szatkowski, Magnus K.; Petersen, Jonas L.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of Urban FIFA, which explores the idea of bringing elements from the FIFA video game into a physical setting and how this affects the game experience. The design was realised by taking three core elements from FIFA15™; the game setup, the scoreboard....... Moreover, our study suggests several future design opportunities and warrants further research on the effects of augmenting social sports with content and techniques appropriated from video games....

  15. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C

    1997-01-01

    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."

  16. Urban Design and Spatial Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    During the last century, the motorized vehicles have been preponderant in the streets. However, the emergence of the debate about sustainability and its relation to the urban environment has influenced urban designers to rethink the role of the streets and their spatiality. Pedestrians and cyclists...... are gaining space not only for move to a specific destination, but also space in which to play and stay. Taking in consideration the formal structure of our cities, streets are critical to urban transformation and strategic to restructure the urban flows and the quality of urban life. This chapter aims...... to explore and discuss the shared spatiality as a design strategy to enhance street life and non motorized modes of transportation. This research is part of a project titled Bikeability – funded by the Danish Research Council. The overall purpose of the Bikeability project is to investigate and document...

  17. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C., E-mail: christopher.kennedy@utoronto.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pincetl, S.; Bunje, P. [Institute of the Environment, UCLA, CA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities. - This paper presents a chronological review of urban metabolism studies and highlights four areas of application.

  18. Separating Citizenization and Land Requisition: New Urbanization in Beijing’s Rural-Urban Fringe Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui; Xianghua; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    Through rapid urbanization, Beijing is entering into the advanced stage of industrialization and urbanization, while it, like many other cities, is faced with issues of low-quality urbanization and citizenization. Under the infl uences of both urbanization and suburbanization, the sprawling rural-urban fringe area becomes a tough issue to resolve. The reconstruction of 50 key villages in Beijing’s rural-urban fringe area that was started in 2010 has initially changed the citizenization-land requisition coupling model through recombining land use right, household registration, and social security to make farmers become new-type citizens with land use right. The practice in Beijing reveals that the fringe issues are caused by the new and old dual structures which are formed as a result of the urban-rural dual land system, and that the path to new urbanization in China is to separate citizenization from land requisition, so as to achieve the transformation towards a proactive urbanization.

  19. Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeman Mohammed Rehan

    2014-08-01

    Urban branding is a new approach toward urban development of sustainable cities. City branding, a novel aspect of urban communication, improves marketing of the city image in various ways by converting the visual image of the city into a brand image. Unique characteristics of the city are featured and a sustainable urban image is created. This paper will focus on city branding as a powerful image-building strategy. In this realm, the branding of Stuttgart, Germany, serves as a successful model of a branding strategy. Next, branding of the city of Port Said, Egypt, will be explored. The principal aim of this paper is to describe how cities become branded; how branding succeeds; and how a viable city image is created. This paper reviews the methods used to brand cities, and concludes by emphasizing the importance of urban branding in terms of sustainability.

  20. Pollution and the efficiency of urban growth

    OpenAIRE

    Quaas, Martin F.; Smulders, Sjak

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the efficiency of urbanization patterns in a dynamic model of endogenous urban growth with two sectors of production. Production exhibits increasing returns to scale on aggregate. Urban environmental pollution, as a force that discourages agglomeration, is caused by domestic production. We show that cities are too large and too few in number in equilibrium, compared to the efficient urbanization path, if economic growth implies increasing aggregate emissions. If, on the other hand,...

  1. Planning instruments to control urban growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2010-01-01

    It is challenging to plan and control urban development in peri-urban areas. But if no planning is done, the result will often be unsustainable, including widespread, dispersed and uncoordinated urban growth. Spatial planning based on zoning remains the most important planning instrument and its...... success depend on regional coordination. Incentive based instruments may contrbute to growth management, but only few examples are available and their effects on urban growth patterns yet to be seen....

  2. Urban Sociology. Curriculum Bulletin. Grade 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

    The focus of the urban sociology teaching guide for grade 12 is on the effect of urbanization upon four of the major social institutions: familial, governmental, economic, and educational. An overall educational objective is to prepare students for developing rational solutions to problems confronting urban society. Objectives are stated in…

  3. Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

    Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially…

  4. Smart Mobility Stakeholders - Curating Urban Data & Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the curation of urban data and models through engaging SMART mobility stakeholders. SMART Mobility Urban Science Efforts are helping to expose key data sets, models, and roles for the U.S. Department of Energy in engaging across stakeholders to ensure useful insights. This will help to support other Urban Science and broader SMART initiatives.

  5. The Production of Urban Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John

    2012-01-01

    It is widely recognised that large urban centres exhibit significant and enduring patterns of educational inequality. This paper explores the social production of urban educational space. In particular, it argues that since these patterns are geographical, it will be useful to revisit the emergence of an "urban crisis" in education and…

  6. Chromium and heavy metals diffusion in soil and plants in S. Croce-Castelfranco central Italy; Indagine sulla diffusione del cromo e di altri metalli pesanti nel terreno e nelle piante della zona di Santa Croce-Castelfranco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strati, S. [Florence (Italy). CNR, Ist. Patologia Alberi Forestali; Paoletti, E.; Barbolani, E. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Scienza Suolo Nutrizione Pianta

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence of heavy metals in a tannery-polluted area, with special reference to: 1) the interaction between the amount in the upper layer of the soil (15 cm) and the concentration in the plants; 2) the distribution of heavy metals in roots, stems and leaves of the sampled plants (Populus spp. and Convolvolus arvensis). As the main tanning agent contents chromium, our attention was focused on this element, even if Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd were also investigated. The results show: the absence of a high grade pollution by heavy metals in soils and plants, a positive correlation between chromium concentration and pH in soil; a higher concentration of heavy metals in the roots, with the exception of Mn, which is present in the same contents in leaves and roots; a higher values of lead in the plants sampled near the areas with the heaviest vehicular traffic. The possible use of Convolvolus arvensis as a purifier of contaminated soils was discussed. [Italiano] I metalli pesanti sono ubiquitari in tracce nei suoli e nella vegetazione, ma sono andati progressivamente diffondendosi durante l`era industriale (Freedman e Hutchinson, 1981). Pur potendo seguire numerose vie di diffusione nell`ambiente, il metallo presente nei terreni puo` essere assorbito dall`apparato radicale e trasportato nelle parti aeree delle pinte (Zoetti, 1985). Il presente studio si propone di fornire un quadro conoscitivo sul contenuto dei metalli pesanti (in particolare il cromo, principale costituente dei tannici sintetici) nella zona di S. Croce e Castelfranco (nota anche come vallata del comprensorio del cuoio) e sull`interazione tra quantita` presente nel terreno e quantita` rilevata nelle piante soprastanti ripartita tra radici, foglie e rami.

  7. [Research progress on urban green space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Hong-Yuan; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-Lin

    2007-07-01

    Nature, diversity, and openness are what we demand from urban green space in the 21st century. Based on the summary of urban green space connotation, types and significance, this paper reviewed the research hotspots of urban green space, i.e., conservation and planning of urban-rural fringe, restoration and preservation of natural areas and indigenous vegetation, ecological restoration and planning of green way, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem structure and services, and management policy. The difference between foreign and domestic urban green space researches and practices were summarized, and some preferential urban green space research aspects in the future were proposed. It was suggested that in China, urban green space strategy should be integrated into urban planning and land use planning.

  8. Causality Between Urban Concentration and Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population is concentrated in urban areas can cause the external diseconomies on environment if it exceeds the carrying capacity of the space and the urban economy. Otherwise the quality of the environment is getting better, led to the concentration of population in urban areas are increasingly high. This study aims to analyze the relationship of causality between the urban concentration and environmental quality in urban agglomeration areas. The data used in the study of secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of statistics and the City Government from 2000 to 2013. The analytical method used is the Granger causality and descriptive. Granger causality study results showed no pattern of reciprocal causality, between urban concentration and the quality of the environment, but there unidirectional relationship between the urban concentration and environmental quality. This means that increasing urban concentration led to decreased environmental quality.

  9. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  10. URBAN EDUCATION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLARK, STEPHEN C.; AND OTHERS

    ANALYSIS OF URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS MAY BE ACHIEVED BY USE OF AN ANALYTICAL MODEL. THE MODEL MAY BE USED IN DECISION-MAKING REGARDING SCHOOL LOCATION, ENROLLMENT, FACILITIES, ORGANIZATION, PROGRAMS AND COSTS. KNOWN DATA SUCH AS MONIES AVAILABLE, STAFF ALLOCATION, AND CURRENT SCHOOL PLANT ARE INTRODUCED INTO THE MODEL. IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE…

  11. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain

  12. Molecular Urban Revolutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    on the brutalist highway Minhocão in Sao Paulo by Muda Coletivo, a reuse center and boxing academy under the highway Glicério in São Paulo, and emergent communicative territories around the infrastructure Teleférico in Complexo do Alemão in Rio de Janeiro, I will look into how urban territories are temporarily...

  13. Ecology in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  14. Better Urban Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Greek philosopher Aristotle once said,"People come to cities for a living,and live in cities for a better life."The Urban Best Practices Area(UBPA)of the World Expo in Shanghai illustrates this year's Expo:For the first time,cities are provided with a chance to participate in the World Expo as independent players.

  15. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  16. Initium sapientiae timor Domini: la problematica presenza dei docenti dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore nelle commissioni di concorso pubblico per l’insegnamento del Diritto ecclesiastico ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Zannotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. Come introduzione – 2. Lo status dei docenti dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – 3. I docenti dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore e l’accettazione del suo orientamento religioso – 4. L’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore nel sistema universitario e la partecipazione dei suoi professori alle commissioni di concorso per l’idoneità alla docenza nelle pubbliche Università – 5. L’oggettività della ricerca scientifica e l’ideologia cattolica.

  17. Un dipinto di Antonio da Faenza per Recanati e il frate "prospettico" Giovanni Antonio da Camerino. Osservazioni sulla fortuna dei maestri romagnoli nelle Marche del '500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coltrinari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo presenta il contratto per la pala dell'altare maggiore della chiesa di San Francesco a Recanati, commissionata ad Antono da Faenza il 12 gennaio 1530. Il documento permette di ampliare le conoscenze sul pittore e architetto faentino, chiarendo il rapporto con il frate Giovanni Antonio da Camerino, esperto di prospettiva e architettura, committente anche delle opere del pittore a Montelupone e di mettere meglio a fuoco l'importanza di Recanati quale centro di contatti per gli artisti attivi nella Marca di Ancona nel primo Cinquecento. La riflessione viene allargata poi alla committenza di Antonio da Faenza e alla presenza nelle Marche del '500 di innumerevoli pittori romagnoli, interpretabile come indicatore di un preciso orientamento di gusto.  The article presents the contract for the altarpiece of the main altar of the church of San Francesco in Recanati, commissioned to Antono from Faenza on 12 January 1530. The document allows us to enlarge knowledge of the painter and architect, clarifying the relationship with friar Giovanni Antonio from Camerino, expert in perspective and architecture, who is also the patron of the painter's works in Montelupone; it also permits to better focus the importance of Recanati as a center of contacts for many artists active in the Marca of Ancona in the early XVI century. The reflection then expands to the patronage of Antonio da Faenza and to the presence in the XVI century Marche of many painters come from Romagna, that we can explain as a precise indicator of a taste orientation.

  18. Quality assessment of urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere - urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

  19. Trends in Urbanization and Implications for Peri-Urban Livelihoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Cynthia

    Urbanization is a common occurrence in both developed and developing worlds. Similar to occurrences in other developing world cities, Accra's urbanization is marked by fast, unplanned and uneven growth into mostly peripheral lands (Grant and Yankson 2002; Yeboah 2001; Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) 2002). Such trends in urbanization in places where data on the urbanization process is seriously inadequate and infrequent, (Rakodi 1997a; Ohadika 1991; Fasona and Omojola 2004) pose a major challenge to urban planning and management (Henderson 2002), and affect the livelihood base of several peri-urban households. Properly monitoring the urbanization process in the developing world and understanding its effects on people's lives depends on the availability of useful and up-to- date data (Weber and Puissant 2003; Mundia and Aniya 2006) that could be obtained using new and robust analytical techniques (Yang 2003). In addition, in the urban environment, differences in rates of urbanization, income, employment status, and gender dynamics across neighborhoods suggest that the impacts of increasing urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are likely to vary across peoples and places. Against this backdrop, this dissertation uses Accra as a case study to, first, measures the nature and extent of urban expansion using a non-conventional technique, and then analyzes neighborhood - and gender-differentiated impacts of increasing urbanization on household livelihoods in peri-urban Accra. Study findings reveal: 1) major conversion of vegetated land to urban lands uses and support the effectiveness of the Self-Organizing Map and Landsat data to map complex and hazy urban tropical environments; 2) that the impacts of urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are structured along the lines of neighborhood-level urbanization; changes brought by a higher rate of urbanization are more beneficial than harmful to household livelihoods; 3) that positive livelihood outcomes in high

  20. Urban Intensification and Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impacts on Urban Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzokwe, V. N. E. N.; Muchelo, R. O.; Odeh, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), urban intensification and expansion are increasing at alarming rates due to rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration. This has led to the premise that the proportion of SSA urban residents most vulnerable to food insecurity is the highest in the world. Using a focused survey and multi-temporal (decadal) land use/cover classification of Landsat images, we explored the effect of urban intensification and expansion on urban agriculture and food security, focusing on a megacity and a regional center in Uganda: Kampala and Mbarara, respectively. We found that food insecurity arose due to a number of reasons, among which are: i) expansion and intensification of of urban settlements into previously productive agricultural lands in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) loss of predominantly young (rural agricultural) adult labor force to urban centers, leading to decline in rural food production; iii) lack of proper urban planning incorporating green and agricultural development leading to low productive market garden systems. We discussed these outcomes in light of existing studies which estimated that urban agriculture alone supports over 800 million people globally and accounts for 15-20% of world food supply. In spite of this relatively low contribution by urban/peri-urban agriculture, it probably accounts for higher proportion of food supply to urban poor in SSA and thus are most vulnerable to the loss of urban and peri-urban agricultural land. Further recommendations require policy makers and urban planners to team up to design a suitable framework for sustainable urban planning and development.

  1. Thinking Together Urban Conservation With Urban Modernization In The Process Of Urban Transformation: The Possibilities Of "Historic Urban Landscape" Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İclal Dinçer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the big cities that are centers of innovation and creativity offer employment and training opportunities for people on the one hand, and are faced to face to uncontrolled urbanization on the other. One of the main problems of these cities is socio-cultural and spatial harmony between urban heritage and new developments. It should be recognized that it is difficult to preserve both the tangible and intangible heritage and sustainable development together with providing the quality of urban life. This article will discuss the "historic urban landscape" concept that is one of the approaches in the long term evolution of conservation and reconstruction of cities. In this evolution process, concepts of urban conservation, environmenta protection, urban archaeology, cultural landscape and the value o cultural heritage for society are the important milestones. Within this approach "historic urban landscape", decision-making processes needs to evolve towards the partnerships of state, market and civil society actors through negotiation and cooperation between them. In the article three examples from Istanbul are examined.

  2. Urban poor program launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  3. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas; Analise da materia organica presente em residues organicos solidos de origem urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos. E-mail: canellas@ufrrj.br; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-07-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted.

  4. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  5. Are We Drowning? Urban Land Subsidence in Thyborøn, Denmark, From Ers-2 and Sentinel-1 Imagery and Precision Leveling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Levinsen, J.; Broge, N.H.; Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    We assess the potential in information on rates of vertical land deformation, which is useful for, e.g., climate change adaptation. The optimal results are obtained from observations with a high spatial coverage, such as those from Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) data...

  6. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  7. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  8. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  9. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  10. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  11. Urban acupuncture

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    During his three terms as mayor of Curitiba, Brazil in the 1970s and ‘80s, architect and urbanist Jaime Lerner transformed his city into a global model of the sustainable and livable community. Through his pioneering work, Lerner has learned that changes to a community don’t need to be large-scale and expensive to have a transformative impact—in fact, one block, park or a single person can have an outsized effect on life in the surrounding city. In Urban Acupuncture, his first work published in English, Lerner celebrates these “pinpricks” of urbanism—projects, people and initiatives from around the world that ripple through their communities to uplift city life. With meditative and descriptive prose, Lerner brings readers around the world to streets and neighborhoods where urban acupuncture has been practiced best, from the bustling La Boqueria market in Barcelona to the revitalization of the Cheonggyecheon River in Seoul, South Korea. Through this journey, Lerner invites us to re-examine the true...

  12. Research on urban land information system based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang-bao; ZOU Zhi-chong

    2006-01-01

    Urban land utilization plays an important role in city development. We establish the "Urban Land Information System based on GIS" in order to inspect urban land structure and utilize a model automatically. A series of codes abstracted from urban land sustainable utilization significance are used as measures in land inspection. GIS tools combined with "Urban Land Information System" make visible codes calculations and statistical results possible. Useful mathematic methods are cited to analyze the degree urban land sustainable and optimize land structure. By scientific system analysis, relationships among modules and system structure are illustrated clearly. As a result this study has drawn out the "Urban Land Information System" model.

  13. 'Differential poverty rates are responsible for the racial differentials in HIV prevalence in South Africa'; an enduring and dangerous epidemiological urban legend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held to be axiomatic in South African epidemiological and social science circles that it is not worth comparing the risk factors underpinning the dramatic differences in HIV spread in South Africa’s racial groups, as these are all explained by corresponding differences in socio-economic status. The available evidence, however, suggests that HIV is not simply contoured along lines of socio-economic deprivation; rather, other – largely culturally determined – factors such as the practice and acceptance of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role. Comparison of sexual behaviours between South Africa’s different races supports the likelihood that cultural and not socio-economic factors are the mediators of differential racial HIV spread. Finally, it is argued that the failure of many South African experts in the study of HIV to consider race as a valid variable for analysis, and allied to this their continued exaggeration of the importance of socio-economic rather than cultural factors, has contributed to the relative failure of our national AIDS strategy.

  14. Environment Degradation Cause by Urbanization in Pakistan: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim; Malik Muhammad Anees; Muhammad Usman Ghani; Jahanzaib Malik; Moeen Khalid; Aroj Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas. Urbanization is serious worldwide problems. Urbanization and environmental problems are the recent developmental issues in Pakistan. The study was used Secondary data and information was collected from various publications such as books, journals, magazines, published and unpublished dissertations, newspapers, and internet as well as institutions related to urbanization and Environment.These harms are very composite and their connections are...

  15. Environment Degradation Cause by Urbanization in Pakistan: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim; Malik Muhammad Anees; Muhammad Usman Ghani; Jahanzaib Malik; Moeen Khalid; Aroj Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas. Urbanization is serious worldwide problems. Urbanization and environmental problems are the recent developmental issues in Pakistan. The study was used Secondary data and information was collected from various publications such as books, journals, magazines, published and unpublished dissertations, newspapers, and internet as well as institutions related to urbanization and Environment.These harms are very composite and their connections are...

  16. Reported off-leash frequency and perception of risk for gastrointestinal parasitism are not associated in owners of urban park-attending dogs: A multifactorial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anya F; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Rock, Melanie J; Massolo, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Associations between park use and infections with gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris) have been previously observed, suggesting park use may pose risks for infection in dogs, and potentially, in humans. This study was conducted to establish the overall level of perceived risk of parasitism in dogs, the frequency of unleashing dogs in parks, and to determine if dog owners' risk perceptions of parasite transmission among humans and dogs are associated with the reported frequency of unleashing dogs. From June to September 2010, 635 surveys were administered to dog owners in nine city parks in Calgary, Alberta, by the lead author to explore dog-walking behaviors in parks under differing leashing regulations. From these, a subset of 316 questionnaires were analyzed to examine associations between behavioral and dog demographic factors, risk perception and acceptability of perceived risks of dog and human parasitism, and education regarding parasitism in dogs and humans. Multivariate statistics were conducted using three separate Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) decision trees to model risk perception of dogs becoming parasitized while in the park, risk perception of zoonotic transmission, and off-leash frequency. Predictors included recreational behaviors, dog demographics, risk perception of park-based and zoonotic transmission, education regarding parasites, and leashing regulations (e.g. on-leash, off-leash, or mixed management parks). The perceived risk of park-based transmission was relatively higher than perception of zoonotic transmission and the majority of people unleashed their dogs at least some of the time. Risk perception was not associated with off-leash frequency in dogs and risk perception and off-leash frequency were associated with factors other than each other. The results suggest owners may underestimate the potential risks for parasitism related to some dog-walking behaviours, and are relevant for public and

  17. Urban mining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the fundamental concept of and current endeavors in “urban mining” among those who are interested in both metal resources and ecology. Systems for recycling and reusing precious metals and rare-earth minerals contained in used and discarded electronics are introduced in this book. The target audience is not academic researchers in the resource management and ecology fields but, rather, citizens who are concerned about our future environment and want to do something for the future.

  18. Computing Pathways for Urban Decarbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, R.; Sommer, P.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas emit roughly three quarters of global carbon emissions. Cities are crucial elements for a decarbonized society. Urban expansion and related transportation needs lead to increased energy use, and to carbon-intensive lock-ins that create barriers for climate change mitigation globally. The authors present the Integrated Urban Complexity (IUC) model, based on self-organizing Cellular Automata (CA), and use it to produce a new kind of spatially explicit Transformation Pathways for Urban Decarbonization (TPUD). IUC is based on statistical evidence relating the energy needed for transportation with the spatial distribution of population, specifically IUC incorporates variables from complexity science related to urban form, like the slope of the rank-size rule or spatial entropy, which brings IUC a step beyond existing models. The CA starts its evolution with real-world urban land use and population distribution data from the Global Human Settlement Layer. Thus, the IUC model runs over existing urban settlements, transforming the spatial distribution of population so the energy consumption for transportation is minimized. The statistical evidence that governs the evolution of the CA departs from the database of the International Association of Public Transport. A selected case is presented using Stuttgart (Germany) as an example. The results show how IUC varies urban density in those places where it improves the performance of crucial parameters related to urban form, producing a TPUD that shows where the spatial distribution of population should be modified with a degree of detail of 250 meters of cell size. The TPUD shows how the urban complex system evolves over time to minimize energy consumption for transportation. The resulting dynamics or urban decarbonization show decreased energy per capita, although total energy increases for increasing population. The results provide innovative insights: by checking current urban planning against a TPUD, urban

  19. Nuove soluzioni funzionali nelle domus tardoantiche di Ostia attraverso la lettura delle tecniche edilizie e delle tipologie architettoniche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigne, Raffaella

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This research project has as its base my degree thesis. The latter attempted to create new methodology techniques that could be used to identify different phases of building construction. The study focussed in particular on three late antique domus in Ostia: the Domus of the Caupona, the Domus of the Gorgons and the Domus of the Decumanus. Such a study, based on both the stratigraphie records of the standing structures and the analysis of the archives, has allowed me to develop a new methodology, that differs quite markedly from the traditional methods currently used to analyse and date building techniques. The results of this research challenge the common opinion that the late antique domus were built following a single and unitary project. Many different phases have been identified, suggesting that these buildings had a more complex history than previously thought. This evolution must be viewed in the light of social and economic transformations occurring in Late Antiquity i.e.3rd/ 5th century AD. A number of conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, different building projects/phases can be seen in these domus (probably due to the different needs of the customers and, consequently, also a more various range of plans and typologies. Secondly, analysing a wider number of buildings, it has also been possible to suggest new chronologies and functions for some building techniques. Finally the analysis has been extended to the entire city, identifying a new pattern of building location and function within the urban area in Late Antiquity.Este trabajo se basa en mi memoria de lienciatura. El objetivo es la creación de una Nueva técnica metodológica que podría ser usada para identificar diferentes fases constructivas en un edificio. El estudio se centra sobre tres domus tardoantiguas de Ostia: la domus de Caupona, la domus de las Gorgonas y la domus del Decumanus. A partir del análisis del registro estratigráfico se ha desarrollado una nueva metodolog

  20. Lesotho - Urban and Peri-Urban Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Early on, MCC and the evaluator decided to focus the Urban and Peri-Urban Water evaluation on Package 1 infrastructure, which benefited Maseru and Mazenod. MCC later...

  1. The Relationships between Urban Form and Urban Commuting: An Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainable development strategies are of great importance to rapidly urbanized countries such as China. One of the most challenging problems is how to coordinate urban spatial development with social efficiency and environmental protection, e.g., highly efficient low-carbon urban traffic. Despite broad research efforts with respect to the influence of urban form on travel patterns, questions persist as to the impact of compact urban form on travel distance and modes. In this study, we adopted urban form metrics to capture key dimensions of urban form with the aid of image processing and spatial analysis based on satellite images and statistical data from the cases of 35 cities. Combined with urban travel survey data, we empirically examined the relationships between urban form and travel patterns of local urban residents. The results showed that urban form and travel patterns have regionalized characteristics, e.g., the eastern cities are characterized by disperse urban development patterns and longer commuting times on average compared with western and central cities. We found that relatively smaller built-up areas, higher degrees of urban spatial agglomeration and more paved road area per person would decrease the commuting time of urban residents. We also found that the public transport choices of urban residents are positively associated with built-up areas and commuting times, which suggests the need for provision and promotion of facilities for a high-quality public transport system. The findings provide helpful suggestions for the planning of sustainable urban form and development of transportation.

  2. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Urban flooding is of growing concern due to increasing densification of urban areas, changes in land use, and climate change. The traditional engineering approach to flooding is designing single-purpose drainage systems, dams, and levees. These methods, however, are known to increase the long......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...

  3. Remarks on Urban Spatial Growth Management Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "Urban spatial growth management(USGM)" is developed from "urban growth management(UGM)",and is more specific on urban space than UGM.An urban spatial plan can achieve its goals in virtue of USGM.This paper reviews the research on urban growth management both in China and abroad,and then puts forwards the development issue of USGM in China which requires further study in two main aspects:systemic research on the basic theories of USGM with Chinese characteristics,and the utilization of modern techniques to examine the effectiveness of USGM.In turn,the methods to develop the modeling and analysis techniques of USGM are discussed.

  4. Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, Henrik; van der Leeuw, Sander E; Redman, Charles L; Meffert, Douglas J; Davis, George; Alfsen, Christine; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities--New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix--the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  5. Slumdog cities: rethinking subaltern urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananya

    2011-01-01

    This article is an intervention in the epistemologies and methodologies of urban studies. It seeks to understand and transform the ways in which the cities of the global South are studied and represented in urban research, and to some extent in popular discourse. As such, the article is primarily concerned with a formation of ideas - "subaltern urbanism" - which undertakes the theorization of the megacity and its subaltern spaces and subaltern classes. Of these, the ubiquitous ‘slum’ is the most prominent. Writing against apocalyptic and dystopian narratives of the slum, subaltern urbanism provides accounts of the slum as a terrain of habitation, livelihood, self-organization and politics. This is a vital and even radical challenge to dominant narratives of the megacity. However, this article is concerned with the limits of and alternatives to subaltern urbanism. It thus highlights emergent analytical strategies, utilizing theoretical categories that transcend the familiar metonyms of underdevelopment such as the megacity, the slum, mass politics and the habitus of the dispossessed. Instead, four categories are discussed — peripheries, urban informality, zones of exception and gray spaces. Informed by the urbanism of the global South, these categories break with ontological and topological understandings of subaltern subjects and subaltern spaces.

  6. Common variants of FTO are associated with childhood obesity in a cross-sectional study of 3,126 urban Indian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Dwivedi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FTO variants are robustly associated with obesity and related traits in many population and shown to have variable impact during life course. Although studies have shown association of FTO variants with adiposity in adult Indian, its association in Indian children is yet to be confirmed. METHODS: Here we examined association of FTO variants (rs9939609 and rs8050136 with obesity and related anthropometric and biochemical traits in 3,126 Indian children (aged 11-17 years including 2,230 normal-weight and 896 over-weight/obese children. We also compared effects observed in the present study with that observed in previous studies on South Asian adults and children of other ethnic groups. RESULTS: The variant rs9939609 showed significant association with risk of obesity [OR = 1.21, P = 2.5 × 10(-3] and its measures BMI, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference [β range = 0.11 to 0.14 Z-score units; P range = 1.3 × 10(-4 to 1.6 × 10(-7] in children. The observed effect sizes in Indian children were similar to those reported for European children. Variant rs9939609 explained 0.88% of BMI variance in Indian children. The effect sizes of rs9939609 on BMI and WC were ~2 fold higher in children than adults. Interestingly rs9939609 was also associated with serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH [β = 0.10 Z-score, P = 5.8 × 10(-3]. The other variant rs8050136 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs9939609 (r(2 = 0.97 and provided similar association results. CONCLUSION: The study provides first report of association of FTO variants with obesity and related anthropometric traits in Indian children with higher impact in children compared to adults. We also demonstrated association of FTO variant with serum levels of TSH, indicating putative influence of FTO in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.

  7. Social interactions in urban parks: Stimulating social cohesion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Buijs, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    People from all ethnic backgrounds spend some of their leisure time in green areas. This study found that urban parks are more inclusive green places than non-urban green areas, and that urban parks can promote social cohesion. The objective of the research was to establish the extent to which urban

  8. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss t...

  9. Becoming an Insider: Teaching Science in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Berchini, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of urban science education is often framed by discussions of achievement gaps and limited resources. Although these realities are part of the urban education landscape, they focus on deficits--what urban youth and their teachers and schools lack. We argue that it is more productive to frame urban science education as a function of…

  10. Urban biomass - not an urban legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. There is an estimated 16.4 million hectares of land in urban areas cultivated with turfgrass and associated vegetation. Vegetation in urban areas is intensely managed which lead to regula...

  11. Urbanism & urban qualities New data and methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    they use them? What characterizes the good urban space? And how and by who is it evaluated? How is a better co-operation between urban space researchers, decision makers and users established? Is it the right urban spaces which receive investments? How can research optimize the basis for decisions...

  12. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C; Pincetl, S; Bunje, P

    2011-01-01

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities.

  13. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  14. Urban FIFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandby, Michael W.; Szatkowski, Magnus K.; Petersen, Jonas L.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of Urban FIFA, which explores the idea of bringing elements from the FIFA video game into a physical setting and how this affects the game experience. The design was realised by taking three core elements from FIFA15™; the game setup, the scoreboard...... and the soundscape, and applying these in a physical indoor football arena. Our evaluation focuses on how the installation altered the structural, social- and performative aspects of the experience, and suggests that implementing simple digital elements can significantly transform the experience of social sports....... Moreover, our study suggests several future design opportunities and warrants further research on the effects of augmenting social sports with content and techniques appropriated from video games....

  15. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In   this   paper   we   describe   a   field   study   conducted   with   a   wearable   vibration   belt   where   we   test   to   determine   the   vibration   intensity   sensitivity   ranges   on   a   large   diverse   group   of   participants   with   evenly   distributed  ages  and......   lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  16. Social aspects of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R C

    1976-01-01

    In slightly less than a century the world has gone from a predominantly rural to a largely urban society. Unlike Western Europe which industrialized slowly with labor-intensive industries, the developing world is industrializing rapidly with capital intensive industries which provide insufficient employment for the millions coming into the cities from the countryside. 2 factors responsible for growth of cities are rural push combined with urban pull, a lack of opportunity in the country combined with hopes and aspirations represented by the city. In addition, large population growth is a factor in both the increase in numbers of city-born dwellers and in the increase of young people leaving the countryside. Problems of health, sanitation, and public welfare are compounded by this rapid population growth. The social implications of these migrations are awesome. Already people are crowding together into cities without sufficient industrial base to provide employment; 1/5 to 1/4 of adult males are unemployed; as many as 4 out of 5 families live in a single room; as many as a 1/3 or more are without water. The tensions and social unrest caused by such conditions are the seedbed for serious political unrest. Resources and knowledge must quickly be brought to bear on the urban problem so that the now-disadvantaged will be able to realize their dream of a better life.

  17. Agricultural and urban pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  18. A window on urban sustainability. Integration of environmental interests in urban planning through 'decision windows'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, R. van; Driessen, P.P.J.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although variousmethods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in

  19. Nutrient flows and balances in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems of Kano, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Agbenin, J.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient balances are useful indicators to assess the sustainability of farming systems. This study study investigates inflow and outflow of major nutrients in urban and periurban production systems in Kano, Nigeria. To this end, 16 households representing three different urban and peri-urban (UPA)

  20. Nutrient flows and balances in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems of Kano, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Agbenin, J.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient balances are useful indicators to assess the sustainability of farming systems. This study study investigates inflow and outflow of major nutrients in urban and periurban production systems in Kano, Nigeria. To this end, 16 households representing three different urban and peri-urban (UPA)

  1. Urban metabolism: a review of research methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems.

  2. NEW PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the basic features of socio-economic development in China, the paper retrospects the developmental process of Chinese ciries in the 20th century. Based on lots of data and related research achievements, five new patterns of Chinese urban development are pointed out, that is 1) regional disparity of urban development in China is still obvious and large; 2) cities in developed region develop in the form of agglomeration and coordination; 3) spatial layout shape of Chinese cities appears relatively tight, and there exists great outside expansion inclination; 4) the construction of exploitation zone becomes the new important factor of urban development in the 1990s; 5) number increase of cities at county level become the main tide of urban development, but cause the discrete understanding for the concept of urban substantial region, which construct a challenge to urban management. In the end the article puts forward a series thoughtson the future trends and countermeasures of urban development in China.

  3. Challenges of urban planning in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghayer, Taher J. T.; Tesmamma Daget, Yidnekachew; Wang, Xingping

    2017-08-01

    For the last two centuries, Palestinian territory had faced several changes. This is due to historical precedents and the unstable political situation in the area. This has resulted in mutli-faced challenges in Palestine. The objective of this paper is to analyse and understand the major factors that had impacted the urban planning, urban form and urban development of the Palestinian territory. The findings showed that the lack of available land, rapid urban population growth, failure in urban planning policy decisions, the unstable political situation on the ground, fragmented urban developments in the west bank area, and also diffusion of urban sprawls within the landscapes and around the cities are the major factors that caused challenges in Palestine’s cities.

  4. Development Path of Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The urban and rural areas are regarded as two major components of the regional economic system. Only through joint balanced development of the two can we achieve overall economic optimization and social welfare maximization. But the great social division of labor has separated urban areas from rural areas,which casts the shadow of city-oriented theory on cooperative relations between urban and rural areas. Mutual separation between urban and rural settlements and independent development trigger off a range of social problems. We must undertake guidance through rational development path of urban-rural integration,to eliminate the phenomenon of urban-rural dual structure,and promote the sustainable development of population,resources and environment in urban and rural areas as soon as possible.

  5. Assessing urban forest effects and values, Scranton's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Vincent. Cotrone

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of trees in the urbanized portion of Scranton, PA, reveals that this area has about 1.2 million trees with canopies that cover 22.0 percent of the area. The most common tree species are red maple, gray birch, black cherry, northern red oak, and quaking aspen. Scranton's urban forest currently store about 93,300 tons of carbon valued at $1.9 million. In...

  6. Attivitá di prevenzione e controllo delle infezioni ospedaliere nell'azienda ospedaliera nell’azienda ospedaliera “G. Panico” di Tricase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Corsano

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: nell’ambito di programmi di prevenzione
    e controllo delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO la
    Direzione Sanitaria dell’Azienda Ospedaliera
    “Card. G. Panico” di Tricase ha pianificato studi di
    prevalenza per valutarne la frequenza e l’andamento.
    Si riportano i risultati di tre indagini realizzate
    negli anni 2001, 2002 e 2003 secondo la
    metodica del “one day study” (CDC 1988.

    Metodi: i tre studi di prevalenza sono stati condotti a
    circa un anno di distanza l’uno dall’altro. Sono stati
    compresi tutti i pazienti ricoverati in ciascun reparto
    il giorno dell’indagine, ad esclusione di quelli in
    dimissione. Si sono definite ospedaliere tutte le infezioni
    che insorgevano 48 ore dopo il ricovero.

    Risultati: nel corso delle tre indagini la prevalenza
    delle IO è stata pari al 6.6% (14 casi su 213 pazienti,
    nel 2001, al 5.1% (11 casi su 214 pazienti nel 2002 e
    al 4.3% (11 casi su 254 pazienti nel 2003. Il tratto urinario
    (36.4% nel 2002 e 2003 e le basse vie respiratorie
    (50.0% nel 2001, 9.1% nel 2002 e 2003 hanno
    rappresentato le sedi più comuni di localizzazione delle IO. La riduzione al 9.1% delle infezioni delle basse vie respiratorie si è registrata prevalentemente nelle Unità di Medicina e Cardiologia. Nel 2001 e 2002, l’uso di catetere vescicale, l’intervento di tipo contaminato o pulito contaminato, la ventilazione assistita e l’utilizzo di catetere venoso centrale sono risultati significativamente associati alla insorgenza di IO. Tale associazione nel 2003 si è dimostrata significativa per l’uso del catetere venoso ombelicale.

    Considerazioni: l’applicazione di appropriati protocolli assistenziali, l’individuazione dei punti critici dei processi di cura e l

  7. Risorse trofiche o disturbo antropico? Elaborazione preliminare e validazione di un indice di idoneità ambientale per l'orso bruno nell'Appennino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bello

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In un'area di studio nell'Appennino abruzzese (ampia circa 250 km² sono state campionate variabili ambientali relative alla vegetazione, topografia, e presenza antropica in 2110 plot distribuiti lungo transetti da 1 km in 72 celle (1 km² selezionate casualmente dal reticolato geografico UTM. Utilizzando tematismi digitali sono state calcolate, tramite GIS, altre variabili ambientali relative alle stesse categorie. Le variabili sono state combinate in 14 indici (V1-14 utilizzati per calcolare un indice di idoneità ambientale relativo ai plot e alle celle campionate. Sono stati elaborati: A- un indice complessivo di idoneità (HSItotale e, B- 2 indici di idoneità relativi alla disponibilità di risorse trofiche e alla presenza umana (HSIcibo e HSIuomo, rispettivamente. Il valore medio di HSIcibo è stato pari a 0,23, in relazione ai valori medi degli indici di idoneità per la disponibilità di invertebrati (0,01, ghiande (0,004 e alla copertura percentuale di arbusti (0,06. Il valore medio di HSIuomo è risultato maggiore (0,32, soprattutto in relazione all'indice relativo alle variabili pendenza (0,69 e distanza dagli insediamenti umani (0,60. L'indice complessivo medio HSItotale è stato pari a 0,27. Il modello è stato validato comparando, per ogni cella, il valore dei tre indici con l'abbondanza relativa dell'orso bruno stimata lungo percorsi campione dal 1993 al 1998. Gli indici HSItotale e HSIuomo sono risultati significativamente e direttamente correlati con l'abbondanza relativa dell'orso (0,40 >rs< 0,44; p< 0,001; n= 72, mentre la frequentazione dell'orso non è risultata correlata significativamente all'indice HSIcibo (rs= 0,06; p> 0,5; n= 72. Questi dati preliminari, che saranno integrati dai risultati di ulteriori campionamenti in corso, indicano chiaramente che l

  8. Cateterismo vescicale: appropriatezza dell´uso ed esiti clinici nell´Azienda Sanitaria Ospedaliera "Maggiore della Caritá" di Novara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luparia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutare le relazioni intercorrenti tra i livelli di appropriatezza di indicazione e di gestione del cateterismo vescicale e lo sviluppo delle IVU.

    Materiali e metodi: studio descrittivo condotto in una giornata con rilevazione basata su cartelle cliniche ed infermieristiche. Le relazioni intercorrenti tra la cateterizzazione vescicale e l’insorgenza dell’IVU sono stati studiati mediante modelli di regressione logistica in grado di valutare l’appropriatezza del processo assistenziale e per identificare i determinanti dell’esitto. Risultati: nel giorno dell’indagine son risultati ricoverati 166 pazienti, di questi 57 (34,34%; IC 95% 28,06- 40,62% erano portatori di catetere urinario. In totale sono state analizzate oltre 1200 procedure. La prevalenza di infezioni nosocomiali delle vie urinarie è stata del 12,28% (IC 95% 7,98-16,50%. Tutti i cateterizzati avevano un sistema di drenaggio di tipo chiuso. I modelli di regressione logistica hanno dimostrato un accresciuto rischio di mancato lavaggio delle mani in presenza di un regime di ricovero d’urgenza e in unità operativa chirurgica (p‹0,01, parimenti si è evidenziato un minor livello di controllo del meato urnario in presenza del regime del ricovero d’urgenza in unità operativa chirurgica (p‹0,01.

    Conclusioni: le raccomandazioni fornite dalla letteratura in relazione all’inserimento e alla gestione del cateterismo vescicale sono solo in parte seguite nella pratica quotidiana. In particolare il lavaggio delle mani, anche se è una procedura semplice e poco costosa risulta comunque poco seguita, soprattutto in regime di urgenze e nelle chirurgie, dove per la tipologia delle prestazioni effettuata, l’aderenza a queste procedure dovrebbe essere massima. Questi comportamenti “scorretti” rendono inefficace l’utilizzo del cateterismo vescicale a ciclo chiuso. Nonostante queste problematicità la

  9. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  10. Urban Forestry and its Relevanceto Tourism Development in Sabah

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEEYF; LIGUNJANGJ; YONGSC

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry is understood to be the management of trees and forests in urban areas. It yields many environmental and material benefits. In Sabah, the environmental services of urban forestry are more important than material products. The potential of practising urban forestry in various zones and under different land ownership is evaluated. As urbanisation has occurred recently in Sabah, urban forestry has only been practised to a limited extent. Tourism is an economic sector which has gained prominence in recent years and has huge growth potential. With the numerous environmental services provided by urban forestry to make urban areas more inhabitable, the increasing tourism activities necessitate intensification of urban forestry activities. The main urban centres contain many tourist attractions, and are also the gateways to many other ecotourist destinations located throughout Sabah. With tourism high on the development agenda in Sabah, urban forestry needs to be promoted so that both locals and visitors can enjoy the numerous social,environmental and economic benefits.

  11. Scale Mismatches in Management of Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Alfsen-Norodom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world’s human population. An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scales is, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource management regimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads to institutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. In this paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban green spaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of these urban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From a qualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the Greater Stockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1 several spatial, temporal, and functional scales are recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2 spatial and temporal meso-scales are seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in these highly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1 development of an integrative view of the whole urban social–ecological landscape, and 2 creation of adaptive governance systems to support practical management.

  12. An Update on Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's urbanization was put under the spotlight after Chinese officials shared their views on the country's progress at a press conference on promoting the healthy development of urbanization held in the State Council Information Office on March 29.High-level government officials briefed the media about China's urbanization efforts while elaborating on problems within the current urban-rural two-tier system.

  13. Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tripodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance is a toolbox to examine and disentangle urban complexities. Not the city, not the urban territory, not the urbanization process but the irreducible condition produced by the dialectical relation and the semantic stratification resulting from these factors.

  14. Are Staple Foods Becoming More Expensive For Urban Consumers In Eastern And Southern Africa? Trends in Food Prices, Marketing Margins, and Wage Rates in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Donovan, Cynthia; Chapoto, Antony

    2009-01-01

    The world food and financial crises threaten to undermine the real incomes of urban consumers in eastern and southern Africa. This study investigates patterns in staple food prices, wage rates, and marketing margins for urban consumers in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia between 1993 and 2009. There is high correlation among wage rate series for various government and private sector categories. We find that average formal sector wages rose at a faster rate than retail maize meal and brea...

  15. Understanding complex urban systems integrating multidisciplinary data in urban models

    CERN Document Server

    Gebetsroither-Geringer, Ernst; Atun, Funda; Werner, Liss

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the modeling and understanding of complex urban systems. This second volume of Understanding Complex Urban Systems focuses on the challenges of the modeling tools, concerning, e.g., the quality and quantity of data and the selection of an appropriate modeling approach. It is meant to support urban decision-makers—including municipal politicians, spatial planners, and citizen groups—in choosing an appropriate modeling approach for their particular modeling requirements. The contributors to this volume are from different disciplines, but all share the same goal: optimizing the representation of complex urban systems. They present and discuss a variety of approaches for dealing with data-availability problems and finding appropriate modeling approaches—and not only in terms of computer modeling. The selection of articles featured in this volume reflect a broad variety of new and established modeling approaches such as: - An argument for using Big Data methods in conjunction with Age...

  16. Urban Railway Accessibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; YIN Yuanfei; YAN Hai; HAN Yan; QIN Huanmei

    2007-01-01

    Effective use of urban rapid railway systems requires that the railway systems be effectively connected with other transportation modes so that they are accessible. This paper uses the logit model and data to analyze the factors influencing railway access choices in a railway choice access model. The results indicate that access time, access cost, and access distance are factors significantly affecting railway access choices. The user's income significantly affects the probability of choosing to walk rather than to take a taxi,but is not related to choosing buses or bicycles. Vehicle ownership significantly affects the probability of choosing a taxi, but is not significantly related to the other modes. The conclusions provide an analysis tool for urban railway planning and construction.

  17. Progress in urban dispersion studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2006-01-01

    The present Study addresses recent achievements in better representation Of the urban area structure in meteorology and dispersion parameterisations. The setup and Main Outcome of several recent dispersion experiments in Urban areas and their use in model validation are discussed. The maximum...... BUBBLE Tracer Experiment) the horizontal spread of the plume corresponds to a Lagrangian time scale bigger than the value for ground Sources. Turbulence measurements LIP to 3-5 times the building height Lire needed for direct use in dispersion Calculations....

  18. Metals in urban playground soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Urban soils generally have elevated metal contents originating from both point and diffuse pollution sources. Urban areas designated for children, who are most susceptible to any negative health effects of soil metals, may therefore have elevated soil metal contents. Children ingest soil both directly and by putting dirty hands and objects in their mouths. The soil ingested involuntarily mainly comprise very fine particles that have a larger surface area for sorption and may therefore hold hi...

  19. [Towards an urban world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    It has been estimated that by the year 2006, the proportion of the world's population residing in cities will for the 1st time exceed 50%. The entire urban population will be living on 1% of the earth's surface. Rapid growth of cities is largely limited to developing countries, where about 9/10 of urban growth is expected to occur in coming decades. Urban growth in developing countries is due to high fertility as well as inmigration of poor peasants seeking a better life. The current growth rate of Third World cities is 3.6% annually, which signifies doubling of the population in 20 years. Paris required over a century to grow from 547,000 to 3 million, but Lagos grew from 700,000 to 5.6 million in 20 years and Cairo grew by 6.5 million in 34 years. Immoderate population growth places a great strain on cities attempting to provide basic services. Only a few authoritarian governments have succeeded in limiting immigration to their metropolitan areas. Rapidly growing cities have become symbols not only of poverty and social deterioration, but of ecological destruction, contamination, and lack of health. Air pollution, waste management, and the water supply are 3 of the most serious problems of hygiene and sanitation in the world's cities. Air pollution is caused by various factors including car exhausts and coal burning. According to World Health Organization data, less than 60% of Third World housing has access to an adequate sanitary system. 90% of sewage is not treated before elimination. And millions of persons with no potable water supply are obliged to consume contaminated water or to use their scarce resources to buy water. Many cities lose up to 60% of their scarce water supplies through leaking pipes. If these pipes were repaired, and the loss amounted to the 12% typical of the US and Great Britain, this single measure would double the volume of potable water available. The lack of social balance is at the root of urban problems in the Third World. 600

  20. Arsenic in the ground water of the mediobrenta (Veneto Region); L`arsenico nelle acque sotterranee del mediobrenta (Veneto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldantoni, E.; Ferronato, A. [USL 19 del Mediobrenta, Settore Igiene Pubblica, Cittadella, Padua (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    The territory of the local health unit of Cittadella (Padua) is very rich of ground waters. The Public Hygiene Service has undergone a continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water in private wells, which are a very common way of supply. High levels of arsenic in the south of the territory are found and therefore the monitoring it is intensified trying to find possible relations with health of the population exposed. In this paper the organization of the research and the preliminary findings of 1000 analysis are described.

  1. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesev, V.

    2012-07-01

    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  2. Assessing urban climate change resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina

    2016-04-01

    Recent extreme weather events demonstrate that many urban environments are vulnerable to climate change impacts and as a consequence designing systems for future climate seems to be an important parameter in sustainable urban planning. The focus of this research is the development of a theoretical framework to assess climate change resilience in urban environments. The methodological approach used encompasses literature review, detailed analysis, and combination of data, and the development of a series of evaluation criteria, which are further analyzed into a list of measures. The choice of the specific measures is based upon various environmental, urban planning parameters, social, economic and institutional features taking into consideration key vulnerabilities and risk associated with climate change. The selected criteria are further prioritized to incorporate into the evaluation framework the level of importance of different issues towards a climate change resilient city. The framework could support decision making as regards the ability of an urban system to adapt. In addition it gives information on the level of adaptation, outlining barriers to sustainable urban planning and pointing out drivers for action and reaction.

  3. Spatial Patterns in Urban Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, Hoai Nguyen; Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Chew, Lock Yue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the morphology of an urban system is an important step toward unveiling the dynamical processes of its growth and development. At the foundation of every urban system, transportation system is undeniably a crucial component in powering the life of the entire urban system. In this work, we study the spatial pattern of $73$ cities across the globe by analysing the distribution of public transport points within the cities. The analysis reveals that different spatial distributions of points could be classified into four groups with distinct features, indicating whether the points are clustered, dispersed or regularly distributed. From visual inspection, we observe that the cities with regularly distributed patterns do not have apparent centre in contrast to the other two types in which star-node structure, i.e. monocentric, can be clearly observed. Furthermore, the results provide evidence for the existence of two different types of urban system: well-planned and organically grown. We also study the...

  4. Parametric Thinking in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...... of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper con- cludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban de- sign....... the application of complex and expensive technolo- gies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban de- sign. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and para- metric thinking to urban design forms the argument...

  5. Carbon Sequestration by Urban Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fares, Silvano; Paoletti, Elena; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prominent component of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, resulting mainly from fuel combustion in the built environment – for activities such as heating of buildings, urban mobility and cooking. The concentration of near-surface CO2 in cities is affected...... in urban-to-rural comparisons showing lower CO2 concentration in the presence of vegetation. CO2 sequestration over the ‘urban forest’ displays diurnal variation during the growing period, with uptake during daytime when plants are photosynthetically active, and nocturnal emissions in response...... to respiration. High atmospheric CO2 concentrations represent a fertilizer for plants, promoting more efficient photosynthesis. However, urban plants often experience environmental stresses which compromise the photosynthetic apparatus, and in extreme cases may turn plants from carbon sinks into carbon sources...

  6. Advances in urban climate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Julia; Masson, Valéry; Baklanov, Alexander; Pigeon, Grégoire; Gimeno, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Cities interact with the atmosphere over a wide range of scales from the large-scale processes, which have a direct impact on global climate change, to smaller scales, ranging from the conurbation itself to individual buildings. The review presented in this paper analyzes some of the ways in which cities influence atmospheric thermodynamics and airborne pollutant transport. We present the main physical processes that characterize the urban local meteorology (the urban microclimate) and air pollution. We focus on small-scale impacts, including the urban heat island and its causes. The impact on the lower atmosphere over conurbations, air pollution in cities, and the effect on meteorological processes are discussed. An overview of the recent principal advances in urban climatology and air quality modeling in atmospheric numerical models is also presented.

  7. Concepts for Planning Urban Greening since 1850s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULi

    2005-01-01

    Urban greening, urban forestry and urban green structure planning all look at a city as a unit and intend to improve the status of green space in the city. Even though they are new terms, their concepts have evolved over a rather long period. This paper presents a historical review of western concepts for urban greening since the 1850s. The first aim is to establish an overview of how the urban greening concept has developed and what the relationships are between the historical concepts and urban greening, urban forestry and urban green structure planning today. The secondary purpose is to understand some key issues for urban greening through the examination of historical precedents. Based on a literature review, the paper presents several historical concepts for urban greening - rampart area planning, park system, green belts, green wedges and greenways. The new concept of urban green structure is also introduced. Each concept is defined.The social background and the influence on city development are described. The review shows that the concept of urban greening has a long history, parallel with the development of the city planning concepts.The scope of urban greening has become larger over the past years. The functions of urban green space have changed from single-purpose to multi-purpose. The study indicates that historical concepts may still give inspiration in today's urban greening process.

  8. Urbanization: Concepts, Trends and Analysis in Three Latin American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piña William Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models on the urban expansion process have focussed mainly on the dynamic of cities in the developed countries that are characterized by a strong institutional framework, a culture of urban planning, and compliance with the rules. This paper analyses the phenomenon of urban expansion in three Latin American cities (Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile and Mexico City, taking into account cities with a strong process of urbanization and where the local administration does not have enough control over the growth of cities due to the high rate of migration determining sub-urbanization, peri-urbanization, exo-urbanization, and counter-urbanization processes similar to developed countries. However, these processes may be related to hidden or displaced urbanization in rural areas of municipalities and metropolitan areas or intermediate cities due to the dynamics of urban consolidation. In every Latin American country, the participation and combination of these phenomena are different, although the results are similar: the advance of urban expansion with more segmented, disperse and distant patterns of large urban centres. This analysis determine the characteristics of the urbanization process taking into account physical and geographic aspects, urbanization trends and socioeconomic features in cities selected of Latin America and determines their impact determining the importance to formulate adequate policies that integrates environmental and socioeconomic aspects to achieve sustainable development in urban contexts.

  9. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body; Radiazioni ionizzanti e perossidazione lipidica nell`organismo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons.

  10. La Terra come osservatorio astronomico: la correzione al raggio solare medio nell'eclissi anulare del 22 settembre 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    The observation of a central eclipse from the umbral band and, even better, from its edge allows to measure the solar diameter with an accuracy up to a part over 100000. The data of the annular eclipse of 22 september 2006 observed from Kourou, French Guyane and their calibration are presented.

  11. Urban DNA: Morphogenetic Analysis of Urban Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Serdar Kaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban pattern is the result of a dynamic transformation process, which can follow two different trajectories: planned interventions generally produces clear geometrical patterns in large areas, however, unplanned transformation process needs more time and has relatively smaller and partial effects on the urban pattern but creates more complex urban patterns. Highly complex spatial structure of urban pattern governed by local and global forces should be analyzed via advanced methods that corresponds the complexity of the pattern. Analyses of the dynamic structure of the multidimensional urban system shows the necessity of using advanced methods and several parameters together. The aim of this paper is developing a new method to analyze and represent highly complex urban pattern via evaluating geometrical, topological, and mathematical parameters to evaluate essential characteristics of cities. Physical space is analyzed by ‘geometrical parameters’, ‘topological parameters’, ‘parameters related to use and perception’ and ‘parameters related to complexity’. Calculation results gives two main information about urban structure: Firstly, values gives information about spatial characteristics and diversity of urban pattern. Secondly, the spatial distribution map of changing urban pattern reflects the unique structure of settlements, which resembles DNA of living creatures. In this paper, Istanbul was selected as case study area because of the rich historical background and dynamic urban growth process resulting various types of settlements including historical settlements, old villages, unplanned development, squatter areas and gated communities with different densities. As the proposed model shows essential morphological characteristics of urban pattern as a morphological DNA, outputs of this model has a potential to be used in different areas such as comparative analysis of geometrically different cities, analyzing irregularities in

  12. Sustainable urban development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews the literature of to what extent compact cities are the most sustainable and it use lifestyle interpretations of urbane forms...... to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary strategies of achieving sustainable...

  13. Academic urban legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekdal, Ole Bjørn

    2014-08-01

    Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation. To illustrate this phenomenon, I draw upon a remarkable case in which a decimal point error appears to have misled millions into believing that spinach is a good nutritional source of iron. Through this example, I demonstrate how an academic urban legend can be conceived and born, and can continue to grow and reproduce within academia and beyond.

  14. Urbanism of Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mehrotra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an ex¬traordinary intensification of pilgrimage practices, which has translated into the need of larger and more frequently constructed urban structures for hosting massive gatherings. The case of the Kumbh Mela, a legendary Hindu festival in India, sets the standards for understanding alternative ways of building cities that are transitory and with a temporality aligned with the ephemeral nature of massive human flows. This massive cultural gathering, resulting in the biggest ephemeral mega city in the world accommodating 3 million pilgrims every 12 years, generates an extreme case that forces us to reflect deeply about the way we may think of future cities more broadly and from which we can extrapolate several lessons regarding more resilient, “open concept” of architecture, urban design and planning policy.

  15. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... our cities. The sharing economy has the power to democratise access the urban space, resources and raw materials (Steen Nielsen 2008; Harvey 2000); it holds the ability to change the current dominant understandings and structures of economy and growth (Steen Nielsen 2008); solve emerging environmental...... and trust. (Thomsen 2013; Bauman 2000; Beck 1992; Giddens 1991). The sharing economy is currently hyper trendy but before claiming capitalism as dead we need to understand the basics of the sharing economies and cultures asking who can share and what will we share. Furthermore it is crucial to study what...

  16. Development of a novel nitriding plant for the pressure vessel of the PBMR core unloading device / Ryno Willem Nell.

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Ryno Willem

    2010-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is one of the most technologically advanced developments in South Africa. In order to build a commercially viable demonstration power plant, all the specifically and uniquely designed equipment must first be qualified. All the prototype equipment is tested at the Helium Test Facility (HTF) at Pelindaba. One of the largest components that are tested is the Core Unloading Device (CUD). The main function of the CUD is to unload fuel from the bottom of the...

  17. L'insegnamento della Qualità nelle Università: il caso del Politecnico di Torino

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico Augusto Francesco; Galetto, Maurizio; Mastrogiacomo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Quality has become an important subject of the university education system, especially in the field of Engineering and Management. The totality of the Bachelor of Science (BSc) and Master of Science (MSc) students of Politecnico di Torino can attend courses concerning Quality. In particular, the MSc degree in "Engineering and Management" prescribes the Quality Engineering (QE) course. The major topics discussed in the QE course are Design for Quality (QFD, FMEA, …), Statistical Process Contro...

  18. Newborn healthcare in urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-01-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. PMID:27924107

  19. The effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shenghua; Wang, Jinxian; Chen, Juan; Ritakallio, Veli-Matti

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have not paid enough attention to the effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China. Using survey data from the Rural Urban Migration in China project, this article examines how self-rated physical and mental health influence rural-urban migrants' intention to settle down in cities. First, the results show that both self-rated physical and mental health are significant factors influencing the migrants' intention to permanently move to cities. Second, the effect of physical health on rural-urban migrants' intentions to permanently reside in cities can be moderated by their length of urban residence. Third, the impact of health on rural-urban migrants' urban-settlement intention shows no generational differences. According to the research findings, this paper discusses how urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants based on health selection might impair urbanization, exacerbate health disparity between the rural and urban areas, and aggravate the burden on healthcare system in rural areas of China in the long run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban Screen and Spatial Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litta Primasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is discussing about the urban screen phenomena and its influence to spatial dimension in urban space. The visual characteristics which are forming a spatial dimension will be an emphasis to be presented. Urban screen as a visual intervention has an impact to spatial configuration in urban space. The space dimension was not dominated with materiality limitation, but also images. We have to consider that people senses can measure a spatial dimension, knowing as a perception. That is a human visual and mind relation. The spatial dimension has no longer tangible boundary, but also has intangible ones. Spatial dimension in urban screens phenomena is not merely mathematics, nor spatial dimension in physics which are based on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Movement can be expressed in other terms, by how far we can move depends on our eyes to catch that space limitation, and how fast we can move is depends on our mind to perceive some visual phenomenon, that is a spatial dimension. So, the dimension will depend on a visual quality that we perceived. The movement of the body and people’s thought will be an important term to generate the space dimension in urban screen phenomenon. The activity of body’s movement and thought will influence the depth of space dimension.

  1. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  2. Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...

  3. Urban Revitalization, Gentrification, and the Public Library

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gentrification - a process of replacement of a poorer population in an urban neighborhood with a richer one and the change of the looks of this respective neighborhood - has become a widespread topic of societal debate in recent years. This process is connected to public art and cultural activities, and sometimes triggered by projects of urban revitalization by the respective cities. Public libraries are part of this process, as they are used in the concepts of urban revitalization as institu...

  4. Applications of Green Walls in Urban Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtudes, Ana; Manso, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Green walls are a choice towards achieving sustainable urban rehabilitation, due to the lack of free space in the consolidated urban fabric. Nowadays, green walls are considered to be an innovation in the fields of ecology, horticulture or buildings. Nevertheless, in the domain of urban design, they are still surprising and unexpected ideas. Thus, this research aims to reflect on green walls as a feature in urban design and rehabilitation, identifying the advantages of their utilization as an enhancement of the quality of city's image, especially in dense urban areas. It aims to demonstrate some practical applications of green walls in urban design proposals, showing model solutions and their real application in several architectural examples.

  5. [Review of urban nonpoint source pollution models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Huang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Guang-Qian

    2010-10-01

    The development history of urban nonpoint source pollution models is reviewed. Features, applicability and limitations of seven popular urban nonpoint source pollution models (SWMM, STORM, SLAMM, HSPF, DR3M-QUAL, MOUSE, and HydroWorks) are discussed. The methodology and research findings of uncertainty in urban nonpoint source pollution modeling are presented. Analytical probabilistic models for estimation of urban nonpoint sources are also presented. The research achievements of urban nonpoint source pollution models in China are summarized. The shortcomings and gaps of approaches on urban nonpoint source pollution models are pointed out. Improvements in modeling of pollutants buildup and washoff, sediments and pollutants transport, and pollutants biochemical reactions are desired for those seven popular models. Most of the models developed by researchers in China are empirical models, so that they can only applied for specific small areas and have inadequate accuracy. Future approaches include improving capability in fate and transport simulation of sediments and pollutants, exploring methodologies of modeling urban nonpoint source pollution in regions with little data or incomplete information, developing stochastic models for urban nonpoint source pollution simulation, and applying GIS to facilitate urban nonpoint source pollution simulation.

  6. Virtual colonoscopy (CT colonography) in the identification of colorectal cancer. A prospective study in symptomatic patients; Impiego dell'endoscopia virtuale con Tomografia Computerizzata nell'identificazione delle neoplasie colorettali. Studio prospettivo in pazienti sintomatici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regge, D.; Martincich, L.; Gallo, T.; Pollone, M. [Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro, Ordine Mauriziano, Reparto di Radiologia, Candiolo, TO (Italy); Galatola, G.; Secreto, P.; Pera, A. [Ospedale Mauriziano Umberto, Turin (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Gastroenterologia; Rivolta, A. [Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro, Ordine Mauriziano, Candiolo, TO (Italy). Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria

    2000-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy (CT colonography) in the identification of colorectal cancer and to define the limitations and the advantages of this imaging modality, as well as indications to the examination. It was examined prospectively 62 symptomatic patients aged 36 to 82 years (28 women and 34 men). All patients underwent both conventional and virtual colonoscopy on the same day; the conventional examination allowed exploration of the entire colon. Conventional colonoscopy identified 89 lesions 3-50 mm in diameter, namely 84 benign and 5 malignant lesions. No lesions were identified in 12 patients. CT colonography identified 52 of the 89 lesions, with 57.1% diagnostic accuracy. They were 11 false positives (82.5% positive predictive value and 52.2% specificity) and 37 false negatives (24.5% negative predictive value and 58.4% sensitivity). Sensitivity was significantly higher (85.7%) for polyps {>=} 1 cm. Virtual colonoscopy is an imaging modality with good diagnostic yield, well tolerated by patients and with great potentials for further development. It was suggested that the examination be performed in symptomatic patients who cannot undergo total colonoscopy or refuse the other imaging modalities. Further studies are warranted in larger series of patients, possibly introducing it in screening programs. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' valutare la sensibilita' della colonscopia virtuale con TC nell'identificazione delle neoplasie colorettali, definendo gli attuali limiti e vantaggi della metodica e le possibili indicazioni dell'indagine. E' stato condotto uno studio prospettico su 62 pazienti sintomatici con eta' compresa fra 36 e 82 anni di cui 28 donne e 34 uomini. Tutti i pazienti sono stati sottoposti nello stesso giorno sia a colonscopia tradizionale, che in ogni caso ha consentito l'esplorazione di tutto il colon, sia a colonscopia virtuale. Con colonscopia tradizionale

  7. Analytical quality control in trace element analysis of atmospheric particulate; Controllo di qualita' nell'analisi degli elementi in traccia contenuti nel particolato atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzio, E.; Giavieri, G.; Bergamaschi, L.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Radiochimica e Analisi per Attivazione, Pavia (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Trace elements (TE) determination in airborne particulate matter collected onto filters requires an accurate evaluation of the entire analytical procedure. Since many elements have to be determined in few milligrams of air dust at nanogram level, possible sources of error can arise from uncontrolled parameters such as blank of the filters, sample homogeneity, pre-analytical treatment, primary and comparator standards. These potential critical points are here presented and discussed on the basis of the experience developed in the laboratory in previous studies. The data were obtained in several TE air monitoring campaigns in urban as well as in rural-residential areas of north Italy. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ET-AAS) have been used for the investigation of more than 30 trace elements. [Italian] La corretta determinazione di elementi in tracce (TE) nel particolato atmosferico raccolto su filtri e, in special modo nel PM10, richiede un'accurata valutazione dell'intera procedura analitica. Molti elementi sono presenti a livello di nanogrammi e devono essere determinati in frazioni di milligrammo di materiale. Cio' richiede un severo controllo di qualita' sui dati ottenuti mediante la valutazione degli errori che possono derivare da ogni singolo passaggio del processo analitico. In questo lavoro vengono discussi quei parametri che, a prescindere dalle tecniche analitiche utilizzate, possono influire, in modo sostanziale, sulla qualita' del dato finale. In particolare vengono considerati: il bianco dei filtri, l'omogeneita' del campione, il trattamento pre-analitico, gli standard primari e quelli di riferimento. I dati sperimentali di questo studio si riferiscono alla determinazione di oltre 30 elementi in tracce in campioni di particolato atmosferico raccolto in zone urbane, industriali e rurali-residenziali durante precedenti campagne di monitoraggio. La maggior

  8. Urban immigration and outmigration in Egypt: an analytical study of birthplace in the 1976 census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-nasr, A S; Attiya, M

    1985-06-01

    The 1976 census was used as the basic data source to study 4 principal migratory trends in Egypt: urban-urban inmigration; rural-urban inmigration; urban-urban outmigration; and urban-rural outmigration. First, a general comparison was made of the 4 principal trends and of overall migration to and from urban areas. Next, the 2 principal trends -- rural-urban inmigration and urban-urban outmigration -- and their respective influences on net migration to urban areas were compared. Finally, net migration to each of the 3 principal areas of attraction (Cairo, Giza, and Alexandria) was studied and the manner in which it is influenced by the 2 principal trends. Rural to urban migrants make up about 6.4% of the urban population whereas migrants from other urban areas constitute about 19% of the urban population. Rural to urban inmigration rates are characterized by the fact that they are more dispersed, varied, and uneven than urban outmigration rates. Cairo and Giza are approximately equal in regard to their volume of inmigration from rural and other urban areas. Overall net migration to urban areas is more closely related to urban inmigration from rural areas than to urban to urban outmigration (0.83 as against 0.63). Positive net migration results more from a high volume of urban inmigration from rural areas than from a low volume of urban to urban outmigration, while negative net migration is attributable primarily to a low volume of urban inmigration from rural areas as compared with the volume of urban to urban outmigration. The correlation between rural to urban inmigrations rates and the overall net migration rates was much stronger than the correlation between them and the urban to urban outmigration rates. The data confirmed the important role of urban areas as both recipients and as sources of migrants. Areas which "acquire" migrants at the expense of other areas, i.e., areas with positive net migration, and areas which "lose" migrants do not differ greatly in

  9. Patrimoni e patrimonializzazioni, soggetti e soggettivazioni nelle culture industriali minerarie della Sardegna. Espografia museografia museologia mineraria. Prime riflessioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Atzeni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the reflection on the relation between anthropological research and museum’s anthropology, the notion of patrimony is specially put to the test in industrial cultural experiences. The mining experiences therefore are considered not only in the cultural- appearance of historical continuity, but also in the discontinuity of new knowledge and of the new incorporated habitus, and even more of disruptions: of initiatives, of inaugurations, of innovations, of inventions, of creativity. The attention is extended from the “things” to the activities to the operations of efficiency models, to arrive at the agents of the industrial cultural actions. Some artefacts of the complex contemporaneous modernity are in the archaeology of mining marked by the practices and the experiences of the agents and the participants. The practice of museums of work, of sites, of the territories spans the plural territorial range in which the mining businesses operated and shows a plurality of their experiences, put in the local context and in relevance of world importance: from the dumps besides the mines to the exploration of mining in the Italian colonies. In the theoretical-methodological and institutive framework of a vast operating field, speeches, poetry, political manifestations tend to exhibit ideas and projects in their materializations: actions of live materiality of human relations and productions that characterize the cultural property improperly called “un- material”. The multisided fragments of the historical-cultural configurations of mining require new anthropologies and interdisciplinary epistemologies. They urge for new forms of exposition, museums and museum culture, more adapted to the requirements, the narration and evocation, of the complex experience of modernity and of the industrial contemporaneousness, perhaps not only in mining, and perhaps not only in Sardinia and Italy.

  10. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro--are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de

    2009-12-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  11. Il Freemium come modello economico sostenibile per la pubblicazione digitale Open Access nelle scienze umanistiche e sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mounier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the two paths of open access – green and gold – the latter is the harder to develop and has less support from the research community. The main difficulty lies in finding a sound economic model. Open Access journals usually depend on two funding sources: subsidies and/or donations from institutions and publication fees from research units in the author-pay model. These two ways of funding Open Access journals and books have proved effective in some cases (Plos, but are not flawless. The Center for Open Electronic Publishing, a French initiative for Open Access publishing in humanities and social sciences, has recently developed a new economic model based on “Freemium” for its full Open Access journal and book series, in order to address two issues: improve their economic soundness and give them more visibility in libraries. Freemium, a blend of “free” and “premium”, preserves the information side of Open Access as well as premium service marketing.

  12. Energy recovery from the drinking-water supply of Gordola, Switzerland; Ricupero energetico nell'acquedotto di Gordola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M.

    2007-08-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Gordola, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to provide the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. Four variants for the realisation of the new hydropower installation are presented and discussed. A Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements would be used to generate electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 249 metres. In the two most favorable variants the maximum power generated would be 35 kW and the expected electricity production 160,000 kWh/year. Return on investment is achieved if the generated electricity is sold at a price of at least 0.15 CHF/kWh.

  13. Building a new urban order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J

    1992-07-01

    In the early 1900s, 10% of the population lived in rural areas, but today almost 50% live in cities. Many people move to cities in hopes of finding employment. An overloaded infrastructure, rapid population growth, rural-urban migration, and pollution do not allow cities to support their citizens, however. Even though these problems are more serious for cities in developing countries, they also exist in the US. For example, inadequate sewer systems spill billions of gallons of untreated waste into streams annually. Some US cities lose up to 30% of their daily drinking water through pipes in disrepair. In developed countries, much of destruction of cities is a result of planning or lack of planning centered around the automobile, e.g., rapid suburbanization. Environmental pollution in cities adversely affect the health of residents, e.g., exacerbating asthma in developed countries and diarrhea in developing countries. Since the 1970s, Western European planners have incorporated compact development into their urban plans. They contain suburbanization by revitalizing inner cities and diverting growth into fully functioning satellite towns. Urban planning should emphasize intensive land use, mass transit, conservation of resources, and energy efficiency. Some economists believe that urban poverty will be the most significant problem in the 2000s. In developing nations, the poor live in shantytowns with no running water, sanitation, urban transport, or adequate shelter. In these urban areas, high birth rates play a bigger role in urban growth than does rural-urban migration. US federal policies during the 1980s have resulted in considerable decay inner cities. Recent riots in Los Angeles have alerted policymakers to the costs of neglect of inner cities. US citizens must discuss what needs to be done to transforms into vital living and cultural areas. Revitalization of the cities is a must.

  14. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  15. I metadati nelle biblioteche digitali: concetti chiave e prospettive Metadata issues in Digital Libraries: key concepts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Solodovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    L'articolo si propone di esaminare il significato, il ruolo e le implicazioni di alcuni approcci utilizzati nella gestione della biblioteca digitale.

    L'innovazione nella gestione delle risorse online e il miglioramento della loro interoperabilità si può ottenere con una normalizzazione degli schemi di metadati attraverso l'uso di standard interoperabili e vocabolari internazionali e condivisi, e con l'arricchimento dato da ontologie e linked data, che sono alla base delle riflessioni sul web semantico e sulla costruzione di livelli semantici sulle descrizioni dei metadati.

    Attraverso l'esame di alcune metodologie innovative di rappresentazione dell'informazione (LODe-BD, SWAP, l'articolo mostra alcune modalità di creazione della conoscenza in ambiente digitale, con particolare riferimento ai dati bibliografici.

    The article sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of some information management approaches used in Digital Library practice. A greater focus on innovation in managing online resources and on improving their interoperability can be achieved by normalizing metadata schemas through interoperable standards, world-wide accepted controlled vocabularies as well as by their enrichment through qualitatively constructed ontologies and linked data, which are key to the expansion of the semantic reasoning on the web through building and connection of additional semantic layers on top of metadata descriptions. Reviewing some innovative methods of information representation (LODe-BD, SWAP, the paper tries to lead the reader to discover some new ways of knowledge creation in digital information environment, in particular what concerns digital bibliographic records.

  16. Analysis on Relationship between Adjustment of Agricultural Structure and Urbanization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua; TANG; Yinghui; LI; Hongxia; LI; Yilin; LIU; Gangqiang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    As a part of certain region,agricultural development has inevitable connection with regional urbanization,and they are highly heterogeneous and complementary in space. Their internal relationship is manifested as agricultural structure suits demand of urbanization development through adjustment in the process of urbanization,while urbanization is based on development of regional agriculture. From history of world agriculture and urbanization development,agriculture firstly provides primitive accumulation for urbanization development,and drives regional urbanization through promoting agricultural development. When urbanization develops to certain stage,urbanization accumulation increases and reaches the goal of " boosting urbanization through agriculture". If urbanization develops slowly,agricultural adjustment will lack motive force. On the contrary,weak agricultural development will lead to stagnation of urbanization. Therefore,adjustment of agricultural structure and urbanization development are interconnected,mutually promoted and restricted,and interdependent.

  17. Geoengineering in the Anthropocene through Regenerative Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Thomson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human consumption patterns exceed planetary boundaries and stress on the biosphere can be expected to worsen. The recent “Paris Agreement” (COP21 represents a major international attempt to address risk associated with climate change through rapid decarbonisation. The mechanisms for implementation are yet to be determined and, while various large-scale geoengineering projects have been proposed, we argue a better solution may lie in cities. Large-scale green urbanism in cities and their bioregions would offer benefits commensurate to alternative geoengineering proposals, but this integrated approach carries less risk and has additional, multiple, social and economic benefits in addition to a reduction of urban ecological footprint. However, the key to success will require policy writers and city makers to deliver at scale and to high urban sustainability performance benchmarks. To better define urban sustainability performance, we describe three horizons of green urbanism: green design, that seeks to improve upon conventional development; sustainable development, that is the first step toward a net zero impact; and the emerging concept of regenerative urbanism, that enables biosphere repair. Examples of green urbanism exist that utilize technology and design to optimize urban metabolism and deliver net positive sustainability performance. If mainstreamed, regenerative approaches can make urban development a major urban geoengineering force, while simultaneously introducing life-affirming co-benefits to burgeoning cities.

  18. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  19. Advances on interdisciplinary approaches to urban carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.

    2015-12-01

    North American urban areas are emerging as climate policy and technology innovators, urbanization process laboratories, fonts of carbon relevant experiments, hubs for grass-roots mobilization, and centers for civil-society experiments to curb carbon emissions and avoid widespread and irreversible climate impacts. Since SOCCR diverse lines of inquiry on urbanization, urban areas and the carbon cycle have advanced our understanding of some of the societal processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This presentation provides an overview of these diverse perspectives. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas as places, based not only on demographics or income, but also on such other interconnected features of urban development pathways as urban form, economic function, economic growth policies and climate policies.

  20. HAI PAURA DELLA MAFIA? LA CULTURA DELL’ANTIMAFIA ATTRAVERSO IL CLIL NELLE LEZIONI DI ITALIANO LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioia Panzarella

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo cerca di offrire alcune strategie per presentare il tema dell’antimafia all’interno dei corsi di scuola secondaria di italiano come lingua straniera. Si mette in evidenza come i movimenti antimafia rappresentino una realtà importante e positiva della società italiana contemporanea e come, per questo motivo, possano essere inclusi nell’insegnamento della cultura italiana nei curricoli linguistici. Negli ultimi anni alcune associazioni hanno iniziato a combattere la mafia, grazie alla partecipazione dei cittadini, un punto di vista che solleva l’interesse degli studenti stranieri. Le lezioni qui descritte hanno avuto luogo in Austria e si concentrano sul concetto di “Consumo critico” sviluppato da Addiopizzo (Palermo, Italia, associazione che ha contribuito alle attività svolte nel corso delle lezioni rispondendo a una lista di domande formulate da parte degli studenti coinvolti. Da un punto di vista metodologico, principi e tecniche del CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning hanno contribuito a pianificare le lezioni, al fine di coniugare lingua e contenuti in modo produttivo. L’articolo comprende una descrizione step-to-step delle attività svolte.  Are you Afraid of the mafia? Antimafia Culture through CLIL in Teaching Italian as a Foreign Language Gioia Panzarella This article seeks to offer some strategies for presenting the topic of antimafia within secondary school courses of Italian as a foreign language. I argue that antimafia movements represent an important and positive reality of contemporary Italian society and, for this reason, they can be included in the teaching of Italian culture within language curricula. In recent years some associations have started to fight the mafia thanks to citizens’ participation, a point of view which raises students’ interest. The lessons here described took place in Austria and focus on the notion of “consumo critico” developed by Addiopizzo (Palermo

  1. Ecology of herbivorous arthropods in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Michael J; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Herms, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization affects communities of herbivorous arthropods and provides opportunities for dramatic changes in their abundance and richness. Underlying these changes are creation of impervious surfaces; variation in the density, diversity, and complexity of vegetation; and maintenance practices including pulsed inputs of fertilizers, water, and pesticides. A rich body of knowledge provides theoretical underpinnings for predicting and understanding impacts of urbanization on arthropods. However, relatively few studies have elucidated mechanisms that explain patterns of insect and mite abundance and diversity across urbanization gradients. Published accounts suggest that responses to urbanization are often taxon specific, highly variable, and linked to properties of urbanization that weaken top-down and/or bottom-up processes, thereby destabilizing populations of herbivores and their natural enemies. In addition to revealing patterns in diversity and abundance of herbivores across urbanization gradients, a primary objective of this review is to examine mechanisms underlying these patterns and to identify potential hypotheses for future testing.

  2. Cognitive “Boy stories”: urban folklore and urban topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The culturally cognitive perception of Belgrade’s topographies is considered through its deployment, symbolic use and narrative foundation. As the explanatory material-one football-media incident, the use of certain areas of the city in a spectacleceremonial manner, knowledge and lore of certain elements of the Belgrade topographies and the organization of «the football Belgrade»-were considered. The attitude is taken that the topography of a city is a multifaceted cultural constituent, whose structure of particular meaning, as a part of cultural communication, is determined by the very fact it is an urban space. Physical aspects of spatial-ness are reduced to relationism, i.e. it has a meaning for the cultural communication only when the elements of urban topographies are brought into correlation. Other characteristics of physical spatial-ness are irrelevant for such communication. Meaning relations in which elements of urban topographies exist are formed on the very fact of them being urban, that is, the afore mentioned denotation that is ascribed to space, stems from those cultural features and artifacts that are associated in a given milieu with certain concrete elements of urban topographies.

  3. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  4. Urban thermal diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KoenSTEEMERS; MarylisRAMOS; MariaSINOU

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the interrelationships between urban form, microclimate and thermal comfort. It draws on recent research of monitoring, surveying and modelling urban thermal characteristics and proposes a method of mapping urban diversity. Because the urban context provides a rich and varied environment that influences the way we use urban spaces (movement, sequence, activity) and how we feel in them (stimulation, thermal comfort), the aim here is to highlight the notion of diversity. Thus thermal diversity is used as a measure of the urban environment, rather than more conventional spatially or temporally fixed average values.

  5. Improvement measures of urban thermal environment

    CERN Document Server

    Takebayashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing readers' insights into urban and architectural environmental planning with consideration for the thermal environment, this work highlights how various urban heat-island strategies have been developed and their effectiveness in urban areas. Specific measures to combat the urban heat-island phenomenon, including improvement of surface cover, reduction of exhaust heat, improvement of ventilation are summarized and various heat-island measurement technologies, which have been proposed in recent years, are organized systematically based on surface- heat budget and surface boundary layer

  6. Urbanization Path Selection Toward Harmonious Urban-Rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Unbalanced urban-rural development is one of the most apparent issues in the process of Chinese urbanization.While harmonious urban-rural development is an objective of urbanization,urbanization is also necessary in realizing harmonious urban-rural development.Such development will be an emblem of the implementation of the Scientific View of Development,and may be realized through an urbanization path with integrated urban-rural system,win-win machine for urban and rural areas,integrated urban-rural market,and coordinated urban-rural industrial structures.

  7. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  8. Urban Wind Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Beller, Christina

    2011-01-01

    New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings. However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver a...

  9. BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Basel urban Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main...... a very detailed physical scale-model in a wind tunnel. In the present paper details of all these activities are presented together with first results....

  10. Urban Sprawl Characteristics and Typologies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl limitation, moderate use of agricultural fields and ensuring the social mix are objectives of public policy of all European Community documents refering to urban and territorial planning, housing policies and territorial cohesion. In post-communist Romania the most obvious spatial effect of the liberalization of political and economical life is the multiplication of constructions from the periurban areas. The urban sprawl characteristics have an important role in the localities’ sustainable development and consequently in ensuring territorial cohesion.

  11. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  12. Influence of Urbanization Factors on Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity: A Comparison of Countries at Different Developmental Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoping Cui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a global problem with demographic trends. The urban heat island plays a dominant role in local climate systems. Despite existing efforts to understand the impacts of multiple urbanization factors on the urban heat island globally, very little is known about the attribution of urban heat island magnitude to urbanization in different locations or developmental phases. In this study, based on global land surface temperature data, urban spatial domain data, gross domestic product (GDP, and population data, we analyzed the influence of multiple urbanization factors on global surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII. We also tentatively compared the abovementioned factors between different regions across the globe, especially between China and the USA, the largest countries that are experiencing or have experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades. The results showed that global SUHII had remarkable spatial heterogeneity due to the geographical and socioeconomic variation between cities. There was a significant correlation between SUHII and population as well as GDP in global cities. Moreover, this study suggested that the impacts of population on SUHII might be stronger in the early stages of urbanization, and the GDP factor would become a critical factor at a certain development level. The urban area also had non-ignorable impacts on SUHII, while the correlation between SUHII and urban shape was relatively weak. All these may imply that the best approach to slow down SUHII is to find other solutions, e.g., optimize the spatial configuration of urban internal landscapes, when the urbanization reaches a high level.

  13. High-frequency high-spatial resolution US in transplanted kidney in pediatric patients; Studio ecografico con sonda con alta frequenza ed elevata risoluzione spaziale nella valutazione del rene trapiantato nell'eta' pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, F.; Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Brunese, L.; Tamasi, S.; Vallone, G. [Neaples Univ. Federico 2, Neaples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali; Mansueto, G.; Somma, P. [Neaples Univ. Federico 2, Neaples (Italy). Sezione di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologica

    2000-02-01

    In this paper it is presented the role power Doppler US with a high-frequency and high-resolution of interlobular arterioles in patients with normally functioning renal transplants or with chronic rejection. 15 patients (mean age 15 years; range 10-18 years) were examined with a General Electric 500 MD unit using 7.5 and 13 MHz linear transducers. In all the patients serum creatinine and diuresis were evaluated; 4 patients underwent US-guided biopsy that resulted in the diagnosis of chronic rejection. Normally functioning renal transplants were found in 11 patients and chronic rejection was seen in 4. In normally functioning renal transplants, interlobular vessels could be depicted as cortical blush with the 7.5 MHz transducer; in the same patients power Doppler US with the 13 MHz transducer permitted a correct evaluation of interlobular vessels that were arranged in series like a palisade. In chronic rejection power Doppler US with the 13 MHz transducer better depicted cortical vascularity and showed irregular, narrow arteries. Power Doppler US with a 13 MHz transducer is particularly useful in children after renal transplants due to their reduced tissutal thickness. The lateral resolution of 13 MHz transducers (<0.3 mm) allows to separate interlobular vessels from each other and the high frequency of the probe can depict interlobular vessels in the peripheral cortex. The optimal visualization of cortical vascularity with a 13 MHz transducer allows early detection of chronic rejection. [Italian] Si valuta la sensibilita' del power Doppler con sonda con alta frequenza ed elevata risoluzione spaziale (13 MHz) nella visualizzazione della vascolarizzazione corticale del rene trapiantato normo-funzionante e nel rigetto cronico nell'eta' pediatrica. Quindici pazienti (10 maschi/5 femmine) con eta' media di 15 anni (intervallo 10-18 anni) sono stati esaminati con ecografo MD 500 mediante sonda da 7,5 e 13 MHz con color e power Doppler. Tutti i

  14. Abdominal masses in the pediatric age. Characterization by CT guided fine needle aspiration biopsy; Masse addominali nell'eta' pediatrica. Caratterizzazione mediante biopsia computerizzata con ago sottile guidata con Tomografia Computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, I.; Soscia, E.; Salvatore, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Fuzionali, Cattedra di Radiologia

    1999-04-01

    CT-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is known to improve diagnosis of expansive abdominal lesions, especially relative to more invasive procedure like explorative laparotomy. FNAB in not commonly use in pediatric patients because of their poor collaboration and of associated risks. The authors investigated the feasibility of FNAB in the pediatric age. [Italian] Sono noti i vantaggi che la biopsia percutanea con ago sottile guidato con TC puo' apportare per la diagnosi delle lesioni espansive addominali, soprattutto se confrontata con procedure piu' invasive come la laparatomia esplorativa. Questo tipo di metodica e' attalmente poco utilizzato nel caso di pazienti pediatrici a causa della scarsa collaborazione e dei rischi associati. Gli autori valutano l'applicabilita' di tale procedura nell'eta' pediatrica alla luce delle propria esperienza.

  15. La sofferenza nell'arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bonito Oliva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between art and suffering is determined by art’s ability to represent its subjects without defining them. It is a process of subtraction rather than one of sheer imitation. This practice allows access to the core of suffering as the defining trait of human existence. The cathartic nature of art translates into a therapeutic experience, creating new emotional and interpersonal bounds.

  16. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    Danish suburbs are facing major challenges trying to coping with demographic changes, with structural changes in retail businesses and especially with sustainability-related challenges that have to do with cutting back on energy consumption for heating and transportation. Also climate changes...... and counteracting the segregation of the suburbs into sharply socially-separated residential areas are major challenges. Therefore, in these years the post-war era’s suburban areas are being revitalized and the suburb urban life and urban qualities are concepts, which are often brought up in this context....... In this paper I will explore the concepts “suburb” and “urban life”. More than half of the Danish population live in suburban areas, and the majority of suburbs were built in a short and hectic period in the years from 1960 to 1975 and in conformity with the functionalist ideals that gave rise to a number...

  17. Observing the Vertical Dimensions of Singapore's Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W. T. L.; Ho, D. X. Q.

    2015-12-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. These profiles were measured from the surface to ~100 m above ground level, a height which includes all of the urban canopy and parts of the urban boundary layer. Initial results indicate significant variations in stability measured over different land uses (e.g. urban park, high-rise residential, commercial); these profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  18. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....... sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...

  19. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Urban flooding is of growing concern due to increasing densification of urban areas, changes in land use, and climate change. The traditional engineering approach to flooding is designing single-purpose drainage systems, dams, and levees. These methods, however, are known to increase the long......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...... emphasizes resiliency and achieved synergy between increased capacity to handle stormwater runoff and improved experiential and functional quality of the urban environments. We identify research needs as well as experiments for improved sustainable and resilient stormwater management namely, flexibility...

  20. Spatial Autocorrelation and Localization of Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jisheng; CHEN Yanguang

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of urban evolution is made by using of spatial autocorrelation theory. A first-order nonlinear autoregression model based on Clark's negative exponential model is proposed to show urban population density. The new method and model are applied to Hangzhou City, China, as an example. The average distance of population activities, the auto-correlation coefficient of urban population density, and the auto-regressive function values all show trends of gradual increase from 1964 to 2000, but there always is a sharp first-order cutoff in the partial autocorrelations. These results indicate that urban development is a process of localization. The discovery of urban locality is significant to improve the cellular-automata-based urban simulation of modeling spatial complexity.