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Sample records for neighbor analysis cna

  1. Constraint Network Analysis (CNA): a Python software package for efficiently linking biomacromolecular structure, flexibility, (thermo-)stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Christopher; Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Klein, Doris L; Radestock, Sebastian; Gohlke, Holger

    2013-04-22

    For deriving maximal advantage from information on biomacromolecular flexibility and rigidity, results from rigidity analyses must be linked to biologically relevant characteristics of a structure. Here, we describe the Python-based software package Constraint Network Analysis (CNA) developed for this task. CNA functions as a front- and backend to the graph-based rigidity analysis software FIRST. CNA goes beyond the mere identification of flexible and rigid regions in a biomacromolecule in that it (I) provides a refined modeling of thermal unfolding simulations that also considers the temperature-dependence of hydrophobic tethers, (II) allows performing rigidity analyses on ensembles of network topologies, either generated from structural ensembles or by using the concept of fuzzy noncovalent constraints, and (III) computes a set of global and local indices for quantifying biomacromolecular stability. This leads to more robust results from rigidity analyses and extends the application domain of rigidity analyses in that phase transition points ("melting points") and unfolding nuclei ("structural weak spots") are determined automatically. Furthermore, CNA robustly handles small-molecule ligands in general. Such advancements are important for applying rigidity analysis to data-driven protein engineering and for estimating the influence of ligand molecules on biomacromolecular stability. CNA maintains the efficiency of FIRST such that the analysis of a single protein structure takes a few seconds for systems of several hundred residues on a single core. These features make CNA an interesting tool for linking biomacromolecular structure, flexibility, (thermo-)stability, and function. CNA is available from http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/software for nonprofit organizations.

  2. Cna 1 spent fuel element interim dry storage system thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilal, R. E; Garcia, J. C; Delmastro, D. F

    2006-01-01

    At the moment, the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (Cnea-I) located in the city of Lima, has enough room to store its spent fuel (Sf) in their two pools spent fuel until about 2015.In case of life extension a spend fuel element interim dry storage system is needed.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (N A-S A) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea), have proposed different interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them.The present work's objective is the thermal analysis of one dry storage alternative for the Sf element of Cna 1.In this work a simple model was developed and used to perform the thermal calculations corresponding to the system proposed by Cnea.This system considers the store of sealed containers with 37 spent fuels in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.Fulfill the maximum cladding temperature requirement ( [es

  3. Stratification of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genomes by gene-directed copy number alteration (CNA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, H-J; Steinbeck, F; Maruschke, M; Koczan, D; Ziems, B; Hakenberg, O W

    2017-01-01

    Tumorigenic processes are understood to be driven by epi-/genetic and genomic alterations from single point mutations to chromosomal alterations such as insertions and deletions of nucleotides up to gains and losses of large chromosomal fragments including products of chromosomal rearrangements e.g. fusion genes and proteins. Overall comparisons of copy number alterations (CNAs) presented in 48 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genomes resulted in ratios of gene losses versus gene gains between 26 ccRCC Fuhrman malignancy grades G1 (ratio 1.25) and 20 G3 (ratio 0.58). Gene losses and gains of 15762 CNA genes were mapped to 795 chromosomal cytoband loci including 280 KEGG pathways. CNAs were classified according to their contribution to Fuhrman tumour gradings G1 and G3. Gene gains and losses turned out to be highly structured processes in ccRCC genomes enabling the subclassification and stratification of ccRCC tumours in a genome-wide manner. CNAs of ccRCC seem to start with common tumour related gene losses flanked by CNAs specifying Fuhrman grade G1 losses and CNA gains favouring grade G3 tumours. The appearance of recurrent CNA signatures implies the presence of causal mechanisms most likely implicated in the pathogenesis and disease-outcome of ccRCC tumours distinguishing lower from higher malignant tumours. The diagnostic quality of initial 201 genes (108 genes supporting G1 and 93 genes G3 phenotypes) has been successfully validated on published Swiss data (GSE19949) leading to a restricted CNA gene set of 171 CNA genes of which 85 genes favour Fuhrman grade G1 and 86 genes Fuhrman grade G3. Regarding these gene sets overall survival decreased with the number of G3 related gene losses plus G3 related gene gains. CNA gene sets presented define an entry to a gene-directed and pathway-related functional understanding of ongoing copy number alterations within and between individual ccRCC tumours leading to CNA genes of prognostic and predictive value.

  4. k-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm in Profiling Power Analysis Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Martinasek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power analysis presents the typical example of successful attacks against trusted cryptographic devices such as RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentifications and contact smart cards. In recent years, the cryptographic community has explored new approaches in power analysis based on machine learning models such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, RF (Random Forest and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP. In this paper, we made an extensive comparison of machine learning algorithms in the power analysis. For this purpose, we implemented a verification program that always chooses the optimal settings of individual machine learning models in order to obtain the best classification accuracy. In our research, we used three datasets, the first containing the power traces of an unprotected AES (Advanced Encryption Standard implementation. The second and third datasets are created independently from public available power traces corresponding to a masked AES implementation (DPA Contest v4. The obtained results revealed some interesting facts, namely, an elementary k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm, which has not been commonly used in power analysis yet, shows great application potential in practice.

  5. Volume 1: president's address, CNA committee reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president's address summarizes the 1974-75 activities of the CNA and reports are given by CNA subcommittees on codes, standards and practices, economic development, education and manpower, international affairs, nuclear insurance, nuclear safety and environment, public relations, and technology. (E.C.B.)

  6. Credit scoring analysis using weighted k nearest neighbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukid, M. A.; Widiharih, T.; Rusgiyono, A.; Prahutama, A.

    2018-05-01

    Credit scoring is a quatitative method to evaluate the credit risk of loan applications. Both statistical methods and artificial intelligence are often used by credit analysts to help them decide whether the applicants are worthy of credit. These methods aim to predict future behavior in terms of credit risk based on past experience of customers with similar characteristics. This paper reviews the weighted k nearest neighbor (WKNN) method for credit assessment by considering the use of some kernels. We use credit data from a private bank in Indonesia. The result shows that the Gaussian kernel and rectangular kernel have a better performance based on the value of percentage corrected classified whose value is 82.4% respectively.

  7. Error Analysis for RADAR Neighbor Matching Localization in Linear Logarithmic Strength Varying Wi-Fi Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the statistical errors for the fingerprint-based RADAR neighbor matching localization with the linearly calibrated reference points (RPs in logarithmic received signal strength (RSS varying Wi-Fi environment. To the best of our knowledge, little comprehensive analysis work has appeared on the error performance of neighbor matching localization with respect to the deployment of RPs. However, in order to achieve the efficient and reliable location-based services (LBSs as well as the ubiquitous context-awareness in Wi-Fi environment, much attention has to be paid to the highly accurate and cost-efficient localization systems. To this end, the statistical errors by the widely used neighbor matching localization are significantly discussed in this paper to examine the inherent mathematical relations between the localization errors and the locations of RPs by using a basic linear logarithmic strength varying model. Furthermore, based on the mathematical demonstrations and some testing results, the closed-form solutions to the statistical errors by RADAR neighbor matching localization can be an effective tool to explore alternative deployment of fingerprint-based neighbor matching localization systems in the future.

  8. Error Analysis for RADAR Neighbor Matching Localization in Linear Logarithmic Strength Varying Wi-Fi Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zengshan; Xu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical errors for the fingerprint-based RADAR neighbor matching localization with the linearly calibrated reference points (RPs) in logarithmic received signal strength (RSS) varying Wi-Fi environment. To the best of our knowledge, little comprehensive analysis work has appeared on the error performance of neighbor matching localization with respect to the deployment of RPs. However, in order to achieve the efficient and reliable location-based services (LBSs) as well as the ubiquitous context-awareness in Wi-Fi environment, much attention has to be paid to the highly accurate and cost-efficient localization systems. To this end, the statistical errors by the widely used neighbor matching localization are significantly discussed in this paper to examine the inherent mathematical relations between the localization errors and the locations of RPs by using a basic linear logarithmic strength varying model. Furthermore, based on the mathematical demonstrations and some testing results, the closed-form solutions to the statistical errors by RADAR neighbor matching localization can be an effective tool to explore alternative deployment of fingerprint-based neighbor matching localization systems in the future. PMID:24683349

  9. CNA web server: rigidity theory-based thermal unfolding simulations of proteins for linking structure, (thermo-)stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dennis M; Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Pfleger, Christopher; Gohlke, Holger

    2013-07-01

    The Constraint Network Analysis (CNA) web server provides a user-friendly interface to the CNA approach developed in our laboratory for linking results from rigidity analyses to biologically relevant characteristics of a biomolecular structure. The CNA web server provides a refined modeling of thermal unfolding simulations that considers the temperature dependence of hydrophobic tethers and computes a set of global and local indices for quantifying biomacromolecular stability. From the global indices, phase transition points are identified where the structure switches from a rigid to a floppy state; these phase transition points can be related to a protein's (thermo-)stability. Structural weak spots (unfolding nuclei) are automatically identified, too; this knowledge can be exploited in data-driven protein engineering. The local indices are useful in linking flexibility and function and to understand the impact of ligand binding on protein flexibility. The CNA web server robustly handles small-molecule ligands in general. To overcome issues of sensitivity with respect to the input structure, the CNA web server allows performing two ensemble-based variants of thermal unfolding simulations. The web server output is provided as raw data, plots and/or Jmol representations. The CNA web server, accessible at http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/cna or http://www.cnanalysis.de, is free and open to all users with no login requirement.

  10. Plutonium demonstration assemblies in the CNA core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The SENA (Societe d'Exploitation Nucleaire des Ardennes) has decided to load two plutonium assemblies at the beginning of the 6th cycle of the CNA (Centrale Nucleaire des Ardennes). These assemblies will be loaded in September 1975 and will undergo three irradiation cycles. A general description of these two assemblies and nuclear design calculations that have been performed are presented [fr

  11. CNA-motion in a PS - Fn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Mishra, C.K.

    1989-12-01

    A Finsler space Fn (n > 2), throughout with the projective curvature tensor possessing vanishing covariant derivative, has been called a ''projectively symmetric Finsler space'' and such a space is denoted PS-Fn. The conditions in which an infinitesimal transformation defines non-affine motion with a contra-field, briefly called CNA-motion, are discussed. 7 refs

  12. Hyperplane distance neighbor clustering based on local discriminant analysis for complex chemical processes monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chunhong; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng [Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2014-11-15

    The collected training data often include both normal and faulty samples for complex chemical processes. However, some monitoring methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), require fault-free data to build the normal operation model. These techniques are applicable after the preliminary step of data clustering is applied. We here propose a novel hyperplane distance neighbor clustering (HDNC) based on the local discriminant analysis (LDA) for chemical process monitoring. First, faulty samples are separated from normal ones using the HDNC method. Then, the optimal subspace for fault detection and classification can be obtained using the LDA approach. The proposed method takes the multimodality within the faulty data into account, and thus improves the capability of process monitoring significantly. The HDNC-LDA monitoring approach is applied to two simulation processes and then compared with the conventional FDA based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN-FDA) method. The results obtained in two different scenarios demonstrate the superiority of the HDNC-LDA approach in terms of fault detection and classification accuracy.

  13. Hyperplane distance neighbor clustering based on local discriminant analysis for complex chemical processes monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chunhong; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The collected training data often include both normal and faulty samples for complex chemical processes. However, some monitoring methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), require fault-free data to build the normal operation model. These techniques are applicable after the preliminary step of data clustering is applied. We here propose a novel hyperplane distance neighbor clustering (HDNC) based on the local discriminant analysis (LDA) for chemical process monitoring. First, faulty samples are separated from normal ones using the HDNC method. Then, the optimal subspace for fault detection and classification can be obtained using the LDA approach. The proposed method takes the multimodality within the faulty data into account, and thus improves the capability of process monitoring significantly. The HDNC-LDA monitoring approach is applied to two simulation processes and then compared with the conventional FDA based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN-FDA) method. The results obtained in two different scenarios demonstrate the superiority of the HDNC-LDA approach in terms of fault detection and classification accuracy

  14. CNA/CNS conference summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains summaries of papers presented at the 32. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association and the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. The full proceedings, and the individual papers contained therein, have been abstracted separately. Sessions on the following topics are included: Plenary; The international CANDU program; Canadian used fuel management program; Public information advocates; Fuel and electricity supply; In which direction should reactors advance?; Canadian advanced nuclear research program; International cooperation in operations; Safety in design, operation, regulation; Renovation of operating stations; Reactor physics; New concepts and Technology; Fuel behaviour; Reactor design; Safety analysis; Fuel channel behaviour; Equipment and design qualification; Compliance and licensing; Fusion science and technology; Darlington assessment; Plant aging and life assessment; Thermalhydraulic modelling and analysis; Diagnostics and data management; Operator training and certification

  15. Aftershock identification problem via the nearest-neighbor analysis for marked point processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielov, A.; Zaliapin, I.; Wong, H.; Keilis-Borok, V.

    2007-12-01

    The centennial observations on the world seismicity have revealed a wide variety of clustering phenomena that unfold in the space-time-energy domain and provide most reliable information about the earthquake dynamics. However, there is neither a unifying theory nor a convenient statistical apparatus that would naturally account for the different types of seismic clustering. In this talk we present a theoretical framework for nearest-neighbor analysis of marked processes and obtain new results on hierarchical approach to studying seismic clustering introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski (2004). Recall that under this approach one defines an asymmetric distance D in space-time-energy domain such that the nearest-neighbor spanning graph with respect to D becomes a time- oriented tree. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to detect earthquake clustering. We apply our analysis to the observed seismicity of California and synthetic catalogs from ETAS model and show that the earthquake clustering part is statistically different from the homogeneous part. This finding may serve as a basis for an objective aftershock identification procedure.

  16. Seismic clusters analysis in Northeastern Italy by the nearest-neighbor approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Gentili, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    The main features of earthquake clusters in Northeastern Italy are explored, with the aim to get new insights on local scale patterns of seismicity in the area. The study is based on a systematic analysis of robustly and uniformly detected seismic clusters, which are identified by a statistical method, based on nearest-neighbor distances of events in the space-time-energy domain. The method permits us to highlight and investigate the internal structure of earthquake sequences, and to differentiate the spatial properties of seismicity according to the different topological features of the clusters structure. To analyze seismicity of Northeastern Italy, we use information from local OGS bulletins, compiled at the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics since 1977. A preliminary reappraisal of the earthquake bulletins is carried out and the area of sufficient completeness is outlined. Various techniques are considered to estimate the scaling parameters that characterize earthquakes occurrence in the region, namely the b-value and the fractal dimension of epicenters distribution, required for the application of the nearest-neighbor technique. Specifically, average robust estimates of the parameters of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, are assessed for the whole outlined region and are used to compute the nearest-neighbor distances. Clusters identification by the nearest-neighbor method turn out quite reliable and robust with respect to the minimum magnitude cutoff of the input catalog; the identified clusters are well consistent with those obtained from manual aftershocks identification of selected sequences. We demonstrate that the earthquake clusters have distinct preferred geographic locations, and we identify two areas that differ substantially in the examined clustering properties. Specifically, burst-like sequences are associated with the north-western part and swarm-like sequences with the south-eastern part of the study

  17. Belowground neighbor perception in Arabidopsis thaliana studied by transcriptome analysis: roots of Hieracium pilosella cause biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eSchmid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Root-root interactions are much more sophisticated than previously thought, yet the mechanisms of belowground neighbor perception remain largely obscure. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses allow detailed insight into plant reactions to environmental cues.A root interaction trial was set up to explore both morphological and whole genome transcriptional responses in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence or absence of an inferior competitor, Hieracium pilosella.Neighbor perception was indicated by Arabidopsis roots predominantly growing away from the neighbor (segregation, while solitary plants placed more roots towards the middle of the pot. Total biomass remained unaffected. Database comparisons in transcriptome analysis revealed considerable similarity between Arabidopsis root reactions to neighbors and reactions to pathogens. Detailed analyses of the functional category ‘biotic stress’ using MapMan tools found the sub-category ‘pathogenesis-related proteins’ highly significantly induced. A comparison to a study on intraspecific competition brought forward a core of genes consistently involved in reactions to neighbor roots.We conclude that beyond resource depletion roots perceive neighboring roots or their associated microorganisms by a relatively uniform mechanism that involves the strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins. In an ecological context the findings reveal that belowground neighbor detection may occur independently of resource depletion, allowing for a time advantage for the root to prepare for potential interactions.

  18. Spectral neighbor analysis method for automated generation of quantum-accurate interatomic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Aidan P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Multiscale Science Dept.; Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optimization and Uncertainty Quantification Dept.; Trott, Christian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable Algorithms Dept.; Foiles, Stephen M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Materials and Data Science Dept.; Tucker, Garritt J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Materials and Data Science Dept.; Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2015-03-15

    Here, we present a new interatomic potential for solids and liquids called Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP). The SNAP potential has a very general form and uses machine-learning techniques to reproduce the energies, forces, and stress tensors of a large set of small configurations of atoms, which are obtained using high-accuracy quantum electronic structure (QM) calculations. The local environment of each atom is characterized by a set of bispectrum components of the local neighbor density projected onto a basis of hyperspherical harmonics in four dimensions. The bispectrum components are the same bond-orientational order parameters employed by the GAP potential [1]. The SNAP potential, unlike GAP, assumes a linear relationship between atom energy and bispectrum components. The linear SNAP coefficients are determined using weighted least-squares linear regression against the full QM training set. This allows the SNAP potential to be fit in a robust, automated manner to large QM data sets using many bispectrum components. The calculation of the bispectrum components and the SNAP potential are implemented in the LAMMPS parallel molecular dynamics code. We demonstrate that a previously unnoticed symmetry property can be exploited to reduce the computational cost of the force calculations by more than one order of magnitude. We present results for a SNAP potential for tantalum, showing that it accurately reproduces a range of commonly calculated properties of both the crystalline solid and the liquid phases. In addition, unlike simpler existing potentials, SNAP correctly predicts the energy barrier for screw dislocation migration in BCC tantalum.

  19. Spectral neighbor analysis method for automated generation of quantum-accurate interatomic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.P., E-mail: athomps@sandia.gov [Multiscale Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1322, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Swiler, L.P., E-mail: lpswile@sandia.gov [Optimization and Uncertainty Quantification Department, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1318, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Trott, C.R., E-mail: crtrott@sandia.gov [Scalable Algorithms Department, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1322, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Foiles, S.M., E-mail: foiles@sandia.gov [Computational Materials and Data Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1411, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Tucker, G.J., E-mail: gtucker@coe.drexel.edu [Computational Materials and Data Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1411, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We present a new interatomic potential for solids and liquids called Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP). The SNAP potential has a very general form and uses machine-learning techniques to reproduce the energies, forces, and stress tensors of a large set of small configurations of atoms, which are obtained using high-accuracy quantum electronic structure (QM) calculations. The local environment of each atom is characterized by a set of bispectrum components of the local neighbor density projected onto a basis of hyperspherical harmonics in four dimensions. The bispectrum components are the same bond-orientational order parameters employed by the GAP potential [1]. The SNAP potential, unlike GAP, assumes a linear relationship between atom energy and bispectrum components. The linear SNAP coefficients are determined using weighted least-squares linear regression against the full QM training set. This allows the SNAP potential to be fit in a robust, automated manner to large QM data sets using many bispectrum components. The calculation of the bispectrum components and the SNAP potential are implemented in the LAMMPS parallel molecular dynamics code. We demonstrate that a previously unnoticed symmetry property can be exploited to reduce the computational cost of the force calculations by more than one order of magnitude. We present results for a SNAP potential for tantalum, showing that it accurately reproduces a range of commonly calculated properties of both the crystalline solid and the liquid phases. In addition, unlike simpler existing potentials, SNAP correctly predicts the energy barrier for screw dislocation migration in BCC tantalum.

  20. Spectral neighbor analysis method for automated generation of quantum-accurate interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.P.; Swiler, L.P.; Trott, C.R.; Foiles, S.M.; Tucker, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new interatomic potential for solids and liquids called Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP). The SNAP potential has a very general form and uses machine-learning techniques to reproduce the energies, forces, and stress tensors of a large set of small configurations of atoms, which are obtained using high-accuracy quantum electronic structure (QM) calculations. The local environment of each atom is characterized by a set of bispectrum components of the local neighbor density projected onto a basis of hyperspherical harmonics in four dimensions. The bispectrum components are the same bond-orientational order parameters employed by the GAP potential [1]. The SNAP potential, unlike GAP, assumes a linear relationship between atom energy and bispectrum components. The linear SNAP coefficients are determined using weighted least-squares linear regression against the full QM training set. This allows the SNAP potential to be fit in a robust, automated manner to large QM data sets using many bispectrum components. The calculation of the bispectrum components and the SNAP potential are implemented in the LAMMPS parallel molecular dynamics code. We demonstrate that a previously unnoticed symmetry property can be exploited to reduce the computational cost of the force calculations by more than one order of magnitude. We present results for a SNAP potential for tantalum, showing that it accurately reproduces a range of commonly calculated properties of both the crystalline solid and the liquid phases. In addition, unlike simpler existing potentials, SNAP correctly predicts the energy barrier for screw dislocation migration in BCC tantalum

  1. Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltyszewski, Ireneusz; Plocienniczak, Andrzej; Fabricius, Hans Ake; Kornienko, Igor; Vodolazhsky, Dmitrij; Parson, Walther; Hradil, Roman; Schmitter, Hermann; Ivanov, Pavel; Kuzniar, Piotr; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Woźniak, Marcin; Henke, Jurgen; Henke, Lotte; Olkhovets, Sergiv; Voitenko, Vladimir; Lagus, Vita; Ficek, Andrej; Minárik, Gabriel; de Knijff, Peter; Rebała, Krzysztof; Wysocka, Joanna; Kapińska, Ewa; Cybulska, Lidia; Mikulich, Alexei I; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Krajewski, Paweł; Ploski, Rafał

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed among 2176 unrelated individuals from 6 regional Polish populations and among 4321 individuals from Germany (three samples), Austria, The Netherlands, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation (six samples). The statistical approach consisted of AMOVA, calculation of pairwise Rst values and analysis by multidimensional scaling. We found homogeneity of present day Poland and consistent differences between Polish and German populations which contrasted with relative similarities between Russian and German populations. These discrepancies between genetic and geographic distances were confirmed by analysis of an independent data set on Y chromosome STRs. Migrations of Goths, Viking influences, German settlements in the region of Volga river and/or forced population resettlements and other events related to World War II are the historic events which might have caused these finding.

  2. SibRank: Signed bipartite network analysis for neighbor-based collaborative ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Bita; Haratizadeh, Saman

    2016-09-01

    Collaborative ranking is an emerging field of recommender systems that utilizes users' preference data rather than rating values. Unfortunately, neighbor-based collaborative ranking has gained little attention despite its more flexibility and justifiability. This paper proposes a novel framework, called SibRank that seeks to improve the state of the art neighbor-based collaborative ranking methods. SibRank represents users' preferences as a signed bipartite network, and finds similar users, through a novel personalized ranking algorithm in signed networks.

  3. Pressurized thermal shock. Thermo-hydraulic conditions in the CNA-I reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Mirta A.; Rosso, Ricardo D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze several reports issued by the Utility (Nucleo Electrica S.A.) and related to Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) phenomena in the CNA-I Nuclear Power Plant. These analyses are aimed at obtaining conclusions and establishing criteria ensuring the RPV integrity. Special attention was given to the effects ECCS cold-water injection at the RPV down-comer leading to pressurized thermal shock scenarios. The results deal with hypothetical primary system pipe breaks of different sizes, the inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve, the double guillotine break of a live steam line in the containment and the inadvertent actuation pressurizer heaters. Modeling conditions were setup to represent experiments performed at the UPTF, under the hypothesis that they are representative of those that, hypothetically, may occur at the CNA-I. No system scaling analysis was performed, so this assertion and the inferred conclusions are no fully justified, at least in principle. The above mentioned studies, indicate that the RPV internal wall surface temperature will be nearly 40 degree. It was concluded that they allowed a better approximation of PTS phenomena in the RPV of the CNA-I. Special emphasis was made on the influence of the ECCS systems on the attained RPV wall temperature, particularly the low-pressure TJ water injection system. Some conservative hypothesis made, are discussed in this report. (author)

  4. Integration and analysis of neighbor discovery and link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Abd Razak, Shukor

    2014-01-01

    Network connectivity and link quality information are the fundamental requirements of wireless sensor network protocols to perform their desired functionality. Most of the existing discovery protocols have only focused on the neighbor discovery problem, while a few number of them provide an integrated neighbor search and link estimation. As these protocols require a careful parameter adjustment before network deployment, they cannot provide scalable and accurate network initialization in large-scale dense wireless sensor networks with random topology. Furthermore, performance of these protocols has not entirely been evaluated yet. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive simulation study on the efficiency of employing adaptive protocols compared to the existing nonadaptive protocols for initializing sensor networks with random topology. In this regard, we propose adaptive network initialization protocols which integrate the initial neighbor discovery with link quality estimation process to initialize large-scale dense wireless sensor networks without requiring any parameter adjustment before network deployment. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide a detailed simulation study on the performance of integrated neighbor discovery and link quality estimation protocols for initializing sensor networks. This study can help system designers to determine the most appropriate approach for different applications.

  5. Integration and Analysis of Neighbor Discovery and Link Quality Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Radi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network connectivity and link quality information are the fundamental requirements of wireless sensor network protocols to perform their desired functionality. Most of the existing discovery protocols have only focused on the neighbor discovery problem, while a few number of them provide an integrated neighbor search and link estimation. As these protocols require a careful parameter adjustment before network deployment, they cannot provide scalable and accurate network initialization in large-scale dense wireless sensor networks with random topology. Furthermore, performance of these protocols has not entirely been evaluated yet. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive simulation study on the efficiency of employing adaptive protocols compared to the existing nonadaptive protocols for initializing sensor networks with random topology. In this regard, we propose adaptive network initialization protocols which integrate the initial neighbor discovery with link quality estimation process to initialize large-scale dense wireless sensor networks without requiring any parameter adjustment before network deployment. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide a detailed simulation study on the performance of integrated neighbor discovery and link quality estimation protocols for initializing sensor networks. This study can help system designers to determine the most appropriate approach for different applications.

  6. Use of the neighboring orbital model for analysis of electronic coupling in Class III intervalence compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, Stephen F.; Weaver, Michael N.; Luo Yun; Lockard, Jenny V.; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Symmetrical charge-delocalized intervalence radical ions should not be described by the traditional two-state model that has been so successful for their localized counterparts. If they lack direct overlap between their charge-bearing units (M), their diabatic orbitals have an equal energy pair of symmetrized M-centered combination orbitals that are symmetric (S) or antisymmetric (A) with respect to a symmetry element at the center of the molecule. The M combination orbitals will mix separately with bridge orbitals of the same symmetry. We call the simplest useful model for this situation the neighboring orbital model, which uses the S and A bridge orbitals of high overlap that lie closest in energy to the M orbital pair, resulting in two two-state models that have a common energy for one pair. This model is developed quantitatively, and examples having 1, 3, 5, and 7 electrons in the neighboring orbitals are illustrated

  7. Neighboring and Urbanism: Commonality versus Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Carol J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines a dimension of neighboring that need not assume friendship as the role model. When the model assumes only a sense of connectedness as defining neighboring, then the residential correlation, shown in many studies between urbanism and neighboring, disappears. Theories of neighboring, study variables, methods, and analysis are discussed.…

  8. 'What's happening at the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA): current priorities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of current CNA programs, particularly focused on communications and advertising, regulatory affairs, climate change, and government relations. The presentation will address the principal messages that Canada's nuclear technology sector is endeavouring to get across to the public and to government policy makers. (author)

  9. Making the message count: a new CNA media relations strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metza, P.

    1996-01-01

    The points made, in anecdotal form, are that: experts should be accessible to the media; the CNA should be active in speaking to the media; simple language should be used; the industry should present a human face; nobody should be surprised that reporters are cynical, suspicious and skeptical about industry, government and ''the establishment''

  10. Making the message count: a new CNA media relations strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metza, P [Canadian Nuclear Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The points made, in anecdotal form, are that: experts should be accessible to the media; the CNA should be active in speaking to the media; simple language should be used; the industry should present a human face; nobody should be surprised that reporters are cynical, suspicious and skeptical about industry, government and ``the establishment``.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE GORJ COUNTY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC WITH NEIGHBORING COUNTIES IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTA ENEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper is to highlight how the economy evolved in the Florida county comparison with neighboring counties in economic crisis that society through the difficult years. also study and make acomparison in terms of demographic characteristics, respectively, compared between young and old, labor migration, etc. form., indices that are decisive for evaluating the economic situation of the county above mentioned. Economically, the county is in the connection between the economy and sub-mountainous and mountainous plains. The specificity of its resources, Gorj is a leading energy suppliers of the country, both as primary energy (coal, oil and processed (heat and electricity1. Results and statistical sources that Gorj currently produces more than 20% of the thermoelectric power of2. In terms of population below national averages Gorj is the fourth in the region after Olt and Valcea. Is medium in size, being the third after Dolj and Valcea. In terms of urbanization, Gorj is below the national average and third in the region after Dolj and Mehedinti. After the general level of development, the county is in a less favorable position, because the permanent part is characterized by a lower level of development.

  12. CNA Maritime Asia Project. Workshop Two: Naval Developments in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Latin America and the Mediterranean. Over time, the Pacific Fleet will become the most important fleet in Russia. It will receive most (if not all...this required them to assume commercial risk in starting programmes before the contracts were finalized. 8 Gray, op cit, p 48. 29 CNA Maritime Asia...Three times in early 2011, China Maritime Surveillance vessels and a Chinese fishing boat curtailed seismic survey ships operations in designated

  13. CNA Training Requirements and Resident Care Outcomes in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy B; Yang, Bo Kyum; Han, Kihye

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationship between certified nursing assistant (CNA) training requirements and resident outcomes in U.S. nursing homes (NHs). The number and type of training hours vary by state since many U.S. states have chosen to require additional hours over the federal minimums, presumably to keep pace with the increasing complexity of care. Yet little is known about the impact of the type and amount of training CNAs are required to have on resident outcomes. Compiled data on 2010 state regulatory requirements for CNA training (clinical, total initial training, in-service, ratio of clinical to didactic hours) were linked to 2010 resident outcomes data from 15,508 NHs. Outcomes included the following NH Compare Quality Indicators (QIs) (Minimum Data Set 3.0): pain, antipsychotic use, falls with injury, depression, weight loss and pressure ulcers. Facility-level QIs were regressed on training indicators using generalized linear models with the Huber-White correction, to account for clustering of NHs within states. Models were stratified by facility size and adjusted for case-mix, ownership status, percentage of Medicaid-certified beds and urban-rural status. A higher ratio of clinical to didactic hours was related to better resident outcomes. NHs in states requiring clinical training hours above federal minimums (i.e., >16hr) had significantly lower odds of adverse outcomes, particularly pain falls with injury, and depression. Total and in-service training hours also were related to outcomes. Additional training providing clinical experiences may aid in identifying residents at risk. This study provides empirical evidence supporting the importance of increased requirements for CNA training to improve quality of care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rules of performance in the nursing home: A grounded theory of nurse-CNA communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Connie; Clayton, Margaret; Canary, Heather E; Towsley, Gail; Cloyes, Kristin; Lund, Dale

    This study offers an initial theoretical understanding of nurse-CNA communication processes from the perspectives of nurses and CNAs who are providing direct care to residents in nursing homes. A grounded theory approach provided an understanding of nurse-CNA communication process within the complexities of the nursing home setting. Four themes (maintaining information flow, following procedure, fostering collegiality, and showing respect) describe the "rules of performance" that intertwine in nuanced relationships to guide nurse-CNA communication processes. Understanding how these rules of performance guide nurse-CNA communication processes, and how they are positively and negatively influenced, suggests that nurse-CNA communication during direct care of nursing home residents could be improved through policy and education that is specifically designed to be relevant and applicable to direct care providers in the nursing home environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Applying network analysis and Nebula (neighbor-edges based and unbiased leverage algorithm) to ToxCast data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hao; Luo, Heng; Ng, Hui Wen; Meehan, Joe; Ge, Weigong; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    ToxCast data have been used to develop models for predicting in vivo toxicity. To predict the in vivo toxicity of a new chemical using a ToxCast data based model, its ToxCast bioactivity data are needed but not normally available. The capability of predicting ToxCast bioactivity data is necessary to fully utilize ToxCast data in the risk assessment of chemicals. We aimed to understand and elucidate the relationships between the chemicals and bioactivity data of the assays in ToxCast and to develop a network analysis based method for predicting ToxCast bioactivity data. We conducted modularity analysis on a quantitative network constructed from ToxCast data to explore the relationships between the assays and chemicals. We further developed Nebula (neighbor-edges based and unbiased leverage algorithm) for predicting ToxCast bioactivity data. Modularity analysis on the network constructed from ToxCast data yielded seven modules. Assays and chemicals in the seven modules were distinct. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded a Q(2) of 0.5416, indicating ToxCast bioactivity data can be predicted by Nebula. Prediction domain analysis showed some types of ToxCast assay data could be more reliably predicted by Nebula than others. Network analysis is a promising approach to understand ToxCast data. Nebula is an effective algorithm for predicting ToxCast bioactivity data, helping fully utilize ToxCast data in the risk assessment of chemicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. PODESY program for flux mapping of CNA II reactor:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    1988-01-01

    The PODESY program, developed by KWU, calculates the spatial flux distribution of CNA II reactor through a three-dimensional expansion of 90 incore detector measurements. The calculation is made in three steps: a) short-term calculation which considers the control rod positions and it has to be done each time the flux mapping is calculated; b) medium-term calculation which includes local burn-up dependent calculation made by diffusion methods in macro-cell configurations (seven channels in hexagonal distribution), and c) long-term calculation, or macroscopic flux determination, that is a fitting and expansion of measured fluxes, previously corrected by local effects, using the eigen functions of the modified diffusion equation. The paper outlines development of step (c) of the calculation. The incore detectors have been located in the central zone of the core. In order to obtain low errors in the expansion procedure it is necessary to include additional points, whose flux values are assumed to be equivalent to detector measurements. These flux values are calculated with detector measurements and a spatial flux distribution calculated by a PUMA code. This PUMA calculation employs a smooth burn-up distribution (local burn-up variations are considered in step (b) of the whole calculation) representing the state of core evolution at the calculation time. The core evolution referred to ends when the equilibrium core condition is reached. Additionally, a calculation method to be employed in the plant in case of incore detector failures, is proposed. (Author) [es

  17. NeighborHood

    OpenAIRE

    Corominola Ocaña, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    NeighborHood és una aplicació basada en el núvol, adaptable a qualsevol dispositiu (mòbil, tablet, desktop). L'objectiu d'aquesta aplicació és poder permetre als usuaris introduir a les persones del seu entorn més immediat i que aquestes persones siguin visibles per a la resta d'usuaris. NeighborHood es una aplicación basada en la nube, adaptable a cualquier dispositivo (móvil, tablet, desktop). El objetivo de esta aplicación es poder permitir a los usuarios introducir a las personas de su...

  18. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  19. Automated analysis of long-term grooming behavior in Drosophila using a k-nearest neighbors classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria W; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2018-01-01

    Despite being pervasive, the control of programmed grooming is poorly understood. We addressed this gap by developing a high-throughput platform that allows long-term detection of grooming in Drosophila melanogaster. In our method, a k-nearest neighbors algorithm automatically classifies fly behavior and finds grooming events with over 90% accuracy in diverse genotypes. Our data show that flies spend ~13% of their waking time grooming, driven largely by two major internal programs. One of these programs regulates the timing of grooming and involves the core circadian clock components cycle, clock, and period. The second program regulates the duration of grooming and, while dependent on cycle and clock, appears to be independent of period. This emerging dual control model in which one program controls timing and another controls duration, resembles the two-process regulatory model of sleep. Together, our quantitative approach presents the opportunity for further dissection of mechanisms controlling long-term grooming in Drosophila. PMID:29485401

  20. A Local Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and a Weighted and Constrained Least-Squared Method for Mixed Odor Analysis by Electronic Nose Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuo-Min Shyu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of work has been done to develop techniques for odor analysis by electronic nose systems. These analyses mostly focus on identifying a particular odor by comparing with a known odor dataset. However, in many situations, it would be more practical if each individual odorant could be determined directly. This paper proposes two methods for such odor components analysis for electronic nose systems. First, a K-nearest neighbor (KNN-based local weighted nearest neighbor (LWNN algorithm is proposed to determine the components of an odor. According to the component analysis, the odor training data is firstly categorized into several groups, each of which is represented by its centroid. The examined odor is then classified as the class of the nearest centroid. The distance between the examined odor and the centroid is calculated based on a weighting scheme, which captures the local structure of each predefined group. To further determine the concentration of each component, odor models are built by regressions. Then, a weighted and constrained least-squares (WCLS method is proposed to estimate the component concentrations. Experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The LWNN algorithm is able to classify mixed odors with different mixing ratios, while the WCLS method can provide good estimates on component concentrations.

  1. A Markov chain Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Statistical Analysis of DNA Sequence Evolution with Neighbor-Dependent Substitution Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of DNA sequences can be described by discrete state continuous time Markov processes on a phylogenetic tree. We consider neighbor-dependent evolutionary models where the instantaneous rate of substitution at a site depends on the states of the neighboring sites. Neighbor...

  2. Analysis and Identification of Aptamer-Compound Interactions with a Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy and Nearest Neighbor Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Jing; Cui, Weiren; Hu, Jerry; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The development of biochemistry and molecular biology has revealed an increasingly important role of compounds in several biological processes. Like the aptamer-protein interaction, aptamer-compound interaction attracts increasing attention. However, it is time-consuming to select proper aptamers against compounds using traditional methods, such as exponential enrichment. Thus, there is an urgent need to design effective computational methods for searching effective aptamers against compounds. This study attempted to extract important features for aptamer-compound interactions using feature selection methods, such as Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy, as well as incremental feature selection. Each aptamer-compound pair was represented by properties derived from the aptamer and compound, including frequencies of single nucleotides and dinucleotides for the aptamer, as well as the constitutional, electrostatic, quantum-chemical, and space conformational descriptors of the compounds. As a result, some important features were obtained. To confirm the importance of the obtained features, we further discussed the associations between them and aptamer-compound interactions. Simultaneously, an optimal prediction model based on the nearest neighbor algorithm was built to identify aptamer-compound interactions, which has the potential to be a useful tool for the identification of novel aptamer-compound interactions. The program is available upon the request.

  3. Analysis of the special consequences of the Barij essence industrial complex of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shaterian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the late decades, the development of industrial activities in the rural areas of Iran have caused some changes in different aspects of these areas which influence the special patterns of rural areas. This article aims to identify the changes that have been the results of industrial development and it’s reflection in the development of rural residential areas. The main intention of this study is to analyze the special consequences (economic, social and anatomical of the industrial center of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas. The industrial center consists of three factories that are for making essence, making equipment for gardeners and distillers and the Barij Company. All of the above companies are called the Industrial Center of Barij Essence. It has employed 1050 workers from amongst whom 120 people were identified and the questionnaires were randomly distributed among these workers. To analyze the data based on the measurement variables, descriptive and analytic methods (T were used. The results showed that economically, having rural industries has led to an increase in the people’s intake of  calories, seeing more consumption in long lasting goods and more satisfaction in the native people of the area. In addition, there is more social involvement,  improvements in not wasting the residents’ free time, decreasing of  natives immigration out of the rural areas and finally anatomically, quantity and quality improvement in the rural houses.

  4. Total loss of CNA1 steam generators feed water simulated with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Edgardo J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the calculations are presented carried out by utilizing the code RELAP5/MOD3, upon the basis of the postulated initial event of total loss of feed water to the two steam generators in the nuclear power plant Atucha 1, CNA1. The evolution of the installation systems during the transient was analyzed in different conditions of availability: condenser, relief valve and safety valves in the secondary system, safety valves in the primary system and system of long-term subsequent cooling. Located in the primary and secondary systems of the installation they turn out to be prominent in this event. Upon this basis the sequences of possible evolution were calculated and those that would conduct the system toward the setting called 'damage to the core' were determined. Also those in which would arrive to a state of 'safe shutdown' were determined. These results were utilized in the verification of the tree of events utilized in the Final Report of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis for the sequence of event T9, made from calculations carried out with the code DINETZ. From this compare some differences were determined and are presented in the modified version of tree of events. (author)

  5. Prediction of operon-like gene clusters in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome based on co-expression analysis of neighboring genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Nakamura, Kensuke; Hirai, Masami Y; Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2012-07-15

    Operon-like arrangements of genes occur in eukaryotes ranging from yeasts and filamentous fungi to nematodes, plants, and mammals. In plants, several examples of operon-like gene clusters involved in metabolic pathways have recently been characterized, e.g. the cyclic hydroxamic acid pathways in maize, the avenacin biosynthesis gene clusters in oat, the thalianol pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the diterpenoid momilactone cluster in rice. Such operon-like gene clusters are defined by their co-regulation or neighboring positions within immediate vicinity of chromosomal regions. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of neighboring genes therefore accounts a crucial step to reveal the complete set of operon-like gene clusters within a genome. Genome-wide prediction of operon-like gene clusters should contribute to functional annotation efforts and provide novel insight into evolutionary aspects acquiring certain biological functions as well. We predicted co-expressed gene clusters by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficient of neighboring genes and randomly selected gene pairs, based on a statistical method that takes false discovery rate (FDR) into consideration for 1469 microarray gene expression datasets of A. thaliana. We estimated that A. thaliana contains 100 operon-like gene clusters in total. We predicted 34 statistically significant gene clusters consisting of 3 to 22 genes each, based on a stringent FDR threshold of 0.1. Functional relationships among genes in individual clusters were estimated by sequence similarity and functional annotation of genes. Duplicated gene pairs (determined based on BLAST with a cutoff of EOperon-like clusters tend to include genes encoding bio-machinery associated with ribosomes, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, secondary metabolic pathways, lipid and fatty-acid metabolism, and the lipid transfer system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Education and the CNA: A Canadian approach to a global agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.; Hynes, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA) has launched an initiative which objective is not only to offer the target audience a better understanding of the nuclear industry, but also to offer the nuclear industry a better understanding of the target audience (educators, students and parents). By expanding the CNA conventional mandate (science) to include input from social studies teachers and guidance counselors, and by recognizing the interconnection of science, technology, energy, environment and society, it is aimed at maintaining a proactive position in the global environment

  7. The CNA-1 (Nuclear Power Plant Atucha-1) QK-01 repairing project; Proyecto de reparacion del QK-01 de CNA-1 (Central Nuclear Atucha-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzaferri, J C [Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabot, P [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1998-12-31

    The repair/maintenance of the CNA-1 QK-01 Moderator Cooler will be a leading case of the repair of a class 1 nuclear component in a high radiation environment; utilizing for the work, sophisticated remotely operated equipment. This paper describes the component, the repair-maintenance objective, and the equipment-procedures developed for the intervention. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs. [Espanol] La reparacion/mantenimiento del enfriador del moderador QK-01 de CNA-1 sera un caso sobresaliente de reparacion de un componente nuclear clase 1 en un ambiente de alta radiacion, utilizando equipamiento sofisticado de accion remota. En este trabajo se describen caracteristicas de diseno del componente, objetivos del mantenimiento, y las facilidades y procedimientos desarrollados en el marco del proyecto para realizar la tarea en cuestion. (autor)

  8. Identifying influential neighbors in animal flocking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools of fish and flocks of birds can move together in synchrony and decide on new directions of movement in a seamless way. This is possible because group members constantly share directional information with their neighbors. Although detecting the directionality of other group members is known to be important to maintain cohesion, it is not clear how many neighbors each individual can simultaneously track and pay attention to, and what the spatial distribution of these influential neighbors is. Here, we address these questions on shoals of Hemigrammus rhodostomus, a species of fish exhibiting strong schooling behavior. We adopt a data-driven analysis technique based on the study of short-term directional correlations to identify which neighbors have the strongest influence over the participation of an individual in a collective U-turn event. We find that fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time. Moreover, we find no correlation between the distance rank of a neighbor and its likelihood to be influential. We interpret our results in terms of fish allocating sequential and selective attention to their neighbors.

  9. Identifying influential neighbors in animal flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Giuggioli, Luca; Perna, Andrea; Escobedo, Ramón; Lecheval, Valentin; Sire, Clément; Han, Zhangang; Theraulaz, Guy

    2017-11-01

    Schools of fish and flocks of birds can move together in synchrony and decide on new directions of movement in a seamless way. This is possible because group members constantly share directional information with their neighbors. Although detecting the directionality of other group members is known to be important to maintain cohesion, it is not clear how many neighbors each individual can simultaneously track and pay attention to, and what the spatial distribution of these influential neighbors is. Here, we address these questions on shoals of Hemigrammus rhodostomus, a species of fish exhibiting strong schooling behavior. We adopt a data-driven analysis technique based on the study of short-term directional correlations to identify which neighbors have the strongest influence over the participation of an individual in a collective U-turn event. We find that fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time. Moreover, we find no correlation between the distance rank of a neighbor and its likelihood to be influential. We interpret our results in terms of fish allocating sequential and selective attention to their neighbors.

  10. 14C SIRI samples at CNA: Measurements at 200 kV and 1000 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI) exercise has taken place during late 2013 and 2014. 13 samples were distributed for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and 5 for radiometric laboratories, including one sample exclusively for radiometric laboratories. Being the first opportunity for our laboratory to participate actively in an intercomparison exercise, we have prepared and measured the samples in the two existing AMS dedicated facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA): SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis), a 1 MV multielemental AMS system from HVEE, and Micadas, a 200 kV radiocarbon dating system designed by ETH. Results are presented for the two systems, together with a description of both the sample preparation and measurement procedures.

  11. {sup 14}C SIRI samples at CNA: Measurements at 200 kV and 1000 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier, E-mail: fj.santos@csic.es; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia

    2015-10-15

    The Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI) exercise has taken place during late 2013 and 2014. 13 samples were distributed for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and 5 for radiometric laboratories, including one sample exclusively for radiometric laboratories. Being the first opportunity for our laboratory to participate actively in an intercomparison exercise, we have prepared and measured the samples in the two existing AMS dedicated facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA): SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis), a 1 MV multielemental AMS system from HVEE, and Micadas, a 200 kV radiocarbon dating system designed by ETH. Results are presented for the two systems, together with a description of both the sample preparation and measurement procedures.

  12. 14C SIRI samples at CNA: Measurements at 200 kV and 1000 kV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    The Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI) exercise has taken place during late 2013 and 2014. 13 samples were distributed for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and 5 for radiometric laboratories, including one sample exclusively for radiometric laboratories. Being the first opportunity for our laboratory to participate actively in an intercomparison exercise, we have prepared and measured the samples in the two existing AMS dedicated facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA): SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis), a 1 MV multielemental AMS system from HVEE, and Micadas, a 200 kV radiocarbon dating system designed by ETH. Results are presented for the two systems, together with a description of both the sample preparation and measurement procedures.

  13. CNA Maritime Asia Project. Workshop One: The Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    in 2011.8 In October, South Korean Coast Guard forces used tear gas and rubber bullets to subdue Chinese fishermen wielding clubs and shovels.9 An...tation Disputes in the East China Sea,” NBR Special Report No.35 (December 2011): 135 and 141. 39 CNA Maritime Asia Project Workshop One: The Yellow

  14. The CNA-1 (Nuclear Power Plant Atucha-1) QK-01 repairing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzaferri, J.C.; Cabot, P.

    1997-01-01

    The repair/maintenance of the CNA-1 QK-01 Moderator Cooler will be a leading case of the repair of a class 1 nuclear component in a high radiation environment; utilizing for the work, sophisticated remotely operated equipment. This paper describes the component, the repair-maintenance objective, and the equipment-procedures developed for the intervention. (author) [es

  15. A Markov chain Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Statistical Analysis of DNA Sequence Evolution with Neighbor-Dependent Substitution Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger

    2008-01-01

    -dimensional integrals required in the EM algorithm are estimated using MCMC sampling. The MCMC sampler requires simulation of sample paths from a continuous time Markov process, conditional on the beginning and ending states and the paths of the neighboring sites. An exact path sampling algorithm is developed......The evolution of DNA sequences can be described by discrete state continuous time Markov processes on a phylogenetic tree. We consider neighbor-dependent evolutionary models where the instantaneous rate of substitution at a site depends on the states of the neighboring sites. Neighbor......-dependent substitution models are analytically intractable and must be analyzed using either approximate or simulation-based methods. We describe statistical inference of neighbor-dependent models using a Markov chain Monte Carlo expectation maximization (MCMC-EM) algorithm. In the MCMC-EM algorithm, the high...

  16. Improved Multiscale Entropy Technique with Nearest-Neighbor Moving-Average Kernel for Nonlinear and Nonstationary Short-Time Biomedical Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Arunachalam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of biomedical signals can yield invaluable information for prognosis, diagnosis, therapy evaluation, risk assessment, and disease prevention which is often recorded as short time series data that challenges existing complexity classification algorithms such as Shannon entropy (SE and other techniques. The purpose of this study was to improve previously developed multiscale entropy (MSE technique by incorporating nearest-neighbor moving-average kernel, which can be used for analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary short time series physiological data. The approach was tested for robustness with respect to noise analysis using simulated sinusoidal and ECG waveforms. Feasibility of MSE to discriminate between normal sinus rhythm (NSR and atrial fibrillation (AF was tested on a single-lead ECG. In addition, the MSE algorithm was applied to identify pivot points of rotors that were induced in ex vivo isolated rabbit hearts. The improved MSE technique robustly estimated the complexity of the signal compared to that of SE with various noises, discriminated NSR and AF on single-lead ECG, and precisely identified the pivot points of ex vivo rotors by providing better contrast between the rotor core and the peripheral region. The improved MSE technique can provide efficient complexity analysis of variety of nonlinear and nonstationary short-time biomedical signals.

  17. Experience gathered from the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, A.; Belinco, C.G.; El Bis, E.D.; Sacchi, M.A.; Mayans, C.O.; Martin Ghiselli, A.; Marcora, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the needs to materialize the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type, under special conditions, from the Fabrication Pilot Plant sited at the Constituyentes Atomic Center and the Ezeiza Atomic Center, for its subsequent analysis at the High Pressure Experimental Loop. The special conditions under which the transport has been made responded to the fact that the prototype presents a fragile adjustment between rods and separators, necessary to be preserved. (Author) [es

  18. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Meigen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008.Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind,temperature and ozone,but NOx concentration is overestimated.Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics,high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 μg/m3 at Aoyuncun site,respectively.The analysis of sensitive test,with and without emission controls,shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning.The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate.Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August,horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer.On 24 July,as the wind velocity was smaller,the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  20. An extensive analysis of the hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE and neighboring histone genes: associations with childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charronne F; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2010-04-01

    The most common mutation of the HFE gene C282Y has shown a risk association with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Welsh and Scottish case-control studies. This finding has not been replicated outside Britain. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the HFE gene in a panel of HLA homozygous reference cell lines and in the original population sample from South Wales (117 childhood ALL cases and 414 newborn controls). The 21 of 24 variants analyzed were from the HFE gene region extending 52 kb from the histone gene HIST1H1C to HIST1H1T. We identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs807212 as a tagging SNP for the most common HFE region haplotype, which contains wild-type alleles of all HFE variants examined. This intergenic SNP rs807212 yielded a strong male-specific protective association (per allele OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.22-0.64, P (trend) = 0.0002; P = 0.48 in females), which accounted for the original C282Y risk association. In the HapMap project data, rs807212 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with 25 other SNPs spanning 151 kb around HFE. Minor alleles of these 26 SNPs characterized the most common haplotype for the HFE region, which lacked all disease-associated HFE variants. The HapMap data suggested positive selection in this region even in populations where the HFE C282Y mutation is absent. These results have implications for the sex-specific associations observed in this region and suggest the inclusion of rs807212 in future studies of the HFE gene and the extended HLA class I region.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of central corneal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma cases in the NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Megan; Li, Jun; Yaspan, Brian L; Ozel, Ayse Bilge; Richards, Julia E; Moroi, Sayoko E; Hawthorne, Felicia; Budenz, Donald L; Friedman, David S; Gaasterland, Douglas; Haines, Jonathan; Kang, Jae H; Lee, Richard; Lichter, Paul; Liu, Yutao; Pasquale, Louis R; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Realini, Anthony; Schuman, Joel S; Singh, Kuldev; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Young, Terri; Allingham, R Rand; Wiggs, Janey L; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Hauser, Michael A

    2012-07-03

    To investigate the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT)-associated variants on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) risk using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) and National Eye Institute (NEI) Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortia. A replication analysis of previously reported CCT SNPs was performed in a CCT dataset (n = 1117) and these SNPs were then tested for association with POAG using a larger POAG dataset (n = 6470). Then a CCT genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Top SNPs from this analysis were selected and tested for association with POAG. cDNA libraries from fetal and adult brain and ocular tissue samples were generated and used for candidate gene expression analysis. Association with one of 20 previously published CCT SNPs was replicated: rs12447690, near the ZNF469 gene (P = 0.001; β = -5.08 μm/allele). None of these SNPs were significantly associated with POAG. In the CCT GWAS, no SNPs reached genome-wide significance. After testing 50 candidate SNPs for association with POAG, one SNP was identified, rs7481514 within the neurotrimin (NTM) gene, that was significantly associated with POAG in a low-tension subset (P = 0.00099; Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.28). Additionally, SNPs in the CNTNAP4 gene showed suggestive association with POAG (top SNP = rs1428758; P = 0.018; OR = 0.84). NTM and CNTNAP4 were shown to be expressed in ocular tissues. The results suggest previously reported CCT loci are not significantly associated with POAG susceptibility. By performing a quantitative analysis of CCT and a subsequent analysis of POAG, SNPs in two cell adhesion molecules, NTM and CNTNAP4, were identified and may increase POAG susceptibility in a subset of cases.

  2. Thermal flow in detectors of CNA-II with spontaneous fissions source of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascitti, J. A

    2012-01-01

    The thermal flux in the position of ex-core and in-core CNA-II Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-II) detectors is estimated considering neutron from the 238 U spontaneous fissions as the source, for the reactor cold state (isothermal state with both coolant and moderator at a temperature of 60 o C, a pressure of 35 ata and 15.46 ppm of natural Boron), and 24% inserted control rods (slightly sub-critical). Results are obtained for two different situations: with and without photo-neutrons due to the (γ,n) reaction in D 2 O. It is concluded that the thermal flux is under the detection limit of the boron trifluoride 104-SR or 282-IB detectors (≅10 -1 cm-2.s -1 ). These detectors are located in opposite positions in the inner concrete shielding, having the lowest detection limit among all ex-core detectors. A significant difference is verified in neutron fluxes between both cases, which suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The total neutron flux attenuation factor between the inner and outer region of the reactor pressure vessel was estimated to be 7.0 x 10 -7 . It should be mentioned that none of the results here presented has been affected by any correction factor. Each value has a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to obtain it (author)

  3. In situ influence of coal ash dump on the quality of neighboring surface and ground waters by applying correlation statistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasna M. Djinovic; Aleksandar R. Popovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to establish the real in situ influence of coal ash and slag transport and storage on the quality of neighboring surface and ground waters by applying correlation statistic analysis. It was found that the waste waters from the coal ash dump do not have any influence on the quality of the Danube river water. The Danube and the waste waters, however, influence the quality of the ground waters of the Petka spring. Changes in the concentrations of elements in the Danube or in the waste waters can have immediate or delayed impact on the quality of the spring waters. The immediate impact has calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, vanadium, cobalt from Danube; magnesium, vanadium from overflow and drainage waters; copper from drainage water. And the delayed impact has calcium, magnesium, vanadium and silicon from the Danube waters, cobalt from drainage waters, chromium and silicon from overflow waters and magnesium and vanadium from both overflow and drainage waters. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Exotic lagomorph may influence eagle abundances and breeding spatial aggregations: a field study and meta-analysis on the nearest neighbor distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Barbar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of alien species could be changing food source composition, ultimately restructuring demography and spatial distribution of native communities. In Argentine Patagonia, the exotic European hare has one of the highest numbers recorded worldwide and is now a widely consumed prey for many predators. We examine the potential relationship between abundance of this relatively new prey and the abundance and breeding spacing of one of its main consumers, the Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus. First we analyze the abundance of individuals of a raptor guild in relation to hare abundance through a correspondence analysis. We then estimated the Nearest Neighbor Distance (NND of the Black-chested Buzzard-eagle abundances in the two areas with high hare abundances. Finally, we performed a meta-regression between the NND and the body masses of Accipitridae raptors, to evaluate if Black-chested Buzzard-eagle NND deviates from the expected according to their mass. We found that eagle abundance was highly associated with hare abundance, more than with any other raptor species in the study area. Their NND deviates from the value expected, which was significantly lower than expected for a raptor species of this size in two areas with high hare abundance. Our results support the hypothesis that high local abundance of prey leads to a reduction of the breeding spacing of its main predator, which could potentially alter other interspecific interactions, and thus the entire community.

  5. [Classification of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children Based on Electroencephalogram Principal Component Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaojiao; Guo, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Wang, Suhong; Zou, Ling

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to assist the individual clinical diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using electroencephalogram signal detection method.Firstly,in our experiments,we obtained and studied the electroencephalogram signals from fourteen attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and sixteen typically developing children during the classic interference control task of Simon-spatial Stroop,and we completed electroencephalogram data preprocessing including filtering,segmentation,removal of artifacts and so on.Secondly,we selected the subset electroencephalogram electrodes using principal component analysis(PCA)method,and we collected the common channels of the optimal electrodes which occurrence rates were more than 90%in each kind of stimulation.We then extracted the latency(200~450ms)mean amplitude features of the common electrodes.Finally,we used the k-nearest neighbor(KNN)classifier based on Euclidean distance and the support vector machine(SVM)classifier based on radial basis kernel function to classify.From the experiment,at the same kind of interference control task,the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children showed lower correct response rates and longer reaction time.The N2 emerged in prefrontal cortex while P2 presented in the inferior parietal area when all kinds of stimuli demonstrated.Meanwhile,the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder exhibited markedly reduced N2 and P2amplitude compared to typically developing children.KNN resulted in better classification accuracy than SVM classifier,and the best classification rate was 89.29%in StI task.The results showed that the electroencephalogram signals were different in the brain regions of prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children during the interference control task,which provided a scientific basis for the clinical diagnosis of attention

  6. Ab initio investigation on the valence and dipole-bound states of CNa - and SiNa -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcher, Josef; Sax, Alexander F.

    2000-08-01

    CNa - and SiNa - have been studied by the CAS-ACPF method. The 3Σ- ground states have binding energies of 5420 and 7517 cm -1, respectively. The 5Σ- excited states are 494 and 1551 cm -1 above the respective ground states. The 1Δ , 3Π , and 1Π valence-excited states for SiNa - should be at least metastable. CNa - and SiNa - possess dipole-bound 5Σ- and 3Σ- states. Binding energies of these states in CNa - are 217 and 236 cm -1, respectively. SiNa - has two stable 5Σ- dipole-bound states, whose binding energies are 246 and 118 cm -1, respectively.

  7. Pressurized thermal shock. CNA-I behavior when a hot leg breaks of 50 cm2 is produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2002-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) phenomena in the CNA-I pressurize heavy water reactor is analyzed in this paper. The initiating event is a hypothetical 50 cm 2 break of the line connecting the pressurizer and the primary system. The calculation procedure for obtaining the local thermal-hydraulic parameters in the reactor pressure vessel downcomer is described firstly. Results obtained lead to conclusions in different subjects. The first conclusion is that a simple tool of easy application is available to analyze PTS phenomena in cases of breaks in the primary system in cold and hot legs. This methodology is fully independent of the methodology utilized by the Utility. Another important conclusion comes from the analysis of the temperature evolution of the fluid below the cold leg level in the RPV downcomer, as a function of the T HPI temperature of the TJ system injected water from. It is also concluded that the results obtained with the methodology adopted agree with the ones obtained with the methodologies validated against experiments in the UPTF facility. It is possible to observe that when T HPI increase, the conditions suitable for PTS occurrence in a LOCA accident tend to diminish. The maximum value to the T HPI may be fixed from the maximum temperature allowed to preserve the structural integrity of the fuel cladding. (author)

  8. Plutonium measurements on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, Elena; Enamorado, Santiago Miguel; Garcia-Leon, Manuel; Suter, Martin; Wacker, Lukas

    2008-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes have been recently added to the list of radionuclides that can be measured with the new generation of compact AMS facilities. In this paper we present first experimental results concerning the development of the plutonium AMS technique at 680 kV on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla, Spain. This is the first compact AMS machine designed and manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa. As we demonstrate, the obtained backgrounds for 239,240 Pu, of about 10 6 atoms, and the 239 Pu/ 238 U mass suppression factor, in the range of 10 -9 , compare to the ones achieved on other AMS facilities. With the measurement of reference materials provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-375, IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-381) and samples already studied on the 600 kV compact ETH/PSI AMS system at Zuerich, we show that the CNA system can be perfectly used for the routine measurement of plutonium isotopes at environmental levels.

  9. A constructive nonlinear array (CNA) method for barely visible impact detection in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfense Fierro, Gian Piero; Meo, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Currently there are numerous phased array techniques such as Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and Total Focusing Method (TFM) that provide good damage assessment for composite materials. Although, linear methods struggle to evaluate and assess low levels of damage, while nonlinear methods have shown great promise in early damage detection. A sweep and subtraction evaluation method coupled with a constructive nonlinear array method (CNA) is proposed in order to assess damage specific nonlinearities, address issues with frequency selection when using nonlinear ultrasound imaging techniques and reduce equipment generated nonlinearities. These methods were evaluated using multiple excitation locations on an impacted composite panel with a complex damage (barely visible impact damage). According to various recent works, damage excitation can be accentuated by exciting at local defect resonance (LDR) frequencies; although these frequencies are not always easily determinable. The sweep methodology uses broadband excitation to determine both local defect and material resonances, by assessing local defect generated nonlinearities using a laser vibrometer it is possible to assess which frequencies excite the complex geometry of the crack. The dual effect of accurately determining local defect resonances, the use of an image subtraction method and the reduction of equipment based nonlinearities using CNA result in greater repeatability and clearer nonlinear imaging (NIM).

  10. CNA proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings comprise keynote addresses, biographies, and 22 papers organized under the following headings: international CANDU operations, challenges in the uranium industry, public acceptance - gaining support, strategies for success in the nuclear business, nuclear power and the environment, initiatives in nuclear regulation, other opportunities. Individual papers published which come within the scope of INIS have been abstracted separately

  11. CNA proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The proceedings comprise keynote addresses, biographies, and 22 papers organized under the following headings: international CANDU operations, challenges in the uranium industry, public acceptance - gaining support, strategies for success in the nuclear business, nuclear power and the environment, initiatives in nuclear regulation, other opportunities. Individual papers published which come within the scope of INIS have been abstracted separately.

  12. CNA Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Kevin Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-16

    Presentation that covers: an introduction to the field of high-nitrogen chemistry; aqueous chemistry of Th with the high-nitrogen ligand bis(tetrazolylamine) and BTA; and water-free, oxygen-free chemistry of Th, U with high-nitrogen ligands using organometallic actinide precursors

  13. Permission of change of limits in the vapor generators of the Atucha I Nuclear Central; Permiso de cambio de limites en los GVs de la CNA-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Libertador 8250 (1429), Capital Federal (Argentina)]. e-mail: mventura@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the mark of the modification of the Atucha-I Nuclear Central Installation (CNA-I) as consequence of the Introduction of the System 'Second Drain of Heat' (SSC), the Entity Responsible for the CNA-I (NASA) requested authorization to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to modify the value of the minimum level of water in the secondary side in the Steam generators (GVs) to activate the signal 'shoot of the Cut of the Reactor' (RESA-LLV). As the level in the GVs is one of those parameters that are used to shoot the Emergency Feeding System (RX), component of the SSC System, also was analyzed the change in the activation of the shoot signal of the 'Second Drain of Heat' (2SSC-LLV). The ARN uses for the study of the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants, the series of prediction programs RELAP5/MOD3.X. It participates of the evaluation and maintenance activities of these codes through specific agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC). It is necessary to account with programs of this type since the ARN it licenses the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and other outstanding facilities and it inquires its operation according to its own standards. With these tools its are auditing the calculations that the Responsible Entities of the operation make to guarantee the operability of the NPPs assisting the mentioned standards. The analysis with computational codes is used as a tool to achieve the best understanding in the behavior of the plant in union with the engineering approach, the manual calculations, the data analysis and the experience in the operation of the machine. (Author)

  14. Migration of the CNA maintenance information system to a client server architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Crego, E.; Martin Lopez-Suevos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper explains the guidelines and methodology followed to carry out regulation of the CNA computerized maintenance system (SIGE) to a system with a client/server architecture based on ORACLE. The following guidelines were established to carry out migration: 1 Ensure that the new system would contain all the information of the former system, ie, no information would be lost during migration. 2 Improve the technical design of the application, while maintaining at least the functionality of the former application 3 incorporate modifications into the application which would permit incremental improvement of its functionality. 4 Carry out migration at the minimum cost in time and resources to construct the application, a strict development methodology was followed and certain standards were drawn up to significantly increase the speed. Special use was made of: 1 Data models 2 Process models which operate the data model 3 SQL-FORMS standards 4 Safety features

  15. Advances of the low enriched uranium utilization project in CNA-1 during 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Jose M.; Higa, Manabu; Sidelnik, Jorge I.; Perez, Ramon A.; Casario, Jose A.; Alvarez, Luis A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a general description of advances of the Enriched Fuel Introduction Project in CNA-1 and the main tasks performed during 1998 and 1999 are presented. The program is being satisfactorily developed and during that period the number of slightly enriched fuels (LEU) introduced had significantly increased in relation to previous years. At present, there are 181 LEU fuel elements in the core and 125 LEU fuel elements have been extracted. The number of full power burnt fuel elements per day decreased from 1.31 FE/dpp in 1994 (when all fuel was natural) to 0.92 in 1998 and 0.83 in 1999, reaching the predicted value for homogeneous LEU core of 0.7. The cost of burnt fuel in 1998 was 25% lower that if only natural fuel would have been used. (author)

  16. Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.

  17. Individual- and community-level neighbor relationships and physical activity among older Japanese adults living in a metropolitan area: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Nishi, Mariko; Tomine, Yui; Tanaka, Izumi; Taniguchi, Yu; Yokoyama, Yuri; Amano, Hidenori; Narita, Miki; Ikeuchi, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2018-05-25

    Informal neighbor relationships (NRs) are considered a structural aspect of social relationships. Although NRs might affect physical activity (PA), no previous study has simultaneously examined compositional and contextual associations of NRs with PA. In this study, we examined whether individual- and community-level NRs were independently associated with PA. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 8592 (4340 men and 4252 women) non-disabled residents aged 65-84 years from all 18 districts of Ota City, Tokyo. PA was assessed by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. In addition, we calculated moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), its components (vigorous PA [VPA], moderate PA [MPA], and walking time [WT]), and sitting time (ST). Individual-level NRs were categorized as "visiting each other," "standing and chatting," "exchange of greetings," or "none." Community-level NRs were defined as the proportions of residents with active NRs (i.e., those in the categories visiting each other and standing and chatting) in the 18 districts. Using multilevel regression analyses, we examined independent associations of individual- and community-level NRs with PA variables and adjusted for important confounders. Individual-level NRs were consistently positively associated with MVPA and its components (VPA, MPA [in men], and WT) in both sexes, and the dose-response relationships were significant (all P level NRs (by 1% estimation) were positively associated with individual MVPA (2.1 metabolic equivalent-hours/week, 95% confidence interval: 0.7-3.4), VPA (8.6 min/week, 2.7-14.4), and WT (11.6 min/week, 2.2-20.9), regardless of the degree of individual-level NRs. Significant cross-level interactions of NRs with MVPA and VPA were observed among men, and the dose-response relationships were significant (both P level NRs were associated with ST in either sex. Men and women with inaccessible neighbors engaged in less MVPA, while men living in communities with

  18. Raman scattering mediated by neighboring molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mathew D.; Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2016-05-01

    Raman scattering is most commonly associated with a change in vibrational state within individual molecules, the corresponding frequency shift in the scattered light affording a key way of identifying material structures. In theories where both matter and light are treated quantum mechanically, the fundamental scattering process is represented as the concurrent annihilation of a photon from one radiation mode and creation of another in a different mode. Developing this quantum electrodynamical formulation, the focus of the present work is on the spectroscopic consequences of electrodynamic coupling between neighboring molecules or other kinds of optical center. To encompass these nanoscale interactions, through which the molecular states evolve under the dual influence of the input light and local fields, this work identifies and determines two major mechanisms for each of which different selection rules apply. The constituent optical centers are considered to be chemically different and held in a fixed orientation with respect to each other, either as two components of a larger molecule or a molecular assembly that can undergo free rotation in a fluid medium or as parts of a larger, solid material. The two centers are considered to be separated beyond wavefunction overlap but close enough together to fall within an optical near-field limit, which leads to high inverse power dependences on their local separation. In this investigation, individual centers undergo a Stokes transition, whilst each neighbor of a different species remains in its original electronic and vibrational state. Analogous principles are applicable for the anti-Stokes case. The analysis concludes by considering the experimental consequences of applying this spectroscopic interpretation to fluid media; explicitly, the selection rules and the impact of pressure on the radiant intensity of this process.

  19. Raman scattering mediated by neighboring molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mathew D.; Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L., E-mail: david.andrews@physics.org [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-07

    Raman scattering is most commonly associated with a change in vibrational state within individual molecules, the corresponding frequency shift in the scattered light affording a key way of identifying material structures. In theories where both matter and light are treated quantum mechanically, the fundamental scattering process is represented as the concurrent annihilation of a photon from one radiation mode and creation of another in a different mode. Developing this quantum electrodynamical formulation, the focus of the present work is on the spectroscopic consequences of electrodynamic coupling between neighboring molecules or other kinds of optical center. To encompass these nanoscale interactions, through which the molecular states evolve under the dual influence of the input light and local fields, this work identifies and determines two major mechanisms for each of which different selection rules apply. The constituent optical centers are considered to be chemically different and held in a fixed orientation with respect to each other, either as two components of a larger molecule or a molecular assembly that can undergo free rotation in a fluid medium or as parts of a larger, solid material. The two centers are considered to be separated beyond wavefunction overlap but close enough together to fall within an optical near-field limit, which leads to high inverse power dependences on their local separation. In this investigation, individual centers undergo a Stokes transition, whilst each neighbor of a different species remains in its original electronic and vibrational state. Analogous principles are applicable for the anti-Stokes case. The analysis concludes by considering the experimental consequences of applying this spectroscopic interpretation to fluid media; explicitly, the selection rules and the impact of pressure on the radiant intensity of this process.

  20. Rate maximum calculation of Dpa in CNA-II pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascitti, J. A

    2012-01-01

    The maximum dpa rate was calculated for the reactor in the following state: fresh fuel, no Xenon, a Boron concentration of 15.3 ppm, critical state, its control rods in the criticality position, hot, at full power (2160 MW). It was determined that the maximum dpa rate under such conditions is 3.54(2)x10 12 s -1 and it is located in the positions corresponding to θ=210 o in the azimuthal direction, and z=20 cm and -60 cm respectively in the axial direction, considering the calculation mesh centered at half height of the fuel element (FE) active length. The dpa rate spectrum was determined as well as the contribution to it for 4 energy groups: a thermal group, two epithermal groups and a fast one. The maximum dpa rate considering the photo-neutrons production from (γ, n) reaction in the heavy water of coolant and moderator was 3.93(4)x10 12 s -1 that is 11% greater than the obtained without photo-neutrons. This verified significant difference between both cases, suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The maximum DPA rate in the first mm of the reactor pressure vessel was calculated too and it was obtained a value of 4.22(6)x10 12 s -1 . It should be added that the calculation was carried out with the reactor complete accurate model, with no approximations in spatial or energy variables. Each value has, between parentheses, a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to estimate it. More representative values may be obtained with this method if equilibrium burn-up distribution is used (author)

  1. Functional characterization of calcineurin homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici using a host-induced RNAi system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.

  2. In vitro mutagenicity, NMR metabolite characterization of azo and triphenylmethanes dyes by adherents bacteria and the role of the "cna" adhesion gene in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Lamia; Bakir, Karima; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Hammami, Saousen; Cheref, Abdelkrim; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2017-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, showing the greatest decolorization ability, was further investigated for Methyl Red (MR) Congo Red (CR), Crystal Violet (CV) and Malachite Green (MG) decolorization using response surface methodology (RSM). The chemometric methods use, based on statistical design of experiments (DOEs) such as RSM is becoming increasingly widespread in several sciences such as analytical chemistry, engineering and environmental chemistry. Stapphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Stapphylococcus aureus (S1) and Stapphylococcus aureus (S2), were isolated from textile wastewater plant located in KsarHellal, Tunisia and were tested for their decolorization capacity. PCR technique was utilized to identify the 3 bacterial strains and to detect the adhesin gene "cna". Biodegradation of MR, CR, CV and MG (750 ppm), were investigated under shaking condition in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) solution at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 °C, using a 3.7 × 10 5  CFU/ml as inoculum size. Our results showed that Staphylococcus aureus had a high decolorization capacity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis confirmed the biodegradation of dyes. The four dyes mutagenicity with the S9 metabolizing system decreased significantly after biodegradation and totally disappeared. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis confirmed the biodegradation of dyes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estudio del haz de neutrones rápidos producidos por la fuente de neutrones Hispalis en el Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Escubos, Clara De Asis

    2018-01-01

    El Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) es un centro mixto de la Universidad de Sevilla, la Junta de Andalucía y el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, que tiene como misión el desarrollo de la investigación en aceleradores de partículas y sus múltiples aplicaciones. El CNA, reconocido como Instalación Científico-Técnica Singular (ICTS) es un centro abierto para que la comunidad científica y tecnológica nacional e internacional pueda desarrollar investigaciones utilizando sus in...

  4. A WUSCHEL-Independent Stem Cell Specification Pathway Is Repressed by PHB, PHV and CNA in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunghee; Clark, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of stem cells that carry out continuous organogenesis at the shoot meristem is crucial for plant development. Key known factors act to signal between the stem cells and an underlying group of cells thought to act as the stem cell niche. In Arabidopsis thaliana the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for stem cell initiation and maintenance at shoot and flower meristems. Recent data suggest that the WUS protein may move from the niche cells directly into the stem cells to maintain stem cell identity. Here we provide evidence for a second, previously unknown, pathway for stem cell specification at shoot and flower meristems that bypasses the requirement for WUS. We demonstrate that this novel stem cell specification pathway is normally repressed by the activity of the HD-zip III transcription factors PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) and CORONA (CNA). When de-repressed, this second stem cell pathway leads to an accumulation of stem cells and an enlargement of the stem cell niche. When de-repressed in a wus mutant background, this second stem cell pathway leads to functional meristems with largely normal cell layering and meristem morphology, activation of WUS cis regulatory elements, and extensive, but not indeterminate, organogenesis. Thus, WUS is largely dispensable for stem cell specification and meristem function, suggesting a set of key stem cell specification factors, competitively regulated by WUS and PHB/PHV/CNA, remain unidentified. PMID:26011610

  5. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  6. Advances of the low enriched uranium utilization project in CNA-1 during 1998 and 1999; Avances del proyecto de utilizacion de uranio levemente enriquecido en la CNA-I en 1998 y 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Jose M; Higa, Manabu; Sidelnik, Jorge I [Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NASA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, Ramon A [Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NASA), Lima (Argentina). Central Nuclear Atucha I; Casario, Jose A; Alvarez, Luis A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1999-07-01

    In this work, a general description of advances of the Enriched Fuel Introduction Project in CNA-1 and the main tasks performed during 1998 and 1999 are presented. The program is being satisfactorily developed and during that period the number of slightly enriched fuels (LEU) introduced had significantly increased in relation to previous years. At present, there are 181 LEU fuel elements in the core and 125 LEU fuel elements have been extracted. The number of full power burnt fuel elements per day decreased from 1.31 FE/dpp in 1994 (when all fuel was natural) to 0.92 in 1998 and 0.83 in 1999, reaching the predicted value for homogeneous LEU core of 0.7. The cost of burnt fuel in 1998 was 25% lower that if only natural fuel would have been used. (author)

  7. Recrafting the Neighbor-Joining Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Background: The neighbor-joining method by Saitou and Nei is a widely used method for constructing phylogenetic trees. The formulation of the method gives rise to a canonical Θ(n3) algorithm upon which all existing implementations are based. Methods: In this paper we present techniques for speeding...... up the canonical neighbor-joining method. Our algorithms construct the same phylogenetic trees as the canonical neighbor-joining method. The best-case running time of our algorithms are O(n2) but the worst-case remains O(n3). We empirically evaluate the performance of our algoritms on distance...... matrices obtained from the Pfam collection of alignments. Results: The experiments indicate that the running time of our algorithms evolve as Θ(n2) on the examined instance collection. We also compare the running time with that of the QuickTree tool, a widely used efficient implementation of the canonical...

  8. The clinic as a good corporate neighbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Hans-Martin

    2013-02-01

    Clinics today specialize in health repair services similar to car repair shops; procedures and prices are standardized, regulated, and inflexibly uniform. Clinics of the future have to become Health Care Centers in order to be more respected and more effective corporate neighbors in offering outreach services in health education and preventive health care. The traditional concept of care for health is much broader than repair management and includes the promotion of lay health competence and responsibility in healthy social and natural environments. The corporate profile and ethics of the clinic as a good and competitive local neighbor will have to focus on [a] better personalized care, [b] education and services in preventive care, [c] direct or web-based information and advice for general, seasonal, or age related health risks, and on developing and improving trustworthy character traits of the clinic as a corporate person and a good neighbor.

  9. Lectures on the nearest neighbor method

    CERN Document Server

    Biau, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    This text presents a wide-ranging and rigorous overview of nearest neighbor methods, one of the most important paradigms in machine learning. Now in one self-contained volume, this book systematically covers key statistical, probabilistic, combinatorial and geometric ideas for understanding, analyzing and developing nearest neighbor methods. Gérard Biau is a professor at Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris). Luc Devroye is a professor at the School of Computer Science at McGill University (Montreal).   .

  10. New Sliding Puzzle with Neighbors Swap Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Prihardono, Ariyanto; Kawagoe, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The sliding puzzles (15-puzzle, 8-puzzle, 5-puzzle) are known to have 2 kind of puz-zle: solvable puzzle and unsolvable puzzle. In this thesis, we make a new puzzle with only 1 kind of it, solvable puzzle. This new puzzle is made by adopting sliding puzzle with several additional rules from M13 puzzle; the puzzle that is formed form The Mathieu group M13. This puzzle has a movement that called a neighbors swap motion, a rule of movement that enables every neighboring points to swap. This extr...

  11. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  12. Common Nearest Neighbor Clustering—A Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lemke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analyses are often conducted with the goal to characterize an underlying probability density, for which the data-point density serves as an estimate for this probability density. We here test and benchmark the common nearest neighbor (CNN cluster algorithm. This algorithm assigns a spherical neighborhood R to each data point and estimates the data-point density between two data points as the number of data points N in the overlapping region of their neighborhoods (step 1. The main principle in the CNN cluster algorithm is cluster growing. This grows the clusters by sequentially adding data points and thereby effectively positions the border of the clusters along an iso-surface of the underlying probability density. This yields a strict partitioning with outliers, for which the cluster represents peaks in the underlying probability density—termed core sets (step 2. The removal of the outliers on the basis of a threshold criterion is optional (step 3. The benchmark datasets address a series of typical challenges, including datasets with a very high dimensional state space and datasets in which the cluster centroids are aligned along an underlying structure (Birch sets. The performance of the CNN algorithm is evaluated with respect to these challenges. The results indicate that the CNN cluster algorithm can be useful in a wide range of settings. Cluster algorithms are particularly important for the analysis of molecular dynamics (MD simulations. We demonstrate how the CNN cluster results can be used as a discretization of the molecular state space for the construction of a core-set model of the MD improving the accuracy compared to conventional full-partitioning models. The software for the CNN clustering is available on GitHub.

  13. Nuclear at Niagara. 32nd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 35th CNS/CNA student conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The 32nd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 35th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada on June 5-8, 2011. The theme of the conference, 'Nuclear at Niagara', brought together scientists, engineers, technologists, senior management, government officials, and students interested in all aspects of nuclear science and technology and its applications, including nuclear power generation, fuel production, uranium mining and refining, management of radioactive wastes and used fuel. Other topics include medical and industrial uses of radionuclides, occupational and environmental radiation protection, the science and technology of nuclear fusion, and associated activities in research and development. and applications of energy from the atom. The central objective of this conference was to exchange views on how nuclear science and technology can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. Over 400 delegates from across Canada and other nuclear countries were in attendance.

  14. Nuclear at Niagara. 32nd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 35th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 32nd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 35th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada on June 5-8, 2011. The theme of the conference, 'Nuclear at Niagara', brought together scientists, engineers, technologists, senior management, government officials, and students interested in all aspects of nuclear science and technology and its applications, including nuclear power generation, fuel production, uranium mining and refining, management of radioactive wastes and used fuel. Other topics include medical and industrial uses of radionuclides, occupational and environmental radiation protection, the science and technology of nuclear fusion, and associated activities in research and development. and applications of energy from the atom. The central objective of this conference was to exchange views on how nuclear science and technology can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. Over 400 delegates from across Canada and other nuclear countries were in attendance.

  15. Nuclear the next generation. 34th Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 37th CNS/CNA student conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The 34th Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 37th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on June 10-13, 2013. With the theme of the conference, 'Nuclear the Next Generation{sup ,} the conference actively engaged 400 participants in the many facets of this well-rum event. The conference combined excellent plenary speakers, a full set of technical papers, challenging student poster competitions, and interesting exhibits. The plenary session focussed on the themes: 'Nuclear Power - a Business Driver for the Next Generation'; and, 'Designing - the Next Generation'. The technical session titles were: Reactor and Radiation Physics; Environment and Spent Fuel Management; Operations and Maintenance; Fusion Science and Technology; Advanced Reactors and Fuels; Plant Life Extension, Refurbishment and Aging; Safety and Licensing; Chemistry and Materials; and, Thermalhydraulics. The student conference session was well attended and completed the 4 day event.

  16. Recrafting the neighbor-joining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Christian NS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neighbor-joining method by Saitou and Nei is a widely used method for constructing phylogenetic trees. The formulation of the method gives rise to a canonical Θ(n3 algorithm upon which all existing implementations are based. Results In this paper we present techniques for speeding up the canonical neighbor-joining method. Our algorithms construct the same phylogenetic trees as the canonical neighbor-joining method. The best-case running time of our algorithms are O(n2 but the worst-case remains O(n3. We empirically evaluate the performance of our algoritms on distance matrices obtained from the Pfam collection of alignments. The experiments indicate that the running time of our algorithms evolve as Θ(n2 on the examined instance collection. We also compare the running time with that of the QuickTree tool, a widely used efficient implementation of the canonical neighbor-joining method. Conclusion The experiments show that our algorithms also yield a significant speed-up, already for medium sized instances.

  17. Nearest Neighbor Search in the Metric Space of a Complex Network for Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to bridge the gap between two important research directions: (1 nearest neighbor search, which is a fundamental computational tool for large data analysis; and (2 complex network analysis, which deals with large real graphs but is generally studied via graph theoretic analysis or spectral analysis. In this article, we have studied the nearest neighbor search problem in a complex network by the development of a suitable notion of nearness. The computation of efficient nearest neighbor search among the nodes of a complex network using the metric tree and locality sensitive hashing (LSH are also studied and experimented. For evaluation of the proposed nearest neighbor search in a complex network, we applied it to a network community detection problem. Experiments are performed to verify the usefulness of nearness measures for the complex networks, the role of metric tree and LSH to compute fast and approximate node nearness and the the efficiency of community detection using nearest neighbor search. We observed that nearest neighbor between network nodes is a very efficient tool to explore better the community structure of the real networks. Several efficient approximation schemes are very useful for large networks, which hardly made any degradation of results, whereas they save lot of computational times, and nearest neighbor based community detection approach is very competitive in terms of efficiency and time.

  18. Nearest Neighbor Networks: clustering expression data based on gene neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewski Kellen L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of microarrays measuring thousands of genes simultaneously across hundreds of biological conditions represents an opportunity to understand both individual biological pathways and the integrated workings of the cell. However, translating this amount of data into biological insight remains a daunting task. An important initial step in the analysis of microarray data is clustering of genes with similar behavior. A number of classical techniques are commonly used to perform this task, particularly hierarchical and K-means clustering, and many novel approaches have been suggested recently. While these approaches are useful, they are not without drawbacks; these methods can find clusters in purely random data, and even clusters enriched for biological functions can be skewed towards a small number of processes (e.g. ribosomes. Results We developed Nearest Neighbor Networks (NNN, a graph-based algorithm to generate clusters of genes with similar expression profiles. This method produces clusters based on overlapping cliques within an interaction network generated from mutual nearest neighborhoods. This focus on nearest neighbors rather than on absolute distance measures allows us to capture clusters with high connectivity even when they are spatially separated, and requiring mutual nearest neighbors allows genes with no sufficiently similar partners to remain unclustered. We compared the clusters generated by NNN with those generated by eight other clustering methods. NNN was particularly successful at generating functionally coherent clusters with high precision, and these clusters generally represented a much broader selection of biological processes than those recovered by other methods. Conclusion The Nearest Neighbor Networks algorithm is a valuable clustering method that effectively groups genes that are likely to be functionally related. It is particularly attractive due to its simplicity, its success in the

  19. Dimensionality reduction with unsupervised nearest neighbors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to a novel approach for dimensionality reduction based on the famous nearest neighbor method that is a powerful classification and regression approach. It starts with an introduction to machine learning concepts and a real-world application from the energy domain. Then, unsupervised nearest neighbors (UNN) is introduced as efficient iterative method for dimensionality reduction. Various UNN models are developed step by step, reaching from a simple iterative strategy for discrete latent spaces to a stochastic kernel-based algorithm for learning submanifolds with independent parameterizations. Extensions that allow the embedding of incomplete and noisy patterns are introduced. Various optimization approaches are compared, from evolutionary to swarm-based heuristics. Experimental comparisons to related methodologies taking into account artificial test data sets and also real-world data demonstrate the behavior of UNN in practical scenarios. The book contains numerous color figures to illustr...

  20. Neighbor Rupture Degree of Some Middle Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökşen BACAK-TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks have an important place in our daily lives. Internet networks, electricity networks, water networks, transportation networks, social networks and biological networks are some of the networks we run into every aspects of our lives. A network consists of centers connected by links. A network is represented when centers and connections modelled by vertices and edges, respectively. In consequence of the failure of some centers or connection lines, measurement of the resistance of the network until the communication interrupted is called vulnerability of the network. In this study, neighbor rupture degree which is a parameter that explores the vulnerability values of the resulting graphs due to the failure of some centers of a communication network and its neighboring centers becoming nonfunctional were applied to some middle graphs and neighbor rupture degree of the $M(C_{n},$ $M(P_{n},$ $M(K_{1,n},$ $M(W_{n},$ $M(P_{n}\\times K_{2}$ and $M(C_{n}\\times K_{2}$ have been found.

  1. ACTION RECOGNITION USING SALIENT NEIGHBORING HISTOGRAMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Combining spatio-temporal interest points with Bag-of-Words models achieves state-of-the-art performance in action recognition. However, existing methods based on “bag-ofwords” models either are too local to capture the variance in space/time or fail to solve the ambiguity problem in spatial...... and temporal dimensions. Instead, we propose a salient vocabulary construction algorithm to select visual words from a global point of view, and form compact descriptors to represent discriminative histograms in the neighborhoods. Those salient neighboring histograms are then trained to model different actions...

  2. The impact of vacant, tax-delinquent, and foreclosed property on sales prices of neighboring homes

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Whitaker; Thomas J. Fitzpatrick

    2012-01-01

    In this empirical analysis, we estimate the impact of vacancy, neglect associated with property-tax delinquency, and foreclosures on the value of neighboring homes using parcel-level observations. Numerous studies have estimated the impact of foreclosures on neighboring properties, and these papers theorize that the foreclosure impact works partially through creating vacant and neglected homes. To our knowledge, this is only the second attempt to estimate the impact of vacancy itself and the ...

  3. A dumbed-down approach to unite Fermilab, its neighbors

    CERN Multimedia

    Constable, B

    2004-01-01

    "...Fermilab is reaching out to its suburban neighbors...With the nation on orange alert, Fermilab scientists no longer can sit on the front porch and invite neighbors in for coffee and quasars" (1 page).

  4. Nuclear innovation through collaboration. 35th Annual CNS conference and 39th CNS/CNA student conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) held its 35th Annual Conference in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on May 31 to June 3, 2015, combined with the 39th Annual CNS/CNA Student Conference. With the theme of the conference, 'Nuclear Innovation through Collaboration', more than 425 delegates, exhibitors and students were in attendance. The conference commenced with two strong plenary sessions on Utility Collaborations to Improve Lifetime Performance; and, Performance Improvement Programs: Goals and Experience. The second day consisted of the panel discussions on International Developments in Used Nuclear Fuel Repository Programs, and two plenary sessions on: Enterprise Risk Management; and, Vendor Role in a Continuously Improving Industry. The third day contained a number of interesting features, including plenary sessions on Waste Management and Decommissioning; Developing Technologies and Resources, and a panel discussion on the Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel. All three days of the conference also contained parallel sessions with over 100 technical papers presented at the main and student sessions. The technical session titles were: Refurbishment and Life Extension; Thermalhydraulics; Nuclear Materials; WMD - Radiation Monitoring; Safety and Licensing; Communication; Safety and Licensing; Instrumentation and Control; Advanced Reactor Designs; WMD - Deep Geological Repository Packaging; Reactor Physics; Chemistry and Materials; Advanced Fuel Cycles; Waste Management and Decommissioning; and, Medical Physics and Radiation Biology.

  5. Nuclear innovation through collaboration. 35th Annual CNS conference and 39th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) held its 35th Annual Conference in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on May 31 to June 3, 2015, combined with the 39th Annual CNS/CNA Student Conference. With the theme of the conference, 'Nuclear Innovation through Collaboration', more than 425 delegates, exhibitors and students were in attendance. The conference commenced with two strong plenary sessions on Utility Collaborations to Improve Lifetime Performance; and, Performance Improvement Programs: Goals and Experience. The second day consisted of the panel discussions on International Developments in Used Nuclear Fuel Repository Programs, and two plenary sessions on: Enterprise Risk Management; and, Vendor Role in a Continuously Improving Industry. The third day contained a number of interesting features, including plenary sessions on Waste Management and Decommissioning; Developing Technologies and Resources, and a panel discussion on the Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel. All three days of the conference also contained parallel sessions with over 100 technical papers presented at the main and student sessions. The technical session titles were: Refurbishment and Life Extension; Thermalhydraulics; Nuclear Materials; WMD - Radiation Monitoring; Safety and Licensing; Communication; Safety and Licensing; Instrumentation and Control; Advanced Reactor Designs; WMD - Deep Geological Repository Packaging; Reactor Physics; Chemistry and Materials; Advanced Fuel Cycles; Waste Management and Decommissioning; and, Medical Physics and Radiation Biology.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Hart, C.A.; Beeching, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  7. Model of directed lines for square ice with second-neighbor and third-neighbor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Mikhail V.

    2018-02-01

    The investigation of the properties of nanoconfined systems is one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Recently it has been established that water monolayer between two graphene sheets forms square ice. Because of the energetic disadvantage, in the structure of the square ice there are no longitudinally arranged molecules. The result is that the structure is formed by unidirectional straight-lines of hydrogen bonds only. A simple but accurate discrete model of square ice with second-neighbor and third-neighbor interactions is proposed. According to this model, the ground state includes all configurations which do not contain three neighboring unidirectional chains of hydrogen bonds. Each triplet increases the energy by the same value. This new model differs from an analogous model with long-range interactions where in the ground state all neighboring chains are antiparallel. The new model is suitable for the corresponding system of point electric (and magnetic) dipoles on the square lattice. It allows separately estimating the different contributions to the total binding energy and helps to understand the properties of infinite monolayers and finite nanostructures. Calculations of the binding energy for square ice and for point dipole system are performed using the packages TINKER and LAMMPS.

  8. Nuclear proliferation in the Near East. What is the reaction of the regional neighbors on Iran's nuclear program? An analysis based on the proliferation debate; Nukleare Proliferation im Nahen Osten. Wie reagieren die regionalen Nachbarn auf Irans Nuklearprogramm? Eine Analyse anhand der Proliferationsdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erny, Matthias [Zuericher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften (ZHAW), Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on the reactions of the neighbor states on Iran's nuclear program covers the following topics: Iran's position in the Near East: historical aspects, Iran's nuclear program. The nuclear proliferation and the theory debate: the role of nuclear weapons in the international policy, proliferation optimism, proliferation pessimism. Analysis of the players and theory criticism: nuclear states (Israel, Pakistan), emerging nuclear states (Saudi Arab, Egypt, Turkey, Syria), states without nuclear weapons (Iraq, Jordan, GCC states); analysis, theory criticism.

  9. The surprising power of neighborly advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Daniel T; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Eyre, Rebecca N; Wilson, Timothy D

    2009-03-20

    Two experiments revealed that (i) people can more accurately predict their affective reactions to a future event when they know how a neighbor in their social network reacted to the event than when they know about the event itself and (ii) people do not believe this. Undergraduates made more accurate predictions about their affective reactions to a 5-minute speed date (n = 25) and to a peer evaluation (n = 88) when they knew only how another undergraduate had reacted to these events than when they had information about the events themselves. Both participants and independent judges mistakenly believed that predictions based on information about the event would be more accurate than predictions based on information about how another person had reacted to it.

  10. Observing Literacy Practices in Neighbor Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte

    ’procedures on language and literacy. Based on this material, we developed an observation scheme and a guide for preschool teachers to follow, inspired by an action learning concept.During fall 2015, a pilot project is carried out. Preschool teachers from one institution visit a neighbor institution one by one during...... work hours, in order to observe and register how language and literacy events look like there. Afterwards, they share their registrations at a team meeting, and discuss and decide which procedures to test in their own institution. Thus, they form a professional learning network. In the pilot project......The Danish National Centre for Reading and a municipality in southern Denmark cooperate to develop a program to improve preschool children’s early literacy skills. The project aims to support preschool teachers’ ability to create a rich literacy environment for children age 3‒6. Recent research...

  11. Giant Planets: Good Neighbors for Habitable Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-04-01

    The presence of giant planets influences potentially habitable worlds in numerous ways. Massive celestial neighbors can facilitate the formation of planetary cores and modify the influx of asteroids and comets toward Earth analogs later on. Furthermore, giant planets can indirectly change the climate of terrestrial worlds by gravitationally altering their orbits. Investigating 147 well-characterized exoplanetary systems known to date that host a main-sequence star and a giant planet, we show that the presence of “giant neighbors” can reduce a terrestrial planet’s chances to remain habitable, even if both planets have stable orbits. In a small fraction of systems, however, giant planets slightly increase the extent of habitable zones provided that the terrestrial world has a high climate inertia. In providing constraints on where giant planets cease to affect the habitable zone size in a detrimental fashion, we identify prime targets in the search for habitable worlds.

  12. Co-Expression of Neighboring Genes in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryi Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neighboring genes in the eukaryotic genome have a tendency to express concurrently, and the proximity of two adjacent genes is often considered a possible explanation for their co-expression behavior. However, the actual contribution of the physical distance between two genes to their co-expression behavior has yet to be defined. To further investigate this issue, we studied the co-expression of neighboring genes in zebrafish, which has a compact genome and has experienced a whole genome duplication event. Our analysis shows that the proportion of highly co-expressed neighboring pairs (Pearson’s correlation coefficient R>0.7 is low (0.24% ~ 0.67%; however, it is still significantly higher than that of random pairs. In particular, the statistical result implies that the co-expression tendency of neighboring pairs is negatively correlated with their physical distance. Our findings therefore suggest that physical distance may play an important role in the co-expression of neighboring genes. Possible mechanisms related to the neighboring genes’ co-expression are also discussed.

  13. Plant neighbor identity influences plant biochemistry and physiology related to defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Amanda K; Broeckling, Corey D; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Lewis, Matthew R; Greene, Erick; Callaway, Ragan M; Sumner, Lloyd W; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2010-06-17

    Chemical and biological processes dictate an individual organism's ability to recognize and respond to other organisms. A small but growing body of evidence suggests that plants may be capable of recognizing and responding to neighboring plants in a species specific fashion. Here we tested whether or not individuals of the invasive exotic weed, Centaurea maculosa, would modulate their defensive strategy in response to different plant neighbors. In the greenhouse, C. maculosa individuals were paired with either conspecific (C. maculosa) or heterospecific (Festuca idahoensis) plant neighbors and elicited with the plant defense signaling molecule methyl jasmonate to mimic insect herbivory. We found that elicited C. maculosa plants grown with conspecific neighbors exhibited increased levels of total phenolics, whereas those grown with heterospecific neighbors allocated more resources towards growth. To further investigate these results in the field, we conducted a metabolomics analysis to explore chemical differences between individuals of C. maculosa growing in naturally occurring conspecific and heterospecific field stands. Similar to the greenhouse results, C. maculosa individuals accumulated higher levels of defense-related secondary metabolites and lower levels of primary metabolites when growing in conspecific versus heterospecific field stands. Leaf herbivory was similar in both stand types; however, a separate field study positively correlated specialist herbivore load with higher densities of C. maculosa conspecifics. Our results suggest that an individual C. maculosa plant can change its defensive strategy based on the identity of its plant neighbors. This is likely to have important consequences for individual and community success.

  14. Plant neighbor identity influences plant biochemistry and physiology related to defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callaway Ragan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and biological processes dictate an individual organism's ability to recognize and respond to other organisms. A small but growing body of evidence suggests that plants may be capable of recognizing and responding to neighboring plants in a species specific fashion. Here we tested whether or not individuals of the invasive exotic weed, Centaurea maculosa, would modulate their defensive strategy in response to different plant neighbors. Results In the greenhouse, C. maculosa individuals were paired with either conspecific (C. maculosa or heterospecific (Festuca idahoensis plant neighbors and elicited with the plant defense signaling molecule methyl jasmonate to mimic insect herbivory. We found that elicited C. maculosa plants grown with conspecific neighbors exhibited increased levels of total phenolics, whereas those grown with heterospecific neighbors allocated more resources towards growth. To further investigate these results in the field, we conducted a metabolomics analysis to explore chemical differences between individuals of C. maculosa growing in naturally occurring conspecific and heterospecific field stands. Similar to the greenhouse results, C. maculosa individuals accumulated higher levels of defense-related secondary metabolites and lower levels of primary metabolites when growing in conspecific versus heterospecific field stands. Leaf herbivory was similar in both stand types; however, a separate field study positively correlated specialist herbivore load with higher densities of C. maculosa conspecifics. Conclusions Our results suggest that an individual C. maculosa plant can change its defensive strategy based on the identity of its plant neighbors. This is likely to have important consequences for individual and community success.

  15. Transient produced because of the loss or reduction of the CNA-I UK system cooling capability incompatible with power operation with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Mirta A.

    2002-01-01

    The accidental sequences corresponding to the initiating events associated to T15 group are modeled. This group is defined in the Probabilistic Risk Assessment final report. The code used was RELAP5/MOD3. The representative event of the group is the complete loss of UK system, the complementary safety cooling system of the CNA-I. The transient determined from different availability conditions of systems involved in the event is analyzed. Besides the initiating event, the results coming from the event tree heading failures are also studied. Finally, the sequences corresponding to safe shutdown of the plant, and the sequences involved in core damage are determined. (author)

  16. Text Categorization Using Weight Adjusted k-Nearest Neighbor Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Euihong; Karypis, George; Kumar, Vipin

    1999-01-01

    .... The authors present a nearest neighbor classification scheme for text categorization in which the importance of discriminating words is learned using mutual information and weight adjustment techniques...

  17. Measurement of near neighbor separations of surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.I.

    Two techniques are being developed to measure the nearest neighbor distances of atoms at the surfaces of solids. Both measures extended fine structure in the excitation probability of core level electrons which are excited by an incident electron beam. This is an important problem because the structures of most surface systems are as yet unknown, even though the location of surface atoms is the basis for any quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics of surfaces and interfaces. These methods would allow any laboratory to make in situ determinations of surface structure in conjunction with most other laboratory probes of surfaces. Each of these two techniques has different advantages; further, the combination of the two will increase confidence in the results by reducing systematic error in the data analysis

  18. Neighboring Optimal Aircraft Guidance in a General Wind Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Matthew R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and system for determining an optimal route for an aircraft moving between first and second waypoints in a general wind environment. A selected first wind environment is analyzed for which a nominal solution can be determined. A second wind environment is then incorporated; and a neighboring optimal control (NOC) analysis is performed to estimate an optimal route for the second wind environment. In particular examples with flight distances of 2500 and 6000 nautical miles in the presence of constant or piecewise linearly varying winds, the difference in flight time between a nominal solution and an optimal solution is 3.4 to 5 percent. Constant or variable winds and aircraft speeds can be used. Updated second wind environment information can be provided and used to obtain an updated optimal route.

  19. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Yang Xiaohu; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r vir of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  20. Evaluation of CNA I coolant channel behaviour during an accidental transient using ICARE2 V2 mod2.3 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Edgardo J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Using the input data language of ICARE2 V2 Mod.3 code, the fuel element and coolant channel assembly of CNA I type was described. This input data was utilized to analyze the system behavior and determine the degradation produced during a hypothetical accidental transient at CNA I. The boundary conditions were determined through a previous calculation with RELAP5/MOD 3.2 code. The results had shown characteristic degradation phenomena's. The temperature of bundle components increases fast after 6.11 h in the first case and 5.28 h in the second case, due to the energy release by cladding oxidation. It was correlated with instantaneous hydrogen production and energy contribution. The cumulated hydrogen production was estimated as 0.15 Kg in the first case and ∼ 5 times greater in the second case. Fission product release from the gap due to cladding rupture took place from 6.25 h in the first case and 5.65 h in the second. Relocation started after 6.81 h in the first case and 5.68 in the second, because the cladding dislocation condition is reached. UO 2 dissolution by molten Zircaloy was observed at different levels in the calculation domain. (author)

  1. Frog sound identification using extended k-nearest neighbor classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukahar, Nordiana; Affendi Rosdi, Bakhtiar; Athiar Ramli, Dzati; Jaafar, Haryati

    2017-09-01

    Frog sound identification based on the vocalization becomes important for biological research and environmental monitoring. As a result, different types of feature extractions and classifiers have been employed to evaluate the accuracy of frog sound identification. This paper presents a frog sound identification with Extended k-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN) classifier. The EKNN classifier integrates the nearest neighbors and mutual sharing of neighborhood concepts, with the aims of improving the classification performance. It makes a prediction based on who are the nearest neighbors of the testing sample and who consider the testing sample as their nearest neighbors. In order to evaluate the classification performance in frog sound identification, the EKNN classifier is compared with competing classifier, k -Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Fuzzy k -Nearest Neighbor (FKNN) k - General Nearest Neighbor (KGNN)and Mutual k -Nearest Neighbor (MKNN) on the recorded sounds of 15 frog species obtained in Malaysia forest. The recorded sounds have been segmented using Short Time Energy and Short Time Average Zero Crossing Rate (STE+STAZCR), sinusoidal modeling (SM), manual and the combination of Energy (E) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) (E+ZCR) while the features are extracted by Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC). The experimental results have shown that the EKNCN classifier exhibits the best performance in terms of accuracy compared to the competing classifiers, KNN, FKNN, GKNN and MKNN for all cases.

  2. The Islands Approach to Nearest Neighbor Querying in Spatial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xuegang; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas

    2005-01-01

    , and versatile approach to k nearest neighbor computation that obviates the need for using several k nearest neighbor approaches for supporting a single service scenario. The experimental comparison with the existing techniques uses real-world road network data and considers both I/O and CPU performance...

  3. Performance modeling of neighbor discovery in proactive routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Medina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that neighbor discovery is a critical component of proactive routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks. However there is no formal study on the performance of proposed neighbor discovery mechanisms. This paper provides a detailed model of key performance metrics of neighbor discovery algorithms, such as node degree and the distribution of the distance to symmetric neighbors. The model accounts for the dynamics of neighbor discovery as well as node density, mobility, radio and interference. The paper demonstrates a method for applying these models to the evaluation of global network metrics. In particular, it describes a model of network connectivity. Validation of the models shows that the degree estimate agrees, within 5% error, with simulations for the considered scenarios. The work presented in this paper serves as a basis for the performance evaluation of remaining performance metrics of routing protocols, vital for large scale deployment of ad hoc networks.

  4. Handling Neighbor Discovery and Rendezvous Consistency with Weighted Quorum-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Meng, Zhaopeng; Liu, Kehan

    2015-09-03

    Neighbor discovery and the power of sensors play an important role in the formation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and mobile networks. Many asynchronous protocols based on wake-up time scheduling have been proposed to enable neighbor discovery among neighboring nodes for the energy saving, especially in the difficulty of clock synchronization. However, existing researches are divided two parts with the neighbor-discovery methods, one is the quorum-based protocols and the other is co-primality based protocols. Their distinction is on the arrangements of time slots, the former uses the quorums in the matrix, the latter adopts the numerical analysis. In our study, we propose the weighted heuristic quorum system (WQS), which is based on the quorum algorithm to eliminate redundant paths of active slots. We demonstrate the specification of our system: fewer active slots are required, the referring rate is balanced, and remaining power is considered particularly when a device maintains rendezvous with discovered neighbors. The evaluation results showed that our proposed method can effectively reschedule the active slots and save the computing time of the network system.

  5. Handling Neighbor Discovery and Rendezvous Consistency with Weighted Quorum-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ming Own

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neighbor discovery and the power of sensors play an important role in the formation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and mobile networks. Many asynchronous protocols based on wake-up time scheduling have been proposed to enable neighbor discovery among neighboring nodes for the energy saving, especially in the difficulty of clock synchronization. However, existing researches are divided two parts with the neighbor-discovery methods, one is the quorum-based protocols and the other is co-primality based protocols. Their distinction is on the arrangements of time slots, the former uses the quorums in the matrix, the latter adopts the numerical analysis. In our study, we propose the weighted heuristic quorum system (WQS, which is based on the quorum algorithm to eliminate redundant paths of active slots. We demonstrate the specification of our system: fewer active slots are required, the referring rate is balanced, and remaining power is considered particularly when a device maintains rendezvous with discovered neighbors. The evaluation results showed that our proposed method can effectively reschedule the active slots and save the computing time of the network system.

  6. Improving Fraudster Detection in Online Auctions by Using Neighbor-Driven Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Lin Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online auction websites use a simple reputation system to help their users to evaluate the trustworthiness of sellers and buyers. However, to improve their reputation in the reputation system, fraudulent users can easily deceive the reputation system by creating fake transactions. This inflated-reputation fraud poses a major problem for online auction websites because it can lead legitimate users into scams. Numerous approaches have been proposed in the literature to address this problem, most of which involve using social network analysis (SNA to derive critical features (e.g., k-core, center weight, and neighbor diversity for distinguishing fraudsters from legitimate users. This paper discusses the limitations of these SNA features and proposes a class of SNA features referred to as neighbor-driven attributes (NDAs. The NDAs of users are calculated from the features of their neighbors. Because fraudsters require collusive neighbors to provide them with positive ratings in the reputation system, using NDAs can be helpful for detecting fraudsters. Although the idea of NDAs is not entirely new, experimental results on a real-world dataset showed that using NDAs improves classification accuracy compared with state-of-the-art methods that use the k-core, center weight, and neighbor diversity.

  7. Velocity correlations and spatial dependencies between neighbors in a unidirectional flow of pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzycki, Jakub; WÄ s, Jarosław; Hedayatifar, Leila; Hassanibesheli, Forough; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the paper is an analysis of self-organization patterns observed in the unidirectional flow of pedestrians. On the basis of experimental data from Zhang et al. [J. Zhang et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2011) P06004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2011/06/P06004], we analyze the mutual positions and velocity correlations between pedestrians when walking along a corridor. The angular and spatial dependencies of the mutual positions reveal a spatial structure that remains stable during the crowd motion. This structure differs depending on the value of n , for the consecutive n th -nearest-neighbor position set. The preferred position for the first-nearest neighbor is on the side of the pedestrian, while for further neighbors, this preference shifts to the axis of movement. The velocity correlations vary with the angle formed by the pair of neighboring pedestrians and the direction of motion and with the time delay between pedestrians' movements. The delay dependence of the correlations shows characteristic oscillations, produced by the velocity oscillations when striding; however, a filtering of the main frequency of individual striding out reduces the oscillations only partially. We conclude that pedestrians select their path directions so as to evade the necessity of continuously adjusting their speed to their neighbors'. They try to keep a given distance, but follow the person in front of them, as well as accepting and observing pedestrians on their sides. Additionally, we show an empirical example that illustrates the shape of a pedestrian's personal space during movement.

  8. Long-term effect of September 11 on the political behavior of victims' families and neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Eitan D

    2013-12-24

    This article investigates the long-term effect of September 11, 2001 on the political behaviors of victims' families and neighbors. Relative to comparable individuals, family members and residential neighbors of victims have become--and have stayed--significantly more active in politics in the last 12 years, and they have become more Republican on account of the terrorist attacks. The method used to demonstrate these findings leverages the random nature of the terrorist attack to estimate a causal effect and exploits new techniques to link multiple, individual-level, governmental databases to measure behavioral change without relying on surveys or aggregate analysis.

  9. Long-term effect of September 11 on the political behavior of victims’ families and neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Eitan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the long-term effect of September 11, 2001 on the political behaviors of victims’ families and neighbors. Relative to comparable individuals, family members and residential neighbors of victims have become—and have stayed—significantly more active in politics in the last 12 years, and they have become more Republican on account of the terrorist attacks. The method used to demonstrate these findings leverages the random nature of the terrorist attack to estimate a causal effect and exploits new techniques to link multiple, individual-level, governmental databases to measure behavioral change without relying on surveys or aggregate analysis. PMID:24324145

  10. Our Galactic Neighbor Hosts Complex Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the presence of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in a star-forming region outside our galaxy. This discovery has important implications for the formation and survival of complex organic compounds importantfor the formation of life in low-metallicity galaxies bothyoung and old.No Simple Picture of Complex Molecule FormationALMA, pictured here with the Magellanic Clouds above, has observed organic molecules in our Milky Way Galaxy and beyond. [ESO/C. Malin]Complex organic molecules (those with at least six atoms, one or more of which must be carbon) are the precursors to the building blocks of life. Knowing how and where complex organic molecules can form is a key part of understanding how life came to be on Earth and how it might arise elsewhere in the universe. From exoplanet atmospheres to interstellar space, complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Milky Way.In our galaxy, complex organic molecules are often found in the intense environments of hot cores clumps of dense molecular gas surrounding the sites of star formation. However, its not yet fully understood how the complex organic molecules found in hot cores come to be. One possibility is that the compounds condense onto cold dust grains long before the young stars begin heating their natal shrouds. Alternatively, they might assemble themselves from the hot, dense gas surrounding the blazing protostars.Composite infrared and optical image of the N 113 star-forming region in the LMC. The ALMA coverage is indicated by the gray line. Click to enlarge. [Sewio et al. 2018]Detecting Complexity, a Galaxy AwayUsing ALMA, a team of researchers led by Marta Sewio (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) recently detected two complex organic molecules methyl formate and dimethyl ether for the first time in our neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Previous searches for organic molecules in the LMC detected

  11. Dimensional testing for reverse k-nearest neighbor search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanova, Guillaume; Englmeier, Elias; Houle, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Given a query object q, reverse k-nearest neighbor (RkNN) search aims to locate those objects of the database that have q among their k-nearest neighbors. In this paper, we propose an approximation method for solving RkNN queries, where the pruning operations and termination tests are guided...... by a characterization of the intrinsic dimensionality of the data. The method can accommodate any index structure supporting incremental (forward) nearest-neighbor search for the generation and verification of candidates, while avoiding impractically-high preprocessing costs. We also provide experimental evidence...

  12. Color and neighbor edge directional difference feature for image retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaobing Huang; Shengsheng Yu; Jingli Zhou; Hongwei Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel image feature termed neighbor edge directional difference unit histogram is proposed, in which the neighbor edge directional difference unit is defined and computed for every pixel in the image, and is used to generate the neighbor edge directional difference unit histogram. This histogram and color histogram are used as feature indexes to retrieve color image. The feature is invariant to image scaling and translation and has more powerful descriptive for the natural color images. Experimental results show that the feature can achieve better retrieval performance than other color-spatial features.

  13. Neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions of amino acids developed from a hierarchical Dirichlet process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ting

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distributions of the backbone dihedral angles of proteins have been studied for over 40 years. While many statistical analyses have been presented, only a handful of probability densities are publicly available for use in structure validation and structure prediction methods. The available distributions differ in a number of important ways, which determine their usefulness for various purposes. These include: 1 input data size and criteria for structure inclusion (resolution, R-factor, etc.; 2 filtering of suspect conformations and outliers using B-factors or other features; 3 secondary structure of input data (e.g., whether helix and sheet are included; whether beta turns are included; 4 the method used for determining probability densities ranging from simple histograms to modern nonparametric density estimation; and 5 whether they include nearest neighbor effects on the distribution of conformations in different regions of the Ramachandran map. In this work, Ramachandran probability distributions are presented for residues in protein loops from a high-resolution data set with filtering based on calculated electron densities. Distributions for all 20 amino acids (with cis and trans proline treated separately have been determined, as well as 420 left-neighbor and 420 right-neighbor dependent distributions. The neighbor-independent and neighbor-dependent probability densities have been accurately estimated using Bayesian nonparametric statistical analysis based on the Dirichlet process. In particular, we used hierarchical Dirichlet process priors, which allow sharing of information between densities for a particular residue type and different neighbor residue types. The resulting distributions are tested in a loop modeling benchmark with the program Rosetta, and are shown to improve protein loop conformation prediction significantly. The distributions are available at http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/hdp.

  14. Scalable Nearest Neighbor Algorithms for High Dimensional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muja, Marius; Lowe, David G

    2014-11-01

    For many computer vision and machine learning problems, large training sets are key for good performance. However, the most computationally expensive part of many computer vision and machine learning algorithms consists of finding nearest neighbor matches to high dimensional vectors that represent the training data. We propose new algorithms for approximate nearest neighbor matching and evaluate and compare them with previous algorithms. For matching high dimensional features, we find two algorithms to be the most efficient: the randomized k-d forest and a new algorithm proposed in this paper, the priority search k-means tree. We also propose a new algorithm for matching binary features by searching multiple hierarchical clustering trees and show it outperforms methods typically used in the literature. We show that the optimal nearest neighbor algorithm and its parameters depend on the data set characteristics and describe an automated configuration procedure for finding the best algorithm to search a particular data set. In order to scale to very large data sets that would otherwise not fit in the memory of a single machine, we propose a distributed nearest neighbor matching framework that can be used with any of the algorithms described in the paper. All this research has been released as an open source library called fast library for approximate nearest neighbors (FLANN), which has been incorporated into OpenCV and is now one of the most popular libraries for nearest neighbor matching.

  15. The role of orthography in the semantic activation of neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J; Taylor, Tamsen E

    2012-09-01

    There is now considerable evidence that a letter string can activate semantic information appropriate to its orthographic neighbors (e.g., Forster & Hector's, 2002, TURPLE effect). This phenomenon is the focus of the present research. Using Japanese words, we examined whether semantic activation of neighbors is driven directly by orthographic similarity alone or whether there is also a role for phonological similarity. In Experiment 1, using a relatedness judgment task in which a Kanji word-Katakana word pair was presented on each trial, an inhibitory effect was observed when the initial Kanji word was related to an orthographic and phonological neighbor of the Katakana word target but not when the initial Kanji word was related to a phonological but not orthographic neighbor of the Katakana word target. This result suggests that phonology plays little, if any, role in the activation of neighbors' semantics when reading familiar words. In Experiment 2, the targets were transcribed into Hiragana, a script they are typically not written in, requiring readers to engage in phonological coding. In that experiment, inhibitory effects were observed in both conditions. This result indicates that phonologically mediated semantic activation of neighbors will emerge when phonological processing is necessary in order to understand a written word (e.g., when that word is transcribed into an unfamiliar script). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Sequence correction of random coil chemical shifts: correlation between neighbor correction factors and changes in the Ramachandran distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2011-01-01

    Random coil chemical shifts are necessary for secondary chemical shift analysis, which is the main NMR method for identification of secondary structure in proteins. One of the largest challenges in the determination of random coil chemical shifts is accounting for the effect of neighboring residues....... The contributions from the neighboring residues are typically removed by using neighbor correction factors determined based on each residue's effect on glycine chemical shifts. Due to its unusual conformational freedom, glycine may be particularly unrepresentative for the remaining residue types. In this study, we...... in the conformational ensemble are an important source of neighbor effects in disordered proteins. Glutamine derived random coil chemical shifts and correction factors modestly improve our ability to predict (13)C chemical shifts of intrinsically disordered proteins compared to existing datasets, and may thus improve...

  17. Haldane to Dimer Phase Transition in the Spin-1 Haldane System with Bond-Alternating Nearest-Neighbor and Uniform Next-Nearest-Neighbor Exchange Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, Tonegawa; Makoto, Kaburagi; Takeshi, Nakao; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University; Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Kobe University; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University

    1995-01-01

    The Haldane to dimer phase transition is studied in the spin-1 Haldane system with bond-alternating nearest-neighbor and uniform next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, where both interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus compete with each other. By using a method of exact diagonalization, the ground-state phase diagram on the ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction constant to the nearest-neighbor one versus the bond-alternation parameter of the nearest-neighbor interactions is...

  18. Neighbor discovery in multi-hop wireless networks: evaluation and dimensioning with interferences considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyes Ben Hamida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the impact of collisions and interferences on a neighbor discovery process in the context of multi-hop wireless networks. We consider three models in which interferences and collisions are handled in very different ways. From an ideal channel where simultaneous transmissions do not interfere, we derive an alternate channel where simultaneous transmissions are considered two-by-two under the form of collisions, to finally reach a more realistic channel where simultaneous transmissions are handled under the form of shot-noise interferences. In these models, we analytically compute the link probability success between two neighbors as well as the expected number of nodes that correctly receive a Hello packet. Using this analysis, we show that if the neighbor discovery process is asymptotically equivalent in the three models, it offers very different behaviors locally in time. In particular, the scalability of the process is not the same depending on the way interferences are handled. Finally, we apply our results to the dimensioning of a Hello protocol parameters. We propose a method to adapt the protocol parameters to meet application constraints on the neighbor discovery process and to minimize the protocol energy consumption.

  19. Modeling the effect of neighboring grains on twin growth in HCP polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Arul; Beyerlein, I. J.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Tomé, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the dependence of neighboring grain orientation on the local stress state around a deformation twin in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal and its effects on the resistance against twin thickening. We use a recently developed, full-field elasto-visco-plastic formulation based on fast Fourier transforms that account for the twinning shear transformation imposed by the twin lamella. The study is applied to Mg, Zr and Ti, since these HCP metals tend to deform by activation of different types of slip modes. The analysis shows that the local stress along the twin boundary are strongly controlled by the relative orientation of the easiest deformation modes in the neighboring grain with respect to the twin lamella in the parent grain. A geometric expression that captures this parent-neighbor relationship is proposed and incorporated into a larger scale, mean-field visco-plastic self-consistent model to simulate the role of neighboring grain orientation on twin thickening. We demonstrate that the approach improves the prediction of twin area fraction distribution when compared with experimental observations.

  20. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  1. Who's your neighbor? Acoustic cues to individual identity in red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus rattle calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. DIGWEED, Drew RENDALL, Teana IMBEAU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available North American red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus often produce a loud territorial rattle call when conspecifics enter or invade a territory. Previous playback experiments suggest that the territorial rattle call may indicate an invader's identity as squirrels responded more intensely to calls played from strangers than to calls played from neighbors. This dear-enemy effect is well known in a variety of bird and mammal species and functions to reduce aggressive interactions between known neighbors. However, although previous experiments on red squirrels suggest some form of individual differentiation and thus recognition, detailed acoustic analysis of potential acoustic cues in rattle calls have not been conducted. If calls function to aid in conspecific identification in order to mitigate aggressive territorial interactions, we would expect that individual recognition cues would be acoustically represented. Our work provides a detailed analysis of acoustic cues to identity within rattle calls. A total of 225 calls across 32 individual squirrels from Sheep River Provincial Park, Kananaskis, AB, Canada, were analyzed with discriminant function analysis for potential acoustic cues to individual identity. Initial analysis of all individuals revealed a reliable acoustic differentiation across individuals. A more detailed analysis of clusters of neighboring squirrels was performed and results again indicated a statistically significant likelihood that calls were assigned correctly to specific squirrels (55%-75% correctly assigned; in other words squirrels have distinct voices that should allow for individual identification and discrimination by conspecifics [Current Zoology 58 (5: 758–764, 2012].

  2. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  3. River Flow Prediction Using the Nearest Neighbor Probabilistic Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sanikhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the recent years, researchers interested on probabilistic forecasting of hydrologic variables such river flow.A probabilistic approach aims at quantifying the prediction reliability through a probability distribution function or a prediction interval for the unknown future value. The evaluation of the uncertainty associated to the forecast is seen as a fundamental information, not only to correctly assess the prediction, but also to compare forecasts from different methods and to evaluate actions and decisions conditionally on the expected values. Several probabilistic approaches have been proposed in the literature, including (1 methods that use resampling techniques to assess parameter and model uncertainty, such as the Metropolis algorithm or the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE methodology for an application to runoff prediction, (2 methods based on processing the forecast errors of past data to produce the probability distributions of future values and (3 methods that evaluate how the uncertainty propagates from the rainfall forecast to the river discharge prediction, as the Bayesian forecasting system. Materials and Methods: In this study, two different probabilistic methods are used for river flow prediction.Then the uncertainty related to the forecast is quantified. One approach is based on linear predictors and in the other, nearest neighbor was used. The nonlinear probabilistic ensemble can be used for nonlinear time series analysis using locally linear predictors, while NNPE utilize a method adapted for one step ahead nearest neighbor methods. In this regard, daily river discharge (twelve years of Dizaj and Mashin Stations on Baranduz-Chay basin in west Azerbijan and Zard-River basin in Khouzestan provinces were used, respectively. The first six years of data was applied for fitting the model. The next three years was used to calibration and the remained three yeas utilized for testing the models

  4. Multiple k Nearest Neighbor Query Processing in Spatial Network Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuegang, Huang; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the efficient processing of multiple k nearest neighbor queries in a road-network setting. The assumed setting covers a range of scenarios such as the one where a large population of mobile service users that are constrained to a road network issue nearest-neighbor queries...... for points of interest that are accessible via the road network. Given multiple k nearest neighbor queries, the paper proposes progressive techniques that selectively cache query results in main memory and subsequently reuse these for query processing. The paper initially proposes techniques for the case...... where an upper bound on k is known a priori and then extends the techniques to the case where this is not so. Based on empirical studies with real-world data, the paper offers insight into the circumstances under which the different proposed techniques can be used with advantage for multiple k nearest...

  5. Nearest unlike neighbor (NUN): an aid to decision confidence estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Belur V.

    1995-09-01

    The concept of nearest unlike neighbor (NUN), proposed and explored previously in the design of nearest neighbor (NN) based decision systems, is further exploited in this study to develop a measure of confidence in the decisions made by NN-based decision systems. This measure of confidence, on the basis of comparison with a user-defined threshold, may be used to determine the acceptability of the decision provided by the NN-based decision system. The concepts, associated methodology, and some illustrative numerical examples using the now classical Iris data to bring out the ease of implementation and effectiveness of the proposed innovations are presented.

  6. Phagocytic response of astrocytes to damaged neighboring cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Wakida

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the phagocytic response of astrocytes to the injury of neurons or other astrocytes at the single cell level. Laser nanosurgery was used to damage individual cells in both primary mouse cortical astrocytes and an established astrocyte cell line. In both cases, the release of material/substances from laser-irradiated astrocytes or neurons induced a phagocytic response in near-by astrocytes. Propidium iodide stained DNA originating from irradiated cells was visible in vesicles of neighboring cells, confirming phagocytosis of material from damaged cortical cells. In the presence of an intracellular pH indicator dye, newly formed vesicles correspond to acidic pH fluorescence, thus suggesting lysosome bound degradation of cellular debris. Cells with shared membrane connections prior to laser damage had a significantly higher frequency of induced phagocytosis compared to isolated cells with no shared membrane. The increase in phagocytic response of cells with a shared membrane occurred regardless of the extent of shared membrane (a thin filopodial connection vs. a cell cluster with significant shared membrane. In addition to the presence (or lack of a membrane connection, variation in phagocytic ability was also observed with differences in injury location within the cell and distance separating isolated astrocytes. These results demonstrate the ability of an astrocyte to respond to the damage of a single cell, be it another astrocyte, or a neuron. This single-cell level of analysis results in a better understanding of the role of astrocytes to maintain homeostasis in the CNS, particularly in the sensing and removal of debris in damaged or pathologic nervous tissue.

  7. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Heller, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    of the neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna...

  8. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Jacobs, Sam; Boyd, Bryan; Tapia, Lydia; Amato, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K'), that first computes the K' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Clustered K nearest neighbor algorithm for daily inflow forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari, M.; Van Overloop, P.J.A.T.M.; Afshar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Instance based learning (IBL) algorithms are a common choice among data driven algorithms for inflow forecasting. They are based on the similarity principle and prediction is made by the finite number of similar neighbors. In this sense, the similarity of a query instance is estimated according to

  11. Near Neighbor Distribution in Sets of Fractal Nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2013), s. 159-166 ISSN 2150-7988 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nearest neighbor * fractal set * multifractal * Erlang distribution Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.mirlabs.org/ijcisim/regular_papers_2013/Paper91.pdf

  12. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  13. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes.

  14. Thermodynamic systematics of oxides of americium, curium, and neighboring elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Recently-obtained calorimetric data on the sesquioxides and dioxides of americium and curium are summarized. These data are combined with other properties of the actinide elements to elucidate the stability relationships among these oxides and to predict the behavior of neighboring actinide oxides. 45 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  15. Incidence and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Iran and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns in many countries, however the available and effective treatment is known. Tuberculosis typically determined with socio-economic problems such as war, malnutrition and HIV prevalence. In Iran, many progresses are carried to control tuberculosis but, different factors such as immigration from neighboring countries are affective to tuberculosis infection. Objectives In this paper, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis is evaluated in different regions of Iran and neighboring countries. Methods The data are collected from different and valid sources such as Scopus, Pubmed and also many reports from world health organization (WHO and center of disease control and prevention (CDC for a period of 25 years (1990 - 2015 evaluated for Iran and neighboring countries. Results This study as a descriptive- analytical research is conducted cross- sectional among Iran and neighboring countries since 1990. The information is obtained from exact and valid informative data from web of sciences. The east and west border countries of Iran which are faced with war and immigration in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq are source of tuberculosis infection that effect on tuberculosis prevalence in Iran. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and Excel 2013. Conclusions The incidence of tuberculosis in Iran has been decreased because of many controlling actions such as BCG vaccination, electronic reporting system for tuberculosis and free access to tuberculosis medication. Some of Iran neighboring countries such as Tajikistan and Pakistan have the highest incidence of tuberculosis which known as a challenge for tuberculosis control in Iran while Saudi Arabia and Turkey have the lowest incidence.

  16. Local biotic adaptation of trees and shrubs to plant neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Kevin C.; Wood, Troy E.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Hersch-Green, Erika; Shuster, Stephen M.; Gehring, Catherine A.; Hart, Stephen C.; Allan, Gerard J.; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection as a result of plant–plant interactions can lead to local biotic adaptation. This may occur where species frequently interact and compete intensely for resources limiting growth, survival, and reproduction. Selection is demonstrated by comparing a genotype interacting with con- or hetero-specific sympatric neighbor genotypes with a shared site-level history (derived from the same source location), to the same genotype interacting with foreign neighbor genotypes (from different sources). Better genotype performance in sympatric than allopatric neighborhoods provides evidence of local biotic adaptation. This pattern might be explained by selection to avoid competition by shifting resource niches (differentiation) or by interactions benefitting one or more members (facilitation). We tested for local biotic adaptation among two riparian trees, Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and the shrub Salix exigua by transplanting replicated genotypes from multiple source locations to a 17 000 tree common garden with sympatric and allopatric treatments along the Colorado River in California. Three major patterns were observed: 1) across species, 62 of 88 genotypes grew faster with sympatric neighbors than allopatric neighbors; 2) these growth rates, on an individual tree basis, were 44, 15 and 33% higher in sympatric than allopatric treatments for P. fremontii, S. exigua and S. gooddingii, respectively, and; 3) survivorship was higher in sympatric treatments for P. fremontiiand S. exigua. These results support the view that fitness of foundation species supporting diverse communities and dominating ecosystem processes is determined by adaptive interactions among multiple plant species with the outcome that performance depends on the genetic identity of plant neighbors. The occurrence of evolution in a plant-community context for trees and shrubs builds on ecological evolutionary research that has demonstrated co-evolution among herbaceous taxa, and

  17. Detecting PM2.5's Correlations between Neighboring Cities Using a Time-Lagged Cross-Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Chen, Yuming

    2017-08-31

    In order to investigate the time-dependent cross-correlations of fine particulate (PM2.5) series among neighboring cities in Northern China, in this paper, we propose a new cross-correlation coefficient, the time-lagged q-L dependent height crosscorrelation coefficient (denoted by p q (τ, L)), which incorporates the time-lag factor and the fluctuation amplitude information into the analogous height cross-correlation analysis coefficient. Numerical tests are performed to illustrate that the newly proposed coefficient ρ q (τ, L) can be used to detect cross-correlations between two series with time lags and to identify different range of fluctuations at which two series possess cross-correlations. Applying the new coefficient to analyze the time-dependent cross-correlations of PM2.5 series between Beijing and the three neighboring cities of Tianjin, Zhangjiakou, and Baoding, we find that time lags between the PM2.5 series with larger fluctuations are longer than those between PM2.5 series withsmaller fluctuations. Our analysis also shows that cross-correlations between the PM2.5 series of two neighboring cities are significant and the time lags between two PM2.5 series of neighboring cities are significantly non-zero. These findings providenew scientific support on the view that air pollution in neighboring cities can affect one another not simultaneously but with a time lag.

  18. Sustainable development through nuclear technology : 29th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 32nd CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 29th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 32nd CNS/CNA Student Conference on Sustainable Development through Nuclear Technology was held on June 1-4, 2008 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The theme of the conference was 'Nuclear Sustainability'. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. The renewed global interest in nuclear technology is based on a recognition of its potential to meet economic and environmental targets more favourably than competing technologies. Although many of these attractions are short-term in nature, they stem from a broader potential of nuclear technology to drive all aspects of development (social, environmental, economic) in a sustainable in this area. (author) a terial in support of fuel resources themselves. The conference drew a record attendance of over 450 delegates. Over 100 technical papers were presented within 15 technical sessions, as well as over 30 student papers in 5 sessions. The following list of session titles indicates the diversity of the technical papers: advanced reactors; plant and components; process systems; thermalhydraulics; safety and licensing; hydrogen; human factors; physics; instrumentation and control; environment and waste management; and plant operation. (author)

  19. Embracing the future: Canada's nuclear renewal and growth. 28th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 28th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA Student Conference was held on June 3-6, 2007 in Saint John, New Brunswick. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. 'Embracing the Future: Canada's Nuclear Renewal and Growth' was the theme for this year's gathering of nuclear industry experts from across Canada and around the world. This theme reflects the global renaissance of interest in nuclear technology, strongly evident here in Canada through plant refurbishments (underway and planned), new-build planning, renewal and expansion of the nuclear workforce, and growth in public support for environmentally sustainable technology. Topics for discussion at this conference include: the nuclear renaissance in Canada and around the world, recent developments at Canadian utilities, status of plant refurbishment and new build plans, and uranium supply issues. For business, energy, and science reporters this conference offers an insight into major nuclear projects and an opportunity to meet leaders in the nuclear sector. Over 100 technical papers were presented, as well as over 20 student papers, in the following sessions: control room operation; safety analyses; environment and waste management; plant life management and refurbishment; reactor physics; advanced reactor design; instrumentation control; general nuclear topics and standards; chemistry and materials; probabilistic safety assessment; and, performance improvement

  20. Building on our past... building for the future. 33rd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 36th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 33rd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 36th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada on June 10-13, 2012. With the theme of the conference, 'Building on our Past... Building for the Future', the conference specifically noted the 50th anniversary of the first-nuclear-produced electricity in Canada by the small Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) plant on June 4, 1962 and the 60th anniversary of the creation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in April 1952. The conference brought together over 360 delegates for the technical sessions with very broad subject matter of: physics, environment and waste management, safety and licensing, life extension, fusion technology, fuel and advanced reactors, reactor materials, uranium mining, I and C process, and, thermalhydraulics. Two plenary sessions focussed on: Small Modular Reactors; and, radioisotopes primarily for medical applications. The student conference was well attended with plenary sessions focussing on: Nuclear Industry Power Developments: The Renaissance; and a panel discussion on the overview of the proposed refurbishment of the Darlington four-unit station.

  1. Protein function prediction using neighbor relativity in protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sobhan; Rahgozar, Masoud; Rahimi, Amir

    2013-04-01

    There is a large gap between the number of discovered proteins and the number of functionally annotated ones. Due to the high cost of determining protein function by wet-lab research, function prediction has become a major task for computational biology and bioinformatics. Some researches utilize the proteins interaction information to predict function for un-annotated proteins. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Neighbor Relativity Coefficient" (NRC) based on interaction network topology which estimates the functional similarity between two proteins. NRC is calculated for each pair of proteins based on their graph-based features including distance, common neighbors and the number of paths between them. In order to ascribe function to an un-annotated protein, NRC estimates a weight for each neighbor to transfer its annotation to the unknown protein. Finally, the unknown protein will be annotated by the top score transferred functions. We also investigate the effect of using different coefficients for various types of functions. The proposed method has been evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens interaction networks. The performance analysis demonstrates that NRC yields better results in comparison with previous protein function prediction approaches that utilize interaction network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social dilemma alleviated by sharing the gains with immediate neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Yang, Han-Xin

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) and snowdrift game (SG), within which a fraction α of the payoffs of each player gained from direct game interactions is shared equally by the immediate neighbors. The magnitude of the parameter α therefore characterizes the degree of the relatedness among the neighboring players. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations as well as an extended mean-field approximation method, we trace the frequency of cooperation in the stationary state. We find that plugging into relatedness can significantly promote the evolution of cooperation in the context of both studied games. Unexpectedly, cooperation can be more readily established in the spatial PDG than that in the spatial SG, given that the degree of relatedness and the cost-to-benefit ratio of mutual cooperation are properly formulated. The relevance of our model with the stakeholder theory is also briefly discussed.

  3. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    on the agenda of various international policy fora, including the annual meetings of G20 countries in recent years. For that reason, recent studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which such policy actions contributed to the rise in food prices. A study by Jensen & Anderson (2014) uses the global AGE...... model GTAP and the corresponding database to quantify the global policy actions contributions to the raise in food prices by modeling the changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the period 2006 to 2008. We link the results from this global model into a national AGE model, highlighting how...... global "Beggar-thy-Neighbor Policy Responses" impacted on poor households in Uganda. More specifically we examine the following research questions: What were the Ugandan economy-wide and poverty impacts of the price spikes? What was the impact of other countries "Beggar-thy-Neighbor Policy Responses...

  4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Hewson, R

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but a serious threat to humans. Human infections begin with nonspecific febrile symptoms, but progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with a case fatality rate of 2-50%. Although the ...... in Iran and neighboring countries and provide evidence of over 5000 confirmed cases of CCHF in a single period/season....

  5. Fast Most Similar Neighbor (MSN) classifiers for Mixed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Rodríguez, Selene

    2010-01-01

    The k nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been extensively used in Pattern Recognition because of its simplicity and its good performance. However, in large datasets applications, the exhaustive k-NN classifier becomes impractical. Therefore, many fast k-NN classifiers have been developed; most of them rely on metric properties (usually the triangle inequality) to reduce the number of prototype comparisons. Hence, the existing fast k-NN classifiers are applicable only when the comparison f...

  6. ENTROPY CHARACTERISTICS IN MODELS FOR COORDINATION OF NEIGHBORING ROAD SECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kulbashnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an application of entropy characteristics as criteria to coordinate traffic conditions at neighboring road sections. It has been proved that the entropy characteristics are widely used in the methods that take into account information influence of the environment on drivers and in the mechanisms that create such traffic conditions which ensure preservation of the optimal level of driver’s emotional tension during the drive. Solution of such problem is considered in the aspect of coordination of traffic conditions at neighboring road sections that, in its turn, is directed on exclusion of any driver’s transitional processes. Methodology for coordination of traffic conditions at neighboring road sections is based on the E. V. Gavrilov’s concept on coordination of some parameters of road sections which can be expressed in the entropy characteristics. The paper proposes to execute selection of coordination criteria according to accident rates because while moving along neighboring road sections traffic conditions change drastically that can result in creation of an accident situation. Relative organization of a driver’s perception field and driver’s interaction with the traffic environment has been selected as entropy characteristics. Therefore, the given characteristics are made conditional to the road accidents rate. The investigation results have revealed a strong correlation between the relative organization of the driver’s perception field and the relative organization of the driver’s interaction with the traffic environment and the accident rate. Results of the executed experiment have proved an influence of the accident rate on the investigated entropy characteristics.

  7. Do alcohol compliance checks decrease underage sales at neighboring establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Smolenski, Derek J; Toomey, Traci L; Carlin, Bradley P; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2013-11-01

    Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. In this study, we examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. We used data from the Complying with the Minimum Drinking Age trial, which included more than 2,000 compliance checks conducted at more than 900 alcohol establishments. The primary outcome was the sale of alcohol to a pseudo-underage buyer without the need for age identification. A multilevel logistic regression was used to model the effect of a compliance check at each establishment as well as the effect of compliance checks at neighboring establishments within 500 m (stratified into four equal-radius concentric rings), after buyer, license, establishment, and community-level variables were controlled for. We observed a decrease in the likelihood of establishments selling alcohol to underage youth after they had been checked by law enforcement, but these effects quickly decayed over time. Establishments that had a close neighbor (within 125 m) checked in the past 90 days were also less likely to sell alcohol to young-appearing buyers. The spatial effect of compliance checks on other establishments decayed rapidly with increasing distance. Results confirm the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

  8. [Galaxy/quasar classification based on nearest neighbor method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Lu, Yu; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2011-09-01

    With the wide application of high-quality CCD in celestial spectrum imagery and the implementation of many large sky survey programs (e. g., Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dF), Spectroscopic Survey Telescope (SST), Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) program and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program, etc.), celestial observational data are coming into the world like torrential rain. Therefore, to utilize them effectively and fully, research on automated processing methods for celestial data is imperative. In the present work, we investigated how to recognizing galaxies and quasars from spectra based on nearest neighbor method. Galaxies and quasars are extragalactic objects, they are far away from earth, and their spectra are usually contaminated by various noise. Therefore, it is a typical problem to recognize these two types of spectra in automatic spectra classification. Furthermore, the utilized method, nearest neighbor, is one of the most typical, classic, mature algorithms in pattern recognition and data mining, and often is used as a benchmark in developing novel algorithm. For applicability in practice, it is shown that the recognition ratio of nearest neighbor method (NN) is comparable to the best results reported in the literature based on more complicated methods, and the superiority of NN is that this method does not need to be trained, which is useful in incremental learning and parallel computation in mass spectral data processing. In conclusion, the results in this work are helpful for studying galaxies and quasars spectra classification.

  9. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The N400 as a snapshot of interactive processing: evidence from regression analyses of orthographic neighbor and lexical associate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Linking print with meaning tends to be divided into subprocesses, such as recognition of an input's lexical entry and subsequent access of semantics. However, recent results suggest that the set of semantic features activated by an input is broader than implied by a view wherein access serially follows recognition. EEG was collected from participants who viewed items varying in number and frequency of both orthographic neighbors and lexical associates. Regression analysis of single item ERPs replicated past findings, showing that N400 amplitudes are greater for items with more neighbors, and further revealed that N400 amplitudes increase for items with more lexical associates and with higher frequency neighbors or associates. Together, the data suggest that in the N400 time window semantic features of items broadly related to inputs are active, consistent with models in which semantic access takes place in parallel with stimulus recognition. PMID:20624252

  11. CNS proceedings of the 1997 CNA/CNS annual conference on powering Canada's future. Vol. 1, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.V.; Oliva, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society presents a Technical Program Proceedings, presented in Toronto June 1997. The papers are split into Volumes one and two. The topics being: nuclear design and engineering, instrumentation, new technology, health and biology, safety analysis methods, nuclear waste management, reactor physics and operator interface and plant monitoring. The second volume contains topics including plant simulators, computer code validation, reactor safety research and development, thermal hydraulics methods, safety assessment and analysis, radiation transport, and radionuclides, applied nuclear research and development, reactor performance assessment and life cycle management, system and component simulation and design, small reactor analysis and desktop nuclear plant simulator demonstration

  12. CNS proceedings of the 1997 CNA/CNS annual conference on powering Canada`s future. Vol. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J V [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Oliva, A [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); eds.

    1998-12-31

    The Canadian Nuclear Society presents a Technical Program Proceedings, presented in Toronto June 1997. The papers are split into Volumes one and two. The topics being: nuclear design and engineering, instrumentation, new technology, health and biology, safety analysis methods, nuclear waste management, reactor physics and operator interface and plant monitoring. The second volume contains topics including plant simulators, computer code validation, reactor safety research and development, thermal hydraulics methods, safety assessment and analysis, radiation transport, and radionuclides, applied nuclear research and development, reactor performance assessment and life cycle management, system and component simulation and design, small reactor analysis and desktop nuclear plant simulator demonstration

  13. Software development of the mechanical vibration monitoring system of the CNA I reactor internals by neutron noise technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentzeis, Luis M.; Calvo, Maria D.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron noise analysis technique is an important predictive maintenance tool for early detection of failures such as sensor malfunctions and incipient mechanical problems located in the reactor internals. This technique was applied successfully in Argentina since 1987. The FER-GAEN group dependent of the CNEA developed the measuring system to detect anomalies as early as possible. The magnitude of interest in this analysis is the fluctuating component of the neutron flux known as 'neutron noise'. In order to improve and facilitate the analysis, a new software code was developed for the data acquisition of the neutron noise signals and neutron spectra estimation in the frequency domain. The RMS values related with the internals vibrations are calculated from these spectra and are chronologically displayed, in order to detect any anomalous vibration or incipient detector malfunction as early as possible. (author)

  14. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  15. Mountain tourism development in Serbia and neighboring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas with their surroundings are important parts of tourism regions with potentials for all-season tourism development and complementary activities. Development possibilities are based on size of high mountain territory, nature protection regimes, infrastructural equipment, provided conditions for leisure and recreation as well as involvement of local population in processes of development and protection. This paper analyses the key aspects of tourism development, winter tourism in high-mountain areas of Serbia and some neighboring countries (Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Common determinants of cohesion between nature protection and mountain tourism development, national development policies, applied models and concepts and importance of trans-border cooperation are indicated.

  16. Neighboring Structure Visualization on a Grid-based Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcou, G; Horvath, D; Varnek, A

    2017-10-01

    Here, we describe an algorithm to visualize chemical structures on a grid-based layout in such a way that similar structures are neighboring. It is based on structure reordering with the help of the Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion, representing an empirical estimate of the Hilbert-Schmidt norm of the cross-covariance operator. The method can be applied to any layout of bi- or three-dimensional shape. The approach is demonstrated on a set of dopamine D5 ligands visualized on squared, disk and spherical layouts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The nearest neighbor and the bayes error rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Maybank, S J

    1987-02-01

    The (k, l) nearest neighbor method of pattern classification is compared to the Bayes method. If the two acceptance rates are equal then the asymptotic error rates satisfy the inequalities Ek,l + 1 ¿ E*(¿) ¿ Ek,l dE*(¿), where d is a function of k, l, and the number of pattern classes, and ¿ is the reject threshold for the Bayes method. An explicit expression for d is given which is optimal in the sense that for some probability distributions Ek,l and dE* (¿) are equal.

  18. Diagnostic tools for nearest neighbors techniques when used with satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbors techniques are non-parametric approaches to multivariate prediction that are useful for predicting both continuous and categorical forest attribute variables. Although some assumptions underlying nearest neighbor techniques are common to other prediction techniques such as regression, other assumptions are unique to nearest neighbor techniques....

  19. Using K-Nearest Neighbor in Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth in computer vision technology has aided society with various kinds of tasks. One of these tasks is the ability of recognizing text contained in an image, or usually referred to as Optical Character Recognition (OCR. There are many kinds of algorithms that can be implemented into an OCR. The K-Nearest Neighbor is one such algorithm. This research aims to find out the process behind the OCR mechanism by using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm; one of the most influential machine learning algorithms. It also aims to find out how precise the algorithm is in an OCR program. To do that, a simple OCR program to classify alphabets of capital letters is made to produce and compare real results. The result of this research yielded a maximum of 76.9% accuracy with 200 training samples per alphabet. A set of reasons are also given as to why the program is able to reach said level of accuracy.

  20. Kinetic Models for Topological Nearest-Neighbor Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Adrien; Degond, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    We consider systems of agents interacting through topological interactions. These have been shown to play an important part in animal and human behavior. Precisely, the system consists of a finite number of particles characterized by their positions and velocities. At random times a randomly chosen particle, the follower, adopts the velocity of its closest neighbor, the leader. We study the limit of a system size going to infinity and, under the assumption of propagation of chaos, show that the limit kinetic equation is a non-standard spatial diffusion equation for the particle distribution function. We also study the case wherein the particles interact with their K closest neighbors and show that the corresponding kinetic equation is the same. Finally, we prove that these models can be seen as a singular limit of the smooth rank-based model previously studied in Blanchet and Degond (J Stat Phys 163:41-60, 2016). The proofs are based on a combinatorial interpretation of the rank as well as some concentration of measure arguments.

  1. Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, A. A.; Sitompul, O. S.; Tulus

    2018-04-01

    K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is a good classifier, but from several studies, the result performance accuracy of KNN still lower than other methods. One of the causes of the low accuracy produced, because each attribute has the same effect on the classification process, while some less relevant characteristics lead to miss-classification of the class assignment for new data. In this research, we proposed Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio as a parameter to see the correlation between each attribute in the data and the Gain Ratio also will be used as the basis for weighting each attribute of the dataset. The accuracy of results is compared to the accuracy acquired from the original KNN method using 10-fold Cross-Validation with several datasets from the UCI Machine Learning repository and KEEL-Dataset Repository, such as abalone, glass identification, haberman, hayes-roth and water quality status. Based on the result of the test, the proposed method was able to increase the classification accuracy of KNN, where the highest difference of accuracy obtained hayes-roth dataset is worth 12.73%, and the lowest difference of accuracy obtained in the abalone dataset of 0.07%. The average result of the accuracy of all dataset increases the accuracy by 5.33%.

  2. iGC-an integrated analysis package of gene expression and copy number alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Pin; Wang, Liang-Bo; Wang, Wei-An; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Chuang, Eric Y

    2017-01-14

    With the advancement in high-throughput technologies, researchers can simultaneously investigate gene expression and copy number alteration (CNA) data from individual patients at a lower cost. Traditional analysis methods analyze each type of data individually and integrate their results using Venn diagrams. Challenges arise, however, when the results are irreproducible and inconsistent across multiple platforms. To address these issues, one possible approach is to concurrently analyze both gene expression profiling and CNAs in the same individual. We have developed an open-source R/Bioconductor package (iGC). Multiple input formats are supported and users can define their own criteria for identifying differentially expressed genes driven by CNAs. The analysis of two real microarray datasets demonstrated that the CNA-driven genes identified by the iGC package showed significantly higher Pearson correlation coefficients with their gene expression levels and copy numbers than those genes located in a genomic region with CNA. Compared with the Venn diagram approach, the iGC package showed better performance. The iGC package is effective and useful for identifying CNA-driven genes. By simultaneously considering both comparative genomic and transcriptomic data, it can provide better understanding of biological and medical questions. The iGC package's source code and manual are freely available at https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/iGC.html .

  3. Gamma dose rate calculations for conceptual design of a shield system for spent fuel interim dry storage in CNA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A; Gomez S

    2012-01-01

    After completing the rearrangement of the Spent Fuel Elements (SFE) into a compact arrangement in the two storage water pools, Atucha Nuclear Reactor 1 (ANR 1) will leave free position for the wet storage of the SFE discharged until December 2014. Even, in two possible scenarios, such as extending operation from 2015 or the cessation of operation after that date, it will be necessary to empty the interim storage water pools transferring the SFE to a temporary dry storage system. Because the law 25.018 'Management of Radioactive Wastes' implies for the first scenario - operation beyond 2015 - that Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. will still be in charge of the dry storage system and for the second - the cessation of operation after 2015 - the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) will be in charge by the National Management Program of Radioactive Wastes, the interim dry storage system of SNF is an issue of common interest which justifies go forward together. For that purpose and in accordance with the criticality and shielding calculations relevant to the project, in this paper we present the dose rate calculations for shielding conceptual design of a system for dry interim storage of the SFE of ANR 1. The specifications includes that the designed system must be suitable without modification for the SFE of the ANR 2. The results for the calculation of the photon dose rate, in touch and at one meter far, for the Transport Module and the Container of the SFE, are presented, which are required and controlled by the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It was used the SAS4 module of SCALE5.1 system and MCNP5. As a design tool for the photon shielding in order to meet current standards for allowable dose rates, a radial and axial parametric analysis were developed based on the thickness of lead of the Transport Module. The results were compared and verified between the two computing systems. Before this

  4. Enhanced Approximate Nearest Neighbor via Local Area Focused Search.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Antonio [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blazier, Nicholas Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) algorithms are increasingly important in machine learning, data mining, and image processing applications. There is a large family of space- partitioning ANN algorithms, such as randomized KD-Trees, that work well in practice but are limited by an exponential increase in similarity comparisons required to optimize recall. Additionally, they only support a small set of similarity metrics. We present Local Area Fo- cused Search (LAFS), a method that enhances the way queries are performed using an existing ANN index. Instead of a single query, LAFS performs a number of smaller (fewer similarity comparisons) queries and focuses on a local neighborhood which is refined as candidates are identified. We show that our technique improves performance on several well known datasets and is easily extended to general similarity metrics using kernel projection techniques.

  5. Nearest Neighbor Estimates of Entropy for Multivariate Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Misra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In molecular sciences, the estimation of entropies of molecules is important for the understanding of many chemical and biological processes. Motivated by these applications, we consider the problem of estimating the entropies of circular random vectors and introduce non-parametric estimators based on circular distances between n sample points and their k th nearest neighbors (NN, where k (≤ n – 1 is a fixed positive integer. The proposed NN estimators are based on two different circular distances, and are proven to be asymptotically unbiased and consistent. The performance of one of the circular-distance estimators is investigated and compared with that of the already established Euclidean-distance NN estimator using Monte Carlo samples from an analytic distribution of six circular variables of an exactly known entropy and a large sample of seven internal-rotation angles in the molecule of tartaric acid, obtained by a realistic molecular-dynamics simulation.

  6. Introduction to machine learning: k-nearest neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning techniques have been widely used in many scientific fields, but its use in medical literature is limited partly because of technical difficulties. k-nearest neighbors (kNN) is a simple method of machine learning. The article introduces some basic ideas underlying the kNN algorithm, and then focuses on how to perform kNN modeling with R. The dataset should be prepared before running the knn() function in R. After prediction of outcome with kNN algorithm, the diagnostic performance of the model should be checked. Average accuracy is the mostly widely used statistic to reflect the kNN algorithm. Factors such as k value, distance calculation and choice of appropriate predictors all have significant impact on the model performance.

  7. Radionuclide content of an exhumed canyon vessel and neighboring soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1976-11-01

    The long-term hazard potential associated with burial of process equipment from radiochemical separations plants is being evaluated. As part of this evaluation, a feed adjustment tank was exhumed eighteen years after burial. The tank had been in service in the fuel reprocessing plant for twenty-nine months before it was retired. Assay of the exhumed tank indicated that 7 mg (0.4 mCi) of 239 Pu and 1 mCi of 137 Cs remained on its surfaces; 1.1 mg (0.07 mCi) 239 Pu, 0.4 mCi 137 Cs, and 3.5 mCi 90 Sr were found in neighboring soil. The vessel and surrounding soil have met the present guidelines (less than or equal to 10 nCi/g) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) for nonretrievable waste

  8. Reduction of Conflicts in Mining Development Using "Good Neighbor Agreements"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-05-01

    New environmental and social challenges for the mining industry in both developed and developing countries show the obvious need to implement "responsible" mining practices that include improved community involvement. Good Neighbor Agreements (GNA's) are a relatively new mechanism for improving communication and trust between a mining company and the community. The focus of a GNA will be to provide a written and enforceable agreement, negotiated between the concerned public and the respective mining company to respond to concerns from the public, and also provide a mechanism for conflict resolution, when there is mutual benefit to maintain a working relationship. Development of GNA's, a recently evolving process that promotes environmentally sound relationships between mines and the surrounding communities. Modify and apply the resulting GNA formulas to the developing countries and countries with transitional economies. This is particularly important for countries that have poorly functioning regulatory systems that cannot guarantee a healthy and safe environment for the communities. The fundamental questions addressed by this research. 1. This is a three-year research project started in August 2012 at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) to develop a Good Neighbor Agreements standards as well as to investigate the details of mine development. 2. Identify spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's). Use this cooperation to develop international standards for the GNA, to promote exchange of environmental information, and exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices between mining operations from different countries. Discussion: The Good Neighbor Agreement currently evolving will address the following: 1. Provide an economically viable mechanism for developing a partnership between mining operations and the local communities that will increase mining industry

  9. Building good relationships with neighbors of Japan's oldest plant, Tsuruga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Emi

    1992-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1957 as a pioneer company of nuclear power development in Japan, the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has gained a great deal of experience with construction and operation of four nuclear power plants - one gas-cooled reactor, two boiling water reactors (BWRs), and one pressurized water reactor (PWR) - at two sites, Tsuruga and Tokai. To gain the understanding and cooperation of the local community, the Tsuruga station must keep running. Each employee is encouraged to make every possible effort not only to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the two units, but also to ensure conscientious coexistence and coprosperity within the local community. The Tsuruga office in the city and the Public Relations (PR) Pavilion (visitor's center) at the site work together as an open window of communication with the local community. Under these basic philosophies, various good neighbor activities are developed and carried out

  10. Implementation of Nearest Neighbor using HSV to Identify Skin Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhana, Y. A.; Zulfikar, W. B.; Ramdani, A. H.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Today, Android is one of the most widely used operating system in the world. Most of android device has a camera that could capture an image, this feature could be optimized to identify skin disease. The disease is one of health problem caused by bacterium, fungi, and virus. The symptoms of skin disease usually visible. In this work, the symptoms that captured as image contains HSV in every pixel of the image. HSV can extracted and then calculate to earn euclidean value. The value compared using nearest neighbor algorithm to discover closer value between image testing and image training to get highest value that decide class label or type of skin disease. The testing result show that 166 of 200 or about 80% is accurate. There are some reasons that influence the result of classification model like number of image training and quality of android device’s camera.

  11. Morphological type correlation between nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Tomohiko

    1990-01-01

    Although the morphological type of galaxies is one of the most fundamental properties of galaxies, its origin and evolutionary processes, if any, are not yet fully understood. It has been established that the galaxy morphology strongly depends on the environment in which the galaxy resides (e.g., Dressler 1980). Galaxy pairs correspond to the smallest scales of galaxy clustering and may provide important clues to how the environment influences the formation and evolution of galaxies. Several investigators pointed out that there is a tendency for pair galaxies to have similar morphological types (Karachentsev and Karachentseva 1974, Page 1975, Noerdlinger 1979). Here, researchers analyze morphological type correlation for 18,364 nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies identified in the magnetic tape version of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Catalogue.

  12. Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, 78216 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Garcia, M E [Theoretische Physik, FB 18, Universitaet Kassel and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Str.40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2009-08-07

    In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.

  13. Radiative energy loss of neighboring subjets arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    We compute the in-medium energy loss probability distribution of two neighboring subjets at leading order, in the large-$N_c$ approximation. Our result exhibits a gradual onset of color decoherence of the system and accounts for two expected limiting cases. When the angular separation is smaller than the characteristic angle for medium-induced radiation, the two-pronged substructure lose energy coherently as a single color charge, namely that of the parent parton. At large angular separation the two subjets lose energy independently. Our result is a first step towards quantifying effects of energy loss as a result of the fluctuation of the multi-parton jet substructure and therefore goes beyond the standard approach to jet quenching based on single parton energy loss. We briefly discuss applications to jet observables in heavy-ion collisions.

  14. An interactive cooperation model for neighboring virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanzadeh, Morteza; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad-Kazem; Haghifam, Mahmoud-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The trading strategies of a VPP in cooperation with its neighboring VPPs are addressed. •A portfolio of inter-regional contracts is considered to model this cooperation scheme. •A novel mathematical formulation for possible inadvertent transactions is provided. •A two-stage stochastic programming approach is applied to characterize the uncertainty. •Two efficient risk measures, SSD and CVaR, are implemented in the VPP decision-making problem. -- Abstract: Future distribution systems will accommodate an increasing share of distributed energy resources (DERs). Facing with this new reality, virtual power plants (VPPs) play a key role to aggregate DERs with the aim of facilitating their involvement in wholesale electricity markets. In this paper, the trading strategies of a VPP in cooperation with its neighboring VPPs are addressed. Toward this aim, a portfolio of inter-regional contracts is considered to model this cooperation and maximize the energy trade opportunities of the VPP within a medium-term horizon. To hedge against profit variability caused by market price uncertainties, two efficient risk management approaches are also implemented in the VPP decision-making problem based on the concepts of conditional value at risk (CVaR) and second-order stochastic dominance constraints (SSD). The resulting models are formulated as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems that can be solved using off-the-shelf software packages. The efficiency of the proposed risk-hedging models is analyzed through a detailed case study, and thereby relevant conclusions are drawn.

  15. The Cerefy Neuroradiology Atlas: a Talairach-Tournoux atlas-based tool for analysis of neuroimages available over the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Belov, Dmitry

    2003-09-01

    The article introduces an atlas-assisted method and a tool called the Cerefy Neuroradiology Atlas (CNA), available over the Internet for neuroradiology and human brain mapping. The CNA contains an enhanced, extended, and fully segmented and labeled electronic version of the Talairach-Tournoux brain atlas, including parcelated gyri and Brodmann's areas. To our best knowledge, this is the first online, publicly available application with the Talairach-Tournoux atlas. The process of atlas-assisted neuroimage analysis is done in five steps: image data loading, Talairach landmark setting, atlas normalization, image data exploration and analysis, and result saving. Neuroimage analysis is supported by a near-real-time, atlas-to-data warping based on the Talairach transformation. The CNA runs on multiple platforms; is able to process simultaneously multiple anatomical and functional data sets; and provides functions for a rapid atlas-to-data registration, interactive structure labeling and annotating, and mensuration. It is also empowered with several unique features, including interactive atlas warping facilitating fine tuning of atlas-to-data fit, navigation on the triplanar formed by the image data and the atlas, multiple-images-in-one display with interactive atlas-anatomy-function blending, multiple label display, and saving of labeled and annotated image data. The CNA is useful for fast atlas-assisted analysis of neuroimage data sets. It increases accuracy and reduces time in localization analysis of activation regions; facilitates to communicate the information on the interpreted scans from the neuroradiologist to other clinicians and medical students; increases the neuroradiologist's confidence in terms of anatomy and spatial relationships; and serves as a user-friendly, public domain tool for neuroeducation. At present, more than 700 users from five continents have subscribed to the CNA.

  16. Association of food access and neighbor relationships with diet and underweight among community-dwelling older Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideko; Nakamura, Mieko; Okada, Eisaku; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-11-01

    Food access is important for maintaining dietary variety, which predicts underweight. The aim of this study was to examine the association of food access and neighbor relationships with eating and underweight. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 102,869 Japanese individuals aged 65 years or older. The perceived availability of food was assessed using the presence or absence of food stores within 1 km of the home. Level of relationships with neighbors was also assessed. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for infrequent food intake and underweight were determined using logistic regression analysis. The proportion of men and women having low access to food was 25-30%. Having low food access (OR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25 for men and OR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1.33 for women) and a low level of relationship with neighbors (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.31-1.45 for men and OR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48-1.67 for women) was associated with infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables in both sexes. Association between low food access and infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables was higher among men with low levels of neighbor relationship (OR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.46) than among men with high levels of relationship (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18). Low perceived availability of food is a risk factor for low dietary variety among older people. Furthermore, high levels of relationship with neighbors may relieve the harmful effect of low food access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon-hydrogen defects with a neighboring oxygen atom in n-type Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, K.; Stübner, R.; Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the electrical activation of neutral carbon-oxygen complexes in Si by wet-chemical etching at room temperature. Two deep levels, E65 and E75, are observed by deep level transient spectroscopy in n-type Czochralski Si. The activation enthalpies of E65 and E75 are obtained as EC-0.11 eV (E65) and EC-0.13 eV (E75). The electric field dependence of their emission rates relates both levels to single acceptor states. From the analysis of the depth profiles, we conclude that the levels belong to two different defects, which contain only one hydrogen atom. A configuration is proposed, where the CH1BC defect, with hydrogen in the bond-centered position between neighboring C and Si atoms, is disturbed by interstitial oxygen in the second nearest neighbor position to substitutional carbon. The significant reduction of the CH1BC concentration in samples with high oxygen concentrations limits the use of this defect for the determination of low concentrations of substitutional carbon in Si samples.

  18. Unwanted Behaviors and Nuisance Behaviors Among Neighbors in a Belgian Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Emilie; Groenen, Anne; Uzieblo, Katarzyna

    2015-06-30

    Unwanted behaviors between (ex-)intimates have been extensively studied, while those behaviors within other contexts such as neighbors have received much less scientific consideration. Research indicates that residents are likely to encounter problem behaviors from their neighbors. Besides the lack of clarity in the conceptualization of problem behaviors among neighbors, little is known on which types of behaviors characterize neighbor problems. In this study, the occurrence of two types of problem behaviors encountered by neighbors was explored within a Belgian community sample: unwanted behaviors such as threats and neighbor nuisance issues such as noise nuisance. By clearly distinguishing those two types of behaviors, this study aimed at contributing to the conceptualization of neighbor problems. Next, the coping strategies used to deal with the neighbor problems were investigated. Our results indicated that unwanted behaviors were more frequently encountered by residents compared with nuisance problems. Four out of 10 respondents reported both unwanted pursuit behavior and nuisance problems. It was especially unlikely to encounter nuisance problems in isolation of unwanted pursuit behaviors. While different coping styles (avoiding the neighbor, confronting the neighbor, and enlisting help from others) were equally used by the stalked participants, none of them was perceived as being more effective in reducing the stalking behaviors. Strikingly, despite being aware of specialized help services such as community mediation services, only a very small subgroup enlisted this kind of professional help. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Unsynchronized influenza epidemics in two neighboring subtropical cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the synchrony of influenza epidemics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen, two neighboring subtropical cities in South China. Methods: Laboratory-confirmed influenza data for the period January 2006 to December 2016 were obtained from the Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Health in Hong Kong. The population data were retrieved from the 2011 population censuses. The weekly rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were compared between Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Results: Unsynchronized influenza epidemics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen were frequently observed during the study period. Influenza A/H1N1 caused a more severe pandemic in Hong Kong in 2009, but the subsequent seasonal epidemics showed similar magnitudes in both cities. Two influenza A/H3N2 dominant epidemic waves were seen in Hong Kong in 2015, but these epidemics were very minor in Shenzhen. More influenza B epidemics occurred in Shenzhen than in Hong Kong. Conclusions: Influenza epidemics appeared to be unsynchronized between Hong Kong and Shenzhen most of the time. Given the close geographical locations of these two cities, this could be due to the strikingly different age structures of their populations. Keywords: Influenza epidemics, Synchrony, Shenzhen, Hong Kong

  20. Forecasting of steel consumption with use of nearest neighbors method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalewicz Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of building a steel construction, its design is usually commissioned to the design office. Then a quotation is made and the finished offer is delivered to the customer. Its final shape is influenced by steel consumption to a great extent. Correct determination of the potential consumption of this material most often determines the profitability of the project. Because of a long waiting time for a final project from the design office, it is worthwhile to pre-analyze the project’s profitability and feasibility using historical data on already realized orders. The paper presents an innovative approach to decision-making support in one of the Polish construction companies. The authors have defined and prioritized the most important factors that differentiate the executed orders and have the greatest impact on steel consumption. These are, among others: height and width of steel structure, number of aisles, type of roof, etc. Then they applied and adapted the method of k-nearest neighbors to the specificity of the discussed problem. The goal was to search a set of historical orders and find the most similar to the analyzed one. On this basis, consumption of steel can be estimated. The method was programmed within the EXPLOR application.

  1. Identification of influential users by neighbors in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhahmadi, Amir; Nematbakhsh, Mohammad Ali; Zareie, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Identification and ranking of influential users in social networks for the sake of news spreading and advertising has recently become an attractive field of research. Given the large number of users in social networks and also the various relations that exist among them, providing an effective method to identify influential users has been gradually considered as an essential factor. In most of the already-provided methods, those users who are located in an appropriate structural position of the network are regarded as influential users. These methods do not usually pay attention to the interactions among users, and also consider those relations as being binary in nature. This paper, therefore, proposes a new method to identify influential users in a social network by considering those interactions that exist among the users. Since users tend to act within the frame of communities, the network is initially divided into different communities. Then the amount of interaction among users is used as a parameter to set the weight of relations existing within the network. Afterward, by determining the neighbors' role for each user, a two-level method is proposed for both detecting users' influence and also ranking them. Simulation and experimental results on twitter data shows that those users who are selected by the proposed method, comparing to other existing ones, are distributed in a more appropriate distance. Moreover, the proposed method outperforms the other ones in terms of both the influential speed and capacity of the users it selects.

  2. Nearest neighbor 3D segmentation with context features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Evelin; Schulz, Heinrich; Brosch, Tom; Heinrich, Mattias P.; Nickisch, Hannes

    2018-03-01

    Automated and fast multi-label segmentation of medical images is challenging and clinically important. This paper builds upon a supervised machine learning framework that uses training data sets with dense organ annotations and vantage point trees to classify voxels in unseen images based on similarity of binary feature vectors extracted from the data. Without explicit model knowledge, the algorithm is applicable to different modalities and organs, and achieves high accuracy. The method is successfully tested on 70 abdominal CT and 42 pelvic MR images. With respect to ground truth, an average Dice overlap score of 0.76 for the CT segmentation of liver, spleen and kidneys is achieved. The mean score for the MR delineation of bladder, bones, prostate and rectum is 0.65. Additionally, we benchmark several variations of the main components of the method and reduce the computation time by up to 47% without significant loss of accuracy. The segmentation results are - for a nearest neighbor method - surprisingly accurate, robust as well as data and time efficient.

  3. The square Ising model with second-neighbor interactions and the Ising chain in a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grynberg, M.D.; Tanatar, B.

    1991-06-01

    We consider the thermal and critical behaviour of the square Ising lattice with frustrated first - and second-neighbor interactions. A low-temperature domain wall analysis including kinks and dislocations shows that there is a close relation between this classical model and the Hamiltonian of an Ising chain in a transverse field provided that the ratio of the next-nearest to nearest-neighbor coupling, is close to 1/2. Due to the field inversion symmetry of the Ising chain Hamiltonian, the thermal properties of the classical system are symmetrical with respect to this coupling ratio. In the neighborhood of this regime critical exponents of the model turn out to belong to the Ising universality class. Our results are compared with previous Monte Carlo simulations. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs

  4. Phosphorous vacancy nearest neighbor hopping induced instabilities in InP capacitors II. Computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, M.T.; Wager, J.F.; Van Vechten, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Drain current drift in InP metal insulator semiconductor devices display distinct activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The authors have given evidence that these result from two physical mechanisms: thermionic tunneling of electrons into native oxide traps and phosphorous vacancy nearest neighbor hopping (PVNNH). They here present a computer simulation of the effect of the PVNHH mechanism on flatband voltage shift vs. bias stress time measurements. The simulation is based on an analysis of the kinetics of the PVNNH defect reaction sequence in which the electron concentration in the channel is related to the applied bias by a solution of the Poisson equation. The simulation demonstrates quantitatively that the temperature dependence of the flatband shift is associated with PVNNH for temperatures above room temperature

  5. False-nearest-neighbors algorithm and noise-corrupted time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.; Morari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The false-nearest-neighbors (FNN) algorithm was originally developed to determine the embedding dimension for autonomous time series. For noise-free computer-generated time series, the algorithm does a good job in predicting the embedding dimension. However, the problem of predicting the embedding dimension when the time-series data are corrupted by noise was not fully examined in the original studies of the FNN algorithm. Here it is shown that with large data sets, even small amounts of noise can lead to incorrect prediction of the embedding dimension. Surprisingly, as the length of the time series analyzed by FNN grows larger, the cause of incorrect prediction becomes more pronounced. An analysis of the effect of noise on the FNN algorithm and a solution for dealing with the effects of noise are given here. Some results on the theoretically correct choice of the FNN threshold are also presented. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. K-Nearest Neighbor Intervals Based AP Clustering Algorithm for Large Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affinity Propagation (AP algorithm is an effective algorithm for clustering analysis, but it can not be directly applicable to the case of incomplete data. In view of the prevalence of missing data and the uncertainty of missing attributes, we put forward a modified AP clustering algorithm based on K-nearest neighbor intervals (KNNI for incomplete data. Based on an Improved Partial Data Strategy, the proposed algorithm estimates the KNNI representation of missing attributes by using the attribute distribution information of the available data. The similarity function can be changed by dealing with the interval data. Then the improved AP algorithm can be applicable to the case of incomplete data. Experiments on several UCI datasets show that the proposed algorithm achieves impressive clustering results.

  7. Detect thy neighbor: Identity recognition at the root level in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.J.W.; During, H.J.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Some plant species increase root allocation at the expense of reproduction in the presence of non-self and non-kin neighbors, indicating the capacity of neighbor-identityrecognition at the rootlevel. Yet in spite of the potential consequences of rootidentityrecognition for the relationship between

  8. Working with Family, Friend, and Neighbor Caregivers: Lessons from Four Diverse Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    This article is excerpted from "Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Care" by Douglas R. Powell ("ZERO TO THREE," 2008). The article explores questions about program development and implementation strategies for supporting Family, Friend, and Neighbor (FFN) caregivers: How do programs and their host…

  9. Characteristics of Broadband Seismic Noise in Taiwan and Neighboring Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2017-04-01

    We used seismic waveform data from 115 broad-band stations of BATS (Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica) and Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network from 2012 to 2016 for noise-level mapping in Taiwan and neighboring islands. We computed Power Spectral Density (PSD) for each station and analyzed long-term variance of microseism energy and polarizations of noise for severe weather events. The island of Taiwan is surrounded by ocean and the Central Range which has the highest peak Jade Mountain at 3,952 meters height occupies more than 66% of the island and departs it into the east and west coasts. The geographic settings then result in the high population density in the western plain and northern Taiwan. The dominant noise source in the microseism band (periods from 4-20 seconds) is the coupling between the near-coast ocean and sea floor which produces the high noise of averaging -130 dB along the west coastal area. In the eastern volcanic-arc coastal areas, the noise level is about 7% smaller than the west coast due to its deeper offshore water depth. As for the shorter periods (0.1-0.25 seconds) band, the so-called culture noise, an anthropic activity variance with the highest -103 dB can be identified in the metropolitan areas, such as the Taipei city and the noise level in the Central Range area is averaging -138 dB. Moreover, the noise also shows a daily and temporal evolution mainly related to the traffic effect. Furthermore, we determined the noise level for the entire island of Taiwan during 26-28 September, 2016, when the typhoon Megi hit the island and retrieved the enhancement of secondary microseism energy for each stations. Typhoon Megi landed in eastern and central Taiwan and reached the maximum wind speed of 45m/s in the surrounded eyewall. The Central Range, as a barrier, decreased the wind speed in southern Taiwan making an enhancement less than 10 dB, while in northern Taiwan where the direction the typhoon headed to, can reach more than 35

  10. A Regression-based K nearest neighbor algorithm for gene function prediction from heterogeneous data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzzo Walter L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a variety of functional genomic and proteomic techniques become available, there is an increasing need for functional analysis methodologies that integrate heterogeneous data sources. Methods In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a general framework for gene function prediction based on the k-nearest-neighbor (KNN algorithm. The choice of KNN is motivated by its simplicity, flexibility to incorporate different data types and adaptability to irregular feature spaces. A weakness of traditional KNN methods, especially when handling heterogeneous data, is that performance is subject to the often ad hoc choice of similarity metric. To address this weakness, we apply regression methods to infer a similarity metric as a weighted combination of a set of base similarity measures, which helps to locate the neighbors that are most likely to be in the same class as the target gene. We also suggest a novel voting scheme to generate confidence scores that estimate the accuracy of predictions. The method gracefully extends to multi-way classification problems. Results We apply this technique to gene function prediction according to three well-known Escherichia coli classification schemes suggested by biologists, using information derived from microarray and genome sequencing data. We demonstrate that our algorithm dramatically outperforms the naive KNN methods and is competitive with support vector machine (SVM algorithms for integrating heterogenous data. We also show that by combining different data sources, prediction accuracy can improve significantly. Conclusion Our extension of KNN with automatic feature weighting, multi-class prediction, and probabilistic inference, enhance prediction accuracy significantly while remaining efficient, intuitive and flexible. This general framework can also be applied to similar classification problems involving heterogeneous datasets.

  11. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei O-antigen serotypes in near-neighbor species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Joshua K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a CDC category B select agent with no available effective vaccine. Previous immunizations in mice have utilized the lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a potential vaccine target because it is known as one of the most important antigenic epitopes in B. pseudomallei. Complicating this strategy are the four different B. pseudomallei LPS O-antigen types: A, B, B2, and rough. Sero-crossreactivity is common among O-antigens of Burkholderia species. Here, we identified the presence of multiple B. pseudomallei O-antigen types and sero-crossreactivity in its near-neighbor species. Results PCR screening of O-antigen biosynthesis genes, phenotypic characterization using SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot analysis showed that majority of B. mallei and B. thailandensis strains contained the typical O-antigen type A. In contrast, most of B. ubonensis and B. thailandensis-like strains expressed the atypical O-antigen types B and B2, respectively. Most B. oklahomensis strains expressed a distinct and non-seroreactive O-antigen type, except strain E0147 which expressed O-antigen type A. O-antigen type B2 was also detected in B. thailandensis 82172, B. ubonensis MSMB108, and Burkholderia sp. MSMB175. Interestingly, B. thailandensis-like MSMB43 contained a novel serotype B positive O-antigen. Conclusions This study expands the number of species which express B. pseudomallei O-antigen types. Further work is required to elucidate the full structures and how closely these are to the B. pseudomallei O-antigens, which will ultimately determine the efficacy of the near-neighbor B serotypes for vaccine development.

  12. Accelerating distributed average consensus by exploring the information of second-order neighbors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Deming [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); Xu Shengyuan, E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.c [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); Zhao Huanyu [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)

    2010-05-17

    The problem of accelerating distributed average consensus by using the information of second-order neighbors in both the discrete- and continuous-time cases is addressed in this Letter. In both two cases, when the information of second-order neighbors is used in each iteration, the network will converge with a speed faster than the algorithm only using the information of first-order neighbors. Moreover, the problem of using partial information of second-order neighbors is considered, and the edges are not chosen randomly from second-order neighbors. In the continuous-time case, the edges are chosen by solving a convex optimization problem which is formed by using the convex relaxation method. In the discrete-time case, for small network the edges are chosen optimally via the brute force method. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Tree communities of lowland warm-temperate old-growth and neighboring shelterbelt forests in the Shikoku region of southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeo Kuramoto; Shigenori Oshioka; Takahisa Hirayama; Kaori Sato; Yasumasa Hirata

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the tree species composition of a 30 ha old-growth and neighboring shelterbelt (reserved buffer strips among conifer plantations) in warm-temperate forests in the Shikoku region of southwestern Japan. Using a two-way indicator species analysis of data from 28 plots, we identified four structural groups in terms of relative basal area. These structural...

  14. Neighboring trees affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a woodland-forest ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Nathaniel A; Gehring, Catherine A

    2008-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are frequently species rich and functionally diverse; yet, our knowledge of the environmental factors that influence local EMF diversity and species composition remains poor. In particular, little is known about the influence of neighboring plants on EMF community structure. We tested the hypothesis that the EMF of plants with heterospecific neighbors would differ in species richness and community composition from the EMF of plants with conspecific neighbors. We conducted our study at the ecotone between pinyon (Pinus edulis)-juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in northern Arizona, USA where the dominant trees formed associations with either EMF (P. edulis and P. ponderosa) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; J. monosperma). We also compared the EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines where their rhizospheres overlapped. The EMF community composition, but not species richness of pinyon pines was significantly influenced by neighboring AM juniper, but not by neighboring EM ponderosa pine. Ponderosa pine EMF communities were different in species composition when growing in association with pinyon pine than when growing in association with a conspecific. The EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines were similar where their rhizospheres overlapped consisting of primarily the same species in similar relative abundance. Our findings suggest that neighboring tree species identity shaped EMF community structure, but that these effects were specific to host-neighbor combinations. The overlap in community composition between pinyon pine and ponderosa pine suggests that these tree species may serve as reservoirs of EMF inoculum for one another.

  15. Reduction in predator defense in the presence of neighbors in a colonial fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska C Schädelin

    Full Text Available Predation pressure has long been considered a leading explanation of colonies, where close neighbors may reduce predation via dilution, alarming or group predator attacks. Attacking predators may be costly in terms of energy and survival, leading to the question of how neighbors contribute to predator deterrence in relationship to each other. Two hypotheses explaining the relative efforts made by neighbors are byproduct-mutualism, which occurs when breeders inadvertently attack predators by defending their nests, and reciprocity, which occurs when breeders deliberately exchange predator defense efforts with neighbors. Most studies investigating group nest defense have been performed with birds. However, colonial fish may constitute a more practical model system for an experimental approach because of the greater ability of researchers to manipulate their environment. We investigated in the colonial fish, Neolamprologus caudopunctatus, whether prospecting pairs preferred to breed near conspecifics or solitarily, and how breeders invested in anti-predator defense in relation to neighbors. In a simple choice test, prospecting pairs selected breeding sites close to neighbors versus a solitary site. Predators were then sequentially presented to the newly established test pairs, the previously established stimulus pairs or in between the two pairs. Test pairs attacked the predator eight times more frequently when they were presented on their non-neighbor side compared to between the two breeding sites, where stimulus pairs maintained high attack rates. Thus, by joining an established pair, test pairs were able to reduce their anti-predator efforts near neighbors, at no apparent cost to the stimulus pairs. These findings are unlikely to be explained by reciprocity or byproduct-mutualism. Our results instead suggest a commensal relationship in which new pairs exploit the high anti-predator efforts of established pairs, which invest similarly with or

  16. The Application of Determining Students’ Graduation Status of STMIK Palangkaraya Using K-Nearest Neighbors Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdiana, Lili; Marfuah

    2017-12-01

    K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used for classification which calculate a value to find out the closest in distance. It is used to group a set of data such as students’ graduation status that are got from the amount of course credits taken by them, the grade point average (AVG), and the mini-thesis grade. The study is conducted to know the results of using K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status, so it can be analyzed from the method used, the data, and the application constructed. The aim of this study is to find out the application results by using K-Nearest Neighbors concept to determine students’ graduation status using the data of STMIK Palangkaraya students. The development of the software used Extreme Programming, since it was appropriate and precise for this study which was to quickly finish the project. The application was created using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 for the training data and Matlab 7 to implement the application. The result of K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status was 92.5%. It could determine the predicate graduation of 94 data used from the initial data before the processing as many as 136 data which the maximal training data was 50data. The K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used to group a set of data based on the closest value, so that using K-Nearest Neighbors method agreed with this study. The results of K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status was 92.5% could determine the predicate graduation which is the maximal training data. The K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used to group a set of data based on the closest value, so that using K-Nearest Neighbors method agreed with this study.

  17. Ressignificando vidas: reflexões acerca da construção do cuidado em saúde do consultório na Rua (CNAR – contribuições da terapia ocupacional / Giving new meaning to life: reflections on the construction of care in health in Consultório na Rua (CnaR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya da Conceição Telles Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A oferta de cuidado em saúde a população em situação de rua ainda é recente no Brasil, portanto, ainda enfrenta uma série de dificuldades, barreiras e preconceitos. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a oferta de cuidado do Consultório na Rua (CnaR na perspectiva da integralidade do cuidado e as contribuições da Terapia Ocupacional enquanto área de produção de um saber científico transdisciplinar. Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória-descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa, com base na realização de levantamento bibliográfico e pesquisa documental, que inclui o uso do diário de campo com registros de vivências interprofissionais na rua. Utilizou-se este registro de experiência prática como base para a construção de cenas apresentadas, precursoras para a análise e reflexão das intervenções da equipe do Consultório na Rua. O estabelecimento de vínculo para o cuidado, a valorização do saber dos usuários e a produção de subjetividade que se dá na rua foram as categorias selecionadas que compuseram as cenas descritas. Foram observadas potencialidades do Consultório na Rua e nas relações profissional-usuário, assim como dificuldades cotidianas enfrentadas. The health care offering to the underclass is still recent in Brazil, therefore, is even faces a number of difficulties, barriers and prejudices. This study aims to analyze the offering of clinic care on the street (CnaR in view of the construction of health care and the contributions of occupational therapy as an area of production of a transdisciplinary scientific knowledge. This is an exploratory-descriptive research, qualitative approach, based on a bibliographical survey and documentary research, which includes the use of the field diary with records of interprofessional experiences on the street. This record of practical experience was used as the basis for the construction of presented scenes, precursors for the analysis and reflection of the

  18. Effects of second neighbor interactions on skyrmion lattices in chiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, E A S; Silva, R L; Silva, R C; Pereira, A R

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influences of the second neighbor interactions on a skyrmion lattice in two-dimensional chiral magnets. Such a system contains the exchange and the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya for the spin interactions and therefore, we analyse three situations: firstly, the second neighbor interaction is present only in the exchange coupling; secondly, it is present only in the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling. Finally, the second neighbor interactions are present in both exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya couplings. We show that such effects cause important modifications to the helical and skyrmion phases when an external magnetic field is applied. (paper)

  19. Improving Recommendations in Tag-based Systems with Spectral Clustering of Tag Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Rong; Xu, Guandong; Dolog, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tag as a useful metadata reflects the collaborative and conceptual features of documents in social collaborative annotation systems. In this paper, we propose a collaborative approach for expanding tag neighbors and investigate the spectral clustering algorithm to filter out noisy tag neighbors...... in order to get appropriate recommendation for users. The preliminary experiments have been conducted on MovieLens dataset to compare our proposed approach with the traditional collaborative filtering recommendation approach and naive tag neighbors expansion approach in terms of precision, and the result...... demonstrates that our approach could considerably improve the performance of recommendations....

  20. Economic evaluation of health benefits of mercury emission controls for China and the neighboring countries in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhen, Gengchong; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Li, Ying; Ye, Xuejie; Tong, Yindong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Globally, coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is a major source of mercury. China is developing its first National Implementation Plan on Mercury Control, which priorities the control of emissions from CFPPs. While social benefits play an important role in designing environmental policies in China, the benefits associated with mercury control are not yet understood, mainly due to the scientific challenges to trace mercury's emissions-to-impacts path. This study evaluates the benefits of mercury reductions in China's CFPPs for China and its three neighboring countries in East Asia. Four policy scenarios are analyzed following the policies-to-impacts path, which links a global atmospheric model to health benefit analysis models to estimate the economic gains from avoided mercury-related adverse health outcomes under each scenario, and take into account key uncertainties in the path. Under the most stringent scenario, the benefits of mercury reduction by 2030 are projected to be $432 billion (95% CI: $166–941 billion), with the benefits for China and the neighboring countries accounting for 96% and 4% of the total benefits, respectively. Policy scenario analysis indicates that coal washing generates the greatest benefits in the near term, whereas upgrading air pollution control devices maximizes health benefits in the long term. - Highlights: • Benefits of mercury controls for China and neighboring countries are analyzed. • Policy analysis shows that coal washing generates the largest benefits in near term. • Upgrading air pollution control devices maximizes health benefits in long term. • For mercury controls, local policies contribute most to local benefits.

  1. The Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations and its Potential Impact on Neighboring Countries. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport

  2. Does a pear growl? Interference from semantic properties of orthographic neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; de Rooij, Jimmy; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether semantic properties of a word's orthographic neighbors are activated during visual word recognition. In two experiments, words were presented with a property that was not true for the word itself. We manipulated whether the property was true for an orthographic neighbor of the word. Our results showed that rejection of the property was slower and less accurate when the property was true for a neighbor than when the property was not true for a neighbor. These findings indicate that semantic information is activated before orthographic processing is finished. The present results are problematic for the links model (Forster, 2006; Forster & Hector, 2002) that was recently proposed in order to bring form-first models of visual word recognition into line with previously reported findings (Forster & Hector, 2002; Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Wagenmakers, 2005; Rodd, 2004).

  3. Nearest neighbors EPR superhyperfine interaction in divalent iridium complexes in alkali halide host lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinhal, N.M.; Vugman, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Further splitting of chlorine superhyperfine lines on the EPR spectrum of the [Ir (CN) 4 Cl 2 ] 4 - molecular species in NaCl latice indicates a super-superhyperfine interaction with the nearest neighbors sodium atoms. (Author) [pt

  4. The influence of neighbors' family size preference on progression to high parity births in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elyse A; Barber, Jennifer S

    2013-03-01

    Large families can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women, children, and their communities. Seventy-three percent of the individuals in our rural Nepalese sample report that two children is their ideal number, yet about half of the married women continue childbearing after their second child. Using longitudinal data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, we explore the influence of women's and neighbors' family size preferences on women's progression to high parity births, comparing this influence across two cohorts. We find that neighbors' family size preferences influence women's fertility, that older cohorts of women are more influenced by their neighbors' preferences than are younger cohorts of women, and that the influence of neighbors' preferences is independent of women's own preferences. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  5. On Competitiveness of Nearest-Neighbor-Based Music Classification: A Methodological Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálmason, Haukur; Jónsson, Björn Thór; Amsaleg, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The traditional role of nearest-neighbor classification in music classification research is that of a straw man opponent for the learning approach of the hour. Recent work in high-dimensional indexing has shown that approximate nearest-neighbor algorithms are extremely scalable, yielding results...... of reasonable quality from billions of high-dimensional features. With such efficient large-scale classifiers, the traditional music classification methodology of aggregating and compressing the audio features is incorrect; instead the approximate nearest-neighbor classifier should be given an extensive data...... collection to work with. We present a case study, using a well-known MIR classification benchmark with well-known music features, which shows that a simple nearest-neighbor classifier performs very competitively when given ample data. In this position paper, we therefore argue that nearest...

  6. Efficient and accurate nearest neighbor and closest pair search in high-dimensional space

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. From the database perspective, a good solution needs to have two properties: (i) it can be easily incorporated in a relational database, and (ii

  7. Mixed random walks with a trap in scale-free networks including nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Dong, Yuze; Sheng, Yibin

    2015-10-01

    Random walks including non-nearest-neighbor jumps appear in many real situations such as the diffusion of adatoms and have found numerous applications including PageRank search algorithm; however, related theoretical results are much less for this dynamical process. In this paper, we present a study of mixed random walks in a family of fractal scale-free networks, where both nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor jumps are included. We focus on trapping problem in the network family, which is a particular case of random walks with a perfect trap fixed at the central high-degree node. We derive analytical expressions for the average trapping time (ATT), a quantitative indicator measuring the efficiency of the trapping process, by using two different methods, the results of which are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we analytically determine all the eigenvalues and their multiplicities for the fundamental matrix characterizing the dynamical process. Our results show that although next-nearest-neighbor jumps have no effect on the leading scaling of the trapping efficiency, they can strongly affect the prefactor of ATT, providing insight into better understanding of random-walk process in complex systems.

  8. Visitando vizinhos: uma análise da série histórica de produção de bens de capital no Brasil utilizando diagramas de recorrência Encountering neighbors: an analysis of capital goods production in Brazil using recurrence plot diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paulo Bueno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do texto é identificar possíveis não linearidades na série de produção de bens de capital brasileira no período janeiro/1975-janeiro/2002. Utilizando a técnica de análise de séries temporais com diagramas de recorrência e o método de previsão por nearest neighbors, apresentam-se evidências de que os investimentos no Brasil - tomando como proxy a série temporal de produção de bens de capital - seguem uma dinâmica com um componente não linear determinístico não desprezível. Embora não tenha sido objetivo do texto identificar a possível fonte dessa dinâmica, os resultados empíricos alcançados autorizam a supor que a dinâmica macroeconômica brasileira pode ser mais sensível à variabilidade da política econômica do que normalmente se supõe. A implicação disso é que a capacidade de prever esses efeitos, com uma margem estatisticamente aceitável de significância, pode ser muito reduzida em períodos em que a dinâmica da série se torna mais sensível em relação às condições iniciais; as técnicas aqui empregadas, entretanto, sugerem que em certa medida é possível, senão prever a evolução dos investimentos, pelo menos identificar os períodos nos quais essa previsão é menos confiável.The objective of the paper is to identify possible non-linearities in Brazilian capital goods production in the period January/1975-January/2002. Using the techniques of recurrence plots diagrams and nearest neighbors forecasting, we found evidences that investments in Brazil present a non negligible non-linear component. Although it has not been the purpose of the paper to identify the possible source of that dynamics, the empiric results found authorize to speculate that the dynamics of some important macroeconomic variables in Brazil might be more sensitive to economic policy variability than it is usually supposed. The implication is that the ability to foresee those effects, within a significant

  9. Symmetric Link Key Management for Secure Neighbor Discovery in a Decentralized Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY IN A DECENTRALIZED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK by Kelvin T. Chew September 2017 Thesis Advisor...and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...DATE September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYMMETRIC LINK KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR

  10. The Patient-Centered Medical Home Neighbor: A Critical Concept for a Redesigned Healthcare Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Sharing Knowledge: Achieving Breakthrough Performance 2010 Military Health System Conference The Patient -Centered Medical Home Neighbor: A Critical...DATE 25 JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Patient -Centered Medical Home Neighbor: A...Conference What is the Patient -Centered Medical Home?  …a vision of health care as it should be  …a framework for organizing systems of care at both the

  11. Finger vein identification using fuzzy-based k-nearest centroid neighbor classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Jaafar, Haryati; Ramli, Dzati Athiar

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a new approach for personal identification using finger vein image is presented. Finger vein is an emerging type of biometrics that attracts attention of researchers in biometrics area. As compared to other biometric traits such as face, fingerprint and iris, finger vein is more secured and hard to counterfeit since the features are inside the human body. So far, most of the researchers focus on how to extract robust features from the captured vein images. Not much research was conducted on the classification of the extracted features. In this paper, a new classifier called fuzzy-based k-nearest centroid neighbor (FkNCN) is applied to classify the finger vein image. The proposed FkNCN employs a surrounding rule to obtain the k-nearest centroid neighbors based on the spatial distributions of the training images and their distance to the test image. Then, the fuzzy membership function is utilized to assign the test image to the class which is frequently represented by the k-nearest centroid neighbors. Experimental evaluation using our own database which was collected from 492 fingers shows that the proposed FkNCN has better performance than the k-nearest neighbor, k-nearest-centroid neighbor and fuzzy-based-k-nearest neighbor classifiers. This shows that the proposed classifier is able to identify the finger vein image effectively.

  12. Pollinator-mediated interactions in experimental arrays vary with neighbor identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Melissa K; Ivey, Christopher T

    2017-02-01

    Local ecological conditions influence the impact of species interactions on evolution and community structure. We investigated whether pollinator-mediated interactions between coflowering plants vary with plant density, coflowering neighbor identity, and flowering season. We conducted a field experiment in which flowering time and floral neighborhood were manipulated in a factorial design. Early- and late-flowering Clarkia unguiculata plants were placed into arrays with C. biloba neighbors, noncongeneric neighbors, additional conspecific plants, or no additional plants as a density control. We compared whole-plant pollen limitation of seed set, pollinator behavior, and pollen deposition among treatments. Interactions mediated by shared pollinators depended on the identity of the neighbor and possibly changed through time, although flowering-season comparisons were compromised by low early-season plant survival. Interactions with conspecific neighbors were likely competitive late in the season. Interactions with C. biloba appeared to involve facilitation or neutral interactions. Interactions with noncongeners were more consistently competitive. The community composition of pollinators varied among treatment combinations. Pollinator-mediated interactions involved competition and likely facilitation, depending on coflowering neighbor. Experimental manipulation helped to reveal context-dependent variation in indirect biotic interactions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Dominican and Haitian Neighbors: Making Moral Attitudes and Working Relationships in the Banana Bateyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Wynne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo responde a la necesidad de explorar cómo el acto de equilibrio del estado Dominicano, sujeto a la demanda económica de mano de obra inmigrante, por un lado, y a la presión política que exige la exclusión de los haitianos de la sociedad dominicana, por el otro, es negociado localmente. Con base en investigación etnográfica en comunidades bananeras llamadas bateyes, este artículo presenta un análisis de las respuestas locales a los cambios causados por la llegada de un creciente número de inmigrantes haitianos. Aun cuando los inmigrantes haitianos son considerados necesarios para la producción bananera, el coexistir con ellos genera incertidumbres sobre violencia e identidad entre los dominicanos. Este artículo argumenta que los residentes dominicanos hacen frente a estos sentimientos de incertidumbre mediante la cultivación de una aparente superioridad moral sobre sus vecinos haitianos. Finalmente, este artículo sugiere que las prácticas de los dominicanos, quienes luchan por ganarse la vida a la par de sus vecinos haitianos, revelan una relación complicada no sólo por la existencia de una ideología anti-haitiana, pero por una vida precaria, históricamente construida, que marginaliza a los residentes de los bateyes en su conjunto. English: This article addresses the need to explore how the Dominican state’s ongoing balancing act between the economic demand for migrant workers and the political pressure to exclude Haitians from Dominican society is negotiated locally. Based on ethnographic research conducted in banana-growing communities called 'bateyes', this article provides an analysis of local responses to changes occurring with the arrival of increasingly more Haitian residents. While Haitian migrants are regarded as necessary for banana production, living among them triggers insecurities about violence and identity among Dominicans. The article argues that Dominican residents cope with these feelings of

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution of Oklahoma earthquakes: Exploring relationships using a nearest-neighbor approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylkivska, Veronika S.; Huerta, Nicolas J.

    2017-07-01

    Determining the spatiotemporal characteristics of natural and induced seismic events holds the opportunity to gain new insights into why these events occur. Linking the seismicity characteristics with other geologic, geographic, natural, or anthropogenic factors could help to identify the causes and suggest mitigation strategies that reduce the risk associated with such events. The nearest-neighbor approach utilized in this work represents a practical first step toward identifying statistically correlated clusters of recorded earthquake events. Detailed study of the Oklahoma earthquake catalog's inherent errors, empirical model parameters, and model assumptions is presented. We found that the cluster analysis results are stable with respect to empirical parameters (e.g., fractal dimension) but were sensitive to epicenter location errors and seismicity rates. Most critically, we show that the patterns in the distribution of earthquake clusters in Oklahoma are primarily defined by spatial relationships between events. This observation is a stark contrast to California (also known for induced seismicity) where a comparable cluster distribution is defined by both spatial and temporal interactions between events. These results highlight the difficulty in understanding the mechanisms and behavior of induced seismicity but provide insights for future work.

  15. Evidence of codon usage in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of bases in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.

  16. Heterogeneous autoregressive model with structural break using nearest neighbor truncation volatility estimators for DAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Lee, Min Cherng; Yap, Grace Lee Ching

    2016-01-01

    High frequency financial data modelling has become one of the important research areas in the field of financial econometrics. However, the possible structural break in volatile financial time series often trigger inconsistency issue in volatility estimation. In this study, we propose a structural break heavy-tailed heterogeneous autoregressive (HAR) volatility econometric model with the enhancement of jump-robust estimators. The breakpoints in the volatility are captured by dummy variables after the detection by Bai-Perron sequential multi breakpoints procedure. In order to further deal with possible abrupt jump in the volatility, the jump-robust volatility estimators are composed by using the nearest neighbor truncation approach, namely the minimum and median realized volatility. Under the structural break improvements in both the models and volatility estimators, the empirical findings show that the modified HAR model provides the best performing in-sample and out-of-sample forecast evaluations as compared with the standard HAR models. Accurate volatility forecasts have direct influential to the application of risk management and investment portfolio analysis.

  17. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Ginther

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area.

  18. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Jennifer L.; Mayo, Mark; Warrington, Stephanie D.; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mullins, Travis; Wagner, David M.; Currie, Bart J.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area. PMID:26121041

  19. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  20. Fundamental and Harmonic Oscillations in Neighboring Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yu; Vai Tam, Kuan

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of multimode (fundamental and harmonic) oscillations in a loop system, which appear to be simultaneously excited by a GOES C-class flare. Analysis of the periodic oscillations reveals that (1) the primary loop with a period of P a ≈ 4 minutes and a secondary loop with two periods of P a ≈ 4 minutes and P b ≈ 2 minutes are detected simultaneously in closely spaced loop strands; (2) both oscillation components have their peak amplitudes near the loop apex, while in the second loop the low-frequency component P a dominates in a loop segment that is two times larger than the high-frequency component P b ; (3) the harmonic mode P b shows the largest deviation from a sinusoidal loop shape at the loop apex. We conclude that multiple harmonic modes with different displacement profiles can be excited simultaneously even in closely spaced strands, similar to the overtones of a violin string.

  1. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...... have assessed the extent to which those policies contributed to the 2006-08 international price rise, but only by focusing on one commodity or using a back-of-the envelope (BOTE) method. This paper provides a more-comprehensive analysis using a global economy-wide model that is able to take account...... of the interactions between markets for farm products that are closely related in production and/or consumption, and able to estimate the impacts of those insulating policies on grain prices and on the grain trade and economic welfare of the world’s various countries. Our results support the conclusion from earlier...

  2. Research synergy and drug development: Bright stars in neighboring constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserci, Samet; Livingston, Eric; Wan, Lingtian; Pico, Alexander R; Chacko, George

    2017-11-01

    Drug discovery and subsequent availability of a new breakthrough therapeutic or 'cure' is a compelling example of societal benefit from research advances. These advances are invariably collaborative, involving the contributions of many scientists to a discovery network in which theory and experiment are built upon. To document and understand such scientific advances, data mining of public and commercial data sources coupled with network analysis can be used as a digital methodology to assemble and analyze component events in the history of a therapeutic. This methodology is extensible beyond the history of therapeutics and its use more generally supports (i) efficiency in exploring the scientific history of a research advance (ii) documenting and understanding collaboration (iii) portfolio analysis, planning and optimization (iv) communication of the societal value of research. Building upon prior art, we have conducted a case study of five anti-cancer therapeutics to identify the collaborations that resulted in the successful development of these therapeutics both within and across their respective networks. We have linked the work of over 235,000 authors in roughly 106,000 scientific publications that capture the research crucial for the development of these five therapeutics. Applying retrospective citation discovery, we have identified a core set of publications cited in the networks of all five therapeutics and additional intersections in combinations of networks. We have enriched the content of these networks by annotating them with information on research awards from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Lastly, we have mapped these awards to their cognate peer review panels, identifying another layer of collaborative scientific activity that influenced the research represented in these networks.

  3. Research synergy and drug development: Bright stars in neighboring constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Keserci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery and subsequent availability of a new breakthrough therapeutic or ‘cure’ is a compelling example of societal benefit from research advances. These advances are invariably collaborative, involving the contributions of many scientists to a discovery network in which theory and experiment are built upon. To document and understand such scientific advances, data mining of public and commercial data sources coupled with network analysis can be used as a digital methodology to assemble and analyze component events in the history of a therapeutic. This methodology is extensible beyond the history of therapeutics and its use more generally supports (i efficiency in exploring the scientific history of a research advance (ii documenting and understanding collaboration (iii portfolio analysis, planning and optimization (iv communication of the societal value of research. Building upon prior art, we have conducted a case study of five anti-cancer therapeutics to identify the collaborations that resulted in the successful development of these therapeutics both within and across their respective networks. We have linked the work of over 235,000 authors in roughly 106,000 scientific publications that capture the research crucial for the development of these five therapeutics. Applying retrospective citation discovery, we have identified a core set of publications cited in the networks of all five therapeutics and additional intersections in combinations of networks. We have enriched the content of these networks by annotating them with information on research awards from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH. Lastly, we have mapped these awards to their cognate peer review panels, identifying another layer of collaborative scientific activity that influenced the research represented in these networks. Keywords: Information science, Cancer research

  4. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  5. Variation in the Prevalence of Domestic Violence between Neighboring Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is an important health issue, but few studies have focused on city of residence and ethnic differences. To estimate the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence and certain related factors, with a specific focus on city of residence and ethnicity, we studied 1820 married women attending public health centers in 4 large cities in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Islamic Republic of Iran. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. The prevalence of some forms of lifetime domestic violence against women was 47.3%. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and any form of lifetime violence was the highest in Dezful (25.7%, 54.8%, and 57.7%, resp.). For sexual violence, the highest prevalence was reported in Ahvaz (17.7%). The highest prevalence of physical and sexual violence during any point of life was reported by Arab women (25.1% and 16.7%). The experience of all forms of violence was significantly associated with city of residence. Results of regression logistic analysis revealed that all of the forms of violence except psychological violence were statistically significantly associated with ethnicity (P < 0.05). PMID:27433514

  6. What Will the Neighbors Think? Building Large-Scale Science Projects Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Craig; Mrotzek, Christian; Toge, Nobu; Sarno, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Public participation is an essential ingredient for turning the International Linear Collider into a reality. Wherever the proposed particle accelerator is sited in the world, its neighbors -- in any country -- will have something to say about hosting a 35-kilometer-long collider in their backyards. When it comes to building large-scale physics projects, almost every laboratory has a story to tell. Three case studies from Japan, Germany and the US will be presented to examine how community relations are handled in different parts of the world. How do particle physics laboratories interact with their local communities? How do neighbors react to building large-scale projects in each region? How can the lessons learned from past experiences help in building the next big project? These and other questions will be discussed to engage the audience in an active dialogue about how a large-scale project like the ILC can be a good neighbor.

  7. A Novel Preferential Diffusion Recommendation Algorithm Based on User’s Nearest Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommender system is a very efficient way to deal with the problem of information overload for online users. In recent years, network based recommendation algorithms have demonstrated much better performance than the standard collaborative filtering methods. However, most of network based algorithms do not give a high enough weight to the influence of the target user’s nearest neighbors in the resource diffusion process, while a user or an object with high degree will obtain larger influence in the standard mass diffusion algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel preferential diffusion recommendation algorithm considering the significance of the target user’s nearest neighbors and evaluate it in the three real-world data sets: MovieLens 100k, MovieLens 1M, and Epinions. Experiments results demonstrate that the novel preferential diffusion recommendation algorithm based on user’s nearest neighbors can significantly improve the recommendation accuracy and diversity.

  8. Electronic transport of molecular nanowires by considering of electron hopping energy between the second neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rabani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the electronic conductance of molecular nanowires by considering the electron hopping between the first and second neighbors with the help Green’s function method at the tight-binding approach. We investigate three types of structures including linear uniform and periodic chains as well as poly(p-phenylene molecule which are embedded between two semi-infinite metallic leads. The results show that in the second neighbor approximation, the resonance, anti-resonance and Fano phenomena occur in the conductance spectra of these structures. Moreover, a new gap is observed at edge of the lead energy band wich its width depends on the value of the electron hopping energy between the second neighbors. In the systems including intrinsic gap, this hopping energy shifts the gap in the energy spectra.

  9. A multilevel-skin neighbor list algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhao, Mingcan; Hou, Chaofeng; Ge, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Searching of the interaction pairs and organization of the interaction processes are important steps in molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms and are critical to the overall efficiency of the simulation. Neighbor lists are widely used for these steps, where thicker skin can reduce the frequency of list updating but is discounted by more computation in distance check for the particle pairs. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor-list-based algorithm with a precisely designed multilevel skin which can reduce unnecessary computation on inter-particle distances. The performance advantages over traditional methods are then analyzed against the main simulation parameters on Intel CPUs and MICs (many integrated cores), and are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm can be generalized for various discrete simulations using neighbor lists.

  10. Learn good from bad: Effects of good and bad neighbors in spatial prisoners' dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital for the human society and this study focuses on how to promote cooperation. In our stratification model, there exist three classes: two minorities are elites who are prone to cooperate and scoundrels who are born to defect; one majority is the class of common people. Agents of these three classes interact with each other on a square lattice. Commons' cooperation and its factors are investigated. Contradicting our common sense, it indicates that elites play a negative role while scoundrels play a positive one in promoting commons' cooperation. Besides, effects of good and bad neighbors vary with temptation. When the temptation is smaller the positive effect is able to overcome the negative effect, but the later prevails when the temptation is larger. It concludes that common people are more prone to cooperate in harsh environment with bad neighbors, and a better environment with good neighbors merely leads to laziness and free riding of commons.

  11. Optimizing Neighbor Discovery for Ad hoc Networks based on the Bluetooth PAN Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuijpers, Gerben; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Prasad, Ramjee

    2002-01-01

    IP layer neighbor discovery mechanisms rely highly on broadcast/multicast capabilities of the underlying link layer. The Bluetooth personal area network (PAN) profile has no native link layer broadcast/multicast capabilities and can only emulate this by repeatedly unicast link layer frames....... This paper introduces a neighbor discovery mechanism that utilizes the resources in the Bluetooth PAN profile more efficient. The performance of the new mechanism is investigated using a IPv6 network simulator and compared with emulated broadcasting. It is shown that the signaling overhead can...

  12. Effect of Floquet engineering on the p-wave superconductor with second-neighbor couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. P.; Li, C. F.; Wang, L. C.; Zhou, L.

    2018-06-01

    The influence of the Floquet engineering on a particular one-dimensional p-wave superconductor, Kitaev model, with second-neighbor couplings is investigated in this paper. The effective Hamiltonians in the rotated reference frames have been obtained, and the convergent regions of the approximated Hamiltonian as well as the topological phase diagrams have been analyzed and discussed. We show that by modulating the external driving field amplitude, frequency as well as the second-neighbor hopping amplitude, the rich phase diagrams and transitions between different topological phases can be obtained.

  13. Predicting the Maximum Earthquake Magnitude from Seismic Data in Israel and Its Neighboring Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Mark; Rabinowitz, Nitzan; Leonard, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores several data mining and time series analysis methods for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the next year based on the previously recorded seismic events in the same region. The methods are evaluated on a catalog of 9,042 earthquake events, which took place between 01/01/1983 and 31/12/2010 in the area of Israel and its neighboring countries. The data was obtained from the Geophysical Institute of Israel. Each earthquake record in the catalog is associated with one of 33 seismic regions. The data was cleaned by removing foreshocks and aftershocks. In our study, we have focused on ten most active regions, which account for more than 80% of the total number of earthquakes in the area. The goal is to predict whether the maximum earthquake magnitude in the following year will exceed the median of maximum yearly magnitudes in the same region. Since the analyzed catalog includes only 28 years of complete data, the last five annual records of each region (referring to the years 2006-2010) are kept for testing while using the previous annual records for training. The predictive features are based on the Gutenberg-Richter Ratio as well as on some new seismic indicators based on the moving averages of the number of earthquakes in each area. The new predictive features prove to be much more useful than the indicators traditionally used in the earthquake prediction literature. The most accurate result (AUC = 0.698) is reached by the Multi-Objective Info-Fuzzy Network (M-IFN) algorithm, which takes into account the association between two target variables: the number of earthquakes and the maximum earthquake magnitude during the same year.

  14. Evaluation of the suitability of free-energy minimization using nearest-neighbor energy parameters for RNA secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobaugh Christian W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed understanding of an RNA's correct secondary and tertiary structure is crucial to understanding its function and mechanism in the cell. Free energy minimization with energy parameters based on the nearest-neighbor model and comparative analysis are the primary methods for predicting an RNA's secondary structure from its sequence. Version 3.1 of Mfold has been available since 1999. This version contains an expanded sequence dependence of energy parameters and the ability to incorporate coaxial stacking into free energy calculations. We test Mfold 3.1 by performing the largest and most phylogenetically diverse comparison of rRNA and tRNA structures predicted by comparative analysis and Mfold, and we use the results of our tests on 16S and 23S rRNA sequences to assess the improvement between Mfold 2.3 and Mfold 3.1. Results The average prediction accuracy for a 16S or 23S rRNA sequence with Mfold 3.1 is 41%, while the prediction accuracies for the majority of 16S and 23S rRNA structures tested are between 20% and 60%, with some having less than 20% prediction accuracy. The average prediction accuracy was 71% for 5S rRNA and 69% for tRNA. The majority of the 5S rRNA and tRNA sequences have prediction accuracies greater than 60%. The prediction accuracy of 16S rRNA base-pairs decreases exponentially as the number of nucleotides intervening between the 5' and 3' halves of the base-pair increases. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the current set of nearest-neighbor energy parameters in conjunction with the Mfold folding algorithm are unable to consistently and reliably predict an RNA's correct secondary structure. For 16S or 23S rRNA structure prediction, Mfold 3.1 offers little improvement over Mfold 2.3. However, the nearest-neighbor energy parameters do work well for shorter RNA sequences such as tRNA or 5S rRNA, or for larger rRNAs when the contact distance between the base-pairs is less than 100 nucleotides.

  15. Forest structure of Mediterranean yew (Taxus baccata L. populations and neighbor effects on juvenile yew performance in the NE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Casals

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: In the Mediterranean region, yew (Taxus baccata L. usually grows with other tree species in mixed forests. Yew recruitment and juvenile growth may depend on the structure of the forest and the net balance between competition for soil water and nutrients with neighbors and facilitation that these neighbors exert by protecting the plants from direct sun exposure. This study aims, at a regional scale, to analyze the structure of forests containing yew, and, on an individual level, to analyze the effect of the surrounding vegetation structure on the performance of yew juveniles.Area of study: The structural typologies of yew populations were defined based on field inventories conducted in 55 plots distributed in 14 localities in the North-Eastern (NE Iberian Peninsula, covering a wide range of yew distribution in the area. In a second step, an analysis of neighboring species' effects on juveniles was conducted based on the data from 103 plots centered in yew juveniles in five localities.Main Results: A cluster analysis classified the inventoried stands into four forest structural types: two multi-stratified forests with scattered yew and two yew groves. Multiple regression modeling showed that the δ13C measured in last year's leaves positively relates to the basal area of conifer neighbors, but negatively with the cover of the yew crown by other trees.Research highlights: At a stand-level, the density of recruits and juveniles (625 ± 104 recruits ha-1, 259 ± 55 juveniles ha-1 in mixed forests was found to be higher than that on yew dominant stands (181 ± 88 recruits ha-1 and 57 ± 88 juveniles ha-1. At an individual-level, the water stress (estimated from leaf δ13C of yew juveniles seems alleviated by the crown cover by neighbors while it increases with the basal area of conifers. Yew conservation should focus on selective felling for the reduction of basal area of neighbors surrounding the target tree, but avoid affecting the

  16. The Influence of Neighbor Effect and Urbanization Toward Organ Donation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongboonsin, Kua; Jindahra, Pavitra; Teerakapibal, Surat

    2018-03-01

    Toward population wellness, an extreme scarcity of organ supply is proven to be an enormous hindrance. Preferences toward organ donation are vital to raise the organ donation rate. Notably, the area people live in can address the social influence on individual preference toward organ donation. This article studies the impact of the neighbor effect on organ donation decisions, addressing the social influence of urbanization on preferences. How neighborhood-specific variables, population density, and socioeconomic status drive the neighbor effect is investigated. The pursuit of organ donor traits is to be answered. The study uses organ donation interview survey data and neighborhood-specific data from Thailand to estimate a series of logistic regression models. Individuals residing in urban areas exhibit a greater likelihood to sign the donor card than those in rural areas. The neighborhood socioeconomic status is the key driver. An individual is more willing to be an organ donor when having neighbors with higher socioeconomic statuses. Results also reveal positive influences of males and education on the organ donation rate. This article documents the "neighbor effect" on the organ donation decision via living area type, offering an alternative exposition in raising the organ donation rate. In shifting the society norm toward organ donation consent, policy-makers should acknowledge the benefit of urbanization on organ donation decision derived from resourceful urban areas. Moreover, raising education levels does improve not only citizens' well-being but also their tendency to exhibit an altruistic act toward others.

  17. Applying an efficient K-nearest neighbor search to forest attribute imputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew O. Finley; Ronald E. McRoberts; Alan R. Ek

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the utility of an efficient nearest neighbor (NN) search algorithm for applications in multi-source kNN forest attribute imputation. The search algorithm reduces the number of distance calculations between a given target vector and each reference vector, thereby, decreasing the time needed to discover the NN subset. Results of five trials show gains...

  18. Loving All Your Neighbors: Why Community Colleges Need the Academic Study of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explains how the study of world religions prepares the community college student to become a better citizen, worker, and neighbor. The effective middle between the pitfalls of religious relativism and religious dominance in a world religions classroom is central to this discussion of teaching critical thinking, empathy, and…

  19. Stuttering Attitudes among Turkish Family Generations and Neighbors from Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Attitudes toward stuttering, measured by the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), are compared among (a) two different representative samples; (b) family generations (children, parents, and either grandparents or uncles and aunts) and neighbors; (c) children, parents, grandparents/adult…

  20. Estimating forest attribute parameters for small areas using nearest neighbors techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2012-01-01

    Nearest neighbors techniques have become extremely popular, particularly for use with forest inventory data. With these techniques, a population unit prediction is calculated as a linear combination of observations for a selected number of population units in a sample that are most similar, or nearest, in a space of ancillary variables to the population unit requiring...

  1. Estimating cavity tree and snag abundance using negative binomial regression models and nearest neighbor imputation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Hailemariam Temesgen; Tara M. Barrett

    2009-01-01

    Cavity tree and snag abundance data are highly variable and contain many zero observations. We predict cavity tree and snag abundance from variables that are readily available from forest cover maps or remotely sensed data using negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated NB, and zero-altered NB (ZANB) regression models as well as nearest neighbor (NN) imputation methods....

  2. The indirect effects of cheatgrass invasion: Grasshopper herbivory on native grasses determined by neighboring cheatgrass abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Beckstead; Susan E. Meyer; Carol K. Augsperger

    2008-01-01

    Invasion biology has focused on the direct effects of plant invasion and has generally overlooked indirect interactions. Here we link theories of invasion biology and herbivory to explore an indirect effect of one invading species on associational herbivory (the effect of neighboring plants on herbivory) of native species. We studied a Great Basin shadscale (...

  3. Mapping change of older forest with nearest-neighbor imputation and Landsat time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet L. Ohmann; Matthew J. Gregory; Heather M. Roberts; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang. Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP), which aims to conserve late-successional and old-growth forests (older forests) and associated species, established new policies on federal lands in the Pacific Northwest USA. As part of monitoring for the NWFP, we tested nearest-neighbor imputation for mapping change in older forest, defined by threshold values for forest attributes...

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Diffusion Processes in Nanoelectrode Arrays Using an Axial Neighbor Symmetry Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, Ana Sol; Gilardoni, Rodrigo S; Mizrahi, Martín; Requejo, Felix G; González, Graciela A; Battaglini, Fernando

    2016-06-07

    Nanoelectrode arrays have introduced a complete new battery of devices with fascinating electrocatalytic, sensitivity, and selectivity properties. To understand and predict the electrochemical response of these arrays, a theoretical framework is needed. Cyclic voltammetry is a well-fitted experimental technique to understand the undergoing diffusion and kinetics processes. Previous works describing microelectrode arrays have exploited the interelectrode distance to simulate its behavior as the summation of individual electrodes. This approach becomes limited when the size of the electrodes decreases to the nanometer scale due to their strong radial effect with the consequent overlapping of the diffusional fields. In this work, we present a computational model able to simulate the electrochemical behavior of arrays working either as the summation of individual electrodes or being affected by the overlapping of the diffusional fields without previous considerations. Our computational model relays in dividing a regular electrode array in cells. In each of them, there is a central electrode surrounded by neighbor electrodes; these neighbor electrodes are transformed in a ring maintaining the same active electrode area than the summation of the closest neighbor electrodes. Using this axial neighbor symmetry approximation, the problem acquires a cylindrical symmetry, being applicable to any diffusion pattern. The model is validated against micro- and nanoelectrode arrays showing its ability to predict their behavior and therefore to be used as a designing tool.

  5. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2016-01-01

    of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, while dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate...

  6. Moderate-resolution data and gradient nearest neighbor imputation for regional-national risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth B. Jr. Pierce; C. Kenneth Brewer; Janet L. Ohmann

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to test the feasibility of combining a method designed to populate pixels with inventory plot data at the 30-m scale with a new national predictor data set. The new national predictor data set was developed by the USDA Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (hereafter RSAC) at the 250-m scale. Gradient Nearest Neighbor (GNN)...

  7. 77 FR 50504 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... recommendations to the President and Congress on environmental and infrastructure issues along the U.S. border with Mexico. Purpose of Meeting: The purpose of this teleconference is to discuss the Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Fifteenth Report. The report will focus on water infrastructure issues in the U.S.-Mexico...

  8. 77 FR 13599 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... recommendations to the President and Congress on environmental and infrastructure issues along the U.S. border with Mexico. Purpose of Meeting: The purpose of this teleconference is to discuss the Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Fifteenth Report. The report will focus on water infrastructure issues in the U.S.-Mexico...

  9. Probability distributions for first neighbor distances between resonances that belong to two different families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-01-01

    For a mixture of two families of resonances, we found the probability distribution for the distance, as first neighbors, between resonances that belong to different families. Integration of this distribution gives the probability of accidental overlapping of resonances of one isotope by resonances of the other, provided that the resonances of each isotope belong to a single family. (author)

  10. Neighbor Discovery Algorithm in Wireless Local Area Networks Using Multi-beam Directional Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Peng, Wei; Liu, Song

    2017-10-01

    Neighbor discovery is an important step for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and the use of multi-beam directional antennas can greatly improve the network performance. However, most neighbor discovery algorithms in WLAN, based on multi-beam directional antennas, can only work effectively in synchronous system but not in asynchro-nous system. And collisions at AP remain a bottleneck for neighbor discovery. In this paper, we propose two asynchrono-us neighbor discovery algorithms: asynchronous hierarchical scanning (AHS) and asynchronous directional scanning (ADS) algorithm. Both of them are based on three-way handshaking mechanism. AHS and ADS reduce collisions at AP to have a good performance in a hierarchical way and directional way respectively. In the end, the performance of the AHS and ADS are tested on OMNeT++. Moreover, it is analyzed that different application scenarios and the factors how to affect the performance of these algorithms. The simulation results show that AHS is suitable for the densely populated scenes around AP while ADS is suitable for that most of the neighborhood nodes are far from AP.

  11. Dose distribution in the thyroid and neighboring regions in therapy with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Rommel Barbosa; Bonifacio, Daniel Alexandre Baptista; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de

    2013-01-01

    In this work, simulations were performed with two types of computer simulators: the MIRD phantom and voxel phantom MASH, both of type adult male and in the standing position, coupled to the computational tool GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission), to obtain the dose deposited in thyroid and neighboring regions

  12. Recursive nearest neighbor search in a sparse and multiscale domain for comparing audio signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Daudet, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    We investigate recursive nearest neighbor search in a sparse domain at the scale of audio signals. Essentially, to approximate the cosine distance between the signals we make pairwise comparisons between the elements of localized sparse models built from large and redundant multiscale dictionaries...

  13. Collective Behaviors of Mobile Robots Beyond the Nearest Neighbor Rules With Switching Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Boda; Han, Qing-Long; Zuo, Zongyu; Jin, Jiong; Zheng, Jinchuan

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the collective behaviors of robots beyond the nearest neighbor rules, i.e., dispersion and flocking, when robots interact with others by applying an acute angle test (AAT)-based interaction rule. Different from a conventional nearest neighbor rule or its variations, the AAT-based interaction rule allows interactions with some far-neighbors and excludes unnecessary nearest neighbors. The resulting dispersion and flocking hold the advantages of scalability, connectivity, robustness, and effective area coverage. For the dispersion, a spring-like controller is proposed to achieve collision-free coordination. With switching topology, a new fixed-time consensus-based energy function is developed to guarantee the system stability. An upper bound of settling time for energy consensus is obtained, and a uniform time interval is accordingly set so that energy distribution is conducted in a fair manner. For the flocking, based on a class of generalized potential functions taking nonsmooth switching into account, a new controller is proposed to ensure that the same velocity for all robots is eventually reached. A co-optimizing problem is further investigated to accomplish additional tasks, such as enhancing communication performance, while maintaining the collective behaviors of mobile robots. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  14. Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important influences on a child's development is the quality of his or her early care and education experiences. It is estimated that more than 1 million children in the U.S. are cared for while their parents are at work by nonlicensed caregivers who are family, friends, or neighbors - and these caregivers can be difficult to reach…

  15. Transfer-Efficient Face Routing Using the Planar Graphs of Neighbors in High Density WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Seok Cho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Face routing has been adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs where topological changes occur frequently or maintaining full network information is difficult. For message forwarding in networks, a planar graph is used to prevent looping, and because long edges are removed by planarization and the resulting planar graph is composed of short edges, and messages are forwarded along multiple nodes connected by them even though they can be forwarded directly. To solve this, face routing using information on all nodes within 2-hop range was adopted to forward messages directly to the farthest node within radio range. However, as the density of the nodes increases, network performance plunges because message transfer nodes receive and process increased node information. To deal with this problem, we propose a new face routing using the planar graphs of neighboring nodes to improve transfer efficiency. It forwards a message directly to the farthest neighbor and reduces loads and processing time by distributing network graph construction and planarization to the neighbors. It also decreases the amount of location information to be transmitted by sending information on the planar graph nodes rather than on all neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that it significantly improves transfer efficiency.

  16. The distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hypergraphs, the generalization of graphs in which edges become conglomerates of r nodes called hyperedges of rank r ⩾ 2, are excellent models to study systems with interactions that are beyond the pairwise level. For hypergraphs, the node degree ℓ (number of hyperedges connected to a node) and the number of neighbors k of a node differ from each other in contrast to the case of graphs, where counting the number of edges is equivalent to counting the number of neighbors. In this paper, I calculate the distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs in which hyperedges of uniform rank r have a homogeneous (equal for all hyperedges) probability p to appear. This distribution is equivalent to the degree distribution of ensembles of graphs created as projections of hypergraph or bipartite network ensembles, where the projection connects any two nodes in the projected graph when they are also connected in the hypergraph or bipartite network. The calculation is non-trivial due to the possibility that neighbor nodes belong simultaneously to multiple hyperedges (node overlaps). From the exact results, the traditional asymptotic approximation to the distribution in the sparse regime (small p) where overlaps are ignored is rederived and improved; the approximation exhibits Poisson-like behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations modulated by power-law decays in the system size N with decay exponents equal to the minimum number of overlapping nodes possible for a given number of neighbors. It is shown that the dense limit cannot be explained if overlaps are ignored, and the correct asymptotic distribution is provided. The neighbor distribution requires the calculation of a new combinatorial coefficient Q r−1 (k, ℓ), which counts the number of distinct labeled hypergraphs of k nodes, ℓ hyperedges of rank r − 1, and where every node is connected to at least one hyperedge. Some identities of Q r−1 (k, ℓ) are derived and applied to the

  17. Predicting the severity of nuclear power plant transients using nearest neighbors modeling optimized by genetic algorithms on a parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Bartal, Y.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of automatic diagnostic systems for nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been discussed in numerous studies, and various such systems have been proposed. None of those systems were designed to predict the severity of the diagnosed scenario. A classification and severity prediction system for NPP transients is developed. The system is based on nearest neighbors modeling, which is optimized using genetic algorithms. The optimization process is used to determine the most important variables for each of the transient types analyzed. An enhanced version of the genetic algorithms is used in which a local downhill search is performed to further increase the accuracy achieved. The genetic algorithms search was implemented on a massively parallel supercomputer, the KSR1-64, to perform the analysis in a reasonable time. The data for this study were supplied by the high-fidelity simulator of the San Onofre unit 1 pressurized water reactor

  18. Radiochemical determination of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, G.S.; Kandinskii, P.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Depending on the salinity of the water, two versions of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentration from water samples are presented. Cesium-137 was concentrated by precipitating sparingly soluble mixed hexacyanoferrates (II), and strontium-90 by precipitating carbonates together with calcium. A scheme has been given for radiochemical analysis of the concentrates. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas have been determined by the radiochemical method described. The levels of radionuclide content in the water and atmospheric precipitations have been shown to be inter-related. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the surface water of the northwestern Pacific were found to be much lower in 1980 than in the early seventies. The area of technogenic radioactive pollution was found to persist in the region of the Columbia mouth into the Pacific Ocean

  19. The neighbor enclosed area tracking algorithm and its application to cyclone merger in the midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Amada, Shotarou; Satake, Yuya

    2010-05-01

    The neighbor enclosed area tracking (NEAT) algorithm is proposed as an alternative method to conventional point-to-point cyclone tracking approaches. Most automated Lagrangian tracking algorithms contain three procedures: cyclone identification, cyclone tracking, and quantification of cyclone intensity and activity. The cyclone identification was simply based on a comparison of neighboring grid points; cyclone tracking mainly employed a near-neighbor point search to neighbor-time cyclone-center datasets; and cyclone intensity and activity are mainly quantified as cyclone track density, and other accompanying products such as genesis and lysis densities, mean lifetime, average moving vector, and mean growth rate can also be obtained in the final procedure. But a crucial problem in the above technique is its requirement of some complicated connecting conditions for near-neighbor tracking. To overcome the problem, NEAT completes cyclone identification and cyclone tracking in a single process of equivalent labeling for spatiotemporally connected domains, i.e., if two spatially enclosed areas in a neighboring time frame overlap, they should be connected. NEAT enables us to count the genesis and tracks of individual cyclones as the conventional tracking. Moreover, NEAT has the ability to produce fruitful information on cyclone mergers and separations, cyclone shape, and material transport by individual eddies (the latter two features will be reported elsewhere). There are many possible applications of NEAT to meteorology and oceanography, but now we focus on the situation, well-known by Japanese synopticians, that two cyclones pass respectively over the north and south of Japan and then they frequently merge and are rapidly deepened in the western Pacific. For the case, the southern cyclones tend to be stimulated just above the sea surface temperature front to the north of oceanic western boundary currents, while the northern cyclones, moving eastward along the polar

  20. A novel SNP analysis method to detect copy number alterations with an unbiased reference signal directly from tumor samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFramboise William A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability in cancer leads to abnormal genome copy number alterations (CNA as a mechanism underlying tumorigenesis. Using microarrays and other technologies, tumor CNA are detected by comparing tumor sample CN to normal reference sample CN. While advances in microarray technology have improved detection of copy number alterations, the increase in the number of measured signals, noise from array probes, variations in signal-to-noise ratio across batches and disparity across laboratories leads to significant limitations for the accurate identification of CNA regions when comparing tumor and normal samples. Methods To address these limitations, we designed a novel "Virtual Normal" algorithm (VN, which allowed for construction of an unbiased reference signal directly from test samples within an experiment using any publicly available normal reference set as a baseline thus eliminating the need for an in-lab normal reference set. Results The algorithm was tested using an optimal, paired tumor/normal data set as well as previously uncharacterized pediatric malignant gliomas for which a normal reference set was not available. Using Affymetrix 250K Sty microarrays, we demonstrated improved signal-to-noise ratio and detected significant copy number alterations using the VN algorithm that were validated by independent PCR analysis of the target CNA regions. Conclusions We developed and validated an algorithm to provide a virtual normal reference signal directly from tumor samples and minimize noise in the derivation of the raw CN signal. The algorithm reduces the variability of assays performed across different reagent and array batches, methods of sample preservation, multiple personnel, and among different laboratories. This approach may be valuable when matched normal samples are unavailable or the paired normal specimens have been subjected to variations in methods of preservation.

  1. 75 FR 62412 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good Neighbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5380-N-36] Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD- Owned Real Estate-Good Neighbor Next Door Program AGENCY: Office... information: Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good Neighbor Next Door Program. OMB Control Number, if...

  2. A two-step nearest neighbors algorithm using satellite imagery for predicting forest structure within species composition classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbors techniques have been shown to be useful for predicting multiple forest attributes from forest inventory and Landsat satellite image data. However, in regions lacking good digital land cover information, nearest neighbors selected to predict continuous variables such as tree volume must be selected without regard to relevant categorical variables such...

  3. The influence of further-neighbor spin-spin interaction on a ground state of 2D coupled spin-electron model in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčariková, Hana; Strečka, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Tomašovičová, Natália

    2018-05-01

    An exhaustive ground-state analysis of extended two-dimensional (2D) correlated spin-electron model consisting of the Ising spins localized on nodal lattice sites and mobile electrons delocalized over pairs of decorating sites is performed within the framework of rigorous analytical calculations. The investigated model, defined on an arbitrary 2D doubly decorated lattice, takes into account the kinetic energy of mobile electrons, the nearest-neighbor Ising coupling between the localized spins and mobile electrons, the further-neighbor Ising coupling between the localized spins and the Zeeman energy. The ground-state phase diagrams are examined for a wide range of model parameters for both ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic interaction between the nodal Ising spins and non-zero value of external magnetic field. It is found that non-zero values of further-neighbor interaction leads to a formation of new quantum states as a consequence of competition between all considered interaction terms. Moreover, the new quantum states are accompanied with different magnetic features and thus, several kinds of field-driven phase transitions are observed.

  4. Formation of tight junctions between neighboring podocytes is an early ultrastructural feature in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Succar L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lena Succar,1 Ross A Boadle,2 David C Harris,1,3 Gopala K Rangan1,3 1Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, 2Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, 3Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN, the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN from day 1 to day 14. Morphometric analysis was conducted on randomly selected glomeruli captured on TEM digital images. Results: On day 1 of NSN, there was widespread formation of focal contacts between the cell bodies of neighboring podocytes, and tight junctions were evident at the site of cell-to-cell contact. This was confirmed by the increased expression of the tight junction molecule, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, which localized to the points of podocyte cell–cell body contact. On day 2, the interpodocyte distance decreased and the glomerular basement membrane thickness increased. Foot process effacement (FPE was segmental on day 3 and diffuse by day 5, accompanied by the formation of podocyte cellular bridges with Bowman’s capsule, as confirmed by a decrease in podocyte-to-PEC distance. Fibrinoid necrosis and cellular crescents were evident in all glomeruli by days 7 and 14. In vitro, the exposure of podocytes to macrophage-conditioned media altered cellular morphology and caused an intracellular redistribution of ZO-1. Conclusion: The formation of tight

  5. Neighboring phosphoSer-Pro motifs in the undefined domain of IRAK1 impart bivalent advantage for Pin1 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogals, Monique J; Greenwood, Alexander I; Kwon, Jeahoo; Lu, Kun Ping; Nicholson, Linda K

    2016-12-01

    The peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1 has two domains that are considered to be its binding (WW) and catalytic (PPIase) domains, both of which interact with phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs. This shared specificity might influence substrate selection, as many known Pin1 substrates have multiple sequentially close phosphoSer/Thr-Pro motifs, including the protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1). The IRAK1 undefined domain (UD) contains two sets of such neighboring motifs (Ser131/Ser144 and Ser163/Ser173), suggesting possible bivalent interactions with Pin1. Using a series of NMR titrations with 15N-labeled full-length Pin1 (Pin1-FL), PPIase, or WW domain and phosphopeptides representing the Ser131/Ser144 and Ser163/Ser173 regions of IRAK1-UD, bivalent interactions were investigated. Binding studies using singly phosphorylated peptides showed that individual motifs displayed weak affinities (> 100 μm) for Pin1-FL and each isolated domain. Analysis of dually phosphorylated peptides binding to Pin1-FL showed that inclusion of bivalent states was necessary to fit the data. The resulting complex model and fitted parameters were applied to predict the impact of bivalent states at low micromolar concentrations, demonstrating significant affinity enhancement for both dually phosphorylated peptides (3.5 and 24 μm for peptides based on the Ser131/Ser144 and Ser163/Ser173 regions, respectively). The complementary technique biolayer interferometry confirmed the predicted affinity enhancement for a representative set of singly and dually phosphorylated Ser131/Ser144 peptides at low micromolar concentrations, validating model predictions. These studies provide novel insights regarding the complexity of interactions between Pin1 and activated IRAK1, and more broadly suggest that phosphorylation of neighboring Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in proteins might provide competitive advantage at cellular concentrations for engaging with Pin1. © 2016 Federation of European

  6. Multi-strategy based quantum cost reduction of linear nearest-neighbor quantum circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ying-ying; Cheng, Xue-yun; Guan, Zhi-jin; Liu, Yang; Ma, Haiying

    2018-03-01

    With the development of reversible and quantum computing, study of reversible and quantum circuits has also developed rapidly. Due to physical constraints, most quantum circuits require quantum gates to interact on adjacent quantum bits. However, many existing quantum circuits nearest-neighbor have large quantum cost. Therefore, how to effectively reduce quantum cost is becoming a popular research topic. In this paper, we proposed multiple optimization strategies to reduce the quantum cost of the circuit, that is, we reduce quantum cost from MCT gates decomposition, nearest neighbor and circuit simplification, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed strategies can effectively reduce the quantum cost, and the maximum optimization rate is 30.61% compared to the corresponding results.

  7. A dynamic evolutionary clustering perspective: Community detection in signed networks by reconstructing neighbor sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianrui; Wang, Hua; Wang, Lina; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in social networks has been intensively studied in recent years. In this paper, a novel similarity measurement is defined according to social balance theory for signed networks. Inter-community positive links are found and deleted due to their low similarity. The positive neighbor sets are reconstructed by this method. Then, differential equations are proposed to imitate the constantly changing states of nodes. Each node will update its state based on the difference between its state and average state of its positive neighbors. Nodes in the same community will evolve together with time and nodes in the different communities will evolve far away. Communities are detected ultimately when states of nodes are stable. Experiments on real world and synthetic networks are implemented to verify detection performance. The thorough comparisons demonstrate the presented method is more efficient than two acknowledged better algorithms.

  8. Fusion yield rate recovery by escaping hot-spot fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-02-01

    Free-streaming loss by fast ions can deplete the tail population in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Escaping fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer of a cryogenic target can produce a surplus of fast ions locally. In contrast to the Knudsen layer effect that reduces hot-spot fusion reactivity due to tail ion depletion, the inverse Knudsen layer effect increases fusion reactivity in the neighboring fuel layer. In the case of a burning ICF target in the presence of significant hydrodynamic mix which aggravates the Knudsen layer effect, the yield recovery largely compensates for the yield reduction. For mix-dominated sub-ignition targets, the yield reduction is the dominant process.

  9. Knowledgeable Neighbors: a mobile clinic model for disease prevention and screening in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caterina; Zurakowski, David; Bennet, Jennifer; Walker-White, Rainelle; Osman, Jamie L; Quarles, Aaron; Oriol, Nancy

    2012-03-01

    The Family Van mobile health clinic uses a "Knowledgeable Neighbor" model to deliver cost-effective screening and prevention activities in underserved neighborhoods in Boston, MA. We have described the Knowledgeable Neighbor model and used operational data collected from 2006 to 2009 to evaluate the service. The Family Van successfully reached mainly minority low-income men and women. Of the clients screened, 60% had previously undetected elevated blood pressure, 14% had previously undetected elevated blood glucose, and 38% had previously undetected elevated total cholesterol. This represents an important model for reaching underserved communities to deliver proven cost-effective prevention activities, both to help control health care costs and to reduce health disparities.

  10. ANN-Benchmarks: A Benchmarking Tool for Approximate Nearest Neighbor Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumüller, Martin; Bernhardsson, Erik; Faithfull, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes ANN-Benchmarks, a tool for evaluating the performance of in-memory approximate nearest neighbor algorithms. It provides a standard interface for measuring the performance and quality achieved by nearest neighbor algorithms on different standard data sets. It supports several...... visualise these as images, Open image in new window plots, and websites with interactive plots. ANN-Benchmarks aims to provide a constantly updated overview of the current state of the art of k-NN algorithms. In the short term, this overview allows users to choose the correct k-NN algorithm and parameters...... for their similarity search task; in the longer term, algorithm designers will be able to use this overview to test and refine automatic parameter tuning. The paper gives an overview of the system, evaluates the results of the benchmark, and points out directions for future work. Interestingly, very different...

  11. Quantum Algorithm for K-Nearest Neighbors Classification Based on the Metric of Hamming Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yue; Xue, Xiling; Liu, Heng; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi

    2017-11-01

    K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a common algorithm used for classification, and also a sub-routine in various complicated machine learning tasks. In this paper, we presented a quantum algorithm (QKNN) for implementing this algorithm based on the metric of Hamming distance. We put forward a quantum circuit for computing Hamming distance between testing sample and each feature vector in the training set. Taking advantage of this method, we realized a good analog for classical KNN algorithm by setting a distance threshold value t to select k - n e a r e s t neighbors. As a result, QKNN achieves O( n 3) performance which is only relevant to the dimension of feature vectors and high classification accuracy, outperforms Llyod's algorithm (Lloyd et al. 2013) and Wiebe's algorithm (Wiebe et al. 2014).

  12. Chaotic Synchronization in Nearest-Neighbor Coupled Networks of 3D CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Guerrero, H.; Cruz-Hernández, C.; López-Gutiérrez, R.M.; Cardoza-Avendaño, L.; Chávez-Pérez, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a synchronization of Cellular Neural Networks (CNNs) in nearest-neighbor coupled arrays, is numerically studied. Synchronization of multiple chaotic CNNs is achieved by appealing to complex systems theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by 3D CNNs, as interconnected nodes, where the interactions in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. Four cases of interest are considered: i) synchronization without chaotic master, ii) maste...

  13. FCNN-MR: A Parallel Instance Selection Method Based on Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbor Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Si; Jie Yu; Shasha Li; Jun Ma; Lei Luo; Qingbo Wu; Yongqi Ma; Zhengji Liu

    2017-01-01

    Instance selection (IS) technique is used to reduce the data size to improve the performance of data mining methods. Recently, to process very large data set, several proposed methods divide the training set into some disjoint subsets and apply IS algorithms independently to each subset. In this paper, we analyze the limitation of these methods and give our viewpoint about how to divide and conquer in IS procedure. Then, based on fast condensed nearest neighbor (FCNN) rul...

  14. Keeping up With The Neighbors: Nonproliferation and Implementation of UNSCR 1540

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    be respectful of the rule of law and a competitive participatory democracy , yet fail to implement UNSCR 1540, just like its neighbors. Discussion...risk-taking between 1816 and 1992. They found a strong association between conservative governmental decision-making and not only democracies , but...specifically those democracies with highly competitive political systems.46 In addition, Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, et.al. found a significant

  15. An Improvement To The k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier For ECG Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Haryati; Hidayah Ramli, Nur; Nasir, Aimi Salihah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The k nearest neighbor (kNN) is a non-parametric classifier and has been widely used for pattern classification. However, in practice, the performance of kNN often tends to fail due to the lack of information on how the samples are distributed among them. Moreover, kNN is no longer optimal when the training samples are limited. Another problem observed in kNN is regarding the weighting issues in assigning the class label before classification. Thus, to solve these limitations, a new classifier called Mahalanobis fuzzy k-nearest centroid neighbor (MFkNCN) is proposed in this study. Here, a Mahalanobis distance is applied to avoid the imbalance of samples distribition. Then, a surrounding rule is employed to obtain the nearest centroid neighbor based on the distributions of training samples and its distance to the query point. Consequently, the fuzzy membership function is employed to assign the query point to the class label which is frequently represented by the nearest centroid neighbor Experimental studies from electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is applied in this study. The classification performances are evaluated in two experimental steps i.e. different values of k and different sizes of feature dimensions. Subsequently, a comparative study of kNN, kNCN, FkNN and MFkCNN classifier is conducted to evaluate the performances of the proposed classifier. The results show that the performance of MFkNCN consistently exceeds the kNN, kNCN and FkNN with the best classification rates of 96.5%.

  16. Investment Incentives and Effective Tax Rates in the Philippines; A Comparison With Neighboring Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander D Klemm; Dennis P Botman; Reza Baqir

    2008-01-01

    We compare the general tax provisions and investment incentives in the Philippines to six other east-Asian economies-Malaysia, Indonesia, Lao, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand. We calculate effective tax rates and find that general effective tax rates are relatively high in the Philippines, while investment incentives are comparable to those in neighboring countries. Tax holidays are most attractive for very profitable firms, creating redundancy, and for investment in short-lived assets. We al...

  17. The Tragedy of Your Upstairs Neighbors: Is the Airbnb Negative Externality Internalized?

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, John J.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly expressed concern about the rise of the peer-to-peer rental market Airbnb is that hosts---those renting out their properties---impose costs on their unwitting neighbors. I consider the question of whether apartment building owners will, in a competitive rental market, set a building-specific Airbnb hosting policy that is socially efficient. I find that if tenants can sort across apartments based on the owners policy then the equilibrium fraction of buildings allowing Airbnb listing...

  18. Specific Protein Markers for Stem Cell Cross-Talk with Neighboring Cells in the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2013-01-01

    A stem cell interacts with the neighboring cells in its environment. To maintain a living organism’s metabolism, either cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may be significant. Usually, these cells communicate with each other through biological signaling by interactive behaviors of primary proteins or complementary chemicals. The signaling intermediates offer the stem cell’s functionality on its metabolism. With the rapid advent of omics technologies, various specific markers by which s...

  19. A Hybrid Instance Selection Using Nearest-Neighbor for Cross-Project Defect Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duksan Ryu; Jong-In Jang; Jongmoon Baik; Member; ACM; IEEE

    2015-01-01

    Software defect prediction (SDP) is an active research field in software engineering to identify defect-prone modules. Thanks to SDP, limited testing resources can be effectively allocated to defect-prone modules. Although SDP requires suffcient local data within a company, there are cases where local data are not available, e.g., pilot projects. Companies without local data can employ cross-project defect prediction (CPDP) using external data to build classifiers. The major challenge of CPDP is different distributions between training and test data. To tackle this, instances of source data similar to target data are selected to build classifiers. Software datasets have a class imbalance problem meaning the ratio of defective class to clean class is far low. It usually lowers the performance of classifiers. We propose a Hybrid Instance Selection Using Nearest-Neighbor (HISNN) method that performs a hybrid classification selectively learning local knowledge (via k-nearest neighbor) and global knowledge (via na¨ıve Bayes). Instances having strong local knowledge are identified via nearest-neighbors with the same class label. Previous studies showed low PD (probability of detection) or high PF (probability of false alarm) which is impractical to use. The experimental results show that HISNN produces high overall performance as well as high PD and low PF.

  20. Multidimensional k-nearest neighbor model based on EEMD for financial time series forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Lin, Aijing; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-stage methodology that combines the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with multidimensional k-nearest neighbor model (MKNN) in order to forecast the closing price and high price of the stocks simultaneously. The modified algorithm of k-nearest neighbors (KNN) has an increasingly wide application in the prediction of all fields. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) decomposes a nonlinear and non-stationary signal into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), however, it cannot reveal characteristic information of the signal with much accuracy as a result of mode mixing. So ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), an improved method of EMD, is presented to resolve the weaknesses of EMD by adding white noise to the original data. With EEMD, the components with true physical meaning can be extracted from the time series. Utilizing the advantage of EEMD and MKNN, the new proposed ensemble empirical mode decomposition combined with multidimensional k-nearest neighbor model (EEMD-MKNN) has high predictive precision for short-term forecasting. Moreover, we extend this methodology to the case of two-dimensions to forecast the closing price and high price of the four stocks (NAS, S&P500, DJI and STI stock indices) at the same time. The results indicate that the proposed EEMD-MKNN model has a higher forecast precision than EMD-KNN, KNN method and ARIMA.

  1. Resampling nucleotide sequences with closest-neighbor trimming and its comparison to other methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Yonezawa

    Full Text Available A large number of nucleotide sequences of various pathogens are available in public databases. The growth of the datasets has resulted in an enormous increase in computational costs. Moreover, due to differences in surveillance activities, the number of sequences found in databases varies from one country to another and from year to year. Therefore, it is important to study resampling methods to reduce the sampling bias. A novel algorithm-called the closest-neighbor trimming method-that resamples a given number of sequences from a large nucleotide sequence dataset was proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with other algorithms by using the nucleotide sequences of human H3N2 influenza viruses. We compared the closest-neighbor trimming method with the naive hierarchical clustering algorithm and [Formula: see text]-medoids clustering algorithm. Genetic information accumulated in public databases contains sampling bias. The closest-neighbor trimming method can thin out densely sampled sequences from a given dataset. Since nucleotide sequences are among the most widely used materials for life sciences, we anticipate that our algorithm to various datasets will result in reducing sampling bias.

  2. Equivalent charge source model based iterative maximum neighbor weight for sparse EEG source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Tian, Yin; Lei, Xu; Hu, Xiao; Yao, Dezhong

    2008-12-01

    How to localize the neural electric activities within brain effectively and precisely from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is a critical issue for current study in clinical neurology and cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, based on the charge source model and the iterative re-weighted strategy, proposed is a new maximum neighbor weight based iterative sparse source imaging method, termed as CMOSS (Charge source model based Maximum neighbOr weight Sparse Solution). Different from the weight used in focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) where the weight for each point in the discrete solution space is independently updated in iterations, the new designed weight for each point in each iteration is determined by the source solution of the last iteration at both the point and its neighbors. Using such a new weight, the next iteration may have a bigger chance to rectify the local source location bias existed in the previous iteration solution. The simulation studies with comparison to FOCUSS and LORETA for various source configurations were conducted on a realistic 3-shell head model, and the results confirmed the validation of CMOSS for sparse EEG source localization. Finally, CMOSS was applied to localize sources elicited in a visual stimuli experiment, and the result was consistent with those source areas involved in visual processing reported in previous studies.

  3. Classification of EEG Signals using adaptive weighted distance nearest neighbor algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Parvinnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are often used to diagnose diseases such as seizure, alzheimer, and schizophrenia. One main problem with the recorded EEG samples is that they are not equally reliable due to the artifacts at the time of recording. EEG signal classification algorithms should have a mechanism to handle this issue. It seems that using adaptive classifiers can be useful for the biological signals such as EEG. In this paper, a general adaptive method named weighted distance nearest neighbor (WDNN is applied for EEG signal classification to tackle this problem. This classification algorithm assigns a weight to each training sample to control its influence in classifying test samples. The weights of training samples are used to find the nearest neighbor of an input query pattern. To assess the performance of this scheme, EEG signals of thirteen schizophrenic patients and eighteen normal subjects are analyzed for the classification of these two groups. Several features including, fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive (AR model are extracted from EEG signals. The classification results are evaluated using Leave one (subject out cross validation for reliable estimation. The results indicate that combination of WDNN and selected features can significantly outperform the basic nearest-neighbor and the other methods proposed in the past for the classification of these two groups. Therefore, this method can be a complementary tool for specialists to distinguish schizophrenia disorder.

  4. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process.

  5. A Novel AMR-WB Speech Steganography Based on Diameter-Neighbor Codebook Partition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a means of covert communication without revealing the occurrence and the real purpose of communication. The adaptive multirate wideband (AMR-WB is a widely adapted format in mobile handsets and is also the recommended speech codec for VoLTE. In this paper, a novel AMR-WB speech steganography is proposed based on diameter-neighbor codebook partition algorithm. Different embedding capacity may be achieved by adjusting the iterative parameters during codebook division. The experimental results prove that the presented AMR-WB steganography may provide higher and flexible embedding capacity without inducing perceptible distortion compared with the state-of-the-art methods. With 48 iterations of cluster merging, twice the embedding capacity of complementary-neighbor-vertices-based embedding method may be obtained with a decrease of only around 2% in speech quality and much the same undetectability. Moreover, both the quality of stego speech and the security regarding statistical steganalysis are better than the recent speech steganography based on neighbor-index-division codebook partition.

  6. Cultural macroevolution on neighbor graphs : vertical and horizontal transmission among Western North American Indian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Grote, Mark N; Venti, Jay; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-09-01

    What are the driving forces of cultural macroevolution, the evolution of cultural traits that characterize societies or populations? This question has engaged anthropologists for more than a century, with little consensus regarding the answer. We develop and fit autologistic models, built upon both spatial and linguistic neighbor graphs, for 44 cultural traits of 172 societies in the Western North American Indian (WNAI) database. For each trait, we compare models including or excluding one or both neighbor graphs, and for the majority of traits we find strong evidence in favor of a model which uses both spatial and linguistic neighbors to predict a trait's distribution. Our results run counter to the assertion that cultural trait distributions can be explained largely by the transmission of traits from parent to daughter populations and are thus best analyzed with phylogenies. In contrast, we show that vertical and horizontal transmission pathways can be incorporated in a single model, that both transmission modes may indeed operate on the same trait, and that for most traits in the WNAI database, accounting for only one mode of transmission would result in a loss of information.

  7. A new approach to very short term wind speed prediction using k-nearest neighbor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesilbudak, Mehmet; Sagiroglu, Seref; Colak, Ilhami

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wind speed parameter was predicted in an n-tupled inputs using k-NN classification. ► The effects of input parameters, nearest neighbors and distance metrics were analyzed. ► Many useful and reasonable inferences were uncovered using the developed model. - Abstract: Wind energy is an inexhaustible energy source and wind power production has been growing rapidly in recent years. However, wind power has a non-schedulable nature due to wind speed variations. Hence, wind speed prediction is an indispensable requirement for power system operators. This paper predicts wind speed parameter in an n-tupled inputs using k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification and analyzes the effects of input parameters, nearest neighbors and distance metrics on wind speed prediction. The k-NN classification model was developed using the object oriented programming techniques and includes Manhattan and Minkowski distance metrics except from Euclidean distance metric on the contrary of literature. The k-NN classification model which uses wind direction, air temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity parameters in a 4-tupled space achieved the best wind speed prediction for k = 5 in the Manhattan distance metric. Differently, the k-NN classification model which uses wind direction, air temperature and atmospheric pressure parameters in a 3-tupled inputs gave the worst wind speed prediction for k = 1 in the Minkowski distance metric

  8. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN, which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread, which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05. The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively. The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15. Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40. Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005 independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for

  9. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  10. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-12-07

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  11. FIRST RESULTS ON THE DIRECTION STATISTICS OF PAIRS OF EPICENTERS OF NEIGHBOR EARTHQUAKES ON KAMCHATKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gusev

    2016-01-01

    -diagrams are counted off from the direction with azimuth of 37° that represents the strike of the island arc. Before constructing rose diagrams, the modified azimuths were reduced to the [0° 180°] range by subtracting 180° when needed. One can see that with the stricter limit of 0.5 days, histograms and rose diagrams show more expressed deviations from the uniform (isotropic distribution of angles. For both variants of the maximum delay, the along-arc oriented pairs manifest themselves (at n about 0° and 180°. At the less strict limit of 5 days, this orientation begins to dominate. Although this tendency formally means a break of isotropy, it is not of particular interest because it results from the fact that a large fraction of epicenters occupy a relatively narrow strip, well seen on Fig. 1; therefore the observed 0–180° preferred direction has no connection to epicenter distribution within narrow space-time neighborhoods that we intend to analyze.To suppress the contribution of this interfering direction, a special normalization of angle histograms was performed. We additionally calculated similar histograms for larger delays, 100 to 150 days, marked T, considering these as representing pure effect of geometry of the epicenter field, and used them for normalization, performed in the following way. Values of the initial or raw (R histograms are divided (point by point by corresponding values of T-histograms. In this way the normalized (N histograms are obtained, considered as most representative of preferred directions of neighbor pairs. To make the results more convincing, we performed statistical testing of the hypothesis “N-histogram differs from a constant”; actually, the equivalent hypothesis “the R-histogram differs from the T-histogram” was tested. The Pearson’s c2 criterion was used. The significance value, Q, is indicated on plots, in most cases it is below 0.1 %. Such are the processing procedures employed; then the analysis of data was performed

  12. USMC Training: A Synthesis of CNA's Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randazzo-Matsel, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    ...?" and "Is what is being taught, what needs to be taught?" We use a skills-based approach to identify the core skills that a Marine needs to acquire through specific training and to assess whether the training...

  13. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  14. A γ dose distribution evaluation technique using the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for nearest neighbor searching to improve the γ calculation time for 2D and 3D dose distributions. Methods: The γ calculation method has been widely used for comparisons of dose distributions in clinical treatment plans and quality assurances. By specifying the acceptable dose and distance-to-agreement criteria, the method provides quantitative measurement of the agreement between the reference and evaluation dose distributions. The γ value indicates the acceptability. In regions where γ≤1, the predefined criterion is satisfied and thus the agreement is acceptable; otherwise, the agreement fails. Although the concept of the method is not complicated and a quick naieve implementation is straightforward, an efficient and robust implementation is not trivial. Recent algorithms based on exhaustive searching within a maximum radius, the geometric Euclidean distance, and the table lookup method have been proposed to improve the computational time for multidimensional dose distributions. Motivated by the fact that the least searching time for finding a nearest neighbor can be an O(log N) operation with a k-d tree, where N is the total number of the dose points, the authors propose an algorithm based on the k-d tree for the γ evaluation in this work. Results: In the experiment, the authors found that the average k-d tree construction time per reference point is O(log N), while the nearest neighbor searching time per evaluation point is proportional to O(N 1/k ), where k is between 2 and 3 for two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing with other algorithms such as exhaustive search and sorted list O(N), the k-d tree algorithm for γ evaluation is much more efficient.

  15. Tricriticality in the q-neighbor Ising model on a partially duplex clique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    We analyze a modified kinetic Ising model, a so-called q-neighbor Ising model, with Metropolis dynamics [Phys. Rev. E 92, 052105 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.052105] on a duplex clique and a partially duplex clique. In the q-neighbor Ising model each spin interacts only with q spins randomly chosen from its whole neighborhood. In the case of a duplex clique the change of a spin is allowed only if both levels simultaneously induce this change. Due to the mean-field-like nature of the model we are able to derive the analytic form of transition probabilities and solve the corresponding master equation. The existence of the second level changes dramatically the character of the phase transition. In the case of the monoplex clique, the q-neighbor Ising model exhibits a continuous phase transition for q=3, discontinuous phase transition for q≥4, and for q=1 and q=2 the phase transition is not observed. On the other hand, in the case of the duplex clique continuous phase transitions are observed for all values of q, even for q=1 and q=2. Subsequently we introduce a partially duplex clique, parametrized by r∈[0,1], which allows us to tune the network from monoplex (r=0) to duplex (r=1). Such a generalized topology, in which a fraction r of all nodes appear on both levels, allows us to obtain the critical value of r=r^{*}(q) at which a tricriticality (switch from continuous to discontinuous phase transition) appears.

  16. Clinical Omics Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Incorporating Copy Number Aberrations and Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Yoshida

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in Japan, and thus a wide range of methods have been deployed to study the molecular mechanisms of CRC. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of CRC, incorporating copy number aberration (CRC and gene expression data. For the last four years, we have been collecting data from CRC cases and organizing the information as an “omics” study by integrating many kinds of analysis into a single comprehensive investigation. In our previous studies, we had experienced difficulty in finding genes related to CRC, as we observed higher noise levels in the expression data than in the data for other cancers. Because chromosomal aberrations are often observed in CRC, here, we have performed a combination of CNA analysis and expression analysis in order to identify some new genes responsible for CRC. This study was performed as part of the Clinical Omics Database Project at Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of genetic instability in CRC by this combination of expression analysis and CNA, and to establish a new method for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. Materials and methods: Comprehensive gene expression analysis was performed on 79 CRC cases using an Affymetrix Gene Chip, and comprehensive CNA analysis was performed using an Affymetrix DNA Sty array. To avoid the contamination of cancer tissue with normal cells, laser micro-dissection was performed before DNA/RNA extraction. Data analysis was performed using original software written in the R language. Result: We observed a high percentage of CNA in colorectal cancer, including copy number gains at 7, 8q, 13 and 20q, and copy number losses at 8p, 17p and 18. Gene expression analysis provided many candidates for CRC-related genes, but their association with CRC did not reach the level of statistical significance. The combination of CNA and gene

  17. A method of neighbor classes based SVM classification for optical printed Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xiaohong; Yu, Yanmei; Luo, Daisheng

    2013-01-01

    In optical printed Chinese character recognition (OPCCR), many classifiers have been proposed for the recognition. Among the classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) might be the best classifier. However, SVM is a classifier for two classes. When it is used for multi-classes in OPCCR, its computation is time-consuming. Thus, we propose a neighbor classes based SVM (NC-SVM) to reduce the computation consumption of SVM. Experiments of NC-SVM classification for OPCCR have been done. The results of the experiments have shown that the NC-SVM we proposed can effectively reduce the computation time in OPCCR.

  18. Penerapan Metode K-nearest Neighbor pada Penentuan Grade Dealer Sepeda Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Leidiyana, Henny

    2017-01-01

    The mutually beneficial cooperation is a very important thing for a leasing and dealer. Incentives for marketing is given in order to get consumers as much as possible. But sometimes the surveyor objectivity is lost due to the conspiracy on the field of marketing and surveyors. To overcome this, leasing a variety of ways one of them is doing ranking against the dealer. In this study the application of the k-Nearest Neighbor method and Euclidean distance measurement to determine the grade deal...

  19. Fast and Accuracy Control Chart Pattern Recognition using a New cluster-k-Nearest Neighbor

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Brahim Belhaouari

    2009-01-01

    By taking advantage of both k-NN which is highly accurate and K-means cluster which is able to reduce the time of classification, we can introduce Cluster-k-Nearest Neighbor as "variable k"-NN dealing with the centroid or mean point of all subclasses generated by clustering algorithm. In general the algorithm of K-means cluster is not stable, in term of accuracy, for that reason we develop another algorithm for clustering our space which gives a higher accuracy than K-means cluster, less ...

  20. Tuberculosis control in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru: why does incidence vary so much between neighbors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobero, R A; Peabody, J W

    2006-11-01

    In 2003, Peru and Bolivia reported the highest annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the Americas. Neighboring Colombia and Chile had lower annual incidence rates despite their proximity. To determine what factors contribute to differences in TB incidence rates among Chile, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Multiple sources of literature dating between 1990 and 2005 were used and World Health Organization TB control guidelines were consulted for policy level comparisons. Comprehensive implementation of the DOTS strategy is the main factor explaining the differences in TB incidence rates, even after considering socio-economic factors. Cross-national comparisons suggest ways to improve regional DOTS implementation.

  1. Neighbor-directed histidine N(τ) alkylation. A route to imidazolium-containing phosphopeptide macrocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wen-Jian [National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States); Park, Jung-Eun [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Grant, Robert [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lai, Christopher C. [National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States); Kelley, James A. [National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States); Yaffe, Michael B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lee, Kyung S. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Burke, Terrence R. [National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Our recently discovered, selective, on-resin route to N(τ)-alkylated imidazolium-containing histidine residues affords new strategies for peptide mimetic design. In this, we demonstrate the use of this chemistry to prepare a series of macrocyclic phosphopeptides, in which imidazolium groups serve as ring-forming junctions. These cationic moieties subsequently serve to charge-mask the phosphoamino acid group that directed their formation. Furthermore, neighbor-directed histidine N(τ)-alkylation opens the door to new families of phosphopeptidomimetics for use in a range of chemical biology contexts.

  2. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  3. A Novel Quantum Solution to Privacy-Preserving Nearest Neighbor Query in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen-yu; Shi, Run-hua; Xu, Min; Zhang, Shun

    2018-04-01

    We present a cheating-sensitive quantum protocol for Privacy-Preserving Nearest Neighbor Query based on Oblivious Quantum Key Distribution and Quantum Encryption. Compared with the classical related protocols, our proposed protocol has higher security, because the security of our protocol is based on basic physical principles of quantum mechanics, instead of difficulty assumptions. Especially, our protocol takes single photons as quantum resources and only needs to perform single-photon projective measurement. Therefore, it is feasible to implement this protocol with the present technologies.

  4. Chaotic synchronization of nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks in noisy environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaoling; Yu Hongjie; Jiang Zonglai

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks linked by a nonlinear coupling function is discussed. The HR neural networks with nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling form are treated as numerical examples. By the construction of a special nonlinear-coupled term, the chaotic system is coupled symmetrically. For three and four neurons network, a certain region of coupling strength corresponding to full synchronization is given, and the effect of network structure and noise position are analyzed. For five and more neurons network, the full synchronization is very difficult to realize. All the results have been proved by the calculation of the maximum conditional Lyapunov exponent.

  5. The Impactof the Kurdish Question on Turkey's Relations with its Middle Eastern neighbors

    OpenAIRE

    Asil, Muhammet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Tezin basılısı İstanbul Şehir Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'ndedir. This dissertation analyzes the “Kurdish Question” from an International Relations perspective. Focusing on the impact of the Kurdish question on Turkey’s relations in the last decade with its Middle Eastern neighbors, i.e. Iran, Syria, and Iraq, and with the European Union; this study shows how Turkey-Middle East and Turkey-EU relations are shaped differently. In the search for reasons for this difference, Realist and Liberal I...

  6. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21 % for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  8. Diagnosis of Diabetes Diseases Using an Artificial Immune Recognition System2 (AIRS2) with Fuzzy K-nearest Neighbor

    OpenAIRE

    CHIKH, Mohamed Amine; SAIDI, Meryem; SETTOUTI, Nesma

    2012-01-01

    The use of expert systems and artificial intelligence techniques in disease diagnosis has been increasing gradually. Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) is one of the methods used in medical classification problems. AIRS2 is a more efficient version of the AIRS algorithm. In this paper, we used a modified AIRS2 called MAIRS2 where we replace the K- nearest neighbors algorithm with the fuzzy K-nearest neighbors to improve the diagnostic accuracy of diabetes diseases. The diabetes disea...

  9. Genetic relatedness of indigenous ethnic groups in northern Borneo to neighboring populations from Southeast Asia, as inferred from genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chee Wei; Hoque, Mohd Zahirul; Pugh-Kitingan, Jacqueline; Minsong, Alexander; Voo, Christopher Lok Yung; Ransangan, Julian; Lau, Sophia Tiek Ying; Wang, Xu; Saw, Woei Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Phipps, Maude E; Kumar, S Vijay

    2018-07-01

    The region of northern Borneo is home to the current state of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located closest to the southern Philippine islands and may have served as a viaduct for ancient human migration onto or off of Borneo Island. In this study, five indigenous ethnic groups from Sabah were subjected to genome-wide SNP genotyping. These individuals represent the "North Borneo"-speaking group of the great Austronesian family. They have traditionally resided in the inland region of Sabah. The dataset was merged with public datasets, and the genetic relatedness of these groups to neighboring populations from the islands of Southeast Asia, mainland Southeast Asia and southern China was inferred. Genetic structure analysis revealed that these groups formed a genetic cluster that was independent of the clusters of neighboring populations. Additionally, these groups exhibited near-absolute proportions of a genetic component that is also common among Austronesians from Taiwan and the Philippines. They showed no genetic admixture with Austro-Melanesian populations. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to non-Austro-Melansian Filipinos as well as to Taiwan natives but are distantly related to populations from mainland Southeast Asia. Relatively lower heterozygosity and higher pairwise genetic differentiation index (F ST ) values than those of nearby populations indicate that these groups might have experienced genetic drift in the past, resulting in their differentiation from other Austronesians. Subsequent formal testing suggested that these populations have received no gene flow from neighboring populations. Taken together, these results imply that the indigenous ethnic groups of northern Borneo shared a common ancestor with Taiwan natives and non-Austro-Melanesian Filipinos and then isolated themselves on the inland of Sabah. This isolation presumably led to no admixture with other populations, and these individuals therefore underwent

  10. A Distributed Approach to Continuous Monitoring of Constrained k-Nearest Neighbor Queries in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Ju Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given two positive parameters k and r, a constrained k-nearest neighbor (CkNN query returns the k closest objects within a network distance r of the query location in road networks. In terms of the scalability of monitoring these CkNN queries, existing solutions based on central processing at a server suffer from a sudden and sharp rise in server load as well as messaging cost as the number of queries increases. In this paper, we propose a distributed and scalable scheme called DAEMON for the continuous monitoring of CkNN queries in road networks. Our query processing is distributed among clients (query objects and server. Specifically, the server evaluates CkNN queries issued at intersections of road segments, retrieves the objects on the road segments between neighboring intersections, and sends responses to the query objects. Finally, each client makes its own query result using this server response. As a result, our distributed scheme achieves close-to-optimal communication costs and scales well to large numbers of monitoring queries. Exhaustive experimental results demonstrate that our scheme substantially outperforms its competitor in terms of query processing time and messaging cost.

  11. Gastronomy Tourism in Several Neighbor Countries of Indonesia: a Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasih Sukenti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastronomy tourism, also called culinary tourism or food tourism, is a kind of tourism that provide attractions based on the culinary aspect owned by a country, region, or area. It is not only offers food and beverages as the main objects in its attractions, but also everything related to food activities ranging from food ingredients, preparation, processing, serving, as well as the cultural and local values. A well-managed culinary tourism will be a supportive program in developing and enhancing the tourism sector in a country. The objective of this paper is to describe the profile of gastronomy tourism in several neighbor countries of Indonesia, i.e. Hongkong, Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. This brief review is also discussed the potential of Indonesia gastronomy in supporting government’s tourism program. Basically, Indonesia has more enormous potential asset in managing its cultural heritages in term of culinary than its neighbor countries. A well-managed gastronomy tourism plays not only an important role in enhancing the economic sector, but also contribute in preserving the natural and cultural resources. Keywords: gastronomy tourism, culinary tourism, food tourism.

  12. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  13. Sistem Rekomendasi Pada E-Commerce Menggunakan K-Nearest Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Saha Dewa Prasetya

    2017-09-01

    The growing number of product information available on the internet brings challenges to both customer and online businesses in the e-commerce environment. Customer often have difficulty when looking for products on the internet because of the number of products sold on the internet. In addition, online businessman often experience difficulties because they has much data about products, customers and transactions, thus causing online businessman have difficulty to promote the right product to a particular customer target. A recommendation system was developed to address those problem with various methods such as Collaborative Filtering, ContentBased, and Hybrid. Collaborative filtering method uses customer’s rating data, content based using product content such as title or description, and hybrid using both as the basis of the recommendation. In this research, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is used to determine the top-n product recommendations for each buyer. The result of this research method Content Based outperforms other methods because the sparse data, that is the condition where the number of rating given by the customers is relatively little compared the number of products available in e-commerce. Keywords: recomendation system, k-nearest neighbor, collaborative filtering, content based.

  14. Predicting Audience Location on the Basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor Multilabel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding audience location information in online social networks is important in designing recommendation systems, improving information dissemination, and so on. In this paper, we focus on predicting the location distribution of audiences on YouTube. And we transform this problem to a multilabel classification problem, while we find there exist three problems when the classical k-nearest neighbor based algorithm for multilabel classification (ML-kNN is used to predict location distribution. Firstly, the feature weights are not considered in measuring the similarity degree. Secondly, it consumes considerable computing time in finding similar items by traversing all the training set. Thirdly, the goal of ML-kNN is to find relevant labels for every sample which is different from audience location prediction. To solve these problems, we propose the methods of measuring similarity based on weight, quickly finding similar items, and ranking a specific number of labels. On the basis of these methods and the ML-kNN, the k-nearest neighbor based model for audience location prediction (AL-kNN is proposed for predicting audience location. The experiments based on massive YouTube data show that the proposed model can more accurately predict the location of YouTube video audience than the ML-kNN, MLNB, and Rank-SVM methods.

  15. Automated web usage data mining and recommendation system using K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Adeniyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major problem of many on-line web sites is the presentation of many choices to the client at a time; this usually results to strenuous and time consuming task in finding the right product or information on the site. In this work, we present a study of automatic web usage data mining and recommendation system based on current user behavior through his/her click stream data on the newly developed Really Simple Syndication (RSS reader website, in order to provide relevant information to the individual without explicitly asking for it. The K-Nearest-Neighbor (KNN classification method has been trained to be used on-line and in Real-Time to identify clients/visitors click stream data, matching it to a particular user group and recommend a tailored browsing option that meet the need of the specific user at a particular time. To achieve this, web users RSS address file was extracted, cleansed, formatted and grouped into meaningful session and data mart was developed. Our result shows that the K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is transparent, consistent, straightforward, simple to understand, high tendency to possess desirable qualities and easy to implement than most other machine learning techniques specifically when there is little or no prior knowledge about data distribution.

  16. Competing growth processes induced by next-nearest-neighbor interactions: Effects on meandering wavelength and stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blel, Sonia; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Mahjoub, B.; Einstein, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we explore the meandering instability of vicinal steps with a kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (kMC) model including the attractive next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions. kMC simulations show that increase of the NNN interaction strength leads to considerable reduction of the meandering wavelength and to weaker dependence of the wavelength on the deposition rate F. The dependences of the meandering wavelength on the temperature and the deposition rate obtained with simulations are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental result on the meandering instability of Cu(0 2 24) [T. Maroutian et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 165401 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.165401]. The effective step stiffness is found to depend not only on the strength of NNN interactions and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, but also on F. We argue that attractive NNN interactions intensify the incorporation of adatoms at step edges and enhance step roughening. Competition between NNN and nearest-neighbor interactions results in an alternative form of meandering instability which we call "roughening-limited" growth, rather than attachment-detachment-limited growth that governs the Bales-Zangwill instability. The computed effective wavelength and the effective stiffness behave as λeff˜F-q and β˜eff˜F-p , respectively, with q ≈p /2 .

  17. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure measurement in the neighboring hospital beds during an x-ray procedure in hospitalization unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Rafael E.; Capeleti, Felipe F.; Cabete, Henrique V., E-mail: rafael.goto@fcmsantacasasp.edu.br, E-mail: felipe.capeleti@fcmsantacasasp.edu.br, E-mail: henrique@gmpbrasil.com.br [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); GMP Consultoria em Radioprotecao e Fisica Medica e Assessoria LTDA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    There are lots of discussion about the exposure in hospitalization units in Brazil, especially around labor legislation and economic advantages of unhealthiness. With the attention focused on hospitalized patients, there were measured the exposure in neighboring beds of the patient submitted to an X-ray procedure with a mobile X-ray system that could be used to illustrate the discussion with consistent values. The most common X-ray procedure made in hospitalization units are chests images with techniques between 70 to 120 kV and 5 to 20 mAs. The measurement was made during routine exposure and simulations using a scattering phantom with Radcal AccuPro electrometer and 1800cc ionization chamber in a private hospital and a philanthropic hospital, both in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The ionization chambers are placed at 2 meters distance of the patient exposed of both sides during the routine procedure. During the simulation, a nylon phantom of 20 centimeters thick and 30 x 30 cm² size was placed on the bed, a typical exposure technique was used and the exposure was measured surrounding the phantom at 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 meters distance for scattered radiation characterization. Initial results showed that the neighboring exposure at about 2 meters distance from the exposed patient bed have low values, even when exposure is integrated during the length of hospital stay. Therefore, the exposure in hospitalization units are very low compared to the exams doses. (author). (author)

  19. Disentangling neighbors and extended range density oscillations in monatomic amorphous semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, S; Martin, C; Droui, M; Chicoine, M; Kazimirov, A; Kycia, S

    2012-06-22

    High energy x-ray diffraction measurements of pure amorphous Ge were made and its radial distribution function (RDF) was determined at high resolution, revealing new information on the atomic structure of amorphous semiconductors. Fine structure in the second peak in the RDF provides evidence that a fraction of third neighbors are closer than some second neighbors; taking this into account leads to a narrow distribution of tetrahedral bond angles, (8.5 ± 0.1)°. A small peak which appears near 5 Å upon thermal annealing shows that some ordering in the dihedral bond-angle distribution takes place during structural relaxation. Extended range order is detected (in both a-Ge and a-Si) which persists to beyond 20 Å, and both the periodicity and its decay length increase upon thermal annealing. Previously, the effect of structural relaxation was only detected at intermediate range, involving reduced tetrahedral bond-angle distortions. These results enhance our understanding of the atomic order in continuous random networks and place significantly more stringent requirements on computer models intending to describe these networks, or their alternatives which attempt to describe the structure in terms of an arrangement of paracrystals.

  20. Mapping DNA methylation by transverse current sequencing: Reduction of noise from neighboring nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose; Massey, Steven; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian

    Nanopore sequencing via transverse current has emerged as a competitive candidate for mapping DNA methylation without needed bisulfite-treatment, fluorescent tag, or PCR amplification. By eliminating the error producing amplification step, long read lengths become feasible, which greatly simplifies the assembly process and reduces the time and the cost inherent in current technologies. However, due to the large error rates of nanopore sequencing, single base resolution has not been reached. A very important source of noise is the intrinsic structural noise in the electric signature of the nucleotide arising from the influence of neighboring nucleotides. In this work we perform calculations of the tunneling current through DNA molecules in nanopores using the non-equilibrium electron transport method within an effective multi-orbital tight-binding model derived from first-principles calculations. We develop a base-calling algorithm accounting for the correlations of the current through neighboring bases, which in principle can reduce the error rate below any desired precision. Using this method we show that we can clearly distinguish DNA methylation and other base modifications based on the reading of the tunneling current.

  1. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  2. Data Delivery Method Based on Neighbor Nodes’ Information in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kashihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes’ information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE, Chachulski et al. (2007, improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  3. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  4. Sequential nearest-neighbor effects on computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Jorge A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Serrano, Pedro; Wuethrich, Kurt [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States); Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate sequential nearest-neighbor effects on quantum-chemical calculations of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, we selected the structure of the nucleic acid binding (NAB) protein from the SARS coronavirus determined by NMR in solution (PDB id 2K87). NAB is a 116-residue {alpha}/{beta} protein, which contains 9 prolines and has 50% of its residues located in loops and turns. Overall, the results presented here show that sizeable nearest-neighbor effects are seen only for residues preceding proline, where Pro introduces an overestimation, on average, of 1.73 ppm in the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. A new ensemble of 20 conformers representing the NMR structure of the NAB, which was calculated with an input containing backbone torsion angle constraints derived from the theoretical {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts as supplementary data to the NOE distance constraints, exhibits very similar topology and comparable agreement with the NOE constraints as the published NMR structure. However, the two structures differ in the patterns of differences between observed and computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, {Delta}{sub ca,i}, for the individual residues along the sequence. This indicates that the {Delta}{sub ca,i} -values for the NAB protein are primarily a consequence of the limited sampling by the bundles of 20 conformers used, as in common practice, to represent the two NMR structures, rather than of local flaws in the structures.

  5. δ-Generalized Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Filter Using Amplitude Information of Neighboring Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude information (AI of echoed signals plays an important role in radar target detection and tracking. A lot of research shows that the introduction of AI enables the tracking algorithm to distinguish targets from clutter better and then improves the performance of data association. The current AI-aided tracking algorithms only consider the signal amplitude in the range-azimuth cell where measurement exists. However, since radar echoes always contain backscattered signals from multiple cells, the useful information of neighboring cells would be lost if directly applying those existing methods. In order to solve this issue, a new δ-generalized labeled multi-Bernoulli (δ-GLMB filter is proposed. It exploits the AI of radar echoes from neighboring cells to construct a united amplitude likelihood ratio, and then plugs it into the update process and the measurement-track assignment cost matrix of the δ-GLMB filter. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has better performance in target’s state and number estimation than that of the δ-GLMB only using single-cell AI in low signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR environment.

  6. A Sensor Data Fusion System Based on k-Nearest Neighbor Pattern Classification for Structural Health Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vitola

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Civil and military structures are susceptible and vulnerable to damage due to the environmental and operational conditions. Therefore, the implementation of technology to provide robust solutions in damage identification (by using signals acquired directly from the structure is a requirement to reduce operational and maintenance costs. In this sense, the use of sensors permanently attached to the structures has demonstrated a great versatility and benefit since the inspection system can be automated. This automation is carried out with signal processing tasks with the aim of a pattern recognition analysis. This work presents the detailed description of a structural health monitoring (SHM system based on the use of a piezoelectric (PZT active system. The SHM system includes: (i the use of a piezoelectric sensor network to excite the structure and collect the measured dynamic response, in several actuation phases; (ii data organization; (iii advanced signal processing techniques to define the feature vectors; and finally; (iv the nearest neighbor algorithm as a machine learning approach to classify different kinds of damage. A description of the experimental setup, the experimental validation and a discussion of the results from two different structures are included and analyzed.

  7. HIV-1 subtypes among intravenous drug users from two neighboring cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Rossini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in two neighboring cities located near the epicenter of the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil (Santos and São Paulo, we investigated 83 HIV-1 strains obtained from samples collected in 1995 from intravenous drug users. The V3 through V5 region of the envelope of gp 120 was analyzed by heteroduplex mobility analysis. Of the 95 samples, 12 (12.6% were PCR negative (6 samples from each group; low DNA concentration was the reason for non-amplification in half of these cases. Of the 42 typed cases from São Paulo, 34 (81%, 95% confidence limits 74.9 to 87.0% were B and 8 (19%, 95% confidence limits 12.9 to 25.0% were F, whereas of the 41 typed cases from Santos, 39 (95%, 95% confidence limits 91.6 to 98.4% were B and 2 (5%, 95% confidence limits 1.6 to 8.4% were C. We therefore confirm the relationship between clade F and intravenous drug use in São Paulo, and the presence of clade C in Santos. The fact that different genetic subtypes of HIV-1 are co-circulating indicates a need for continuous surveillance for these subtypes as well as for recombinant viruses in Brazil.

  8. Randomized Approaches for Nearest Neighbor Search in Metric Space When Computing the Pairwise Distance Is Extremely Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lusheng; Yang, Yong; Lin, Guohui

    Finding the closest object for a query in a database is a classical problem in computer science. For some modern biological applications, computing the similarity between two objects might be very time consuming. For example, it takes a long time to compute the edit distance between two whole chromosomes and the alignment cost of two 3D protein structures. In this paper, we study the nearest neighbor search problem in metric space, where the pair-wise distance between two objects in the database is known and we want to minimize the number of distances computed on-line between the query and objects in the database in order to find the closest object. We have designed two randomized approaches for indexing metric space databases, where objects are purely described by their distances with each other. Analysis and experiments show that our approaches only need to compute O(logn) objects in order to find the closest object, where n is the total number of objects in the database.

  9. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Spies, Thomas A; Pabst, Robert

    2017-07-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests. We assessed how edge influence on total, upper canopy, and lower canopy basal area varied across this forest landscape as a function of harvest characteristics (i.e., harvest size and age) and topographic conditions in the unharvested area. Upper canopy, lower canopy, and total basal area increased with distance from harvest edge and elevation. Forests within 75 m of harvest edges (20% of unharvested forests) had 4% to 6% less live tree basal area compared with forest interiors. An interaction between distance from harvest edge and elevation indicated that elevation altered edge influence in this landscape. We observed a positive edge influence at low elevations (800 m). Surprisingly, we found no or weak effects of harvest age (13-60 yr) and harvest area (0.2-110 ha) on surrounding unharvested forest basal area, implying that edge influence was relatively insensitive to the scale of disturbance and multi-decadal recovery processes. Our study indicates that the edge influence of past clearcutting on the structure of neighboring uncut old-growth forests is widespread and persistent. These indirect and diffuse legacies of historical timber harvests complicate forest management decision-making in old-growth forest landscapes by broadening the traditional view of stand boundaries. Furthermore, the consequences

  10. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E

    2010-11-23

    The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation

  11. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winsum-Westra Marijke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening

  12. Obstacle Detection for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Deep Stacked Autoencoder and k-Nearest Neighbor Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Dairi, Abdelkader; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Senouci, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Obstacle detection is an essential element for the development of intelligent transportation systems so that accidents can be avoided. In this study, we propose a stereovisionbased method for detecting obstacles in urban environment. The proposed method uses a deep stacked auto-encoders (DSA) model that combines the greedy learning features with the dimensionality reduction capacity and employs an unsupervised k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN) to accurately and reliably detect the presence of obstacles. We consider obstacle detection as an anomaly detection problem. We evaluated the proposed method by using practical data from three publicly available datasets, the Malaga stereovision urban dataset (MSVUD), the Daimler urban segmentation dataset (DUSD), and Bahnhof dataset. Also, we compared the efficiency of DSA-KNN approach to the deep belief network (DBN)-based clustering schemes. Results show that the DSA-KNN is suitable to visually monitor urban scenes.

  13. Thermodynamics of alternating spin chains with competing nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions: Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Maria Gloria; Rettori, Angelo

    1993-08-01

    The thermodynamical properties of an alternating spin (S,s) one-dimensional (1D) Ising model with competing nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions are exactly calculated using a transfer-matrix technique. In contrast to the case S=s=1/2, previously investigated by Harada, the alternation of different spins (S≠s) along the chain is found to give rise to two-peaked static structure factors, signaling the coexistence of different short-range-order configurations. The relevance of our calculations with regard to recent experimental data by Gatteschi et al. in quasi-1D molecular magnetic materials, R (hfac)3 NITEt (R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, . . .), is discussed; hfac is hexafluoro-acetylacetonate and NlTEt is 2-Ethyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxyl-3-oxide.

  14. Proteomic characterization of host response to Yersinia pestis and near neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromy, Brett A.; Perkins, Julie; Heidbrink, Jenny L.; Gonzales, Arlene D.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Fitch, J. Patrick; McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2004-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in protein expression changes within both the host and the pathogen. Here, results from proteomic characterization of host response following exposure to Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, and to two near neighbors, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica, are reported. Human monocyte-like cells were chosen as a model for macrophage immune response to pathogen exposure. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify host proteins with differential expression following exposure to these three closely related Yersinia species. This comparative proteomic characterization of host response clearly shows that host protein expression patterns are distinct for the different pathogen exposures, and contributes to further understanding of Y. pestis virulence and host defense mechanisms. This work also lays the foundation for future studies aimed at defining biomarkers for presymptomatic detection of plague

  15. Algoritma Interpolasi Nearest-Neighbor untuk Pendeteksian Sampul Pulsa Oscilometri Menggunakan Mikrokontroler Berbiaya Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive blood pressure measurement devices are widely available in the marketplace. Most of these devices use the oscillometric principle that store and analyze oscillometric waveforms during cuff deflation to obtain mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Those pressure values are determined from the oscillometric waveform envelope. Several methods to detect the envelope of oscillometric pulses utilize a complex algorithm that requires a large capacity memory and certainly difficult to process by a low memory capacity embedded system. A simple nearest-neighbor interpolation method is applied for oscillometric pulse envelope detection in non-invasive blood pressure measurement using microcontroller such ATmega328. The experiment yields 59 seconds average time to process the computation with 3.6% average percent error in blood pressure measurement.

  16. Tensile twin nucleation events coupled to neighboring slip observed in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, J.; Li, S.F.; Pokharel, R.; Lienert, U.; Rollett, A.D.; Suter, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Low-symmetry crystals and polycrystals have anisotropic mechanical properties which, given better understanding of their deformation modes, could lead to development of next generation materials. Understanding how grains in a bulk polycrystal interact will guide and improve material modeling. Here, we show that tensile twins, in hexagonal close-packed metals, form where the macroscopic stress does not generate appropriate shear stress and vice versa. We use non-destructive high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy to map local crystal orientations in three dimensions in a series of tensile strain states in a zirconium polycrystal. Twins and intragranular orientation variations are observed and it is found that deformation-induced rotations in neighboring grains are spatially correlated with many twins. We conclude that deformation twinning involves complex multigrain interactions which must be included in polycrystal plasticity models

  17. Nearest neighbor spacing distributions of low-lying levels of vibrational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Simbel, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy-level statistics are considered for nuclei whose Hamiltonian is divided into intrinsic and collective-vibrational terms. The levels are described as a random superposition of independent sequences, each corresponding to a given number of phonons. The intrinsic motion is assumed chaotic. The level spacing distribution is found to be intermediate between the Wigner and Poisson distributions and similar in form to the spacing distribution of a system with classical phase space divided into separate regular and chaotic domains. We have obtained approximate expressions for the nearest neighbor spacing and cumulative spacing distribution valid when the level density is described by a constant-temperature formula and not involving additional free parameters. These expressions have been able to achieve good agreement with the experimental spacing distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Fringe field interference of neighbor magnets in China spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Kang, W.; Wu, X.; Deng, C.D.; Li, S.; Yang, M.; Zhou, J.X.; Liu, Y.Q.; Wu, Y.W.

    2016-01-01

    In CSNS accelerator construction, the field measurement of all RCS magnets have been finished and the magnets have been installed in the tunnel before the end of 2015. The electromagnetic quadrupoles have a large aperture and the core-to-core distance between magnets is rather short in some places. The corrector magnet or the sextupole magnet is closer to one of the quadrupole magnets which caused certain interference. The interference caused by magnetic fringe field has been appeared and it becomes a significant issue in beam dynamics for beam loss control in this high-intensity proton accelerator. We have performed 3D computing simulations to study integral field distributions between the quadrupole and the corrector magnets, and the sextupole and the other quadrupole magnets. The effect of the magnetic fringe field and the interference has been investigated with different distances of the neighbor magnets. The simulation and the field measurement results will be introduced in this paper.

  19. A SURVEY ON DELAY AND NEIGHBOR NODE MONITORING BASED WORMHOLE ATTACK PREVENTION AND DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir T Bagade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, network layer attacks, for example wormhole attacks, disrupt the network routing operations and can be used for data theft. Wormhole attacks are of two types: hidden and exposed wormhole. There are various mechanisms in literature which are used to prevent and detect wormhole attacks. In this paper, we survey wormhole prevention and detection techniques and present our critical observations for each. These techniques are based on cryptographic mechanisms, monitoring of packet transmission delay and control packet forwarding behavior of neighbor nodes. We compare the techniques using the following criteria- extra resources needed applicability to different network topologies and routing protocols, prevention/detection capability, etc. We conclude the paper with potential research directions.

  20. Obstacle Detection for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Deep Stacked Autoencoder and k-Nearest Neighbor Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Dairi, Abdelkader

    2018-04-30

    Obstacle detection is an essential element for the development of intelligent transportation systems so that accidents can be avoided. In this study, we propose a stereovisionbased method for detecting obstacles in urban environment. The proposed method uses a deep stacked auto-encoders (DSA) model that combines the greedy learning features with the dimensionality reduction capacity and employs an unsupervised k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN) to accurately and reliably detect the presence of obstacles. We consider obstacle detection as an anomaly detection problem. We evaluated the proposed method by using practical data from three publicly available datasets, the Malaga stereovision urban dataset (MSVUD), the Daimler urban segmentation dataset (DUSD), and Bahnhof dataset. Also, we compared the efficiency of DSA-KNN approach to the deep belief network (DBN)-based clustering schemes. Results show that the DSA-KNN is suitable to visually monitor urban scenes.

  1. Probability-neighbor method of accelerating geometry treatment in reactor Monte Carlo code RMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Li, Zeguang; Xu, Qi; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin

    2011-01-01

    Probability neighbor method (PNM) is proposed in this paper to accelerate geometry treatment of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and validated in self-developed reactor Monte Carlo code RMC. During MC simulation by either ray-tracking or delta-tracking method, large amounts of time are spent in finding out which cell one particle is located in. The traditional way is to search cells one by one with certain sequence defined previously. However, this procedure becomes very time-consuming when the system contains a large number of cells. Considering that particles have different probability to enter different cells, PNM method optimizes the searching sequence, i.e., the cells with larger probability are searched preferentially. The PNM method is implemented in RMC code and the numerical results show that the considerable time of geometry treatment in MC calculation for complicated systems is saved, especially effective in delta-tracking simulation. (author)

  2. The patient-centered medical home neighbor: A primary care physician's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsky, Christine A

    2011-01-04

    The American College of Physicians' position paper on the patient-centered medical home neighbor (PCMH-N) extends the work of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as a means of improving the delivery of health care. Recognizing that the PCMH does not exist in isolation, the PCMH-N concept outlines expectations for comanagement, communication, and care coordination and broadens responsibility for safe, effective, and efficient care beyond primary care to include physicians of all specialties. As such, it is a fitting follow-up to the PCMH and moves further down the road toward improved care for complex patients. Yet, there is more work to be done. Truly transforming the U.S. health care system around personalized medical homes embedded in highly functional medical neighborhoods will require better staffing models; more robust electronic information tools; aligned incentives for quality and efficiency within payment and regulatory policies; and a culture of greater engagement of patients, their families, and communities.

  3. Humanitarian Cleft Lip/Palate Surgeries in Buddhist Thailand and Neighboring Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Preeyanont, Piyoros; Udnoon, Sopridee

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates surgeries done on patients with cleft lip and/or palate in Thailand and its neighboring countries from 1988 to 2008. This 21-year-long volunteer surgical mission was sponsored by Duang-Kaew Foundation, a volunteer organization. Countries involved, besides Thailand, were Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, China, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and India. The same surgical method for primary and secondary repair of lip and/or palate was used throughout: Onizuka method by single surgeon, the second author mainly. We assessed, by way of the patients' medical records including their background, the results of surgeries. The healing rates and complication rates associated with patients for primary and secondary repair of lip and/or palate. The study consisted of a total of 6832 patients: 3120 with cleft lip (CL); 2190 with cleft palate (CP); and 1522 with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Their primary cases were 675 (CL), 799 (CP), and 301 (CLP). All CP operations were done under general anesthesia. Of the CL surgeries, 10% of adult cases were done under local anesthesia. Of all the patients, 78%, or 5329, had one surgery; and 22%, or 1503, had 2 or more surgeries. Good healing was seen in 73.3%, whereas wound infection was noted in 2.0% and healing by second intention was in 1.2% of all cases. It is important that the Onizuka method was the only method used in all the countries throughout the mission period. The method has an advantage over other methods in that its design is simple enough so that even a beginning plastic surgeon can easily master, and operative results are constantly good regardless of who did the operation. The Duang-Kaew Foundation's long-term surgical program helped reduce the number of untreated patients to manageable levels for local health care providers in Thailand and neighboring countries for as long as 21 years.

  4. Lysenin Toxin Membrane Insertion Is pH-Dependent but Independent of Neighboring Lysenins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguira, Ignacio L B; Takahashi, Hirohide; Casuso, Ignacio; Scheuring, Simon

    2017-11-07

    Pore-forming toxins form a family of proteins that act as virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, but similar proteins are found in all kingdoms of life, including the vertebrate immune system. They are secreted as soluble monomers that oligomerize on target membranes in the so-called prepore state; after activation, they insert into the membrane and adopt the pore state. Lysenin is a pore-forming toxin from the earthworm Eisenida foetida, of which both the soluble and membrane-inserted structures are solved. However, the activation and membrane-insertion mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy to directly visualize the membrane-insertion mechanism. Changing the environmental pH from pH 7.5 to below pH 6.0 favored membrane insertion. We detected a short α-helix in the soluble structure that comprised three glutamic acids (Glu92, Glu94, and Glu97) that we hypothesized may represent a pH-sensor (as in similar toxins, e.g., Listeriolysin). Mutant lysenin still can form pores, but mutating these glutamic acids to glutamines rendered the toxin pH-insensitive. On the other hand, toxins in the pore state did not favor insertion of neighboring prepores; indeed, pore insertion breaks the hexagonal ordered domains of prepores and separates from neighboring molecules in the membrane. pH-dependent activation of toxins may represent a common feature of pore-forming toxins. High-speed atomic force microscopy with single-molecule resolution at high temporal resolution and the possibility of exchanging buffers during the experiments presents itself as a unique tool for the study of toxin-state conversion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid monitoring for residents of disaster-affected and neighboring areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    The devastating environmental contamination caused by the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of The Tokyo Electric Power Company is exposing the residents of the disaster-affected areas to health risks attributable to radiation exposure, and fear of the development of 131 I-induced thyroid cancer, which is a stochastic effect of radiation and is particularly high. As part of the response to nuclear disasters by the government of the municipality where the nuclear power station is located and in operation and by the governments of neighboring municipalities, it is necessary to conduct thyroid monitoring for the purpose of alleviating the fears of residents of the disaster-affected areas as well as those living in the contaminated, even if only slightly, neighboring areas (local residents). This health monitoring needs to be implemented without delay in the case of a disaster along with dissemination of a portable type thyroid monitoring system available at evacuation centers, etc. for assessing thyroid exposure doses. The establishment of a system for developing personnel ready to perform monitoring is also essential. Assessing thyroid exposure doses is indispensable as a means of assuring local residents not only of safety but also of security from the risks of radiation. To date, contamination has not been detected in people, except for residents contaminated by a large amount of iodine, by employing the mobile type of thyroid monitoring system. However, when local residents seeking security desire thyroid monitoring, it is preferable that a portable type simplified thyroid monitoring system be used as a means of ensuring security against radiation. (author)

  6. Wildflower Plantings Do Not Compete With Neighboring Almond Orchards for Pollinator Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Ward, Kimiora L; Artz, Derek R; Boyle, Natalie K; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Williams, Neal M

    2017-06-01

    The engineering of flowering agricultural field borders has emerged as a research and policy priority to mitigate threats to pollinators. Studies have, however, rarely addressed the potential that flowering field borders might compete with neighboring crops for pollinator visits if they both are in bloom at the same time, despite this being a concern expressed by growers. We evaluated how wildflower plantings added to orchard borders in a large (512 ha) commercial almond orchard affected honey bee and wild bee visitation to orchard borders and the crop. The study was conducted over two consecutive seasons using three large (0.48 ha) wildflower plantings paired with control orchard borders in a highly simplified agricultural landscape in California. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and wild bee visitation to wildflower plots were at least an order of magnitude higher than to control plots, but increased honey bee visitation to wildflower plots did not lead to any detectable shifts in honey bee visitation to almond flowers in the neighboring orchard. Wild bees were rarely observed visiting almond flowers irrespective of border treatment, indicating a limited short-term potential for augmenting crop pollination using wild bees in highly simplified agricultural landscapes. Although further studies are warranted on bee visitation and crop yield from spatially independent orchards, this study indicates that growers can support bees with alternative forage in almond orchards without risking competition between the wildflower plantings and the crop. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Improved Fuzzy K-Nearest Neighbor Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin; Siringoringo, Rimbun

    2017-12-01

    Fuzzy k-Nearest Neighbor (FkNN) is one of the most powerful classification methods. The presence of fuzzy concepts in this method successfully improves its performance on almost all classification issues. The main drawbackof FKNN is that it is difficult to determine the parameters. These parameters are the number of neighbors (k) and fuzzy strength (m). Both parameters are very sensitive. This makes it difficult to determine the values of ‘m’ and ‘k’, thus making FKNN difficult to control because no theories or guides can deduce how proper ‘m’ and ‘k’ should be. This study uses Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) to determine the best value of ‘k’ and ‘m’. MPSO is focused on the Constriction Factor Method. Constriction Factor Method is an improvement of PSO in order to avoid local circumstances optima. The model proposed in this study was tested on the German Credit Dataset. The test of the data/The data test has been standardized by UCI Machine Learning Repository which is widely applied to classification problems. The application of MPSO to the determination of FKNN parameters is expected to increase the value of classification performance. Based on the experiments that have been done indicating that the model offered in this research results in a better classification performance compared to the Fk-NN model only. The model offered in this study has an accuracy rate of 81%, while. With using Fk-NN model, it has the accuracy of 70%. At the end is done comparison of research model superiority with 2 other classification models;such as Naive Bayes and Decision Tree. This research model has a better performance level, where Naive Bayes has accuracy 75%, and the decision tree model has 70%

  8. Tularemia, a re-emerging infectious disease in Iran and neighboring countrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Afsaneh; Maurin, Max; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease transmitted by direct contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ingestion of contaminated meat or water, and skin contact with any infected material. It is widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, including Iran and its neighbors to the north, northeast, and northwest. METHODS: In this paper, the epidemiology of tularemia as a re-emerging infectious disease in the world with a focus on Iran and the neighboring countries is reviewed. RESULTS: In Iran, positive serological tests were first reported in 1973, in wildlife and domestic livestock in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country. The first human case was reported in 1980 in the southwest of Iran, and recent studies conducted among at-risk populations in the western, southeastern, and southwestern parts of Iran revealed seroprevalences of 14.4, 6.52, and 6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors may explain the absence of reported tularemia cases in Iran since 1980. Tularemia may be underdiagnosed in Iran because Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica is likely to be the major etiological agent and usually causes mild to moderately severe disease. Furthermore, tularemia is not a disease extensively studied in the medical educational system in Iran, and empirical therapy may be effective in many cases. Finally, it should be noted that laboratories capable of diagnosing tularemia have only been established in the last few years. Since both recent and older studies have consistently found tularemia antibodies in humans and animals, the surveillance of this disease should receive more attention. In particular, it would be worthwhile for clinical researchers to confirm tularemia cases more often by isolating F. tularensis from infected humans and animals. PMID:25773439

  9. Rapid and Robust Cross-Correlation-Based Seismic Phase Identification Using an Approximate Nearest Neighbor Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, R.; Young, C. J.; Gonzales, A.; Ballard, S.; Encarnacao, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The matched filtering technique involving the cross-correlation of a waveform of interest with archived signals from a template library has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting events in regions with repeating seismicity. However, waveform correlation is computationally expensive, and therefore impractical for large template sets unless dedicated distributed computing hardware and software are used. In this study, we introduce an Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) approach that enables the use of very large template libraries for waveform correlation without requiring a complex distributed computing system. Our method begins with a projection into a reduced dimensionality space based on correlation with a randomized subset of the full template archive. Searching for a specified number of nearest neighbors is accomplished by using randomized K-dimensional trees. We used the approach to search for matches to each of 2700 analyst-reviewed signal detections reported for May 2010 for the IMS station MKAR. The template library in this case consists of a dataset of more than 200,000 analyst-reviewed signal detections for the same station from 2002-2014 (excluding May 2010). Of these signal detections, 60% are teleseismic first P, and 15% regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg). The analyses performed on a standard desktop computer shows that the proposed approach performs the search of the large template libraries about 20 times faster than the standard full linear search, while achieving recall rates greater than 80%, with the recall rate increasing for higher correlation values. To decide whether to confirm a match, we use a hybrid method involving a cluster approach for queries with two or more matches, and correlation score for single matches. Of the signal detections that passed our confirmation process, 52% were teleseismic first P, and 30% were regional phases.

  10. Distance-Constraint k-Nearest Neighbor Searching in Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongkoo; Park, Kisung; Hong, Jihye; Ulamin, Noor; Lee, Young-Koo

    2015-07-27

    The κ-Nearest Neighbors ( κNN) query is an important spatial query in mobile sensor networks. In this work we extend κNN to include a distance constraint, calling it a l-distant κ-nearest-neighbors (l-κNN) query, which finds the κ sensor nodes nearest to a query point that are also at or greater distance from each other. The query results indicate the objects nearest to the area of interest that are scattered from each other by at least distance l. The l-κNN query can be used in most κNN applications for the case of well distributed query results. To process an l-κNN query, we must discover all sets of κNN sensor nodes and then find all pairs of sensor nodes in each set that are separated by at least a distance l. Given the limited battery and computing power of sensor nodes, this l-κNN query processing is problematically expensive in terms of energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a greedy approach for l-κNN query processing in mobile sensor networks. The key idea of the proposed approach is to divide the search space into subspaces whose all sides are l. By selecting κ sensor nodes from the other subspaces near the query point, we guarantee accurate query results for l-κNN. In our experiments, we show that the proposed method exhibits superior performance compared with a post-processing based method using the κNN query in terms of energy efficiency, query latency, and accuracy.

  11. Incorporating the information from direct and indirect neighbors into fitness evaluation enhances the cooperation in the social dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Menglong; Wang, Juan; Kong, Lingcong; An, Kang; Bi, Tao; Guo, Baohong; Dong, Enzeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel fitness evaluation method integrating environmental information is presented. •The introduction of neighbors’ payoff favors the promotion of cooperation in the PDG. •The role of direct neighbors becomes much more prominent. •In the SDG, the cooperative behavior is also improved by this new mechanism. -- Abstract: We propose an improved fitness evaluation method to investigate the evolution of cooperation in the spatial social dilemmas. In our model, a focal player’s fitness is calculated as the linear combination of his own payoff, the average payoffs of direct and indirect neighbors in which two independent selection parameters (α and β) are used to control the proportion of various payoff contribution to the current fitness. Then, the fitness-based strategy update rule is still Fermi-like, and asynchronous update is adopted here. A large plethora of numerical simulations are performed to validate the behaviors of the current model, and the results unambiguously demonstrate that the cooperation level is greatly enhanced by introducing the payoffs from the surrounding players. In particular, the influence of direct neighbors become more evident when compared with indirect neighbors since the correlation between focal players and their direct neighbors is much closer. Current outcomes are significant for us to further illustrate the origin and emergence of cooperation within a wide variety of natural and man-made systems

  12. Effect of electrode design on crosstalk between neighboring organic field-effect transistors based on one single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjie; Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Shujun; Liu, Yichun

    2018-03-01

    The design of high-integration organic circuits must be such that the interference between neighboring devices is eliminated. Here, rubrene crystals were used to study the effect of the electrode design on crosstalk between neighboring organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Results show that a decreased source/drain interval and gate electrode width can decrease the diffraction distance of the current, and therefore can weaken the crosstalk. In addition, the inherent low carrier concentration in organic semiconductors can create a high-resistance barrier at the space between gate electrodes of neighboring devices, limiting or even eliminating the crosstalk as a result of the gate electrode width being smaller than the source/drain electrode width.

  13. Response properties of neighboring neurons in the auditory midbrain for pure-tone stimulation: a tetrode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Chandran V; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2007-10-01

    The complex anatomical structure of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the principal auditory nucleus in the midbrain, may provide the basis for functional organization of auditory information. To investigate this organization, we used tetrodes to record from neighboring neurons in the ICC of anesthetized cats and studied the similarity and difference among the responses of these neurons to pure-tone stimuli using widely used physiological characterizations. Consistent with the tonotopic arrangement of neurons in the ICC and reports of a threshold map, we found a high degree of correlation in the best frequencies (BFs) of neighboring neurons, which were mostly binaural beats. However, the characteristic phases (CPs) of neighboring neurons revealed a significant correlation. Because the CP is related to the neural mechanisms generating the ITD sensitivity, this result is consistent with segregation of inputs to the ICC from the lateral and medial superior olives.

  14. Implementation of the k -Neighbors Technique in a recommender algorithm for a purchasing system using NFC and Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arley Riveros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper aims to present the design of a mobile application involving NFC technology and a collaborative recommendation algorithm under the K-neighbors technique, allowing to observe personalized suggestions for each client. Objective: Design and develop a mobile application, using NFC technologies and K-Neighbors Technique in a recommendation algorithm, for a Procurement System. Methodology: The process followed for the design and development of the application focuses on: • Review of the state of the art in mobile shopping systems. • State-of-the-art construction in the use of NFC technology and AI techniques for recommending systems focused on K-Neighbors Algorithms • Proposed system design • Parameterization and implementation of the K-Neighbors Technique and integration of NFC Technology • Proposed System Implementation and Testing. Results: Among the results obtained are detailed: • Mobile application that integrates Android, NFC Technologies and a Technique of Algorithm Recommendation • Parameterization of the K-Neighbors Technique, to be used within the recommended algorithm. • Implementation of functional requirements that allow the generation of personalized recommendations for purchase to the user, user ratings Conclusions: The k-neighbors technique in a recommendation algorithm allows the client to provide a series of recommendations with a level of security, since this algorithm performs calculations taking into account multiple parameters and contrasts the results obtained for other users, finding the articles with a Greater degree of similarity with the customer profile. This algorithm starts from a sample of similar, complementary and other unrelated products, applying its respective formulation, we obtain that the recommendation is made only with the complementary products that obtained higher qualification; Making a big difference with most recommending systems on the market, which are limited to

  15. On the difference in oscillator strengths of inner shell excitations in noble gases and their alkali neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Baltenkov, A.S.; Zhuravleva, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the oscillator strength of resonant inner-shell excitation in a noble gas atom is considerably smaller than that in its alkali neighbor because in the latter case the effective charge acting upon excited electron is much bigger. With increase of the excitation's principal quantum number the difference between line intensities in noble gases and their alkali neighbors rapidly disappears. The calculations are performed in the Hartree-Fock approximation and with inclusion of rearrangement effects due to inner vacancy creation and its Auger decay. A paper has been submitted for publication

  16. Elliptic Painlevé equations from next-nearest-neighbor translations on the E_8^{(1)} lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nalini; Nakazono, Nobutaka

    2017-07-01

    The well known elliptic discrete Painlevé equation of Sakai is constructed by a standard translation on the E_8(1) lattice, given by nearest neighbor vectors. In this paper, we give a new elliptic discrete Painlevé equation obtained by translations along next-nearest-neighbor vectors. This equation is a generic (8-parameter) version of a 2-parameter elliptic difference equation found by reduction from Adler’s partial difference equation, the so-called Q4 equation. We also provide a projective reduction of the well known equation of Sakai.

  17. Development and implementation of the Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA) practice in the USA sustainable mining development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    New economic, environmental and social challenges for the mining industry in the USA show the need to implement "responsible" mining practices that include improved community involvement. Conflicts which occur in the US territory and with US mining companies around the world are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, USA in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal of creating an open company/community dialog that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining. Discussion: The Good Neighbor Agreement currently evolving will address the following: 1. Identify spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and NGO's. 2. Provide an economically viable mechanism for developing a partnership between mining operations and the local communities that will increase mining industry's accountability and provide higher levels of confidence for the community that a mine is operated in a safe and sustainable manner. Implementation of the GNA can help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community

  18. Safety analysis of Atucha 1 reactor pressure vessel for a typical transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomik, E.; Jinchuk, D.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of disturbances on the CNA I external electric grid some incidents were produced in a 6 minutes lapse, causing a sudden cooling of the primary system, while pressure was maintained nearly constant. On the basis of this event, a safety analysis based on the LInear Elastic Fracture Mechanics was carried out. This paper presents an alternative method for the calculation of transients; the Finite Element Method, particularly, the OCA-II FEM code. By using this method it was possible to demonstrate, for this event, a safe operating condition for the end of life of the RPV, with regard to brittle fracture risk. 6 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  19. Neighborhood environments and its influence on physical activity in Olomouc and neighboring villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kohout

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modern society with development of new technologies greatly facilitates the activities of daily life and thus substantially eliminates human motion. This fact, together with a sedentary behavior is associated with considerable health risks, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus (type II, hypertension etc. A large part of the population is not aware of the negative consequences of physical inactivity, which may cause serious health problems. And this circumstance should be the main motivational factor to change lifestyle, including the environment. AIM: This study examines differences in the structure of physical activity in adults in Olomouc and neighboring villages within 15 km distance around Olomouc. The main objective was to determine how neighborhood environments affect physical activity of selected population groups. METHODS: All respondents were visited in person by authors and asked to participate in a research study using a Czech version of the questionnaire ANEWS. Data collection was carried out in May and June 2012 and data were obtained from 43 respondents aged 24-61 living in Olomouc and neighboring. RESULTS: The results showed that residents of urban areas are more physically active than nonurban residents. In the active area residents with higher walkability were associated with higher physical activity in urban residents, while the rural residents indicated higher physical activity in lower walkability areas. We found a significant difference in energy expenditure among respondents living in areas with higher and lower walkability in favor of the more walkable areas [H (1, 43 = 26.184, p ≤ .000]. CONCLUSIONS: Highest levels of physical activity represent men living in single-family houses and women living in multiple family houses. Participating respondents most frequently engaged in moderate physical activities. They spent more time sitting during work than sitting outside the workplace. Most frequently used

  20. Modifiers of Neighbors' Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sara; Todd, Mary-Justine; Oshiro, Michael; Greene, Emily; Frye, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Encouraging bystander intervention in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is potentially an important method of reducing the prevalence of such violence in urban communities. Most existing research has been conducted on campuses and in relation to sexual violence among teens or young adults. Our understanding of which bystander behaviors are feasible is nascent, and our knowledge of which situational factors influence neighbors' self-reported willingness to intervene is underdeveloped. We conducted a concept mapping study to identify potential bystander intervention behaviors in IPV among neighbors in urban settings; we also assessed whether perceived feasibility and effectiveness of those behaviors varied by situational characteristics. Using data collected from 41 residents of a low-income New York City neighborhood in late 2011, concept mapping was used to create a conceptual map of the 74 behaviors identified by participants. We examined participant differences in mean feasibility (i.e., that the participants "could" or "would" enact a behavior), feasibility given two situational characteristics (if the couple was perceived to have a history of IPV, and if children were believed to be involved or present), and perceived effectiveness of bystander behaviors. Differences across select sociodemographic factors of participants were also analyzed. A 13-cluster solution emerged, with clusters of bystander behaviors grouped into four larger cluster areas: victim focused, parenting/education focused, perpetrator focused, and community involvement focused. Bivariate analyses revealed that participants rated the four cluster areas as more feasible when a child was believed to be involved. Male participants rated intervention as less feasible when the couple was believed to have a history of IPV. Participants who reported a history of IPV victimization rated all four cluster areas as less effective on average, as compared with participants without a history of

  1. Linkages between the spatial toxicity of sediments and sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary and neighboring East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjuan; Shi, Huahong; Dai, Zhijun; Mei, Xuefei; Zong, Haibo; Yang, Hongwei; Hu, Lingling; Li, Shushi

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are driving an increase in sediment contamination in coastal areas. This poses significant challenges for the management of estuarine ecosystems and their adjacent seas worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on how dynamic mechanisms affect the sediment toxicity in the estuarine environment. This study was designed to investigate the linkages between sediment toxicity and hydrodynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) area. High sediment toxicity was found in the Yangtze River mouth (Region I), the depocenter of the Yangtze River Delta (Region II), and the southeastern area of the adjacent sea (Region III), while low sediment toxicity was found in the northeastern offshore region (Region IV). A spatial comparison analysis and regression model indicated that the distributed pattern of sediment toxicity was likely related to hydrodynamics and circumfluence in the East China Sea (ECS) shelf. Specifically, high sediment toxicity in Region I may be affected by the Yangtze River Pump (YRP) and the low hydrodynamics there, and high toxicity in Region II can be influenced by the low sediment dynamics and fine sediment in the depocenter. The high sediment toxicity in Region III might be related to the combination of the YRP and Taiwan Warm Current, while the low toxicity in Region IV may be influenced by the local coarse-grained relict sand with strong sediment dynamics there. The present research results further suggest that it is necessary to link hydrodynamics and the spatial behavior of sediment and sediment-derived pollutants when assessing the pollution status of estuarine environments, especially for those mega-estuaries and their neighboring ocean environments with complex waves, tides and ocean currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Air Pollution from Livestock Farms Is Associated with Airway Obstruction in Neighboring Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Krop, Esmeralda; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Brunekreef, Bert; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2017-11-01

    Livestock farm emissions may not only affect respiratory health of farmers but also of neighboring residents. To explore associations between spatial and temporal variation in pollutant emissions from livestock farms and lung function in a general, nonfarming, rural population in the Netherlands. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2,308 adults (age, 20-72 yr). A pulmonary function test was performed measuring prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator FEV 1 , FVC, FEV 1 /FVC, and maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). Spatial exposure was assessed as (1) number of farms within 500 m and 1,000 m of the home, (2) distance to the nearest farm, and (3) modeled annual average fine dust emissions from farms within 500 m and 1,000 m of the home address. Temporal exposure was assessed as week-average ambient particulate matter livestock farms within a 1,000-m buffer from the home address and MMEF, which was more pronounced in participants without atopy. No associations were found with other spatial exposure variables. Week-average particulate matter livestock air pollution emissions are associated with lung function deficits in nonfarming residents.

  3. Local Order in the Unfolded State: Conformational Biases and Nearest Neighbor Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Toal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, which contain significant levels of disorder yet perform complex biologically functions, as well as unwanted aggregation, has motivated numerous experimental and theoretical studies aimed at describing residue-level conformational ensembles. Multiple lines of evidence gathered over the last 15 years strongly suggest that amino acids residues display unique and restricted conformational preferences in the unfolded state of peptides and proteins, contrary to one of the basic assumptions of the canonical random coil model. To fully understand residue level order/disorder, however, one has to gain a quantitative, experimentally based picture of conformational distributions and to determine the physical basis underlying residue-level conformational biases. Here, we review the experimental, computational and bioinformatic evidence for conformational preferences of amino acid residues in (mostly short peptides that can be utilized as suitable model systems for unfolded states of peptides and proteins. In this context particular attention is paid to the alleged high polyproline II preference of alanine. We discuss how these conformational propensities may be modulated by peptide solvent interactions and so called nearest-neighbor interactions. The relevance of conformational propensities for the protein folding problem and the understanding of IDPs is briefly discussed.

  4. Disordering scaling and generalized nearest-neighbor approach in the thermodynamics of Lennard-Jones systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    We suggest a concept of multiple disordering scaling of the crystalline state. Such a scaling procedure applied to a crystal leads to the liquid and (in low density limit) gas states. This approach provides an explanation to a high value of configuration (common) entropy of liquefied noble gases, which can be deduced from experimental data. We use the generalized nearest-neighbor approach to calculate free energy and pressure of the Lennard-Jones systems after performing this scaling procedure. These thermodynamic functions depend on one parameter characterizing the disordering only. Condensed states of the system (liquid and solid) correspond to small values of this parameter. When this parameter tends to unity, we get an asymptotically exact equation of state for a gas involving the second virial coefficient. A reasonable choice of the values for the disordering parameter (ranging between zero and unity) allows us to find the lines of coexistence between different phase states in the Lennard-Jones systems, which are in a good agreement with the available experimental data

  5. With the help of one's neighbors: externalities in the production of nutrition in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Harold; Hentschel, Jesko; Sabates, Ricardo

    2003-05-01

    Both public and private resources contribute to the nutritional status of children. In addition, the investments made by one household may contribute to the health of other households in the neighborhood through improvements in the sanitation environment and through increases in shared knowledge. This paper measures the externalities of investments in nutrition by indicating the impact of the education of women in Peruvian neighborhoods on the nutrition of children in other households, after controlling for the education and income of those households. We find that in rural areas this shared knowledge has a significant impact on nutrition, with the coefficient of an increase in the average education of women in the neighborhood being appreciable larger than the coefficient of education in isolation. In addition, we indicate the impact of the water and sanitation environment in the neighborhood, again controlling for the household's own access to sanitation and water. In both urban and rural areas, we observe externalities from investments in such household level infrastructure with the evidence particularly strong for sanitation made by neighboring households.

  6. Building a Co-Created Citizen Science Program with Community Members Neighboring a Hazardous Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A research project that is only expert-driven may ignore the role of local knowledge in research, often gives low priority to the development of a comprehensive strategy to engage the community, and may not deliver the results of the study to the community in an effective way. To date, only a limited number of co-created citizen science projects, where community members are involved in most or all steps of the scientific process, have been initiated at contaminated sites and even less in conjunction with risk communication. Gardenroots: The Dewey-Humboldt AZ Garden Project was a place-based, co-created citizen science project where community members and researchers together: defined the question for study, developed hypotheses, collected environmental samples, disseminated results broadly, translated the results into action, and posed new research questions. This co-created environmental research project produced new data and addressed an additional exposure route (consumption of vegetables grown in soils with elevated arsenic levels) that was not being evaluated in the current site assessment. Furthermore, co-producing science led to both individual learning and social-ecological outcomes. This approach illustrates the benefits of a co-created citizen-science program in addressing the complex problems that arise in communities neighboring a hazardous waste sites. Such a project increased the community's involvement in regional environmental assessment and decision-making, which has the potential to help mitigate environmental exposures and thereby reduce associated risks.

  7. Fracton topological order from nearest-neighbor two-spin interactions and dualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Kevin; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-10-01

    Fracton topological order describes a remarkable phase of matter, which can be characterized by fracton excitations with constrained dynamics and a ground-state degeneracy that increases exponentially with the length of the system on a three-dimensional torus. However, previous models exhibiting this order require many-spin interactions, which may be very difficult to realize in a real material or cold atom system. In this work, we present a more physically realistic model which has the so-called X-cube fracton topological order [Vijay, Haah, and Fu, Phys. Rev. B 94, 235157 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235157] but only requires nearest-neighbor two-spin interactions. The model lives on a three-dimensional honeycomb-based lattice with one to two spin-1/2 degrees of freedom on each site and a unit cell of six sites. The model is constructed from two orthogonal stacks of Z2 topologically ordered Kitaev honeycomb layers [Kitaev, Ann. Phys. 321, 2 (2006), 10.1016/j.aop.2005.10.005], which are coupled together by a two-spin interaction. It is also shown that a four-spin interaction can be included to instead stabilize 3+1D Z2 topological order. We also find dual descriptions of four quantum phase transitions in our model, all of which appear to be discontinuous first-order transitions.

  8. Effect of Growing Size of Interaction Neighbors on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Snowdrift Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanjuan; Sun Shiwen; Wang Li; Xia Chengyi; Wang Juan; Wang Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the size of interaction neighbors (k) on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial snowdrift game. At first, we consider the effects of noise K and cost-to-benefit ratio r, the simulation results indicate that the evolution of cooperation depends on the combined action of noise and cost-to-benefit ratio. For a lower r, the cooperators are multitudinous and the cooperation frequency ultimately increases to 1 as the increase of noise. However, for a higher r, the defectors account for the majority of the game and dominate the game if the noise is large enough. Then we mainly investigate how k influences the evolution of cooperation by varying the noise in detail. We find that the frequency of cooperators is closely related to the size of neighborhood and cost-to-benefit ratio r. In the case of lower r, the augmentation of k plays no positive role in promoting the cooperation as compared with that of k = 4, while for higher r the cooperation is improved for a growing size of neighborhood. At last, based on the above discussions, we explore the cluster-forming mechanism among the cooperators. The current results are beneficial to further understand the evolution of cooperation in many natural, social and biological systems. (general)

  9. Neighboring block based disparity vector derivation for multiview compatible 3D-AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jewon; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Karczewicz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    3D-AVC being developed under Joint Collaborative Team on 3D Video Coding (JCT-3V) significantly outperforms the Multiview Video Coding plus Depth (MVC+D) which simultaneously encodes texture views and depth views with the multiview extension of H.264/AVC (MVC). However, when the 3D-AVC is configured to support multiview compatibility in which texture views are decoded without depth information, the coding performance becomes significantly degraded. The reason is that advanced coding tools incorporated into the 3D-AVC do not perform well due to the lack of a disparity vector converted from the depth information. In this paper, we propose a disparity vector derivation method utilizing only the information of texture views. Motion information of neighboring blocks is used to determine a disparity vector for a macroblock, so that the derived disparity vector is efficiently used for the coding tools in 3D-AVC. The proposed method significantly improves a coding gain of the 3D-AVC in the multiview compatible mode about 20% BD-rate saving in the coded views and 26% BD-rate saving in the synthesized views on average.

  10. Adaptive neighbor connection for PRMs: A natural fit for heterogeneous environments and parallelism

    KAUST Repository

    Ekenna, Chinwe; Jacobs, Sam Ade; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are widely used motion planning methods that sample robot configurations (nodes) and connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing feasible trajectories. Many PRM variants propose different strategies for each of the steps and choosing among them is problem dependent. Planning in heterogeneous environments and/or on parallel machines necessitates dividing the problem into regions where these choices have to be made for each one. Hand-selecting the best method for each region becomes infeasible. In particular, there are many ways to select connection candidates, and choosing the appropriate strategy is input dependent. In this paper, we present a general connection framework that adaptively selects a neighbor finding strategy from a candidate set of options. Our framework learns which strategy to use by examining their success rates and costs. It frees the user of the burden of selecting the best strategy and allows the selection to change over time. We perform experiments on rigid bodies of varying geometry and articulated linkages up to 37 degrees of freedom. Our results show that strategy performance is indeed problem/region dependent, and our adaptive method harnesses their strengths. Over all problems studied, our method differs the least from manual selection of the best method, and if one were to manually select a single method across all problems, the performance can be quite poor. Our method is able to adapt to changing sampling density and learns different strategies for each region when the problem is partitioned for parallelism. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Adaptive neighbor connection for PRMs: A natural fit for heterogeneous environments and parallelism

    KAUST Repository

    Ekenna, Chinwe

    2013-11-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are widely used motion planning methods that sample robot configurations (nodes) and connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing feasible trajectories. Many PRM variants propose different strategies for each of the steps and choosing among them is problem dependent. Planning in heterogeneous environments and/or on parallel machines necessitates dividing the problem into regions where these choices have to be made for each one. Hand-selecting the best method for each region becomes infeasible. In particular, there are many ways to select connection candidates, and choosing the appropriate strategy is input dependent. In this paper, we present a general connection framework that adaptively selects a neighbor finding strategy from a candidate set of options. Our framework learns which strategy to use by examining their success rates and costs. It frees the user of the burden of selecting the best strategy and allows the selection to change over time. We perform experiments on rigid bodies of varying geometry and articulated linkages up to 37 degrees of freedom. Our results show that strategy performance is indeed problem/region dependent, and our adaptive method harnesses their strengths. Over all problems studied, our method differs the least from manual selection of the best method, and if one were to manually select a single method across all problems, the performance can be quite poor. Our method is able to adapt to changing sampling density and learns different strategies for each region when the problem is partitioned for parallelism. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008-2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  13. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years.

  14. Third nearest neighbor parameterized tight binding model for graphene nano-ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Truong Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing tight binding models can very well reproduce the ab initio band structure of a 2D graphene sheet. For graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs, the current sets of tight binding parameters can successfully describe the semi-conducting behavior of all armchair GNRs. However, they are still failing in reproducing accurately the slope of the bands that is directly associated with the group velocity and the effective mass of electrons. In this work, both density functional theory and tight binding calculations were performed and a new set of tight binding parameters up to the third nearest neighbors including overlap terms is introduced. The results obtained with this model offer excellent agreement with the predictions of the density functional theory in most cases of ribbon structures, even in the high-energy region. Moreover, this set can induce electron-hole asymmetry as manifested in results from density functional theory. Relevant outcomes are also achieved for armchair ribbons of various widths as well as for zigzag structures, thus opening a route for multi-scale atomistic simulation of large systems that cannot be considered using density functional theory.

  15. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  16. Geometric k-nearest neighbor estimation of entropy and mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Warren M.; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M.

    2018-03-01

    Nonparametric estimation of mutual information is used in a wide range of scientific problems to quantify dependence between variables. The k-nearest neighbor (knn) methods are consistent, and therefore expected to work well for a large sample size. These methods use geometrically regular local volume elements. This practice allows maximum localization of the volume elements, but can also induce a bias due to a poor description of the local geometry of the underlying probability measure. We introduce a new class of knn estimators that we call geometric knn estimators (g-knn), which use more complex local volume elements to better model the local geometry of the probability measures. As an example of this class of estimators, we develop a g-knn estimator of entropy and mutual information based on elliptical volume elements, capturing the local stretching and compression common to a wide range of dynamical system attractors. A series of numerical examples in which the thickness of the underlying distribution and the sample sizes are varied suggest that local geometry is a source of problems for knn methods such as the Kraskov-Stögbauer-Grassberger estimator when local geometric effects cannot be removed by global preprocessing of the data. The g-knn method performs well despite the manipulation of the local geometry. In addition, the examples suggest that the g-knn estimators can be of particular relevance to applications in which the system is large, but the data size is limited.

  17. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Ding, Ye; Li, Peng; Wang, Ruchuan; Li, Yizhu

    2017-08-05

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS) indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K -Nearest Neighbor (BKNN). The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method.

  18. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K-Nearest Neighbor (BKNN. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method.

  19. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Jurassic basins in Mongolia and neighboring China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Genyao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important event in Jurassic tectonics in Mongolia was the subduction and closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean; correspondingly, basin evolution can be divided into two main stages, related to the orogeny and collapse of the orogenic belt, respectively. The developing of Early–Middle Jurassic basins to the north of the ocean resulted from back-arc extension. The fossil sutures, from the China–SE Asia sub-continent to the south of the ocean, were rejuvenated by subduction-related orogeny; in addition, the Yanshanian intra-continental movement occurred. Three Early–Middle Jurassic molasse basins were developed by movement in Inner Mongolia, all of which stretched westwards (or northwards into Mongolia; therefore, the molasse basins in eastern and southern Mongolia had the same geometric and kinematic features as the basins in the Inner Mongolia. Owing to the collapse of the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogenic belt, a group of rift basins developed during the Late Jurassic. In eastern Mongolia, the NE orientated extensional basins were controlled by the neogenic NE-structure. The contemporary basins in southern Mongolia and the neighboring areas in China were constrained by remobilization (inherited activation of the latitudinal or ENE-directional basement structures. Three stages can be recognized in the evolution of the Early–Middle Jurassic basins after reversal; the basins also experienced four episodes of reformation.

  20. An SDN-Based Authentication Mechanism for Securing Neighbor Discovery Protocol in IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP is one of the main protocols in the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 suite, and it provides many basic functions for the normal operation of IPv6 in a local area network (LAN, such as address autoconfiguration and address resolution. However, it has many vulnerabilities that can be used by malicious nodes to launch attacks, because the NDP messages are easily spoofed without protection. Surrounding this problem, many solutions have been proposed for securing NDP, but these solutions either proposed new protocols that need to be supported by all nodes or built mechanisms that require the cooperation of all nodes, which is inevitable in the traditional distributed networks. Nevertheless, Software-Defined Networking (SDN provides a new perspective to think about protecting NDP. In this paper, we proposed an SDN-based authentication mechanism to verify the identity of NDP packets transmitted in a LAN. Using the centralized control and programmability of SDN, it can effectively prevent the spoofing attacks and other derived attacks based on spoofing. In addition, this mechanism needs no additional protocol supporting or configuration at hosts and routers and does not introduce any dedicated devices.

  1. Effect of grain refinement by severe plastic deformation on the next-neighbor misorientation distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.S.; Beausir, B.; Gu, C.F.; Estrin, Y.; Scheerbaum, N.; Davies, C.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Next-neighbor misorientation distributions (NNMD) in severely deformed polycrystalline materials are commonly measured by orientation imaging. A procedure is proposed which enables the separation of NNMD of ultrafine-grained materials into two parts: the distribution of misorientations between newly emerged grains within the original ('parent') grain interior ('internal daughter grains') and the distribution of misorientations between grains adjacent to an original grain boundary on its opposite sides ('grain boundary daughter grains'). The procedure is based on electron backscatter diffraction orientation map analyses carried out on different planes of deformed samples considering the evolution of the grain size and shape during severe plastic deformation. It was applied to copper processed by up to three passes of equal-channel angular pressing. A characteristic feature of the measured NNMD is the occurrence of a double peak, which is clearly due to the differences between the NNMD of the two distinct populations of new grains defined above. The peak at low angles represents mainly the continual grain subdivision process in the interior of a parent grain (and is associated with internal daughter grains), while the peak at large angles is due to the high angle misorientations of the grain boundary daughter grains.

  2. Prototype Generation Using Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization for Nearest Neighbor Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Tan, Ying

    2016-12-01

    The nearest neighbor (NN) classifier suffers from high time complexity when classifying a test instance since the need of searching the whole training set. Prototype generation is a widely used approach to reduce the classification time, which generates a small set of prototypes to classify a test instance instead of using the whole training set. In this paper, particle swarm optimization is applied to prototype generation and two novel methods for improving the classification performance are presented: 1) a fitness function named error rank and 2) the multiobjective (MO) optimization strategy. Error rank is proposed to enhance the generation ability of the NN classifier, which takes the ranks of misclassified instances into consideration when designing the fitness function. The MO optimization strategy pursues the performance on multiple subsets of data simultaneously, in order to keep the classifier from overfitting the training set. Experimental results over 31 UCI data sets and 59 additional data sets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms nearly 30 existing prototype generation algorithms.

  3. China’s Stock Market Integration with a Leading Power and a Close Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Current integration and co-movement among international stock markets has been boosted by increased globalization of the world economy, and profit-chasing capital surfing across borders. With a reputation as the fastest growing economy in the world, China’s stock market has continued gaining momentum during recent years and incurred growing attention from academicians, as well as practitioners. Taking into account economic and geographical considerations, the US and Hong Kong are considerably the most comparable stock markets to China. The usual vector error correction model (VECM could overlook the long memory feature of cointegration residual series, which can in turn exert bias on the resulting inferences. To overcome its limitations, we employ a fractionally integrated VECM (FIVECM in this paper to investigate the long-term cointegration relations binding China’s stock market to the aforementioned stock markets. In addition, by augmenting the FIVECM with multivariate GARCH model, the return transmission and volatility spillover between market return series were revealed simultaneously. Our empirical results show that China’s stock market is fractionally cointegrated with the two markets, and it appears that China’s stock market has stronger ties with its neighboring Hong Kong market than with the world superpower, the US market.

  4. Reentrant behavior in the nearest-neighbor Ising antiferromagnet in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Minos A.; de Sousa, J. Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    Motived by the H-T phase diagram in the bcc Ising antiferromagnetic with nearest-neighbor interactions obtained by Monte Carlo simulation [Landau, Phys. Rev. B 16, 4164 (1977)] that shows a reentrant behavior at low temperature, with two critical temperatures in magnetic field about 2% greater than the critical value Hc=8J , we apply the effective field renormalization group (EFRG) approach in this model on three-dimensional lattices (simple cubic-sc and body centered cubic-bcc). We find that the critical curve TN(H) exhibits a maximum point around of H≃Hc only in the bcc lattice case. We also discuss the critical behavior by the effective field theory in clusters with one (EFT-1) and two (EFT-2) spins, and a reentrant behavior is observed for the sc and bcc lattices. We have compared our results of EFRG in the bcc lattice with Monte Carlo and series expansion, and we observe a good accordance between the methods.

  5. Magnetization reversal in magnetic dot arrays: Nearest-neighbor interactions and global configurational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Ben [Department of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation, Ghent University, Technologiepark 913, B-9052 Ghent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Fin, Samuele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pancaldi, Matteo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, Paolo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sarella, Anandakumar [Physics Department, Mount Holyoke College, 211 Kendade, 50 College St., South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States); Bisero, Diego [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); CNISM, Unità di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Various proposals for future magnetic memories, data processing devices, and sensors rely on a precise control of the magnetization ground state and magnetization reversal process in periodically patterned media. In finite dot arrays, such control is hampered by the magnetostatic interactions between the nanomagnets, leading to the non-uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the sample while reversing. In this paper, we evidence how during reversal typical geometric arrangements of dots in an identical magnetization state appear that originate in the dominance of either Global Configurational Anisotropy or Nearest-Neighbor Magnetostatic interactions, which depends on the fields at which the magnetization reversal sets in. Based on our findings, we propose design rules to obtain the uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the array, and also suggest future research directions to achieve non-uniform state distributions of interest, e.g., when aiming at guiding spin wave edge-modes through dot arrays. Our insights are based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Magnetic Force Microscopy measurements as well as the extensive micromagnetic simulations.

  6. Neighbors Like Me? Religious Affiliation and Neighborhood Racial Preferences among Non-Hispanic Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on racial residential segregation has paid little attention to the role that social institutions play in either isolating or integrating racial and ethnic groups in American communities. Scholars have argued that racial segregation within American religion may contribute to and consolidate racial division elsewhere in social life. However, no previous study has employed national survey data to examine the relationship between religious affiliation and the preferences people have about the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods. Using data from the “Multi-Ethnic United States” module on the 2000 General Social Survey, this study finds that white evangelical Protestants have a significantly stronger preference for same-race neighbors than do Catholics, Jews, adherents of “other” faiths, and the unaffiliated. Group differences in preferences are largely accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics. Negative racial stereotyping and social isolation from minorities, both topics of interest in recent research on evangelical Protestants and race, fail to explain group differences in preferences.

  7. CATEGORIZATION OF GELAM, ACACIA AND TUALANG HONEY ODORPROFILE USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiyana Zahed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey authenticity refer to honey types is of great importance issue and interest in agriculture. In current research, several documents of specific types of honey have their own usage in medical field. However, it is quite challenging task to classify different types of honey by simply using our naked eye. This work demostrated a successful an electronic nose (E-nose application as an instrument for identifying odor profile pattern of three common honey in Malaysia (Gelam, Acacia and Tualang honey. The applied E-nose has produced signal for odor measurement in form of numeric resistance (Ω. The data reading have been pre-processed using normalization technique for standardized scale of unique features. Mean features is extracted and boxplot used as the statistical tool to present the data pattern according to three types of honey. Mean features that have been extracted were employed into K-Nearest Neighbors classifier as an input features and evaluated using several splitting ratio. Excellent results were obtained by showing 100% rate of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification from KNN using weigh (k=1, ratio 90:10 and Euclidean distance. The findings confirmed the ability of KNN classifier as intelligent classification to classify different honey types from E-nose calibration. Outperform of other classifier, KNN required less parameter optimization and achieved promising result.

  8. The 'neighbor effect'. Simulating dynamics in consumer preferences for new vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Paulus; Eyzaguirre, Jimena; Jaccard, Mark; Tiedemann, Kenneth; Collins-Dodd, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is essential in designing policies that efficiently increase the uptake of clean technologies over the long-run. Expert opinion or qualitative market analyses have tended to be the sources of this information. However, greater scrutiny on governments increasingly demands the use of reliable and credible evidence to support policy decisions. While discrete choice research and modeling techniques have been applied to estimate consumer preferences for technologies, these methods often assume static preferences. This study builds on the application of discrete choice research and modeling to capture dynamics in consumer preferences. We estimate Canadians' preferences for new vehicle technologies under different market assumptions, using responses from two national surveys focused on hybrid gas-electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The results support the relevance of a range of vehicle attributes beyond the purchase price in shaping consumer preferences towards clean vehicle technologies. They also corroborate our hypothesis that the degree of market penetration of clean vehicle technologies is an influence on people's preferences ('the neighbor effect'). Finally, our results provide behavioural parameters for the energy-economy model CIMS, which we use here to show the importance of including consumer preference dynamics when setting policies to encourage the uptake of clean technologies. (author)

  9. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  10. A range of complex probabilistic models for RNA secondary structure prediction that includes the nearest-neighbor model and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R

    2012-02-01

    The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.

  11. A Comparison of the Spatial Linear Model to Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) Methods for Forestry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay M. Ver Hoef; Hailemariam Temesgen; Sergio Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Forest surveys provide critical information for many diverse interests. Data are often collected from samples, and from these samples, maps of resources and estimates of aerial totals or averages are required. In this paper, two approaches for mapping and estimating totals; the spatial linear model (SLM) and k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor) are compared, theoretically,...

  12. Cell membrane disruption stimulates cAMP and Ca2+ signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuru Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of cellular plasma membranes is a common event in many animal tissues, and the membranes are usually rapidly resealed. Moreover, repeated membrane disruptions within a single cell reseal faster than the initial wound in a protein kinase A (PKA- and protein kinase C (PKC-dependent manner. In addition to wounded cells, recent studies have demonstrated that wounding of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells potentiates membrane resealing in neighboring cells in the short-term by purinergic signaling, and in the long-term by nitric oxide/protein kinase G signaling. In the present study, real-time imaging showed that cell membrane disruption stimulated cAMP synthesis and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores by purinergic signaling in neighboring MDCK cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA and PKC suppressed the ATP-mediated short-term potentiation of membrane resealing in neighboring cells. These results suggest that cell membrane disruption stimulates PKA and PKC via purinergic signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring MDCK cells.

  13. Mapping wildland fuels and forest structure for land management: a comparison of nearest neighbor imputation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth B. Pierce; Janet L. Ohmann; Michael C. Wimberly; Matthew J. Gregory; Jeremy S. Fried

    2009-01-01

    Land managers need consistent information about the geographic distribution of wildland fuels and forest structure over large areas to evaluate fire risk and plan fuel treatments. We compared spatial predictions for 12 fuel and forest structure variables across three regions in the western United States using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) imputation, linear models (...

  14. Integrative and comparative genomics analysis of early hepatocellular carcinoma differentiated from liver regeneration in young and old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozand Pinar T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, and hence typically has a poor prognosis. To identify distinct molecular mechanisms for early HCC we developed a rat model of liver regeneration post-hepatectomy, as well as liver cells undergoing malignant transformation and compared them to normal liver using a microarray approach. Subsequently, we performed cross-species comparative analysis coupled with copy number alterations (CNA of independent early human HCC microarray studies to facilitate the identification of critical regulatory modules conserved across species. Results We identified 35 signature genes conserved across species, and shared among different types of early human HCCs. Over 70% of signature genes were cancer-related, and more than 50% of the conserved genes were mapped to human genomic CNA regions. Functional annotation revealed genes already implicated in HCC, as well as novel genes which were not previously reported in liver tumors. A subset of differentially expressed genes was validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Concordance was also confirmed for a significant number of genes and pathways in five independent validation microarray datasets. Our results indicated alterations in a number of cancer related pathways, including p53, p38 MAPK, ERK/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, and potential critical regulatory role of MYC, ERBB2, HNF4A, and SMAD3 for early HCC transformation. Conclusions The integrative analysis of transcriptional deregulation, genomic CNA and comparative cross species analysis brings new insights into the molecular profile of early hepatoma formation. This approach may lead to robust biomarkers for the detection of early human HCC.

  15. Housing Benefits: Baseline Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    To improve the quality of life of service members and increase overall efficiency, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Installations and Facilities asked CNA to examine Department of the Navy (DON...

  16. A Fast Exact k-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm for High Dimensional Search Using k-Means Clustering and Triangle Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyi

    2012-02-08

    The k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm is a widely used machine learning method that finds nearest neighbors of a test object in a feature space. We present a new exact k-NN algorithm called kMkNN (k-Means for k-Nearest Neighbors) that uses the k-means clustering and the triangle inequality to accelerate the searching for nearest neighbors in a high dimensional space. The kMkNN algorithm has two stages. In the buildup stage, instead of using complex tree structures such as metric trees, kd-trees, or ball-tree, kMkNN uses a simple k-means clustering method to preprocess the training dataset. In the searching stage, given a query object, kMkNN finds nearest training objects starting from the nearest cluster to the query object and uses the triangle inequality to reduce the distance calculations. Experiments show that the performance of kMkNN is surprisingly good compared to the traditional k-NN algorithm and tree-based k-NN algorithms such as kd-trees and ball-trees. On a collection of 20 datasets with up to 10(6) records and 10(4) dimensions, kMkNN shows a 2-to 80-fold reduction of distance calculations and a 2- to 60-fold speedup over the traditional k-NN algorithm for 16 datasets. Furthermore, kMkNN performs significant better than a kd-tree based k-NN algorithm for all datasets and performs better than a ball-tree based k-NN algorithm for most datasets. The results show that kMkNN is effective for searching nearest neighbors in high dimensional spaces.

  17. Antiferromagnetic geometric frustration under the influence of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction. An exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction on the properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic systems is investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the square-kagome recursive lattice, where the next-nearest-neighbor interaction is supposed between sites within each elementary square of the lattice. The thermodynamic properties of the model are investigated in detail and it is shown that the competition between the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction and the next-nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interaction changes properties of the single-point ground states but does not change the frustrated character of the basic model. On the other hand, the presence of the antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interaction leads to the enhancement of the frustration effects with the formation of additional plateau and single-point ground states at low temperatures. Exact expressions for magnetizations and residual entropies of all ground states of the model are found. It is shown that the model exhibits various ground states with the same value of magnetization but different macroscopic degeneracies as well as the ground states with different values of magnetization but the same value of the residual entropy. The specific heat capacity is investigated and it is shown that the model exhibits the Schottky-type anomaly behavior in the vicinity of each single-point ground state value of the magnetic field. The formation of the field-induced double-peak structure of the specific heat capacity at low temperatures is demonstrated and it is shown that its very existence is directly related to the presence of highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states in the model.

  18. Spatial correlations between browsing on balsam fir by white-tailed deer and the nutritional value of neighboring winter forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Emilie; Moore, Ben D; Côté, Steeve D; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) herbivory by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in winter. We quantified browsing rates on fir and the density and quality of neighboring trees in a series of 10-year-old cutovers on Anticosti Island (Canada). We used cross-correlations to investigate relationships between browsing rates and the density and nutritional quality of neighboring trees at distances up to 1,000 m. Balsam fir and white spruce ( Picea glauca ) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (across distance of up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300-400 m). These correlations suggest associational effects, that is, low nutritional quality of neighbors reduces the likelihood of fir herbivory (associational defense). Our results may indicate associational effects mediated by intraspecific variation in plant quality and suggest that these effects could occur at scales from tens to hundreds of meters. Understanding associational effects could inform strategies for restoration or conservation; for example, planting of fir among existing natural regeneration could be concentrated in areas of low nutritional quality.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of esophageal adenocarcinoma yields specific copy number aberrations that correlate with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Adam; Armour, Nicola; Nancarrow, Derek; Krause, Lutz; Hayward, Nicholas; Lampe, Guy; Smithers, B Mark; Barbour, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been increasing rapidly for the past 3 decades in Western (Caucasian) populations. Curative treatment is based around esophagectomy, which has a major impact on quality of life. For those suitable for treatment with curative intent, 5-year survival is ∼30%. More accurate prognostic tools are therefore needed, and copy number aberrations (CNAs) may offer the ability to act as prospective biomarkers in this regard. We performed a genome-wide examination of CNAs in 54 samples of EAC using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aims were to describe frequent regions of CNA, to define driver CNAs, and to identify CNAs that correlated with survival. Regions of frequent amplification included oncogenes such as EGFR, MYC, KLF12, and ERBB2, while frequently deleted regions included tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2A/B, PTPRD, FHIT, and SMAD4. The genomic identification of significant targets in cancer (GISTIC) algorithm identified 24 regions of gain and 28 regions of loss that were likely to contain driver changes. We discovered 61 genes in five regions that, when stratified by CNA type (gain or loss), correlated with a statistically significant difference in survival. Pathway analysis of the genes residing in both the GISTIC and prognostic regions showed they were significantly enriched for cancer-related networks. Finally, we discovered that copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity is a frequent mechanism of CNA in genes currently targetable by chemotherapy, potentially leading to under-reporting of cases suitable for such treatment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Effects of Capital Outflows from Neighboring Countries on a Home Country’s Terms of Trade and Real Exchange Rate: The Case of East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammo Kang

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available While there is an extensive body of empirical analyses showing that currency crises tend to be regionally concentrated to specific areas and contagious to countries with high levels of trade, there has been insufficient research on the mechanisms underlying such tendencies. Using a two¡ⓒcountry model, we investigate the possibility of deterioration in the terms of trade and a rise in the real exchange rate of a home country in the case of capital outflows from its trade partner. In addition, an empirical analysis of East Asian countries conclusively shows that some countries conform to the model. Generally, neighboring countries trade extensively with one another for reasons like low logistics costs. This paper finds that such patterns of trade can be one reason for a currency crisis being regional.

  1. Polymers with nearest- and next nearest-neighbor interactions on the Husimi lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-01

    The exact grand-canonical solution of a generalized interacting self-avoid walk (ISAW) model, placed on a Husimi lattice built with squares, is presented. In this model, beyond the traditional interaction {ω }1={{{e}}}{ɛ 1/{k}BT} between (nonconsecutive) monomers on nearest-neighbor (NN) sites, an additional energy {ɛ }2 is associated to next-NN (NNN) monomers. Three definitions of NNN sites/interactions are considered, where each monomer can have, effectively, at most two, four, or six NNN monomers on the Husimi lattice. The phase diagrams found in all cases have (qualitatively) the same thermodynamic properties: a non-polymerized (NP) and a polymerized (P) phase separated by a critical and a coexistence surface that meet at a tricritical (θ-) line. This θ-line is found even when one of the interactions is repulsive, existing for {ω }1 in the range [0,∞ ), i.e., for {ɛ }1/{k}BT in the range [-∞ ,∞ ). Thus, counterintuitively, a θ-point exists even for an infinite repulsion between NN monomers ({ω }1=0), being associated to a coil-‘soft globule’ transition. In the limit of an infinite repulsive force between NNN monomers, however, the coil-globule transition disappears, and only NP-P continuous transition is observed. This particular case, with {ω }2=0, is also solved exactly on the square lattice, using a transfer matrix calculation where a discontinuous NP-P transition is found. For attractive and repulsive forces between NN and NNN monomers, respectively, the model becomes quite similar to the semiflexible-ISAW one, whose crystalline phase is not observed here, as a consequence of the frustration due to competing NN and NNN forces. The mapping of the phase diagrams in canonical ones is discussed and compared with recent results from Monte Carlo simulations on the square lattice.

  2. The groundwater budget: A tool for preliminary estimation of the hydraulic connection between neighboring aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaroli, Stefano; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Lotti, Francesca; Paolucci, Vittorio; Mazza, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater management authorities usually use groundwater budget calculations to evaluate the sustainability of withdrawals for different purposes. The groundwater budget calculation does not always provide reliable information, and it must often be supported by further aquifer monitoring in the case of hydraulic connections between neighboring aquifers. The Riardo Plain aquifer is a strategic drinking resource for more than 100,000 people, water storage for 60 km2 of irrigated land, and the source of a mineral water bottling plant. Over a long period, the comparison between the direct recharge and the estimated natural outflow and withdrawals highlights a severe water deficit of approximately 40% of the total groundwater outflow. A groundwater budget deficit should be a clue to the aquifer depletion, but the results of long-term water level monitoring allowed the observation of the good condition of this aquifer. In fact, in the Riardo Plain, the calculated deficit is not comparable to the aquifer monitoring data acquired in the same period (1992-2014). The small oscillations of the groundwater level and the almost stable streambed spring discharge allows the presumption of an additional aquifer recharge source. The confined carbonate aquifer locally mixes with the above volcanic aquifer, providing an externally stable recharge that reduces the effects of the local rainfall variability. The combined approach of the groundwater budget results and long-term aquifer monitoring (spring discharge and/or hydraulic head oscillation) provides information about significant external groundwater exchanges, even if unidentified by field measurements, and supports the stakeholders in groundwater resource management.

  3. Spin of a Multielectron Quantum Dot and Its Interaction with a Neighboring Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip K. Malinowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spin of a multielectron GaAs quantum dot in a sequence of nine charge occupancies, by exchange coupling the multielectron dot to a neighboring two-electron double quantum dot. For all nine occupancies, we make use of a leakage spectroscopy technique to reconstruct the spectrum of spin states in the vicinity of the interdot charge transition between a single- and a multielectron quantum dot. In the same regime we also perform time-resolved measurements of coherent exchange oscillations between the single- and multielectron quantum dot. With these measurements, we identify distinct characteristics of the multielectron spin state, depending on whether the dot’s occupancy is even or odd. For three out of four even occupancies, we do not observe any exchange interaction with the single quantum dot, indicating a spin-0 ground state. For the one remaining even occupancy, we observe an exchange interaction that we associate with a spin-1 multielectron quantum dot ground state. For all five of the odd occupancies, we observe an exchange interaction associated with a spin-1/2 ground state. For three of these odd occupancies, we clearly demonstrate that the exchange interaction changes sign in the vicinity of the charge transition. For one of these, the exchange interaction is negative (i.e., triplet preferring beyond the interdot charge transition, consistent with the observed spin-1 for the next (even occupancy. Our experimental results are interpreted through the use of a Hubbard model involving two orbitals of the multielectron quantum dot. Allowing for the spin correlation energy (i.e., including a term favoring Hund’s rules and different tunnel coupling to different orbitals, we qualitatively reproduce the measured exchange profiles for all occupancies.

  4. Surface Energy Balance in Jakarta and Neighboring Regions As Simulated Using Fifth Mesoscale Model (MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yopi Ilhamsyah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to assess the surface energy balance particularly in terms of the computed surface energy and radiation balance and the development of boundary layer over Jakarta and Neighboring Regions (JNR by means of numerical model of fifth generation of Mesoscale Model (MM5. The MM5 with four domains of 9 kilometers in spatial resolution presenting the outermost and the innermost of JNR is utilized. The research focuses on the third and fourth domains covering the entire JNR. The description between radiation and energy balance at the surface is obtained from the model. The result showed that energy balance is higher in the city area during daytime. Meanwhile, energy components, e.g., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that at the sea and in the city areas were higher than other areas. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern region was higher than others. In general, radiation and energy balance was higher in the daytime and lower in the nighttime for all regions. The calculation of Bowen Ratio, the ratio of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, was also higher in the city area, reflecting the dominations of urban and built-up land in the region. Meanwhile, Bowen Ratio in the rural area dominated by irrigated cropland was lower. It is consistent with changes of land cover properties, e.g. albedo, soil moisture, and thermal characteristics. In addition, the boundary layer is also higher in the city. Meanwhile western region dominated by suburban showed higher boundary layer instead of eastern region.

  5. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsing Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician’s subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications.

  6. A Nearest Neighbor Classifier Employing Critical Boundary Vectors for Efficient On-Chip Template Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjun; Mita, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    Aiming at efficient data condensation and improving accuracy, this paper presents a hardware-friendly template reduction (TR) method for the nearest neighbor (NN) classifiers by introducing the concept of critical boundary vectors. A hardware system is also implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of using an field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to accelerate the proposed method. Initially, k -means centers are used as substitutes for the entire template set. Then, to enhance the classification performance, critical boundary vectors are selected by a novel learning algorithm, which is completed within a single iteration. Moreover, to remove noisy boundary vectors that can mislead the classification in a generalized manner, a global categorization scheme has been explored and applied to the algorithm. The global characterization automatically categorizes each classification problem and rapidly selects the boundary vectors according to the nature of the problem. Finally, only critical boundary vectors and k -means centers are used as the new template set for classification. Experimental results for 24 data sets show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the number of template vectors for classification with a high learning speed. At the same time, it improves the accuracy by an average of 2.17% compared with the traditional NN classifiers and also shows greater accuracy than seven other TR methods. We have shown the feasibility of using a proof-of-concept FPGA system of 256 64-D vectors to accelerate the proposed method on hardware. At a 50-MHz clock frequency, the proposed system achieves a 3.86 times higher learning speed than on a 3.4-GHz PC, while consuming only 1% of the power of that used by the PC.

  7. Contrasting cesium dynamics in neighboring deep and shallow warm-water reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, John E. [Department of Biology, Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Hinton, T.G., E-mail: thomas.hinton@irsn.f [Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Cadarache, 13115 France (France); Whicker, F.W. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To measure the long term retention and seasonal dynamics of an initial 4 kg addition of {sup 133}Cs into an 11.4-ha, 157,000 m{sup 3} reservoir (Pond 4, near Aiken, South Carolina, USA), the concentrations and inventories of {sup 133}Cs in the water column were measured at periodical intervals for 522 days following the 1 August, 1999 release. After rapid declines in concentrations and inventories during the first 90 days, the {sup 133}Cs concentrations in the water column declined at an average proportional rate of 0.004 d{sup -1}. However, there were periods of less rapid and more rapid rates of declines, and these were correlated with periods of increasing and decreasing K concentrations in the water column. The decline rates were less and the K concentrations greater in the winter than in the summer. In the deeper, neighboring monomictic reservoirs of Par Pond and Pond B, a yearly cycle of increasing and decreasing {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the water column is driven by anoxic remobilization of Cs from the sediments into a persistent summer hypolimnion. In Pond 4, whose mean depth of 1.6 m is too shallow to support a persistent anoxic hypolimnion, the pattern of yearly dynamics for K and Cs appear to be related to the accumulation and release of these elements from the extensive, seasonal macrophyte communities. The contrasting results between Pond 4 and Pond B suggest that a full appreciation of the relative importance of 1) anoxic remobilization and 2) accumulation and release by macrophytes in these systems remains to be established.

  8. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio I Arroyo

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain. Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the

  9. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Antonio I; Pueyo, Yolanda; Giner, M Luz; Foronda, Ana; Sanchez-Navarrete, Pedro; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain). Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community) beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC) to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic) and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the significance of

  10. Nearest neighbor imputation using spatial-temporal correlations in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YuanYuan; Parker, Lynne E

    2014-01-01

    Missing data is common in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), especially with multi-hop communications. There are many reasons for this phenomenon, such as unstable wireless communications, synchronization issues, and unreliable sensors. Unfortunately, missing data creates a number of problems for WSNs. First, since most sensor nodes in the network are battery-powered, it is too expensive to have the nodes retransmit missing data across the network. Data re-transmission may also cause time delays when detecting abnormal changes in an environment. Furthermore, localized reasoning techniques on sensor nodes (such as machine learning algorithms to classify states of the environment) are generally not robust enough to handle missing data. Since sensor data collected by a WSN is generally correlated in time and space, we illustrate how replacing missing sensor values with spatially and temporally correlated sensor values can significantly improve the network's performance. However, our studies show that it is important to determine which nodes are spatially and temporally correlated with each other. Simple techniques based on Euclidean distance are not sufficient for complex environmental deployments. Thus, we have developed a novel Nearest Neighbor (NN) imputation method that estimates missing data in WSNs by learning spatial and temporal correlations between sensor nodes. To improve the search time, we utilize a k d-tree data structure, which is a non-parametric, data-driven binary search tree. Instead of using traditional mean and variance of each dimension for k d-tree construction, and Euclidean distance for k d-tree search, we use weighted variances and weighted Euclidean distances based on measured percentages of missing data. We have evaluated this approach through experiments on sensor data from a volcano dataset collected by a network of Crossbow motes, as well as experiments using sensor data from a highway traffic monitoring application. Our experimental

  11. Efficient and accurate nearest neighbor and closest pair search in high-dimensional space

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei

    2010-07-01

    Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. From the database perspective, a good solution needs to have two properties: (i) it can be easily incorporated in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should increase sublinearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is a well-known methodology fulfilling both requirements, but its current implementations either incur expensive space and query cost, or abandon its theoretical guarantee on the quality of query results. Motivated by this, we improve LSH by proposing an access method called the Locality-Sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) to enable fast, accurate, high-dimensional NN search in relational databases. The combination of several LSB-trees forms a LSB-forest that has strong quality guarantees, but improves dramatically the efficiency of the previous LSH implementation having the same guarantees. In practice, the LSB-tree itself is also an effective index which consumes linear space, supports efficient updates, and provides accurate query results. In our experiments, the LSB-tree was faster than: (i) iDistance (a famous technique for exact NN search) by two orders ofmagnitude, and (ii) MedRank (a recent approximate method with nontrivial quality guarantees) by one order of magnitude, and meanwhile returned much better results. As a second step, we extend our LSB technique to solve another classic problem, called Closest Pair (CP) search, in high-dimensional space. The long-term challenge for this problem has been to achieve subquadratic running time at very high dimensionalities, which fails most of the existing solutions. We show that, using a LSB-forest, CP search can be accomplished in (worst-case) time significantly lower than the quadratic complexity, yet still ensuring very good quality. In practice, accurate answers can be found using just two LSB-trees, thus giving a substantial

  12. Knowing Our Neighbors: 2MASS 2306-0502 (TRAPPIST-1) Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn; Lurie, John; Jao, W.-C.; Ianna, P. A.; Riedel, A.; Finch, C.; Winters, J.; Subasavage, J.; Henry, T.

    2018-01-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of stellar systems within 25 pc is essential for determining the stellar luminosity function, the mass-luminosity relationship, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Such a sample also provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent observations with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope allow us to update the astrometry and VRI photometry for 2MASS J23062928-0502285 (TRAPPIST-1). Extrasolar planet searches by others detected 7 Earth-sized planets transiting this cool dwarf.Based on our 2004—2016 observations, we measure a parallax of 78.76 ± 1.04 mas with a proper motion of 1034.8 ± 0.3 mas/yr in 118.5○ ± 0.03○ for 2MASS 2306-0502. During this 12.2-year period, we did not detect any perturbations in the astrometric residuals. Because this parallax is independent of the earlier CTIOPI/SMARTS 1.5-m result, we calculate its weighted mean parallax to be 79.29 ± 0.96 mas (12.6 ± 0.2 pc), which is ~4% farther than the original distance. Our improved parallax implies its radii and that of its planets would be ~4% larger than previously reported.During our astrometric observations, 2MASS 2306-0502 demonstrated an overall photometric variability of 11.6 mmag in I-band, which is less than the 20-mmag limit for significant variability. Removing a July 2009 flaring event drops the mean variability to 8.2 mmag.Our VRI photometry indicates the brightness of 2MASS 2306-0502 is 18.75, 16.54, 14.10 mag, respectively, based on 3 nights.Even as we continue to look for new neighbors, we should also keep an eye on old friends.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College, and the

  13. Twins born in different environments? Nuclei of two dSphs: isolated galaxy KKS3 and ESO269-66, a close neighbor of NGC5128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharina, Margarita; Karachentsev, Igor; Kniazev, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    The close vicinity of giant neighbors determines the environmental mechanisms that have been considered responsible for the evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). In the recent years, Karachentsev and collaborators have reported on the discovery of a few truly isolated dSphs in the Local volume. This study focuses on one of these unusual objects, KKs3 (MV=-12.3 mag). It contains a massive globular cluster (GC) (MV=-8.5 mag) near its optical center. We have performed the estimation of its radial velocity using a medium-resolution spectrum obtained with the RSS spectrograph at the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The signal-to-noise ratio in the spectrum was sufficient to estimate the age and metallicity for the GC using simple stellar population models, and the methods of full spectrum fitting and Lick index diagnostic diagrams. The results contribute to the knowledge about the origin of massive star clusters and their host dSphs.In the same way we have analyzed another luminous GC (MV=-10) in the center of ESO269-66 (MB=-15.4), a close dSph neighbor of the giant S0 Cen A. The cluster was observed with SALT in the same instrumental configuration. The structure and star formation histories of the two galaxies look rather similar. Both of them have experienced several star-forming events. The most recent ones occurred 1÷2 Gyr ago, and most powerful bursts happened 12÷14 Gyrs ago. Our analysis has shown that both GCs appear to be 1÷2 Gyr younger and 0.2÷0.3 dex more metal-rich than the most ancient metal-poor stars in the host dSphs. We examine signatures of multiple stellar population in the GCs using out data. Since central star-forming bursts were extended in time, the massive clusters might be considered as nuclei of the galaxies.

  14. Anderson localization in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice models with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Longyan; Feng, Yan; Ding, Yougen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Quasiperiodic lattice models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping are studied. • Shannon information entropies are used to reflect state localization properties. • Phase diagrams are obtained for the inverse bronze and golden means, respectively. • Our studies present a more complete picture than existing works. - Abstract: We explore the reduced relative Shannon information entropies SR for a quasiperiodic lattice model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping, where an irrational number is in the mathematical expression of incommensurate on-site potentials. Based on SR, we respectively unveil the phase diagrams for two irrationalities, i.e., the inverse bronze mean and the inverse golden mean. The corresponding phase diagrams include regions of purely localized phase, purely delocalized phase, pure critical phase, and regions with mobility edges. The boundaries of different regions depend on the values of irrational number. These studies present a more complete picture than existing works.

  15. Diagnosis of diabetes diseases using an Artificial Immune Recognition System2 (AIRS2) with fuzzy K-nearest neighbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikh, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Meryem; Settouti, Nesma

    2012-10-01

    The use of expert systems and artificial intelligence techniques in disease diagnosis has been increasing gradually. Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) is one of the methods used in medical classification problems. AIRS2 is a more efficient version of the AIRS algorithm. In this paper, we used a modified AIRS2 called MAIRS2 where we replace the K- nearest neighbors algorithm with the fuzzy K-nearest neighbors to improve the diagnostic accuracy of diabetes diseases. The diabetes disease dataset used in our work is retrieved from UCI machine learning repository. The performances of the AIRS2 and MAIRS2 are evaluated regarding classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values. The highest classification accuracy obtained when applying the AIRS2 and MAIRS2 using 10-fold cross-validation was, respectively 82.69% and 89.10%.

  16. Anderson localization in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice models with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Longyan, E-mail: lygong@njupt.edu.cn [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Feng, Yan; Ding, Yougen [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China)

    2017-02-12

    Highlights: • Quasiperiodic lattice models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping are studied. • Shannon information entropies are used to reflect state localization properties. • Phase diagrams are obtained for the inverse bronze and golden means, respectively. • Our studies present a more complete picture than existing works. - Abstract: We explore the reduced relative Shannon information entropies SR for a quasiperiodic lattice model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping, where an irrational number is in the mathematical expression of incommensurate on-site potentials. Based on SR, we respectively unveil the phase diagrams for two irrationalities, i.e., the inverse bronze mean and the inverse golden mean. The corresponding phase diagrams include regions of purely localized phase, purely delocalized phase, pure critical phase, and regions with mobility edges. The boundaries of different regions depend on the values of irrational number. These studies present a more complete picture than existing works.

  17. Structure of the first- and second-neighbor shells of simulated water: Quantitative relation to translational and orientational order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenyu; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Kumar, Pradeep; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-11-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of water using the five-site transferable interaction potential (TIP5P) model to quantify structural order in both the first shell (defined by four nearest neighbors) and second shell (defined by twelve next-nearest neighbors) of a central water molecule. We find that the anomalous decrease of orientational order upon compression occurs in both shells, but the anomalous decrease of translational order upon compression occurs mainly in the second shell. The decreases of translational order and orientational order upon compression (called the “structural anomaly”) are thus correlated only in the second shell. Our findings quantitatively confirm the qualitative idea that the thermodynamic, structural, and hence dynamic anomalies of water are related to changes upon compression in the second shell.

  18. Nearest-neighbor Kitaev exchange blocked by charge order in electron-doped α -RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitzsch, A.; Habenicht, C.; Müller, E.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Kretschmer, S.; Richter, M.; van den Brink, J.; Börrnert, F.; Nowak, D.; Isaeva, A.; Doert, Th.

    2017-10-01

    A quantum spin liquid might be realized in α -RuCl3 , a honeycomb-lattice magnetic material with substantial spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, α -RuCl3 is a Mott insulator, which implies the possibility that novel exotic phases occur upon doping. Here, we study the electronic structure of this material when intercalated with potassium by photoemission spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We obtain a stable stoichiometry at K0.5RuCl3 . This gives rise to a peculiar charge disproportionation into formally Ru2 + (4 d6 ) and Ru3 + (4 d5 ). Every Ru 4 d5 site with one hole in the t2 g shell is surrounded by nearest neighbors of 4 d6 character, where the t2 g level is full and magnetically inert. Thus, each type of Ru site forms a triangular lattice, and nearest-neighbor interactions of the original honeycomb are blocked.

  19. Exactly solvable spin-1 Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with the second-neighbor interaction between nodal spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, V V; Ananikian, N S; Strečka, J

    2016-01-01

    The spin-1 Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with the second-neighbor interaction between nodal spins is rigorously solved using the transfer-matrix method. In particular, exact results for the ground state, magnetization process and specific heat are presented and discussed. It is shown that further-neighbor interaction between nodal spins gives rise to three novel ground states with a translationally broken symmetry, but at the same time, does not increases the total number of intermediate plateaus in a zero-temperature magnetization curve compared with the simplified model without this interaction term. The zero-field specific heat displays interesting thermal dependencies with a single- or double-peak structure. (paper)

  20. Chirality dependence of dipole matrix element of carbon nanotubes in axial magnetic field: A third neighbor tight binding approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2014-02-01

    We have studied the electronic structure and dipole matrix element, D, of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under magnetic field, using the third nearest neighbor tight binding model. It is shown that the 1NN and 3NN-TB band structures show differences such as the spacing and mixing of neighbor subbands. Applying the magnetic field leads to breaking the degeneracy behavior in the D transitions and creates new allowed transitions corresponding to the band modifications. It is found that |D| is proportional to the inverse tube radius and chiral angle. Our numerical results show that amount of filed induced splitting for the first optical peak is proportional to the magnetic field by the splitting rate ν11. It is shown that ν11 changes linearly and parabolicly with the chiral angle and radius, respectively.

  1. Phase Transition and Critical Values of a Nearest-Neighbor System with Uncountable Local State Space on Cayley Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnel, Benedikt; Külske, Christof; Botirov, Golibjon I.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor model on a Cayley tree of degree k ⩾ 2 with uncountable local state space [0,1] where the energy function depends on a parameter θ ∊[0, 1). We show that for 0 ⩽ θ ⩽ 5 3 k the model has a unique translation-invariant Gibbs measure. If 5 3 k < θ < 1 , there is a phase transition, in particular there are three translation-invariant Gibbs measures

  2. Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Catalase to Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Protects Neighboring Photoreceptors from Photo-Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rex, T.S.; Tsui, I.; Hahn, P.; Maguire, A.M.; Duan, D.; Bennett, J.; Dunaief, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes by gene therapy may protect tissues from oxidative damage. Because the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide can diffuse across cell membranes, we hypothesized that overexpression of the antioxidant catalase within certain cells might protect neighboring cells. To test this hypothesis, we transduced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro and in vivo with adenovirus carrying th...

  3. Neighboring Hetero-Atom Assistance of Sacrificial Amines to Hydrogen Evolution Using Pt-Loaded TiO2-Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Yasuda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic H2 evolution was examined using Pt-loaded TiO2-photocatalyst in the presence of amines as sacrificial agents. In the case of amines with all of the carbon attached to the hetero-atom such as 2-aminoethanol, 1,2-diamonoethane, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, and 3-amino-1,2-propanediol, they were completely decomposed into CO2 and water to quantitatively evolve H2. On the other hand, the amines with both hetero-atoms and one methyl group at the β-positions (neighboring carbons of amino group such as 2-amino-1-propanol and 1,2-diaminopropane were partially decomposed. Also, the photocatalytic H2 evolution using amines without the hetero-atoms at the β-positions such as ethylamine, propylamine, 1-butylamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 2-propylamine, and 2-butylamine was inefficient. Thus, it was found that the neighboring hetero-atom strongly assisted the degradation of sacrificial amines. Moreover, rate constants for H2 evolution were compared among amines. In conclusion, the neighboring hetero-atom did not affect the rate constants but enhanced the yield of hydrogen evolution.

  4. Transcultural and Transcorporal Neighbors: Japanese Performance Utopias in Jerzy Grotowski, Eugenio Barba and Phillip B. Zarrilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Rafolt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcultural and Transcorporal Neighbors: Japanese Performance Utopias in  Jerzy Grotowski, Eugenio Barba and Phillip B. Zarrilli This paper is mainly focused on the concept of transcultural bodily knowledge elaborated by Eugenio Barba and Nicola Savarese in their concept of theatre anthropology. Their research on pre-existent and pre-expressive values of the human movement, especially considering Asian theatre and performative practices, will be reexamined in the context of over-imposed interculturalism in Humanities and Social Studies. The focus will be thus put on the modifications of the bodily knowledge in this sense (Yuasa, as well as on the (reappropriations of the Asian philosophical/theoretical embodiment schemes in the Western thought, not only from the standpoint of performative research made by Eugenio Barba and Phillip B. Zarrilli, but also from the standpoint of Shusterman’s pragmatic reinterpretations of Merleau-Ponty’s legacy, Schechner/Turner’s anthropology of human performativity, etc. In this context, the key idea of unique transcultural background of the human kinesis, employed mainly by Barba, will be put in an overall context of contemporary (transcultural utopism. The key element for interpretation will thus be an overall context of Asian martial arts practice, especially the significance of ‘iemoto principle’ (hereditary bodily technique for the establishment of Grotowski’s, Barba’s and Zarrilli’s psychology and physiology of performance tactics.   Transkulturowi i transcieleśni sąsiedzi: japońskie utopie performatywne u Jerzego Grotowskiego, Eugenia Barby i Philipa B. Zarrilliego Artykuł skupia się głównie na pojęciu transkulturowej wiedzy cielesności, wypracowanym przez Eugenia Barbę i Nicolę Savaresego w ich ujęciu antropologii widowiska. Ich badania nad uprzednimi i przedekspresywnymi wartościami ruchu ludzkiego, zwłaszcza w kontekście teatru azjatyckiego i praktyk performatywnych

  5. Identification of ortho-Substituted Benzoic Acid/Ester Derivatives via the Gas-Phase Neighboring Group Participation Effect in (+)-ESI High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blincoe, William D; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A; Joyce, Leo A; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming

    2018-04-01

    Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS 1 ). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS 1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Insights into the phylogeny of Northern Hemisphere Armillaria: Neighbor-net and Bayesian analyses of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Ned B; Stewart, Jane E; Ota, Yuko; Hanna, John W; Richardson, Bryce A; Ross-Davis, Amy L; Elías-Román, Rubén D; Korhonen, Kari; Keča, Nenad; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Alvarado-Rosales, Dionicio; Solheim, Halvor; Brazee, Nicholas J; Łakomy, Piotr; Cleary, Michelle R; Hasegawa, Eri; Kikuchi, Taisei; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Tsopelas, Panaghiotis; Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone; Tsykun, Tetyana; Bérubé, Jean A; Stefani, Franck O P; Jafarpour, Saeideh; Antonín, Vladimír; Tomšovský, Michal; McDonald, Geral I; Woodward, Stephen; Kim, Mee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Armillaria possesses several intriguing characteristics that have inspired wide interest in understanding phylogenetic relationships within and among species of this genus. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based analyses of Armillaria provide only limited information for phylogenetic studies among widely divergent taxa. More recent studies have shown that translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) sequences are highly informative for phylogenetic analysis of Armillaria species within diverse global regions. This study used Neighbor-net and coalescence-based Bayesian analyses to examine phylogenetic relationships of newly determined and existing tef1 sequences derived from diverse Armillaria species from across the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere Armillaria species included for reference. Based on the Bayesian analysis of tef1 sequences, Armillaria species from the Northern Hemisphere are generally contained within the following four superclades, which are named according to the specific epithet of the most frequently cited species within the superclade: (i) Socialis/Tabescens (exannulate) superclade including Eurasian A. ectypa, North American A. socialis (A. tabescens), and Eurasian A. socialis (A. tabescens) clades; (ii) Mellea superclade including undescribed annulate North American Armillaria sp. (Mexico) and four separate clades of A. mellea (Europe and Iran, eastern Asia, and two groups from North America); (iii) Gallica superclade including Armillaria Nag E (Japan), multiple clades of A. gallica (Asia and Europe), A. calvescens (eastern North America), A. cepistipes (North America), A. altimontana (western USA), A. nabsnona (North America and Japan), and at least two A. gallica clades (North America); and (iv) Solidipes/Ostoyae superclade including two A. solidipes/ostoyae clades (North America), A. gemina (eastern USA), A. solidipes/ostoyae (Eurasia), A. cepistipes (Europe and Japan), A. sinapina (North America and Japan), and A. borealis

  7. The effect of near laterally and vertically neighboring quantum dots on the composition of uncapped InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donglin, Wang; Zhongyuan, Yu; Yumin, Liu; Han, Ye; Pengfei, Lu; Xiaotao, Guo; Long, Zhao; Xia, Xin

    2010-01-01

    The composition of quantum dots has a direct effect on the optical and electronic properties of quantum-dot-based devices. In this paper, we combine the method of moving asymptotes and finite element tools to compute the composition distribution by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of quantum dots, and use this method to study the effect of near laterally and vertically neighboring quantum dots on the composition distribution. The simulation results indicate that the effect from the laterally neighboring quantum dot is very small, and the vertically neighboring quantum dot can significantly influence the composition by the coupled strain field

  8. Perceptual inequality between two neighboring time intervals defined by sound markers: correspondence between neurophysiological and psychological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako eMitsudo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity related to time estimation processes in humans was analyzed using a perceptual phenomenon called auditory temporal assimilation. In a typical stimulus condition, two neighboring time intervals (T1 and T2 in this order are perceived as equal even when the physical lengths of these time intervals are considerably different. Our previous event-related potential (ERP study demonstrated that a slow negative component (SNCt appears in the right-frontal brain area (around the F8 electrode after T2, which is associated with judgment of the equality/inequality of T1 and T2. In the present study, we conducted two ERP experiments to further confirm the robustness of the SNCt. The stimulus patterns consisted of two neighboring time intervals marked by three successive tone bursts. Thirteen participants only listened to the patterns in the first session, and judged the equality/inequality of T1 and T2 in the next session. Behavioral data showed typical temporal assimilation. The ERP data revealed that three components (N1; contingent negative variation, CNV; and SNCt emerged related to the temporal judgment. The N1 appeared in the central area, and its peak latencies corresponded to the physical timing of each marker onset. The CNV component appeared in the frontal area during T2 presentation, and its amplitude increased as a function of T1. The SNCt appeared in the right-frontal area after the presentation of T1 and T2, and its magnitude was larger for the temporal patterns causing perceptual inequality. The SNCt was also correlated with the perceptual equality/inequality of the same stimulus pattern, and continued up to about 400 ms after the end of T2. These results suggest that the SNCt can be a signature of equality/inequality judgment, which derives from the comparison of the two neighboring time intervals.

  9. Many Neighbors are not Silent. fMRI Evidence for Global Lexical Activity in Visual Word Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eBraun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many neurocognitive studies investigated the neural correlates of visual word recognition, some of which manipulated the orthographic neighborhood density of words and nonwords believed to influence the activation of orthographically similar representations in a hypothetical mental lexicon. Previous neuroimaging research failed to find evidence for such global lexical activity associated with neighborhood density. Rather, effects were interpreted to reflect semantic or domain general processing. The present fMRI study revealed effects of lexicality, orthographic neighborhood density and a lexicality by orthographic neighborhood density interaction in a silent reading task. For the first time we found greater activity for words and nonwords with a high number of neighbors. We propose that this activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reflects activation of orthographically similar codes in verbal working memory thus providing evidence for global lexical activity as the basis of the neighborhood density effect. The interaction of lexicality by neighborhood density in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed lower activity in response to words with a high number compared to nonwords with a high number of neighbors. In the light of these results the facilitatory effect for words and inhibitory effect for nonwords with many neighbors observed in previous studies can be understood as being due to the operation of a fast-guess mechanism for words and a temporal deadline mechanism for nonwords as predicted by models of visual word recognition. Furthermore, we propose that the lexicality effect with higher activity for words compared to nonwords in inferior parietal and middle temporal cortex reflects the operation of an identification mechanism and based on local lexico-semantic activity.

  10. Genomic copy number analysis of Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ukrainian–American Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Hess, Julia; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Abend, Michael; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Unger, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    One of the major consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident was a dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence, predominantly in patients exposed to the radioiodine fallout at young age. The present study is the first on genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) of PTCs of the Ukrainian–American cohort (UkrAm) generated by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CNA profiles revealed a significant enrichment of a subgroup of patients with female gender, long latency (>17 years) and negative lymph node status. Further, we identified single CNAs that were significantly associated with latency, gender, radiation dose and BRAF V600E mutation status. Multivariate analysis revealed no interactions but additive effects of parameters gender, latency and dose on CNAs. The previously identified radiation-associated gain of the chromosomal bands 7q11.22-11.23 was present in 29% of cases. Moreover, comparison of our radiation-associated PTC data set with the TCGA data set on sporadic PTCs revealed altered copy numbers of the tumor driver genes NF2 and CHEK2. Further, we integrated the CNA data with transcriptomic data that were available on a subset of the herein analyzed cohort and did not find statistically significant associations between the two molecular layers. However, applying hierarchical clustering on a ‘BRAF-like/RAS-like’ transcriptome signature split the cases into four groups, one of which containing all BRAF-positive cases validating the signature in an independent data set. PMID:26320103

  11. First principle approach to correlation functions of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain: fourth-neighbor correlators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, H.E.; Shiroishi, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2005-01-01

    We show how correlation functions of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain without magnetic field in the anti-ferromagnetic ground state can be explicitly calculated using information contained in the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation [qKZ]. We find several fundamental relations which the inhomogeneous correlations should fulfill. On the other hand, it turns out that these relations can fix the form of the correlations uniquely. Actually, applying this idea, we have obtained all the correlation functions on five sites. Particularly by taking the homogeneous limit, we have got the analytic form of the fourth-neighbor pair correlator j z S j+4 z >

  12. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  13. The U.S. and South Asia: Partners of Convenience; Global Neighbors of Necessity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Deborah K

    1998-01-01

    .... The subcontinent defies rational analysis One is continually reminded of the parable of the blind men and the elephant the dimensions are so grand that one can focus only on the element at hand...

  14. Love Thy Neighbor? Relationships between Religion and Racial Intolerance in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Doebler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article examines relationships between religion and racial intolerance across 47 countries by applying multilevel modeling to European survey data and is the first in-depth analysis of moderation of these relationships by European national contexts. The analysis distinguishes a believing, belonging, and practice-dimension of religiosity. The results yield little evidence of a link between denominational belonging, religious practice, and racial intolerance. The religiosity dimension that...

  15. Studying nearest neighbor correlations by atom probe tomography (APT) in metallic glasses as exemplified for Fe40Ni40B20 glassy ribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Shariq, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    A next nearest neighbor evaluation procedure of atom probe tomography data provides distributions of the distances between atoms. The width of these distributions for metallic glasses studied so far is a few Angstrom reflecting the spatial resolution of the analytical technique. However, fitting Gaussian distributions to the distribution of atomic distances yields average distances with statistical uncertainties of 2 to 3 hundredth of an Angstrom. Fe 40Ni40B20 metallic glass ribbons are characterized this way in the as quenched state and for a state heat treated at 350 °C for 1 h revealing a change in the structure on the sub-nanometer scale. By applying the statistical tool of the χ2 test a slight deviation from a random distribution of B-atoms in the as quenched sample is perceived, whereas a pronounced elemental inhomogeneity of boron is detected for the annealed state. In addition, the distance distribution of the first fifteen atomic neighbors is determined by using this algorithm for both annealed and as quenched states. The next neighbor evaluation algorithm evinces a steric periodicity of the atoms when the next neighbor distances are normalized by the first next neighbor distance. A comparison of the nearest neighbor atomic distribution for as quenched and annealed state shows accumulation of Ni and B. Moreover, it also reveals the tendency of Fe and B to move slightly away from each other, an incipient step to Ni rich boride formation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Risk of Social Isolation among Older Patients: What Factors Affect the Availability of Family, Friends, and Neighbors upon Hospitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hougham, Gavin W; Meltzer, David O

    2018-03-02

    To examine the prevalence of social isolation among older patients admitted to a hospital, and the effects of sociodemographic and health-related factors on the availability of their family, friends, and neighbor networks. Analyses are based on interviews with a sample of 2,449 older patients admitted to an urban academic medical center in the United States. A nine-item version of Lubben's Social Network Scale was developed and used to assess the availability of different social networks. About 47% of the sample was at risk of social isolation. The oldest old and non-White older adults showed greater risk. The availability of family networks was associated with age, sex, marital status, and prior hospitalization; friend networks with age, race, education, prior hospitalization, and functional limitations; neighbor networks with race, education, marital status, and functional limitations. The risk of social isolation and the availability of social support for hospitalized older adults varies by both patient and network characteristics. Health professionals should attend to this risk and the factors associated with such risk. By assessing the availability of various types and frequency of support among older patients, health professionals can better identify those who may need additional support after discharge. Such information should be used in discharge planning to help prevent unnecessary complications and potential readmission.

  17. Influence of geometry on light harvesting in dendrimeric systems. II. nth-nearest neighbor effects and the onset of percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Jonathan L.; Kozak, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the effect of imposing different constraints (biases, boundary conditions) on the mean time to trapping (or mean walklength) for a particle (excitation) migrating on a finite dendrimer lattice with a centrally positioned trap. By mobilizing the theory of finite Markov processes, we are able to obtain exact analytic expressions for site-specific walklengths as well as the overall walklength for both nearest-neighbor and second-nearest-neighbor displacements. This allows the comparison with and generalization of earlier results [A. Bar-Haim, J. Klafter, J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (1998) 1662; A. Bar-Haim, J. Klafter, J. Lumin. 76, 77 (1998) 197; O. Flomenbom, R.J. Amir, D. Shabat, J. Klafter, J. Lumin. 111 (2005) 315; J.L. Bentz, F.N. Hosseini, J.J. Kozak, Chem. Phys. Lett. 370 (2003) 319]. A novel feature of this work is the establishment of a connection between the random walk models studied here and percolation theory. The full dynamical behavior was also determined via solution of the stochastic master equation, and the results obtained compared with recent spectroscopic experiments

  18. Influence of geometry on light harvesting in dendrimeric systems. II. nth-nearest neighbor effects and the onset of percolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Jonathan L. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: jnbntz@iastate.edu; Kozak, John J. [Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125-7400 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    We explore the effect of imposing different constraints (biases, boundary conditions) on the mean time to trapping (or mean walklength) for a particle (excitation) migrating on a finite dendrimer lattice with a centrally positioned trap. By mobilizing the theory of finite Markov processes, we are able to obtain exact analytic expressions for site-specific walklengths as well as the overall walklength for both nearest-neighbor and second-nearest-neighbor displacements. This allows the comparison with and generalization of earlier results [A. Bar-Haim, J. Klafter, J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (1998) 1662; A. Bar-Haim, J. Klafter, J. Lumin. 76, 77 (1998) 197; O. Flomenbom, R.J. Amir, D. Shabat, J. Klafter, J. Lumin. 111 (2005) 315; J.L. Bentz, F.N. Hosseini, J.J. Kozak, Chem. Phys. Lett. 370 (2003) 319]. A novel feature of this work is the establishment of a connection between the random walk models studied here and percolation theory. The full dynamical behavior was also determined via solution of the stochastic master equation, and the results obtained compared with recent spectroscopic experiments.

  19. Hole motion in the t-J and Hubbard models: Effect of a next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliano, E.; Bacci, S.; Dagotto, E.

    1990-01-01

    Using exact diagonalization techniques, we study one dynamical hole in the two-dimensional t-J and Hubbard models on a square lattice including a next-nearest-neighbor hopping t'. We present the phase diagram in the parameter space (J/t,t'/t), discussing the ground-state properties of the hole. At J=0, a crossing of levels exists at some value of t' separating a ferromagnetic from an antiferromagnetic ground state. For nonzero J, at least four different regions appear where the system behaves like an antiferromagnet or a (not fully saturated) ferromagnet. We study the quasiparticle behavior of the hole, showing that for small values of |t'| the previously presented string picture is still valid. We also find that, for a realistic set of parameters derived from the Cu-O Hamiltonian, the hole has momentum (π/2,π/2), suggesting an enhancement of the p-wave superconducting mode due to the second-neighbor interactions in the spin-bag picture. Results for the t-t'-U model are also discussed with conclusions similar to those of the t-t'-J model. In general we found that t'=0 is not a singular point of these models

  20. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-02-16

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance.

  1. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Heart murmur detection based on wavelet transformation and a synergy between artificial neural network and modified neighbor annealing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizadeh, Gholamhossein; Barati, Ramin

    2017-05-01

    Early recognition of heart disease plays a vital role in saving lives. Heart murmurs are one of the common heart problems. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained with Modified Neighbor Annealing (MNA) to classify heart cycles into normal and murmur classes. Heart cycles are separated from heart sounds using wavelet transformer. The network inputs are features extracted from individual heart cycles, and two classification outputs. Classification accuracy of the proposed model is compared with five multilayer perceptron trained with Levenberg-Marquardt, Extreme-learning-machine, back-propagation, simulated-annealing, and neighbor-annealing algorithms. It is also compared with a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) ANN. The proposed model is trained and tested using real heart sounds available in the Pascal database to show the applicability of the proposed scheme. Also, a device to record real heart sounds has been developed and used for comparison purposes too. Based on the results of this study, MNA can be used to produce considerable results as a heart cycle classifier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Meeting the Cool Neighbors. XII. An Optically Anchored Analysis of the Near-infrared Spectra of L Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle L.; Núñez, Alejandro; Burgasser, Adam J.; Abrahams, Ellianna; Rice, Emily L.; Reid, I. Neill; Looper, Dagny

    2018-01-01

    Discrepancies between competing optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectral typing systems for L dwarfs have motivated us to search for a classification scheme that ties the optical and NIR schemes together, and addresses complexities in the spectral morphology. We use new and extant optical and NIR spectra to compile a sample of 171 L dwarfs, including 27 low-gravity β and γ objects, with spectral coverage from 0.6–2.4 μm. We present 155 new low-resolution NIR spectra and 19 new optical spectra. We utilize a method for analyzing NIR spectra that partially removes the broad-band spectral slope and reveals similarities in the absorption features between objects of the same optical spectral type. Using the optical spectra as an anchor, we generate near-infrared spectral average templates for L0–L8, L0–L4γ, and L0–L1β type dwarfs. These templates reveal that NIR spectral morphologies are correlated with the optical types. They also show the range of spectral morphologies spanned by each spectral type. We compare low-gravity and field-gravity templates to provide recommendations on the minimum required observations for credibly classifying low-gravity spectra using low-resolution NIR data. We use the templates to evaluate the existing NIR spectral standards and propose new ones where appropriate. Finally, we build on the work of Kirkpatrick et al. to provide a spectral typing method that is tied to the optical and can be used when only H or K band data are available. The methods we present here provide resolutions to several long-standing issues with classifying L dwarf spectra and could also be the foundation for a spectral classification scheme for cloudy exoplanets.

  4. Analysis and implementation of cross lingual short message service spam filtering using graph-based k-nearest neighbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Cyntya Dewi, Dyah; Shaufiah; Asror, Ibnu

    2018-03-01

    SMS (Short Message Service) is on e of the communication services that still be the main choice, although now the phone grow with various applications. Along with the development of various other communication media, some countries lowered SMS rates to keep the interest of mobile users. It resulted in increased spam SMS that used by several parties, one of them for advertisement. Given the kind of multi-lingual documents in a message SMS, the Web, and others, necessary for effective multilingual or cross-lingual processing techniques is becoming increasingly important. The steps that performed in this research is data / messages first preprocessing then represented into a graph model. Then calculated using GKNN method. From this research we get the maximum accuracy is 98.86 with training data in Indonesian language and testing data in indonesian language with K 10 and threshold 0.001.

  5. Nonseparable dynamic nearest neighbor Gaussian process models for large spatio-temporal data with an application to particulate matter analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, A.; Banerjee, S.; Finley, A.O.; Hamm, N.A.S.; Schaap, M.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a class of malicious environmental pollutants known to be detrimental to human health. Regulatory efforts aimed at curbing PM levels in different countries often require high resolution space–time maps that can identify red-flag regions exceeding statutory concentration

  6. Tourist Satisfaction, Image, and Loyalty from an Interregional Perspective: An Analysis of Neighboring Areas with Distinct Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the three areas of the Korean Capital Region to investigate the effects of their different tourism resources on attribute satisfaction and the relationships that attribute satisfaction has with overall satisfaction, country image, and tourist loyalty. Three partial least squares structural equation models find that costs, lodging, and communication are consistently unimportant, but the most important variable differs by area. In Seoul (an international shopping center, shopping is paramount; food is most important in Incheon (where its local cuisines have been well publicized; and satisfaction with tourism administration services is highly valued in Gyeonggi (which lacks facilities for foreign tourists. At the construct level, overall happiness exerts a stronger direct effect on image than on loyalty, but if its indirect effect is considered, the total effect on loyalty surpasses that on image. This is particularly true in Gyeonggi, where tourism resources are less exploited.

  7. Lessons Learned from Two Neighbors: How Educators Teach of United States Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of data collected from Chihuahua, Mexico, and Ontario, Canada, educators on how United States (U. S.) policies are taught and discussed in their classrooms. Teachers and administrators were interviewed with regard to their respective curricula and classroom discussions. The researcher sought to gain insight on how…

  8. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  9. Comparison of Two Classifiers; K-Nearest Neighbor and Artificial Neural Network, for Fault Diagnosis on a Main Engine Journal-Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration analysis is an accepted method in condition monitoring of machines, since it can provide useful and reliable information about machine working condition. This paper surveys a new scheme for fault diagnosis of main journal-bearings of internal combustion (IC engine based on power spectral density (PSD technique and two classifiers, namely, K-nearest neighbor (KNN and artificial neural network (ANN. Vibration signals for three different conditions of journal-bearing; normal, with oil starvation condition and extreme wear fault were acquired from an IC engine. PSD was applied to process the vibration signals. Thirty features were extracted from the PSD values of signals as a feature source for fault diagnosis. KNN and ANN were trained by training data set and then used as diagnostic classifiers. Variable K value and hidden neuron count (N were used in the range of 1 to 20, with a step size of 1 for KNN and ANN to gain the best classification results. The roles of PSD, KNN and ANN techniques were studied. From the results, it is shown that the performance of ANN is better than KNN. The experimental results dèmonstrate that the proposed diagnostic method can reliably separate different fault conditions in main journal-bearings of IC engine.

  10. Diversity of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS reveals phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-neighbors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Liguori

    Full Text Available Length polymorphisms within the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS have been described as stable genetic markers for studying bacterial phylogenetics. In this study, we used these genetic markers to investigate phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-relative species. B. pseudomallei is known as one of the most genetically recombined bacterial species. In silico analysis of multiple B. pseudomallei genomes revealed approximately four homologous rRNA operons and ITS length polymorphisms therein. We characterized ITS distribution using PCR and analyzed via a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis in 1,191 B. pseudomallei strains. Three major ITS types were identified, two of which were commonly found in most B. pseudomallei strains from the endemic areas, whereas the third one was significantly correlated with worldwide sporadic strains. Interestingly, mixtures of the two common ITS types were observed within the same strains, and at a greater incidence in Thailand than Australia suggesting that genetic recombination causes the ITS variation within species, with greater recombination frequency in Thailand. In addition, the B. mallei ITS type was common to B. pseudomallei, providing further support that B. mallei is a clone of B. pseudomallei. Other B. pseudomallei near-neighbors possessed unique and monomorphic ITS types. Our data shed light on evolutionary patterns of B. pseudomallei and its near relative species.

  11. Applying geo-spatial analysis in community needs assessment: Implications for planning and prioritizing based on data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Kamran; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Munoz, Oscar J

    2016-10-01

    Colonias are sub standardized and unincorporated areas located along the US-Mexico border, with severely lacking infrastructure. Residents have poor health and limited availability, accessibility and/or utilization of healthcare services in the region. Using 2006-2007 community needs assessment (CNA) surveys collected by the Center for Housing and Urban Development of Texas A&M University, 410 randomly selected surveys from Hidalgo County, Texas were analyzed. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed and Odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Out of 410 surveys, 333 were geo-coded to identify areas most in need of dental and vision care. Two hospitals existed within 5 miles radius of the mean centers for the two areas. Distance to health care facility was not statistically predictive of the need of dental care OR=0.96 (95% CI=0.855-1.078, p value=0.492) and vision care OR=1.083 (95% CI=0.968-1.212, p value=0.164). Integrating spatial analysis and CNA enhances planning to improve service accessibility and utilization in underserved areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Política e cinema na era da Boa Vizinhança (1933-1945 * Policy and cinema at the age of the Good Neighbor (1933-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAIAS ALBERTIN DE MORAES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo apresenta uma análise histórica da Política Externa de Boa Vizinhança para América Latina, particularmente no Brasil, e de sua principal instituição o Office of the coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA, destacando sua divisão de cinema, a Motion Picture Division (MPD. Essas instituições são analisadas pelo enfoque teórico dos construtivistas modernistas-linguistas. Assim, o texto busca destacar a importância da construção de uma infraestrutura física, discursiva e humana com habilidade para selecionar, organizar, regular e redistribuir os discursos enunciados pela Política Externa de Boa Vizinhança no setor da indústria cinematográfica.Palavras-chave: Política Externa de Boa Vizinhança; Office of the coordinator of Inter-American Affairs; Motion Picture Division.  Abstract: This paper presents a historical analysis of the Good Neighbor Policy for Latin America, particularly in Brazil, and its main institution the Office of the coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA, focusing on its film department, the Motion Picture Division (MPD. These institutions are analyzed by the theoretical approach of modernist linguists constructivists. So this text sought to highlight the importance of building a physical infrastructure, discursive and human with the ability to select, organize, regulate and redistribute the speeches set out by the Good Neighbor Policy in the film industry sector.Keywords: Good Neighbor Policy; Office of the coordinator of Inter-American Affairs; Motion Picture Division.

  13. Mass loading of typical artificial sweeteners in a pig farm and their dissipation and uptake by plants in neighboring farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Liu, Yarui; Xu, Jiayao; Sun, Hongwen; Chen, Hao; Yao, Yiming; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Fengju; Alder, Aldredo C

    2017-12-15

    Pig farm is an important potential source for artificial sweeteners (ASs) in the environment due to their wide use as additives in pig feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of typical ASs in pig farm and neighboring farmland. For this purpose, the levels of four typical artificial ASs, i.e. saccharin (SAC), cyclamate (CYC), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC), in pig feed and manure from a pig farm and water samples from an on-farm wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China were measured and the mass loadings and removal efficiencies were assessed. Moreover, the levels of ASs in different layers of soil and vegetables in neighboring farmland that received manure fertilizers and wastewater from the farm were consecutively monitored for 60-80days. The SAC, CYC and ACE were widely determined in all kinds of the samples, while SUC was only found in few soil samples. The mass loadings of the ASs in pig feed were estimated up to 311kg/year for SAC, 59.1kg/year for CYC, and 17.1kg/year for ACE, respectively. The fractions of the total mass of ASs excreted via manure were estimated to be 36.0% for SAC, 59.4% for CYC, and 36.7% for ACE as compared to those in pig feed. High removal efficiencies (>90%) of ASs in the on-farm WWTP was achieved. In greenhouse soils, CYC, SAC, ACE, and SUC were degraded quickly, with half-lives of 4.3-5.9 d, 2.7-4.2 d, 8.4-12.3 d, and 7.3-10.8 d, respectively. Lower levels of ASs were found in deeper soil layer (20-30cm). The ASs were considerably absorbed by plants when the ASs' concentrations were high in soil. This study presents the first comprehensive overview of ASs fate from a pig farm to the neighboring agricultural ecosystem. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Price dispersion in neighboring countries in the Western Balkans - the case of the Macedonian tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazhe JORDANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the degree of change in price and co- movement of prices between markets. The distinctiveness of the study is that it introduced a single product (highly perishable product price relationship analysis between a pair of spatially separated markets in the countries of the Western Balkan. This study attempts to comprehend to what extent the Macedonian domestic market is integrated into the regional markets, as well as to understand the relationship between the spatially separated regional markets. The data refer to the domestic Macedonian market and four different regional markets (Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro, as major importers of Macedonian fresh tomatoes. These countries were part of a common market until the 1990s and in the past period transited to a market economy. The method used is common time series analysis through unit root test, co-integration test and causality test. The study showed that the Macedonian economy, especially in terms of the tomato industry, is highly vulnerable and dependant on external markets. Future developments do not only depend upon the advances in the country, but also on developments in the export destinations. This also applies to the other concerned countries in the regions. The main finding is that a small country such as Macedonia is absorbed by developments in other countries in the region. This finding is supported by the results of the study that demonstrated a high level of co-integration between the domestic and regional markets.

  15. Extensive computation of albedo contrast between martian dust devil tracks and their neighboring regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statella, Thiago; Pina, Pedro; da Silva, Erivaldo Antônio

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a method to compute the albedo contrast between dust devil tracks and their surrounding regions on Mars. It is mainly based on Mathematical Morphology operators and uses all the points of the edges of the tracks to compute the values of the albedo contrast. It permits the extraction of more accurate and complete information, when compared to traditional point sampling, not only providing better statistics but also permitting the analysis of local variations along the entirety of the tracks. This measure of contrast, based on relative quantities, is much more adequate to establish comparisons at regional scales and in multi-temporal basis using imagery acquired in rather different environmental and operational conditions. Also, the substantial increase in the details extracted may permit quantifying differential depositions of dust by computing local temporal fading of the tracks with consequences on a better estimation of the thickness of the top most layer of dust and the minimum value needed to create dust devils tracks. The developed tool is tested on 110 HiRISE images depicting regions in the Aeolis, Argyre, Eridania, Noachis and Hellas quadrangles. As a complementary evaluation, we also performed a temporal analysis of the albedo in a region of Russell crater, where high seasonal dust devil activity was already observed before, comprising the years 2007-2012. The mean albedo of the Russell crater is in this case indicative of dust devil tracks presence and, therefore, can be used to quantify dust devil activity.

  16. Trafficking in women in Serbia and neighboring countries: Scope, characteristics and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper scope, characteristics and causes of sex trafficking in women are analyzed. The analysis considers trafficking in women in Serbia and in its direct and indirect surrounding. Available data about distribution and channels of trafficking in women, as well as about methods of recruitment, transfer and victimization of women are analyzed. Also, some of characteristics of traffickers are considered. The special chapter deals with factors that contribute to sex trafficking in women. These factors are classified in three groups: push factors, pull factors and facilitating factors. In the conclusion, the author points out the importance of data exposed in this paper for building efficient system of struggle against as well as prevention of trafficking of human beings in general, and, of sex trafficking in women, in particular.

  17. Quasi-phases and pseudo-transitions in one-dimensional models with nearest neighbor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2018-01-01

    There are some particular one-dimensional models, such as the Ising-Heisenberg spin models with a variety of chain structures, which exhibit unexpected behaviors quite similar to the first and second order phase transition, which could be confused naively with an authentic phase transition. Through the analysis of the first derivative of free energy, such as entropy, magnetization, and internal energy, a "sudden" jump that closely resembles a first-order phase transition at finite temperature occurs. However, by analyzing the second derivative of free energy, such as specific heat and magnetic susceptibility at finite temperature, it behaves quite similarly to a second-order phase transition exhibiting an astonishingly sharp and fine peak. The correlation length also confirms the evidence of this pseudo-transition temperature, where a sharp peak occurs at the pseudo-critical temperature. We also present the necessary conditions for the emergence of these quasi-phases and pseudo-transitions.

  18. Dressing Uncivil Neighbor(hoods. Walt Whitman's Adhesive Democracy in “Calamus” and “Drum-Taps”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Peña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 19th-century US poet Walt Whitman’s vindication of “adhesiveness” as imperative to the formation of a social democracy which might heal the neighborly hatreds of a divided United States and bind the nation together at a time of violent fragmentation and Civil War. The article examines Whitman’s location of the possibility of politics and democracy at the interpersonal level, and connects the poet’s political project in his 1860 “Calamus” with that in the 1865 “Drum-Taps”, studying how Whitman’s belief in the uniting capacity of love between men remained constant even as he was witnessing the tragic consequences of a four-year Civil War which would widen even more the irreconcilable gulfs between different Americans.

  19. Facial rejuvenation starts in the midface: three-dimensional volumetric facial rejuvenation has beneficial effects on nontreated neighboring esthetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Facial aging is a major indication for minimal invasive esthetic procedures. Dermal fillers are a cornerstone in the approach for facial sculpturing. But where to start? Our concept is midfacial volume restoration in first place. This will result in a healthy and youthful appearance creating a facial V-shape. But midfacial filler injection does not only improve the malar area. It has also beneficial effects on neighboring esthetic units. We report on such improvements in periocular and nasolabial region, upper lips and perioral tissue, and the jaw line and discuss anatomical background. We hypothesize that midfacial deep filler injections also may activate subdermal white adipose tissue stem cells contributing to longer lasting rejuvenation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Novel qsar combination forecast model for insect repellent coupling support vector regression and k-nearest-neighbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.F.; Bai, L.Y.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the precision of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling for aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives insect repellent, a novel nonlinear combination forecast model was proposed integrating support vector regression (SVR) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN): Firstly, search optimal kernel function and nonlinearly select molecular descriptors by the rule of minimum MSE value using SVR. Secondly, illuminate the effects of all descriptors on biological activity by multi-round enforcement resistance-selection. Thirdly, construct the sub-models with predicted values of different KNN. Then, get the optimal kernel and corresponding retained sub-models through subtle selection. Finally, make prediction with leave-one-out (LOO) method in the basis of reserved sub-models. Compared with previous widely used models, our work shows significant improvement in modeling performance, which demonstrates the superiority of the present combination forecast model. (author)

  1. Prediction and characterization of heat-affected zone formation due to neighboring nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Ryan J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manuel, Michelle V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. Much of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To enhance the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more predictive understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical model for the purpose of evaluating new foil-substrate combinations for screening and optimization. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and different alloys.

  2. A Diagnosis Method for Rotation Machinery Faults Based on Dimensionless Indexes Combined with K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to well distinguish the dimensionless indexes between normal petrochemical rotating machinery equipment and those with complex faults. When the conflict of evidence is too big, it will result in uncertainty of diagnosis. This paper presents a diagnosis method for rotation machinery fault based on dimensionless indexes combined with K-nearest neighbor (KNN algorithm. This method uses a KNN algorithm and an evidence fusion theoretical formula to process fuzzy data, incomplete data, and accurate data. This method can transfer the signals from the petrochemical rotating machinery sensors to the reliability manners using dimensionless indexes and KNN algorithm. The input information is further integrated by an evidence synthesis formula to get the final data. The type of fault will be decided based on these data. The experimental results show that the proposed method can integrate data to provide a more reliable and reasonable result, thereby reducing the decision risk.

  3. Spin canting in a Dy-based single-chain magnet with dominant next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, K.; Luzon, J.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.; Bogani, L.; Vindigni, A.; Rettori, A.; Pini, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the static magnetic properties of single crystals of the molecular-based single-chain magnet of formula [Dy(hfac)3NIT(C6H4OPh)]∞ comprising alternating Dy3+ and organic radicals. The magnetic molar susceptibility χM displays a strong angular variation for sample rotations around two directions perpendicular to the chain axis. A peculiar inversion between maxima and minima in the angular dependence of χM occurs on increasing temperature. Using information regarding the monomeric building block as well as an ab initio estimation of the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy3+ ion, this “anisotropy-inversion” phenomenon can be assigned to weak one-dimensional ferromagnetism along the chain axis. This indicates that antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interactions between Dy3+ ions dominate, despite the large Dy-Dy separation, over the nearest-neighbor interactions between the radicals and the Dy3+ ions. Measurements of the field dependence of the magnetization, both along and perpendicularly to the chain, and of the angular dependence of χM in a strong magnetic field confirm such an interpretation. Transfer-matrix simulations of the experimental measurements are performed using a classical one-dimensional spin model with antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange interaction and noncollinear uniaxial single-ion anisotropies favoring a canted antiferromagnetic spin arrangement, with a net magnetic moment along the chain axis. The fine agreement obtained with experimental data provides estimates of the Hamiltonian parameters, essential for further study of the dynamics of rare-earth-based molecular chains.

  4. Microscopic theory of the nearest-neighbor valence bond sector of the spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralko, Arnaud; Mila, Frédéric; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis

    2018-03-01

    The spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, which is closely realized in layered Mott insulators such as ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 , is one of the oldest and most enigmatic spin-1/2 lattice models. While the numerical evidence has accumulated in favor of a quantum spin liquid, the debate is still open as to whether it is a Z2 spin liquid with very short-range correlations (some kind of resonating valence bond spin liquid), or an algebraic spin liquid with power-law correlations. To address this issue, we have pushed the program started by Rokhsar and Kivelson in their derivation of the effective quantum dimer model description of Heisenberg models to unprecedented accuracy for the spin-1/2 kagome, by including all the most important virtual singlet contributions on top of the orthogonalization of the nearest-neighbor valence bond singlet basis. Quite remarkably, the resulting picture is a competition between a Z2 spin liquid and a diamond valence bond crystal with a 12-site unit cell, as in the density-matrix renormalization group simulations of Yan et al. Furthermore, we found that, on cylinders of finite diameter d , there is a transition between the Z2 spin liquid at small d and the diamond valence bond crystal at large d , the prediction of the present microscopic description for the two-dimensional lattice. These results show that, if the ground state of the spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnet can be described by nearest-neighbor singlet dimers, it is a diamond valence bond crystal, and, a contrario, that, if the system is a quantum spin liquid, it has to involve long-range singlets, consistent with the algebraic spin liquid scenario.

  5. Watch Out for Your Neighbor: Climbing onto Shrubs Is Related to Risk of Cannibalism in the Scorpion Buthus cf. occitanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco; Urbano-Tenorio, Fernando

    The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the following: a) better suitability of prey size for scorpions foraging on shrubs than on the ground, b) selection of shrub species with higher prey load, c) seasonal variations in prey availability on shrubs, and d) whether or not cannibalism risk on the ground increases the frequency of shrub climbing. Prey availability on shrubs was compared by estimating prey abundance in sticky traps placed in shrubs. A prey sample from shrubs was measured to compare prey size. Scorpions were sampled in six plots (50 m x 10 m) to estimate the proportion of individuals climbing on shrubs. Size difference and distance between individuals and their closest scorpion neighbor were measured to assess cannibalism risk. The results showed that mean prey size was two-fold larger on the ground. Selection of particular shrub species was not related to prey availability. Seasonal variations in the number of scorpions on shrubs were related to the number of active scorpions, but not with fluctuations in prey availability. Size differences between a scorpion and its nearest neighbor were positively related with a higher probability for a scorpion to climb onto a shrub when at a disadvantage, but distance was not significantly related. These results do not support hypotheses explaining shrub climbing based on resource availability. By contrast, our results provide evidence that shrub climbing is related to cannibalism risk.

  6. Source and Assessment of Metal Pollution at Khetri Copper Mine Tailings and Neighboring Soils, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Anita; Siddaiah, N Siva; Singh, Saurabh K

    2017-11-01

    We present here the results of the study on metal pollution by identifying source, abundance and distribution in soil and tailings of Khetri copper complex (KCC) mines, Rajasthan India. The region is highly contaminated by copper (Cu) with higher values in the soil near overburden material (1224 mg/kg) and tailings (111 mg/kg). The average Cu (231 mg/kg) concentration of soil is ~9, 5 and 32 times higher than upper crust, world average shale (WAS) and local background soil (LS), respectively. However this reaches to ~82, 46 and 280 times higher in case of tailing when compared. The correlation and principal component analysis for soil reveals that the source of Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe is mining and Pb and Cd could be result of weathering of parent rocks and other anthropogenic activities. The source for Cr in soil is both mining activities and weathering of parent rocks. The values of index of geo-accumulation (I geo ) and pollution load index for soil using LS as background are higher compared to values calculated using WAS. The metal rich sulphide bearing overburden material as well as tailings present in the open environment at KCC mines region warrants a proper management to minimize their impact on the environment.

  7. Geomorphology Influencing the Diversification of Fish in Small-Order Rivers of Neighboring Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, João P; Oliveira, Alessandra V de; Fabrin, Thomaz M C; Diamante, Nathália Alves; Prioli, Sônia M A P; Frota, Augusto; Graça, Weferson J da; Prioli, Alberto J

    2018-03-13

    The current analysis investigates whether the uplift of the Serra da Esperança and the Ponta Grossa Arch in the Serra Geral resulted in ichthyofaunistic changes in adjacent basins. For this, we describe the phylogeographic structure among populations of Trichomycterus collected in hydrographic basins in southern Brazil by using partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I. Analyses revealed that the nomenclature Trichomycterus davisi fails to contain the whole genetic diversity range found in the collected specimens and indicates at least six genetic lineages in Trichomycterus. Diagnostic morphological characteristics not associated to T. davisi could be identified in some specimens from the Iguaçu Piquiri haplogroup, indicating the occurrence of species Trichomycterus stawiarski. The lack of morphological differences among the other clades clearly suggests a cryptic species case. Molecular analyses revealed at least five new species besides T. davisi in the hydrographic basins and support the interpretation that genetic structure in T. davisi species complex is explained by tectonic events intrinsic to the areas of influence of Serra da Esperança and the Ponta Grossa Arch which occurred around 1.7 My.

  8. NORM levels in Spanish pit lakes and their impact in neighboring environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Galvan, J.A.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R. [University of Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a part of the South Zone of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (SW of Iberian Peninsula), being pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) the main mineral associated to this volcano-sedimentary complex. The intensive mining activities in the area, which started in the Roman Empire, have generated mine pits where underground and/or rainwater are stored. These stored waters have produced oxidation of pyrite and, consequently, the pH of pit water has become acid (pH around 2), causing the dissolution of metals and natural radionuclides. The main objective of this work is to show and discuss the levels found for different natural radionuclides (mainly uranium isotopes and daughters via α/γ spectrometry) in water samples and sediments collected from several mine pit lakes located in the south-west of Spain. The waters of the studied pit lakes can interact with the environment, and a fraction can be transferred to surrounding aquifers and even to the main river of the zone (the Odiel River). The waters of this river, when cross the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of U-isotopes due to acid mining drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of natural radionuclides in these pit lakes and its influence in the surrounding area and Odiel river will be additionally evaluated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Potential of Congress Tourism in the Republic of Croatia in Comparison to Neighboring Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Marina

    2016-12-01

    interesting destination for other members of the EU. Congress activity in Slovenia is booming, with a growing number of modern equipped convention venues with modern facilities for implementation of convention events. Slovenia has three major congress destinations; Ljubljana, Portorož and Bled that meet the conditions for organizing congresses. The Republic of Serbia with its tourism development strategy, presented business tourism as a potential selective form of tourism that can contribute to increasing tourist traffic of local and foreign tourists. Congress destinations that represent an ideal destination for congresses are: Belgrade, Novi Sad and Zlatibor. The application of sustainable development in the area of congress tourism plays an important role in form of preservation of resources and environmental protection. Therefore, congress tourism should be managed in a way to meet economic, social, ecological and aesthetic needs of a destination. Methodology used in this research paper consists of desk research, descriptive method, historical method, method of analysis, synthesis and comparative method. Beside secondary data analysis through literature review data are induced from Central Bureau of Statistics, the Institute for Tourism, Zagreb Tourist Board, Tourist Board of Opatija, The Dubrovnik Tourist Board, Serbian Convention Bureau and Research as well as from available published articles, books and internet data related to Slovenian business tourism. This research paper contributes to further scientific research and improvements needed in order to continuously develop and increase the size and quality of business tourism.

  10. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Claire C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. RESULTS: We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. CONCLUSION: Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  11. Transfer of tactile perceptual learning to untrained neighboring fingers reflects natural use relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey-Jones, Harriet; Harrar, Vanessa; Oliver, Jonathan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Spence, Charles; Makin, Tamar R

    2016-03-01

    Tactile learning transfers from trained to untrained fingers in a pattern that reflects overlap between the representations of fingers in the somatosensory system (e.g., neurons with multifinger receptive fields). While physical proximity on the body is known to determine the topography of somatosensory representations, tactile coactivation is also an established organizing principle of somatosensory topography. In this study we investigated whether tactile coactivation, induced by habitual inter-finger cooperative use (use pattern), shapes inter-finger overlap. To this end, we used psychophysics to compare the transfer of tactile learning from the middle finger to its adjacent fingers. This allowed us to compare transfer to two fingers that are both physically and cortically adjacent to the middle finger but have differing use patterns. Specifically, the middle finger is used more frequently with the ring than with the index finger. We predicted this should lead to greater representational overlap between the former than the latter pair. Furthermore, this difference in overlap should be reflected in differential learning transfer from the middle to index vs. ring fingers. Subsequently, we predicted temporary learning-related changes in the middle finger's representation (e.g., cortical magnification) would cause transient interference in perceptual thresholds of the ring, but not the index, finger. Supporting this, longitudinal analysis revealed a divergence where learning transfer was fast to the index finger but relatively delayed to the ring finger. Our results support the theory that tactile coactivation patterns between digits affect their topographic relationships. Our findings emphasize how action shapes perception and somatosensory organization. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Neighboring genes for DNA-binding proteins rescue male sterility in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Araripe, Luciana O; Hartl, Daniel L

    2016-07-19

    Crosses between closely related animal species often result in male hybrids that are sterile, and the molecular and functional basis of genetic factors for hybrid male sterility is of great interest. Here, we report a molecular and functional analysis of HMS1, a region of 9.2 kb in chromosome 3 of Drosophila mauritiana, which results in virtually complete hybrid male sterility when homozygous in the genetic background of sibling species Drosophila simulans. The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1 Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins, agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator. The contribution of each gene to hybrid male sterility was assessed by means of germ-line transformation, with constructs containing complete agt and Taf1 genomic sequences as well as various chimeric constructs. Both agt and Taf1 contribute about equally to HMS1 hybrid male sterility. Transgenes containing either locus rescue sterility in about one-half of the males, and among fertile males the number of offspring is in the normal range. This finding suggests compensatory proliferation of the rescued, nondysfunctional germ cells. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1 Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.

  13. Agent-based simulations of the influence of social policy and neighboring communication on the adoption of grid-connected photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-agent systems coupled with an electric power flow analysis. • Influence of social policy and communication on the adoption of photovoltaics. • Strong intervention near a transformer drives the greatest PV adoption. • Strong intervention far from a transformer increases social costs. - Abstract: Agent-based simulations coupled with an analysis of the flow of electric power are carried out to examine the influence of the social policy of the government and the neighboring communication between customers on the adoption of distributed rooftop photovoltaic electrical power generators (PVs). How the relationships between the social policy and the possibility of a reverse current restriction give rise to the collective behavior of autonomous individuals, and how the end customers interact and form relationships with its environment are described. Strong intervention by the government in the areas near a main high-voltage power distribution transformer, where the possibility of a reverse current restriction is relatively low, drives the greatest adoption of the PV system. The near areas are primarily occupied by customers with only a PV to improve the diffusion rate of PVs via the self-organization by the communication between customers. It also lead in a decrease in the need for compensation devices, which in turn minimizes the social cost. Growth in the number of PVs in areas far from the transformer is assisted by the installation of batteries as compensation for the lost opportunity due to restrictions in those areas on reverse power currents. Therefore, excessive intervention by the government in the far areas results in an increase in the social cost of managing reverse currents

  14. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A; Starbuck, Kristen D; Kim, James C; Bernay, Derek C; Scangas, George A; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T; Betensky, Rebecca A; Louis, David N

    2011-04-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA). Because diffuse malignant gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis; FFPE tissues are also needed to study the intratumoral heterogeneity that characterizes these neoplasms. In this paper, we present a combination of evaluations and technical advances that provide strong support for the ready use of oligonucleotide aCGH on FFPE diffuse gliomas. We first compared aCGH using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays in 45 paired frozen and FFPE gliomas, and demonstrate a high concordance rate between FFPE and frozen DNA in an individual clone-level analysis of sensitivity and specificity, assuring that under certain array conditions, frozen and FFPE DNA can perform nearly identically. However, because oligonucleotide arrays offer advantages to BAC arrays in genomic coverage and practical availability, we next developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. To demonstrate utility in FFPE tissues, we applied this approach to biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and demonstrate CNA differences between DNA obtained from the two components. Therefore, BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH can be sensitive and specific tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and novel labeling techniques enable the routine use of oligonucleotide arrays for FFPE DNA. In combination, these advances should facilitate genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas from FFPE tissues.

  15. Emission of harmful gaseus components in Skopje and possible implication in the neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Bojkovska, Radmila; Hirao, Micumi

    2004-01-01

    chemical elements (tracers) from emission sourse profiles to establish sourse contribution. To apply succefully the method with a high degree of confidance many ambient measurment samples have been made and their subsequent chemical analysis and emission source profile information determined.

  16. The influence of As/III pressure ratio on nitrogen nearest-neighbor environments in as-grown GaInNAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrawiec, R.; Poloczek, P.; Misiewicz, J.; Korpijaervi, V.-M.; Laukkanen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Dumitrescu, M.; Guina, M.; Pessa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The energy fine structure, corresponding to different nitrogen nearest-neighbor environments, was observed in contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectra of as-grown GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs) obtained at various As/III pressure ratios. In the spectral range of the fundamental transition, two CER resonances were detected for samples grown at low As pressures whereas only one CER resonance was observed for samples obtained at higher As pressures. This resonance corresponds to the most favorable nitrogen nearest-neighbor environment in terms of the total crystal energy. It means that the nitrogen nearest-neighbor environment in GaInNAs QWs can be controlled in molecular beam epitaxy process by As/III pressure ratio.

  17. HIV prevalence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among youths (15–24 Years in fishing and neighboring communities of Kasensero, Rakai District, South Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Mafigiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. Method Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014. The RCCS is a population-based household survey that collects data annually from individuals aged 15–49 years, resident in 48 communities in Rakai and neighboring districts in Uganda. For this analysis, socio-demographic, behavioral and HIV-related data were obtained for 792 individuals aged 15–24 years. We used logistic regression to conduct bivariate and multivariable analysis to determine the factors that are independently associated with HIV-positive status and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 19.7% (n = 155; higher in Kasensero (n = 141; 25.1% and Gwanda (n = 8; 11% than in Kyebe (n = 6; 3.9%, p < 0.001 and among females (n = 112; 26.0% than males (n = 43; 12.0%, p < 0.001. Uptake of HIV testing was high in both HIV-positive (n = 136; 89.5% and HIV-negative youth (n = 435; 92%. Consistent condom use was virtually non-existent in HIV-positive youth (n = 1; 0.6% compared to HIV-negative youth (n = 20; 4.2%. Only 22.4% (n = 34 of the HIV-positive youth were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2013–2014; higher in the HIV-positive females (n = 31; 28.4% than HIV-positive males (n = 03; 6.7%. Slightly more than half of males (n = 134; 53.8% reported that they were circumcised; the proportion of circumcised youth was higher among HIV-negative males (n = 122; 58% than HIV-positive males (n

  18. Discrimination of soft tissues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in combination with k nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Sibo; Fan, Rongwei; Yu, Xin; Chen, Deying

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, discrimination of soft tissues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in combination with multivariate statistical methods is presented. Fresh pork fat, skin, ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues are manually cut into slices and ablated using a 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Discrimination analyses between fat, skin and muscle tissues, and further between highly similar ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues, are performed based on the LIBS spectra in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), k nearest neighbors (kNN) classification, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Performances of the discrimination models, including accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, are evaluated using 10-fold cross validation. The classification models are optimized to achieve best discrimination performances. The fat, skin and muscle tissues can be definitely discriminated using both kNN and SVM classifiers, with accuracy of over 99.83%, sensitivity of over 0.995 and specificity of over 0.998. The highly similar ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues can also be discriminated with acceptable performances. The best performances are achieved with SVM classifier using Gaussian kernel function, with accuracy of 76.84%, sensitivity of over 0.742 and specificity of over 0.869. The results show that the LIBS technique assisted with multivariate statistical methods could be a powerful tool for online discrimination of soft tissues, even for tissues of high similarity, such as muscles from different parts of the animal body. This technique could be used for discrimination of tissues suffering minor clinical changes, thus may advance the diagnosis of early lesions and abnormalities.

  19. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  20. Do family order and neighbor intervention against intimate partner violence protect children from abuse? Findings from Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Do, Mi Hyang; Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on previous research on intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and informal social control, we hypothesized relationships between child abuse severity and (1) protective informal social control of intimate partner violence (ISC_IPV) by neighbors, (2) intimate terrorism, (3) family order, and (4) the power of mothers in intimate relationships. In what we believe may be a first study of physical child abuse by parents in Nepal, we used a three stage cluster approach to draw a random sample of 300 families in Kathmandu. Random effects regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. The analyses found support for hypotheses one and two, but with an important caveat. Although observed (actual) protective ISC_IPV had the hypothesized negative association with child abuse severity, in one of our models perceived protective ISC_IPV was positively associated with child abuse severity. The models clarify that the overall direction of protective ISC_IPV appears to be negative (protective), but the positive finding is important to consider for both research and practice. A significant relationship between family order and child abuse severity was found, but the direction was negative rather than positive as in hypothesis three. Implications for neighborhood research and typological research on IPV and child maltreatment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.