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Sample records for neglectus threatens native

  1. Attack of the invasive garden ant: aggression behaviour of Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against native Lasius species in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Lommen, Suzanne T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species often dramatically change native species communities by directly and indirectly out-competing na-tive species. We studied the direct interference abilities of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus VAN LOON, BOOMSMA & ANDRÁSFALVY, 1990, by performing one-to-one aggression test...

  2. Risicoanalyse van de plaagmier Lasius neglectus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.J.

    2009-01-01

    De plaagmier Lasius neglectus Van Loon, Boomsma & Andrásfalvy, 1990 werd in de vroege jaren 1970 ontdekt en beschreven van Boedapest (Hongarije). De mier is inmiddels op een groot aantal plekken in Europa en Voor-Azië gevonden en gedraagt zich soms invasief. Het oorspronkelijke verspreidingsgebied

  3. Facework in Non-Face-Threatening Emails by Native and Non-Native English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Зохре Ислами Р

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the speech act of assignment submission and presence of facework in submission emails sent to faculty members by native and nonnative English speaking graduate students. Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory (1987 and Spencer-Oatey’s (2002, 2008 rapport management framework were utilized to analyze the emails. The corpus consisted of 105 emails from 40 NES and NNES students. Drawing on speech event analysis approach (Merrison, Wilson, Davies, & Haugh, 2012, we analyze both submission head act as well as optional elements like openings, small talk and closings in an email. Our exploratory study revealed that, contrary to the argument that CMC is a lean medium (Duthler, 2006 in which it is difficult to achieve interpersonal communication, through the employment of opening, small talk and closing strategies, students attended to relational goals in their email communication.

  4. Nodulation in Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. (Caesalpinioideae), a Threatened Species Native to the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Peix, Alvaro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivera, Lina P.; Simões-Araujo, Jean L.; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Cruz, Cristina; Velázquez, Encarna; Scotti, Maria Rita; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2012-01-01

    The threatened caesalpinioid legume Dimorphandra wilsonii, which is native to the Cerrado biome in Brazil, was examined for its nodulation and N2-fixing ability, and was compared with another, less-threatened species, D. jorgei. Nodulation and potential N2 fixation was shown on seedlings that had been inoculated singly with five bradyrhizobial isolates from mature D. wilsonii nodules. The infection of D. wilsonii by two of these strains (Dw10.1, Dw12.5) was followed in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy, and was compared with that of D. jorgei by Bradyrhizobium strain SEMIA6099. The roots of D. wilsonii were infected via small transient root hairs at 42 d after inoculation (dai), and nodules were sufficiently mature at 63 dai to express nitrogenase protein. Similar infection and nodule developmental processes were observed in D. jorgei. The bacteroids in mature Dimorphandra nodules were enclosed in plant cell wall material containing a homogalacturonan (pectic) epitope that was recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM5. Analysis of sequences of their rrs (16S rRNA) genes and their ITS regions showed that the five D. wilsonii strains, although related to SEMIA6099, may constitute five undescribed species of genus Bradyrhizobium, whilst their nodD and nifH gene sequences showed that they formed clearly separated branches from other rhizobial strains. This is the first study to describe in full the N2-fixing symbiotic interaction between defined rhizobial strains and legumes in the sub-family Caesalpinioideae. This information will hopefully assist in the conservation of the threatened species D. wilsonii. PMID:23185349

  5. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  6. Threatened pollination systems in native flora of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tetsuto

    2006-08-01

    Various alien species have been introduced to the Ogasawara Islands (Japan). A survey was made investigating whether the native pollination systems fit an 'island syndrome' (biasing the flora to dioecy, with subdued, inconspicuous flowers) and whether alien species have disrupted the native pollination network. Flower visitors and floral traits were determined in the field (12 islands) and from the literature. Associations among floral traits such as sexual expression, flower colour and flower shape were tested. Among the 269 native flowering plants, 74.7 % are hermaphroditic, 13.0 % are dioecious and 7.1 % are monoecious. Classification by flower colour revealed that 36.0 % were white, 21.6 % green and 13.8 % yellow. Woody species (trees and shrubs) comprised 36.5 % of the flora and were associated with dioecy and white flowers. Solitary, endemic small bees were the dominant flower visitors and visited 66.7 % of the observed species on satellite islands where the native pollination networks are preserved. In contrast to the situation on the satellite islands, introduced honeybees were the most dominant pollinator (visiting 60.1 % of observed species) on the two main islands, Chichi-jima and Haha-jima, and had spread to satellite islands near Chichi-jima Island. The island syndrome for pollination systems in the Ogasawara Islands was evident in a high percentage of dioecious species, the subdued colour of the native flora and solitary flower visitors on satellite islands. The shape and colour adaptations of several flowers suggested native pollination niches for long-proboscis moths and carpenter bees. However, the domination and expansion of introduced honeybees have the potential for disruption of the native pollination network in the two main, and several satellite, islands of the Ogasawara Islands.

  7. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

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    Clint A. Boyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001. Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with

  8. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  9. What is the destiny of a threatened fish, Ptychobarbus chungtienensis, now that non-native weatherfishes have been introduced into Bita Lake, Shangri-La?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wan-Sheng; Qin, Tao; Wang, Wei-Ying; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Shu, Shu-Sen; Song, Wei-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-09-18

    Biological invasion is a pervasive negative force of global change, especially in its effects on sensitive freshwater ecosystems. Even protected areas are usually not immune. Ptychobarbus chungtienensis is a threatened freshwater fish now almost confined to Bita Lake, in the Shangri-La region of Yunnan province, China. Its existence is threatened by the introduction of non-native weatherfishes (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Paramisgurnus dabryanus) by an unusual method known as 'prayer animal release'. Periodic surveys revealed the ratio of invasive weatherfishes to P. chungtienensis has been increasing since the former species was first recorded from the lake in August, 2009. Ptychobarbus chungtienensis shows low genetic diversity in the relict Lake Bita population. Weatherfishes, however, have highly successful survival strategies. The degree of dietary overlap between the species is alarming and perhaps critical if food is found to be a limiting factor.

  10. 78 FR 70103 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... and four experimental outplantings are found within managed conservation areas. In Mexico, urban... planning efforts by providing advance notice of potential listings, allowing landowners and resource... California, Mexico. In the United States, a single native population of H. orcuttii occurs on a southwestern...

  11. A Deep Insight into the Sialome of Rhodnius neglectus, a Vector of Chagas Disease.

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    Paula Beatriz Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines are hematophagous insects that act as vectors of Chagas disease. Rhodnius neglectus is one of these kissing bugs found, contributing to the transmission of this American trypanosomiasis. The saliva of hematophagous arthropods contains bioactive molecules responsible for counteracting host haemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses.Next generation sequencing and mass spectrometry-based protein identification were performed to investigate the content of triatomine R. neglectus saliva. We deposited 4,230 coding DNA sequences (CDS in GenBank. A set of 636 CDS of proteins of putative secretory nature was extracted from the assembled reads, 73 of them confirmed by proteomic analysis. The sialome of R. neglectus was characterized and serine protease transcripts detected. The presence of ubiquitous protein families was revealed, including lipocalins, serine protease inhibitors, and antigen-5. Metalloproteases, disintegrins, and odorant binding protein families were less abundant.The data presented improve our understanding of hematophagous arthropod sialomes, and aid in understanding hematophagy and the complex interplay among vectors and their vertebrate hosts.

  12. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

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    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.Feeding pattems of R. neglectus collected in palm trees around Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil were investigated. Precipitin tests showed 77.2% of avian blood. In view of these results, a new colony of R. neglectus established in the laboratory was fed regularly on pigeons or mice, in order to verify a possible better adaptation of this insect to the avian blood. As a control group a colony of R neglectus which has been maintained for several years in the laboratory was also observed. The results show a better development of the “new" colony in comparison with the old one, and of those bugs nourished with mice blood. Such findings suggest a poorer biological potential for triatomines maintained for long time in artificial conditions, in comparison with those living in the natural environment. As birds are the main vertebrate inhabitants of palm trees (the natural ecotope of R neglectus, the apparent feeding preference of

  13. Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ângela Pinheiro Carneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20% was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus.La enfermedad de Chagas se convirtió en un problema de salud debido a su importancia epidemiológica, es producida por el protista Trypanosoma cruzi, cuyos insectos vectores son del género Triatoma y Panstrongylus. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad biocida del extracto de Annona coriacea en las ninfas de Rhodnius neglectus y en sus adultos. Se evaluaron 14 concentraciones de 25, 50, 100 y 200mg/ml del extracto etanólico, así como el control, en este caso agua de DMSO (20%. Se utilizo un diseño completamente

  14. Estudo sobre a utilização de Rhodnius neglectus para xenodiagnósticos realizados em marsupiais (Didelphis The utilization of Rhodnius neglectus in xenodiagnosis: a study performed on opossums

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Em marsupiais (Didelphis, portadores de infecção natural pelo T. cruzi, procurou-se levar a efeito xenodiagnósticos com o emprego de ninfas de Rhodnius neglectus e de Triatoma infestans e através do exame periódico de lotes formados por cinco insetos. Pôde-se observar o melhor rendimento por parte do exame do intestino posterior, mediante dissecção. O tempo ótimo foi situado no intervalo correspondente a 15 e 20 dias, e a eficiência de R. neglectus foi superior. Esse resultado, aliado à facilidade de sua manutenção em laboratório, sugere a utilização rotineira desse triatomíneo para fins de xenodiagnóstico.Third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus and Triatoma infestans were fed on wild opossums (Didelphis with natural infeccions by Trypanosoma cruzi and, examined at regular 3.5 days intervals. Best results were obtained with rectum examinations and the infeccion was more easily detected from the 15th to the 20th days. R. neglectus showed better performance than T. infestans and so its utilisation in the xenodiagnosis technique is suggested.

  15. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage

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    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  16. The current status of phlebotomine sand flies in Albania and incrimination of Phlebotomus neglectus (Diptera, Psychodidae) as the main vector of Leishmania infantum.

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    Velo, Enkelejda; Bongiorno, Gioia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Myrseli, Teita; Crilly, James; Lika, Aldin; Mersini, Kujtim; Di Muccio, Trentina; Bino, Silvia; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp. genomic DNA. In the same year, Culicoides trapping was performed for bluetongue disease surveillance in 91 sites of southern Albania, targeting livestock farms regardless recent occurrence of VL in the surveyed areas. In 35 sites where sand flies were collected along with midges, Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most prevalent among the Phlebotomus species identified, however search for leishmanial DNA in females of this species was unsuccessful. In 2011, sand flies were trapped in 4 sites of north Albania characterized by high VL incidence, and females were dissected to search for Leishmania infections. Both P. neglectus and P. tobbi were collected at high densities. Two positive specimens were detected from a sample of 64 P. neglectus trapped in one site (3.1%). Parasites were successfully cultured from one specimen and characterized as belonging to Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1, the only zymodeme so far identified as the agent of human and canine leishmaniasis in the country. Altogether our studies indicate that P. neglectus is the main leishmaniasis vector in Albania.

  17. Miscarriage - threatened

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    ... might take place before the 20th week of pregnancy. Causes Some pregnant women have some vaginal bleeding , with ... injuries or stress during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause threatened miscarriage. It occurs in almost half of ...

  18. Caractérisation éthologique de l’émotivité chez le cercopithèque de Brazza (Cercopithecus neglectus Ethological characterization of emotivity in the de Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus

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    Hélène Meunier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprendre le fonctionnement des groupes sociaux implique une connaissance des caractéristiques individuelles. Il existe plusieurs niveaux de réflexion dans l’étude des différences interindividuelles, le plus complexe correspondant à l’étude des dimensions du tempérament (Budaev, 1997. C’est à ce niveau que se place notre investigation qui se base sur une approche éthologique comparative du tempérament tel que l’a définit Bates (1989. Nous nous intéresserons plus précisément à l’un des principaux traits de celui-ci : l’émotivité, définie comme la prédisposition héritée du système nerveux autonome permettant de réagir de façon particulièrement forte et durable à certaines classes de stimuli (Archer 1973. La plupart des études sur la réactivité émotionnelle n’utilisent qu’un seul test, au cours duquel n’est enregistré qu’un nombre limité de comportements (Bouissou et al., 1994. Or, le monde des émotions est complexe, englobant , entre autres, les aspects du grégarisme (Kilgour, 1975 ; Jones, 1977, 1987 et de la néophobie. Nous avons mené cette étude sur une espèce de primates non humains, le cercopithèque de Brazza (Cercopithecus neglectus, présentant une très forte tendance au grégarisme et réagissant fortement à l’isolement social (Joly 2000. Nous avons testé 5 individus adultes issus de deux groupes sociaux différents dans deux tests expérimentaux : (1 les aspects du grégarisme de la réaction émotionnelle ont été abordés par un test d’isolement social durant lequel les sujets ont été observés au sein de leur groupe social, en isolement partiel et en isolement total ; (2 les aspects de néophobie ont été étudiés à travers un test de réaction à un objet nouveau pendant lequel les sujets étaient isolés partiellement ou totalement de leur groupe social. A travers ces deux expériences, nous avons pu également tester l’influence de l

  19. Olfactory signaling of aggressive intent in male-male contests of cave crickets (Troglophilus neglectus; Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae.

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    Nataša Stritih

    Full Text Available In animal contests, communicating aggressive motivation is most often mediated by visual or acoustic signals, while chemical signals are not expected to serve such a function since they are less able to be modulated by the sender during the changing behavioral context. We describe a rare example of ephemeral olfactory signals in terrestrial animals, signals that are emitted via protrusive scent glands in male cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae to reflect the state of the signaler's aggression. We correlate the intensity of behaviorally expressed aggression of the individuals in dyadic contests with the frequency and extent of their gland tissue protrusion, the latter serving as an indication of the amount of released odor. We detected large amounts of odor release during brief gland protrusions, and the absence of its release during gland retraction. Males protruded the glands during and after encountering a rival, with the degree of protrusion increasing with the intensity of the signalers' aggression. During the encounters, the degree of gland protrusion increased most strongly with the occurrence of the elevated body posture, directly preceding the attack. This degree was significantly higher in encounter winners than in losers displaying such posture, suggesting the highly important role of the released odor for contest resolution. After the encounters, glands were protruded almost exclusively by winners, apparently announcing victory. We tested for the function of the olfactory signals also directly, by preventing gland tissue protrusion in symmetric and asymmetric treatments of the contestants. Treating only the dominant individuals decreased the percentage of encounters they won by over 60%, while treating both contestants elicited a significant increase in the frequency and duration of fights. During contests, the olfactory signals of T. neglectus apparently function as a highly effective threat, which

  20. Habitat and co-occurrence of native and invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions can have dramatic effects on freshwater ecosystems and introduced crayfish can be particularly impacting. We document crayfish distribution in three large hydrographic basins (Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette/Columbia) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used occupancy analyses to investigate habitat relationships and evidence for displacement of native Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) by two invaders. We found invasive Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), in 51 of 283 sites and in all three hydrographic basins. We found invasive Orconectes n. neglectus (Faxon, 1885) at 68% of sites in the Rogue basin and provide first documentation of their broad distribution in the Umpqua basin. We found P. clarkii in both lentic and lotic habitats, and it was positively associated with manmade sites. P. leniusculus was positively associated with lotic habitats and negatively related to manmade sites. In the Rogue and Umpqua basins, O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus were similar in their habitat associations. We did not find a negative relationship in site occupancy between O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus. Our data suggest that P. clarkii has potential to locally displace P. leniusculus. There is still time for preventive measures to limit the spread of the invasive crayfish in this region.

  1. Potential urban distribution of Phlebotomus mascittii Grassi and Phlebotomus neglectus Tonn. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in 2021-50 in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede-Fazekas, Ákos; Trájer, Attila

    2015-09-01

    In the Carpathian Basin, the most northern populations of Phlebotomus (sandfly) species, including the two studied species (Phlebotomus mascittii and Phlebotomus neglectus), are reported from central Hungary. The most important limiting factor of the distribution of Phlebotomus species in the region is the annual minimum temperature which may be positively affected by the urban heat island and the climate change in the future. The main objective of the study is to prove and predict the overwintering possibility of Phlebotomus species in urban environment. Based on the latest reports of occurrence of sandfly species, climate envelope model was built for the period 1961-90 and 2025-50 to project the potential urban distribution of the species. The climatic data were obtained from RegCM regional climate model and MODIS satellite images. The recent occurrence of the species in central Hungary indicates that Phlebotomus species can overwinter in non-heated shelters in built environment. Jointly heat island and the increase of minimum temperature in winter due to climate change seem to be able to provide suitable environment for the studied species in urban areas to a great extent.

  2. COLONIZATION OF PALM TREES BY Rhodnius neglectus AND HOUSEHOLD AND INVASION IN AN URBAN AREA, ARAÇATUBA, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to report on the colonization of palm trees by Rhodnius neglectus, its invasion in an urban area, in Araçatuba - São Paulo, and the control and surveillance measures that have been put in place. Domiciliary triatomine searches occurred in apartments upon the inhabitants' notification. The collected insects were identified and examined for natural infection and food sources with a precipitin test. To search the palm trees, tarps were used to cover the floor, and a “Munck” truck equipped with a tree-pruning device was utilized. Chemical control was performed with the utilization of a manual compression. In 2009, 81 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus were collected from the domiciles by the population. The precipitin test revealed a presence of human blood in 2.7% of the samples. Entomological studies were carried out in these domiciles and in those located within a radius of 200 meters. The search performed in the palm trees resulted in the capture of 882 specimens of triatomines, negative for tripanosomatids. Mechanical and chemical controls were carried out. New searches conducted in the palm trees in the same year resulted in the capture of six specimens. The mechanical and chemical controls of the palm trees, together with the population's work, proved to be effective, therefore preventing these insects' colonization of the city's domiciles.

  3. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  4. Association analysis of resistance to cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera avenae) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei) in CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines for semi-arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababat, Abdelfattah A; Ferney, Gomez-Becerra Hugo; Erginbas-Orakci, Gul; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Imren, Mustafa; Toktay, Halil; Elekcioglu, Halil I; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Nicol, Julie M; Ansari, Omid; Ogbonnaya, Francis

    2016-12-01

    To identify loci linked to nematode resistance genes, a total of 126 of CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines adapted to semi-arid conditions were screened for resistance to Heterodera avenae , Pratylenchus neglectus , and P. thornei , of which 107 lines were genotyped with 1,310 DArT. Association of DArT markers with nematode response was analyzed using the general linear model. Results showed that 11 markers were associated with resistance to H. avenae (pathotype Ha21), 25 markers with resistance to P. neglectus , and 9 significant markers were identified to be linked with resistance to P. thornei . In this work we confirmed that chromosome 4A (~90-105 cM) can be a source of resistance to P. thornei as has been recently reported. Other significant markers were also identified on chromosomal regions where no resistant genes have been reported for both nematodes species. These novel QTL were mapped to chromosomes 5A, 6A, and 7A for H. avenae ; on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, 6B, 7AS, and 7D for P. neglectus ; and on chromosomes 1D, 2A, and 5B for P. thornei and represent potentially new loci linked to resistance that may be useful for selecting parents and deploying resistance into elite germplasm adapted to regions where nematodes are causing problem.

  5. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas, 1909 Flora fúngica do trato digestivo de Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus vetores de Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Maria Lage de Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the mycobiota in the digestive tract of four important species of triatomines: Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus. The digestive tracts of 90 adults and 425 nymphs of these four triatomine species were studied and 365 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 species in each genus, Acremonium and Cladosporium (three species in each genus, and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger. It was concluded that, among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum might be part of the natural flora of the digestive tract of triatomines.Um estudo da micobiota do trato digestivo de quatro importantes espécies de triatomíneos, Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus, foi realizado. Foram examinados os tratos digestivos de 90 adultos e 425 ninfas destas espécies de triatomíneos e 365 cepas fúngicas foram isoladas. Os gêneros com o maior número de espécies encontradas foram Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 espécies cada, Acremonium e Cladosporium (3 espécies cada e as espécies mais freqüentes, em ordem decrescente, foram Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum e Aspergillus niger. Dentre os fungos isolados, concluímos que Aspergillus niger e Penicillium corylophilum possam fazer parte da flora natural do trato digestivo destes triatomíneos.

  6. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  7. Fleshy fruit removal and nutritional composition of winter-fruiting plants: a comparison of non-native invasive and native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Scott T. Walter

    2010-01-01

    Invasive, non-native plants threaten forest ecosystems by reducing native plant species richness and potentially altering ecosystem processes. Seed dispersal is critical for successful invasion and range expansion by non-native plants; dispersal is likely to be enhanced if they can successfully compete with native plants for disperser services. Fruit production by non-...

  8. 78 FR 36237 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit Applications and Reports-Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...--Native Endangered and Threatened Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... requested in accordance with various Federal wildlife conservation laws, including: Endangered Species Act.... [[Page 36238

  9. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  10. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  11. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  12. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A

    2014-02-01

    After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 50213 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Jaguar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... listings for foreign species and species native to the United States. At that time, the jaguar was believed.... The foreign and native lists were replaced by a single ``List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife... Jaguar (Jaguar Recovery Team 2012, entire) and Digital Mapping in Support of Recovery Planning for the...

  14. Threatened and neglected forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellicane, P.J.; Gutkowski, R.M.; Czarnock, J.

    1997-01-01

    Polands once considerable forest resource suffered destruction during World War II and is now a victim of the legacy of past forest practices, the toxic effects of industrial pollution, and the urgent needs of its people today. Polish forest are threatened by a variety of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Extremes of climate and declining groundwater tables add to the problem. Pollution is the most serious problem, particularly air pollution. Much of the air pollution in Poland is attributable to mining and burning high-sulfur coal. Besides describing the causes of the forest decline, this article discusses solutions

  15. PROTECTION OF THREATENED WITNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Claudia CANTEMIR-STOICA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First, I wish to make a presentation of historically institution and subsequently parallels between past and current regulators to expose whether the legislature has reached desire - namely ensuring effective protection of witnesses threatened and vulnerable. Also, I decided to analyze the topic from the perspective of the criminal procedural provisions of Law 682/2002 and witness protection, which are republished to expose the conditions and criteria by which to ensure this status. I also want to present besides theoretical and practical ways in which the National Office for Witness Protection gives effective legal provisions. Not least, I will bring criticism of current regulation and not by law ferenda proposals.

  16. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  17. Estrutura de populações de Rhodnius neglectus Lent e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg (Hemiptera, Reduviidae em ninhos de pássaros (Furnariidae presentes na palmeira Mauritia flexuosa no Distrito Federal, Brasil Population structure of Rhodnius neglectus Lent and Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg (Hemiptera, Reduviidae in bird nests (Furnariidae on Mauritia flexuosa palm trees in Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 {Rn}e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 {Pt} são triatomíneos que ocorrem em ninhos de aves, principalmente da família Furnariidae. O ciclo biológico dessas espécies é conhecido em condições de laboratório, sendo poucos estudos em ecótopos silvestres. Para analisar a infestação e estrutura de populações de Rn e Pt em ninhos de aves presentes na palmeira Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus, em duas estações climáticas do Brasil Central, foram amostradas 41 palmeiras com evidências de nidificação de Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 (22 na estação chuvosa e 19 na estação seca em quatro áreas do Distrito Federal. Os insetos foram capturados usando-se coleta manual na copa da palmeira, identificados morfologicamente, separados por sexo e estádio ninfal. Fezes e glândulas salivares de Rn foram examinadas para verificar infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 e/ou T. rangeli Tejera, 1920. Trinta e cinco palmeiras com ninhos de P. ruber estavam infestadas por Rn (85% e 22 por Pt (53%. 442 indivíduos foram coletados na estação seca (200 Rn e 242 Pt e 267 na estação chuvosa (136 Rn e 131 Pt. O único fator relacionado significativamente com a densidade de triatomíneos nas palmeiras foi a área. A estrutura etária das populações mostrou: a maior abundância de adultos nas populações de Pt, b maior abundância de machos em ambas as espécies e c presença de fêmeas ovipondo em ambas as estações. Nenhum dos 177 triatomíneos examinados estava infectado por T. cruzi ou T. rangeli. A estrutura etária das populações de Rn e Pt não diferiu significativamente entre as estações amostradas, indicando ausência de marcada sazonalidade para essas espécies.Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 {Rn}and Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 {Pt} are triatomines that occur in bird nests, mainly furnarid nests. Their biological cycles are known in laboratory conditions and few studies were

  18. Evaluation of log submergence to control EAB and preserve black ash for native American basketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Damon J. Crook; Tina M. Ciaramitaro

    2011-01-01

    Many Native American cultures use black ash, Fraxinus nigra, for basket-making because its ring-porous wood allows the annual layers of xylem to be easily separated. The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is threatening North America's ash resource including black ash, and a centuries-old native art form. Native...

  19. Non-native plant invasions of United States National parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  20. Reactions to threatening health messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  1. A complementary strategy for the conservation of native forest tree species: retrieval and conservation of threatened ecotypes Estratégia complementar para conservação de espécies florestais nativas: resgate e conservação de ecótipos ameaçados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has become rampant in recent years in Brazil and has affected all biomes where many
    species are threatened to extinction due to destruction natural habitats. Government initiatives to hinder the
    chain of destruction include two main lines of action: to establish conservation units (parks, reserves and
    others; and programs to encourage plantation of native tree species for reclamation of degraded ecosystems, restoration of forests on permanent protection areas (riparian, and steep slope environments, and establishment of “legal reserves” (a mandatory forest reserve on at least 20% of the land area. Conservation units are effective
    in conserving natural ecosystems. However, they are of limited value for the conservation of ecotypes, since
    their effectiveness is restricted to within their physical boundaries. Since the majority of ecotypes with critical
    adaptive value are found outside the conservation units, complementary measures to encompass these variants are needed. The most promising strategy includes active participation of rural land owners, especially small land holders, since they are settled throughout the country (outside the conservation units. An important aspect of the strategy is to prevent movement of seeds and seedlings over great distances from their origins so that their adaptive traits to specific sites are preserved.A devastação das florestas brasileiras vem tomando proporções alarmantes em todos os biomas,
    colocando muitas espécies de microorganismos, animais e plantas sob risco de extinção devido à descaracterização do habitat. Medidas governamentais contra esse processo de destruição incluem o estabelecimento de unidades de conservação e os programas de plantio de espécies nativas com objetivos variados, como a recuperação de
    ecossistemas degradados e o estabelecimento de Reservas Legais, Áreas de Proteção Permanente e outros. As unidades de

  2. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  3. 75 FR 606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout... Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY...)-- all native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. This...

  4. Reactions to threatening health messages

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...

  5. Native aquatic vertebrates: Conservation and management in the Rio Sonoyta Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Minckley; Izar Izaguirre Pompa; Doug Duncan; Ross Timmons; Dennis Caldwell; Jaime Lopez Mendez; Phil Rosen

    2013-01-01

    The Río Sonoyta in northern Sonora is an important aquatic ecosystem that is disappearing because of drought and groundwater withdrawal. Its native species are also threatened by introduced species. The only watered reach is an intermittent segment (

  6. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  7. 77 FR 63294 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Klallam Tribe and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife have submitted five Hatchery and Genetic... programs are currently operating, and all five hatchery programs raise fish native to the Elwha River basin...

  8. Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema; Brian. Leung; Kent Kovacs; Corey Chivers; Jeffrey Englin; Susan J. Frankel; Robert G. Haight; Thomas P. Holmes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough; Betsy. Von Holle

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United...

  9. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  10. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  11. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  12. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  13. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  14. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  15. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  16. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered... Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. DATES: This rule...

  17. Competition, salinity, and clonal growth in native and introduced irises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopper, Susan; Wiens, Karen C; Goranova, Greta A

    2016-09-01

    Iris pseudacorus spread rapidly into North America after introduction from Europe in the 1800s and now co-occurs with native I. hexagona in freshwater Louisiana wetlands. Native irises support and interact with multiple trophic levels, whereas I. pseudacorus is classified an invasive pest because it grows aggressively, reduces biodiversity, and displaces native vegetation. Salinity levels are increasing in coastal wetlands worldwide. We examined how salt-stress affects competitive interactions between these conspecifics. We established a three-way full-factorial common-garden experiment that included species (I. pseudacorus, I. hexagona), competition (no competition, intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition), and salinity (0, 4, 8 parts per thousand NaCl), with six replicates per treatment. After 18 mo, Iris pseudacorus produced much more biomass than the native species did (F1, 92 = 71.5, P Interspecific competition did not affect the introduced iris, but biomass of the native was strongly reduced (competition × species interaction: F2, 95 = 76.7, P = 0.002). Salinity significantly reduced biomass of both species (F2, 92 = 21.8, P competitive advantage over the native, regardless of environmental salinity levels. Based on patterns in clonal reproduction, the introduced iris could potentially threaten native iris populations. We are currently investigating seed production and mortality during competition and stress because both clonal and sexual reproduction must be considered when predicting long-term population dynamics. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Human activities threaten coral reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that 58 per cent of the coral reefs of the world are threatened by human activities. Pollution and global heating represent some of the threats. Coral reefs just beneath the surface of the sea are very sensitive to temperature changes. Since 1979, mass death of coral reefs has been reported increasingly often. More than 1000 marine species live in the coral reefs, among these are one fourth of all marine species of fish. It is imperative that the coral reefs be preserved, as coastal communities all over the world depend on them as sources of food and as they are the raw materials for important medicines. The article discusses the threats to the coral reefs in general and does not single out any particular energy-related activity as the principal threat. For instance, the El-Nino phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean is probably involved in mass death of coral reefs and in the North Sea large parts of deep-water reefs have been crushed by heavy beam trawlers fishing for bottom fish

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  20. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  1. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  2. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world's most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers--precipitation and temperature--and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  3. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  4. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  5. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  6. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  7. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  8. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  9. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  10. 77 FR 20774 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  11. 76 FR 14883 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of..., published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the... published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the...

  12. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  13. The outcome of pregnancy after threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, J B; Heisterberg, L

    1985-01-01

    A prospectively collected group of 93 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion was carefully monitored throughout pregnancy, during birth and in the perinatal period, and any deviation from a completely uneventful course was registered. Comparison was made with a selected group of 282 non-risk pregnant women. A significant association was found between threatened abortion and the overall number of complications in the second half of pregnancy requiring medical intervention and/or admission to hospital, impending pre-term birth requiring betamimetics, pre-term birth, retention of the placenta, birth weight below 2000 g, light-for-dates infants in case of pre-term birth or birth weight below 2000 g, and hyperbilirubinemia in infants with birth weight below 2000 g. The incidences of perinatal mortality and congenital malformations did not differ significantly from those of the control group. Pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion constitute a risk group requiring careful obstetric and perinatal supervision and follow-up.

  14. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, A; Mool, S; Tiwari, P

    2011-01-01

    Threatened abortion is the most common complication in the first half of pregnancy. Most of these pregnancies continue to term with or without treatment. Spontaneous abortion occurs in less than 30% of these women. Threatened abortion had been shown to be associated with increased incidence of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour and intra uterine growth retardation. This study was to asses the outcome of threatened abortion following treatment. This prospective study was carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2009 till May 2010. Total 70 cases of threatened abortion were selected, managed with complete bed rest till 48 hrs of cessation of bleeding, folic acid supplementation, uterine sedative, and hormonal treatment till 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonogram was performed for diagnosis and to detect the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Patients were followed up until spontaneous abortion or up to delivery of the fetus. The measures used for the analysis were maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of presentation, previous abortions, presence of subchorionic hematoma, complete abortion, continuation of pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of fetus. Out of 70 cases subchorionic haematoma was found in 30 (42.9%) cases. There were 12 (17.1%) patients who spontaneously aborted after diagnosis of threatened abortion during hospital stay, 5 (7.1%) aborted on subsequent visits while 53 (75.8%) continued pregnancy till term. Among those who continued pregnancy intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 7 (13.2%), antepartum hemorrhage in 4 (7.5%), preterm premature rupture of membrane in 3 (5.66%) and IUD in 3 (5.66%). Spontaneous abortion was found more in cases with subchorionic hematoma of size more than 20 cm2. In cases of threatened abortion with or without the presence of subchorionic hematoma, prognostic outcome is better following treatment with bed rest

  15. The capacity of Australia's protected-area system to represent threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James E M; Evans, Megan C; Carwardine, Josie; Fuller, Richard A; Joseph, Liana N; Segan, Dan B; Taylor, Martin F J; Fensham, R J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-04-01

    for the recovery of threatened species. The optimal use of resources must balance acquisition of new protected areas, where processes that threaten native species are mitigated by the change in ownership or on-ground management jurisdiction, and management of threatened species inside and outside the existing protected-area system. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  17. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  18. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  19. Projecting invasion risk of non-native watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon in the western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Rose

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used to project the potential distribution of introduced species outside their native range. Such studies rarely explicitly evaluate potential conflicts with native species should the range of introduced species expand. Two snake species native to eastern North America, Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon, have been introduced to California where they represent a new stressor to declining native amphibians, fish, and reptiles. To project the potential distributions of these non-native watersnakes in western North America, we built ensemble SDMs using MaxEnt, Boosted Regression Trees, and Random Forests and habitat and climatic variables. We then compared the overlap between the projected distribution of invasive watersnakes and the distributions of imperiled native amphibians, fish, and reptiles that can serve as prey or competitors for the invaders, to estimate the risk to native species posed by non-native watersnakes. Large areas of western North America were projected to be climatically suitable for both species of Nerodia according to our ensemble SDMs, including much of central California. The potential distributions of both N. fasciata and N. sipedon overlap extensively with the federally threatened Giant Gartersnake, Thamnophis gigas, which inhabits a similar ecological niche. N. fasciata also poses risk to the federally threatened California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, whereas N. sipedon poses risk to some amphibians of conservation concern, including the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We conclude that non-native watersnakes in California can likely inhabit ranges of several native species of conservation concern that are expected to suffer as prey or competing species for these invaders. Action should be taken now to eradicate or control these invasions before detrimental impacts on native species are widespread. Our methods can be applied broadly to quantify

  20. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  1. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  2. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  3. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  4. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  5. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  6. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  7. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  8. Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

    2009-08-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make

  9. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  10. Developing proactive management options to sustain bristlecone and limber pine ecosystems in the presence of a non-native pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle

    2004-01-01

    Limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine are currently threatened by the non-native pathogen white pine blister rust (WPBR). Limber pine is experiencing mortality in the Northern Rocky Mountains and the infection front continues to move southward. The first report of WPBR on Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine was made in 2003 (Blodgett and Sullivan 2004), at a site...

  11. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  12. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  13. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  15. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  16. Evidence-based interventions of threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Bed rest is the commonest advice, but there is little evidence of its value. Other options include progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG and muscle relaxants. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies such as acupuncture and Chinese herbs have also been tried. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that CAM therapies may reduce the rate of miscarriage, but the quality of studies is poor. Thus, further double-blind, randomized-controlled trials are necessary to confirm its effectiveness, especially acupuncture and Chinese herbs.

  17. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  18. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  19. 76 FR 77465 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... population segments (DPS) of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) as threatened species under the... posed to this population by the projected habitat changes. Extension of Final Listing Determination The...

  20. 76 FR 35755 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Oregon Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Oregon Coast (OC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch... coho salmon ESU as threatened under the ESA in 1995 (60 FR 38011; July 25, 1995). Since then, we have...

  1. 78 FR 22506 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Threatened and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Threatened and Designation of Critical Habitat for Texas Golden... habitat determination for these two East Texas plants. The final listing rule will publish under the... reopening of the public comment period on the September 11, 2012, proposed endangered status for the Texas...

  2. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Boch

    Full Text Available Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin, the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging, various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks. We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1 conserving unmanaged forests, (2 promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3 conserving old trees in managed forests, (4 promoting stands of native deciduous

  3. Richness of Lichen Species, Especially of Threatened Ones, Is Promoted by Management Methods Furthering Stand Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  4. Rabbit biocontrol and landscape-scale recovery of threatened desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Brandle, Robert; Read, John L; Southgate, Richard; Bird, Peter; Moseby, Katherine E

    2016-08-01

    Funding for species conservation is insufficient to meet the current challenges facing global biodiversity, yet many programs use expensive single-species recovery actions and neglect broader management that addresses threatening processes. Arid Australia has the world's worst modern mammalian extinction record, largely attributable to competition from introduced herbivores, particularly European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The biological control agent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was introduced to Australia in 1995 and resulted in dramatic, widespread rabbit suppression. We compared the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 4 extant species of small mammals before and after RHDV outbreak, relative to rainfall, sampling effort, and rabbit and predator populations. Despite low rainfall during the first 14 years after RHDV, 2 native rodents listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the dusky hopping-mouse (Notomys fuscus) and plains mouse (Pseudomys australis), increased their extent of occurrence by 241-365%. A threatened marsupial micropredator, the crest-tailed mulgara (Dasycercus cristicauda), underwent a 70-fold increase in extent of occurrence and a 20-fold increase in area of occupancy. Both bottom-up and top-down trophic effects were attributed to RHDV, namely decreased competition for food resources and declines in rabbit-dependent predators. Based on these sustained increases, these 3 previously threatened species now qualify for threat-category downgrading on the IUCN Red List. These recoveries are on a scale rarely documented in mammals and give impetus to programs aimed at targeted use of RHDV in Australia, rather than simply employing top-down threat-based management of arid ecosystems. Conservation programs that take big-picture approaches to addressing threatening processes over large spatial scales should be prioritized to maximize

  5. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  7. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  8. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  9. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  11. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  12. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J A; Simcox, D J; Clarke, R T

    2009-07-03

    Globally threatened butterflies have prompted research-based approaches to insect conservation. Here, we describe the reversal of the decline of Maculinea arion (Large Blue), a charismatic specialist whose larvae parasitize Myrmica ant societies. M. arion larvae were more specialized than had previously been recognized, being adapted to a single host-ant species that inhabits a narrow niche in grassland. Inconspicuous changes in grazing and vegetation structure caused host ants to be replaced by similar but unsuitable congeners, explaining the extinction of European Maculinea populations. Once this problem was identified, UK ecosystems were perturbed appropriately, validating models predicting the recovery and subsequent dynamics of the butterfly and ants at 78 sites. The successful identification and reversal of the problem provides a paradigm for other insect conservation projects.

  13. Potentialities of embolization of life threatening hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvichev, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author analysed experience in the embolization of the abdominal vessels in 79 patients with diseases and lesions of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by life threatening hemorrhage. In 51 cases embolization was used as an independent method of hemorrhage arrest and in 28 cases for patients' preoperative preparation. A hemostatic sponge combined with a superselective administration of 150-200 ml of aminocaproic acid was used as an emboilizing material. Complications attributed to embolization were noted in 5 patients: pancreatitis, subdiaphragmatic abscess, paranephritis, ischemia of the gluteal soft tissues, sciatic neuritis. An analysis has shown that urgent embolization of the abdominal vessels in diseases and lesions of the organs of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by massive hemorrhage, can be used as an independent method for hemorrhage arrest

  14. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  15. Threatening faces and social anxiety: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2010-01-01

    A threatening facial expression is a potent social sign of hostility or dominance. During the past 20 years, photographs of threatening faces have been increasingly included as stimuli in studies with socially anxious participants, based on the hypothesis that a threatening face is especially...... salient to people with fears of social interaction or negative evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the accumulated research and suggest possible avenues for further research. The main conclusion is that photographs of threatening faces engage a broad range...... of perceptual processes in socially anxious participants, particularly when exposure times are very short...

  16. Surviving Armageddon - Solutions for a Threatened Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Bill

    2005-07-01

    What do earthquakes, magma, asteroid 1950DA, and global warming have in common? All are very real natural disasters, already under way; all are also the focus of intensive work by scientists, aimed at preventing, predicting, or at least limiting their impact on civilization. Using the latest chilling data and taking care to draw a clear line between scientific fact and fiction, McGuire discusses the various ways that scientists have already started to prepare for survival. Solutions on earth range from 'space reflectors' to prevent global warming, to pressure-relieving 'robot excavators' to stop volcanic eruptions. In space, NASA is developing rocket motors to gently nudge asteroids out of Earth's path, and plans to have all threatening asteroids larger than 1km detected by 2008, thereby enabling us to predict possible collisions up to 2880. The book provides the strategies to the problems we face, and concludes optimistically with ways in which we can use technology to protect our society and planet from global catastrophe.

  17. Why are freshwater fish so threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closs, Gerard P.; Angermeier, Paul; Darwall, William R.T.; Balcombe, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.

  18. Globally threatened dragonflies (Odonata) in Eastern Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the status of East African dragonfly species (Odonata) listed globally as threatened on "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". The area considered includes Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Malawi. From a total of 323 species known from these countries, 31 are listed in ...

  19. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy for sight threatening uveitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lindstedt (Eric); G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); R.W.A.M. Kuijpers (Robert); P.M. van Hagen (Martin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To describe the effect of additional treatment with anti-TNF-alpha therapy in a case series of 13 patients with serious sight threatening uveitis. METHODS: 13 patients with serious sight threatening uveitis were included, of whom six had Behcet's disease, five had idiopathic

  20. Face threatening acts in familiar communicational space in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such a constitution of face is referred to as a Face Threatening Act. This paper studies the face threatening acts in the interactional space among characters in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus and establishes how those acts aid or mar the illocutionary goals of participants. The study concludes that the 'face' is inseparable from ...

  1. Sight threatening retinopathy in a child with sickle cell &beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sight threatening changes in the retina are a well-recognized complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). However they usually occur in older patients with Haemoglobin SC or Sβ+thal patterns. It is rarely found under the age of 20 years in patients who are Hb SS or Sβ<°thal. This is a report of sight threatening retinopathy in ...

  2. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Threatened and endangered species. 230... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a...

  3. Passive restoration following ungulate removal in a highly disturbed tropical wet forest devoid of native seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia; Savidge, Julie A.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Christy, Michelle T.; Reed, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Overabundant ungulate populations can alter forests. Concurrently, global declines of seed dispersers may threaten native forest structure and function. On an island largely devoid of native vertebrate seed dispersers, we monitored forest succession for 7 years following ungulate exclusion from a 5-ha area and adjacent plots with ungulates still present. We observed succession from open scrub to forest and understory cover by non-native plants declined. Two trees, native Hibiscus tiliaceus and non-native Leucaena leucocephala, accounted for most forest regeneration, with the latter dominant. Neither species is dependent on animal dispersers nor was there strong evidence that plants dependent on dispersers migrated into the 5-ha study area. Passive restoration following ungulate removal may facilitate restoration, but did not show promise for fully restoring native forest on Guam. Restoration of native forest plants in bird depopulated areas will likely require active outplanting of native seedlings, control of factors resulting in bird loss, and reintroduction of seed dispersers.

  4. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  5. The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) on St. Eustatius: genetically depauperate and threatened by ongoing hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Burg, Matthijs P; Meirmans, Patrick G; Wagensveld, Tim van; Kluskens, Bart; Madden, Hannah; Welch, Mark E; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

    2018-02-19

    The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanadelicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data was leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci. The microsatellites were also analysed to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and effective population size. Using molecular and morphological data we identified 286 I. delicatissima individuals captured during our first fieldwork effort, and seven non-native iguanas captured during a second effort, showing hybridization occurs within this population. Comparing homologous microsatellites used in studies on Dominica and Chancel, the I. delicatissima population on St. Eustatius has extremely low genetic diversity (HO=0.051; HE=0.057), suggesting this population is genetically depauperate. Furthermore, there is significant evidence for inbreeding (FIS=0.12) and weak spatial genetic structure (FST=0.021, p=0.002) within this population. Besides immediate threats including hybridization, this population's low genetic diversity, presence of physiological abnormalities and low recruitment could indicate presence of inbreeding depression that threatens its long-term survival. We conclude there is a continued region-wide threat to I. delicatissima and highlight the need for immediate conservation action to stop the continuing spread of Green Iguanas and to eliminate hybridization from St. Eustatius.

  6. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  7. 78 FR 75306 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce... prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of the final...

  8. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  9. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these "rare" organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters. The analysis of more than 350,000 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA sequence tags and almost 2,000 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that rare seawater biosphere members are highly abundant or even dominant in diverse Caribbean corals. Closely related corals (in the same genus/family harbored similar bacterial communities. At higher taxonomic levels, however, the similarities of these communities did not correlate with the phylogenetic relationships among corals, opening novel questions about the evolutionary stability of coral-microbial associations. Large proportions of OTUs (28.7-49.1% were unique to the coral species of origin. Analysis of the most dominant ribotypes suggests that many uncovered bacterial taxa exist in coral habitats and await future exploration. Our results indicate that coral species, and by extension other animal hosts, act as specialized habitats of otherwise rare microbes in marine ecosystems. Here, deep sequencing provided insights into coral microbiota at an unparalleled resolution and revealed that corals harbor many bacterial taxa previously not known. Given that two of the coral species investigated are listed as threatened under

  10. Stigma by Prejudice Transfer: Racism Threatens White Women and Sexism Threatens Men of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Wilton, Leigh S; Remedios, Jessica D

    2017-04-01

    In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2). Robust to perceptions of liking and the order in which measures were administered, results showed that prejudice transfers between racism and sexism were driven by the presumed social dominance orientation of the prejudiced individual. In addition, important downstream consequences, such as the increased likelihood of anticipated stigma, expectations of unfair treatment, and the attribution of negative feedback to sexism, appeared for stigmatized individuals.

  11. Threatened fertility and gonadal function after a polytraumatic, life-threatening injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Michael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma literature regarding management of genitalia trauma affecting future fertility and gonadal function in the face of coexisting life-threatening injuries is underdeveloped. We present a unique case that necessitated integrative management of a 24-year-old male who became entangled within the blades of a manure spreader and presented with life-threatening trauma in addition to severe genital trauma, including penile degloving, bilateral testicular avulsion and bilateral spermatic cord laceration. During the initial stabilization and surgical management, urology and plastic surgery were consulted to assess the urogenital injuries. Together, the surgical team orchestrated potentially life-saving interventions while successfully performing both a testicular sperm extraction and a testicular revascularization. Viable sperm was collected on the day of surgery and initial follow-up showed preserved sexual function and adequate perfusion to the testicle. This report presents a case and provides a review discussing the management of traumatic genital injuries and the importance of early involvement of surgical specialties in genitalia trauma to optimize future fertility and gonadal function. The literature search was performed in August 2008 using Medline for articles only in English, including any of the following terms: polytrauma, trauma, penis, testicle, degloving, avulsion, spermatic cord, laceration, fertility, reproduction or revascularization.

  12. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  13. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  14. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  15. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  16. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The language...

  17. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  18. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  19. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  20. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  1. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  2. Manual compression and reflex syncope in native renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoichi; Ojima, Yoshie; Kagaya, Saeko; Aoki, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Tasuku

    2018-03-14

    Complications associated with diagnostic native percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) must be minimized. While life threatening major complications has been extensively investigated, there is little discussion regarding minor bleeding complications, such as a transient hypotension, which directly affect patients' quality of life. There is also little evidence supporting the need for conventional manual compression following PRB. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between minor and major complications incidence in patients following PRB with or without compression. This single-center, retrospective study included 456 patients (compression group: n = 71; observation group: n = 385). The compression group completed 15 min of manual compression and 4 h of subsequent strict bed rest with abdominal bandage. The observation group completed 2 h of strict bed rest only. The primary outcome of interest was transient symptomatic hypotension (minor event). Of the 456 patients, 26 patients encountered intraoperative and postoperative transient hypotension, which were considered reflex syncope without tachycardia. Univariate analysis showed that symptomatic transient hypotension was significantly associated with compression. This association remained significant, even after adjustment of covariates using multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio 3.27; 95% confidential interval 1.36-7.82; P = 0.0078). Manual compression and abdominal bandage significantly increased the frequency of reflex syncope during native PRB. It is necessary to consider the potential benefit and risk of compression maneuvers for each patient undergoing this procedure.

  3. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  4. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  5. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  6. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  7. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  8. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  9. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  10. Evaluating ecosystem services provided by non-native species: an experimental test in California grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M; Harpole, W Stanley; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services--the benefits that nature provides to human's society--has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem.

  11. Optimal control of native predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  12. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  13. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  14. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehlhausen, Sophia

    1998-01-01

    ...). Since the DoD mission has not required large-scale urbanization of the coast, these ecosystems also provide high quality habitat for several federally threatened and endangered plant and animal species (TES...

  15. Cesarean Delivery for a Life‑threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exact etiology is still unclear, however, associated risk factors include maternal hypertension, advanced maternal age, polyhydramnios, multiparity, abdominal trauma, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine infection, premature rupture of membranes, threatened miscarriage, and cocaine abuse.[6]. According to Sher and ...

  16. Current cultures in threatening, comforting, and challenging ecologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Places of residence have multiple, yet largely unintegrated, cultural characteristics. Here I make a distinction between human environments that offer demanding winters or summers together with collective poverty (threatening ecologies), undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head

  17. globally threatened biodiversity of the eastern arc mountains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the 2015 Red List there are 43 globally threatened species of birds occurring in the ..... Total amphibian species richness increased with increased habitat ...... In Kilengwe Forest, a forest in Morogoro Rural District that is dominated by J.

  18. Status and management of non-native plant invasion in three of the largest national parks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Abella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, invasion by non-native plants threatens resources that nature reserves are designated to protect. We assessed the status of non-native plant invasion on 1,662, 0.1-ha plots in Death Valley National Park, Mojave National Preserve, and Lake Mead National Recreation Area. These parks comprise 2.5 million ha, 23% of the national park land in the contiguous USA. At least one non-native species inhabited 82% of plots. Thirty-one percent of plots contained one non-native species, 30% two, 17% three, and 4% four to ten non-native species. Red brome (Bromus rubens, an ‘ecosystem engineer’ that alters fire regimes, was most widespread, infesting 60% of plots. By identifying frequency of species through this assessment, early detection and treatment can target infrequent species or minimally invaded sites, while containment strategies could focus on established invaders. We further compared two existing systems for prioritizing species for management and found that a third of species on plots had no rankings available. Moreover, rankings did not always agree between ranking systems for species that were ranked. Presence of multiple non-native species complicates treatment, and while we found that 40% of plots contained both forb and grass invaders, exploiting accelerated phenology of non-natives (compared to native annuals might help manage multi-species invasions. Large sizes of these parks and scale of invasion are formidable challenges for management. Yet, precisely because of their size, these reserves represent opportunities to conserve large landscapes of native species by managing non-native plant invasions.

  19. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  20. Do invasive alien plants benefit more from global environmental change than native plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Oduor, Ayub M O; Zhang, Zhen; Manea, Anthony; Tooth, Ifeanna M; Leishman, Michelle R; Xu, Xingliang; van Kleunen, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO 2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually, these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to assess whether there is a general pattern of differences in invasive and native plant performance under each component of global environmental change. We compiled a database of studies that reported performance measures for 74 invasive alien plant species and 117 native plant species in response to one of the above-mentioned global environmental change components. We found that elevated temperature and CO 2 enrichment increased the performance of invasive alien plants more strongly than was the case for native plants. Invasive alien plants tended to also have a slightly stronger positive response to increased N deposition and increased precipitation than native plants, but these differences were not significant (N deposition: P = 0.051; increased precipitation: P = 0.679). Invasive alien plants tended to have a slightly stronger negative response to decreased precipitation than native plants, although this difference was also not significant (P = 0.060). So while drought could potentially reduce plant invasion, increases in the four other components of global environmental change considered, particularly global warming and atmospheric CO 2 enrichment, may further increase the spread of invasive plants in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diversity and biomass of native macrophytes are negatively related to dominance of an invasive Poaceae in Brazilian sub-tropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Gonçalves Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides exacerbated exploitation, pollution, flow alteration and habitats degradation, freshwater biodiversity is also threatened by biological invasions. This paper addresses how native aquatic macrophyte communities are affected by the non-native species Urochloa arrecta, a current successful invader in Brazilian freshwater systems. We compared the native macrophytes colonizing patches dominated and non-dominated by this invader species. We surveyed eight streams in Northwest Paraná State (Brazil. In each stream, we recorded native macrophytes' richness and biomass in sites where U. arrecta was dominant and in sites where it was not dominant or absent. No native species were found in seven, out of the eight investigated sites where U. arrecta was dominant. Thus, we found higher native species richness, Shannon index and native biomass values in sites without dominance of U. arrecta than in sites dominated by this invader. Although difficult to conclude about causes of such differences, we infer that the elevated biomass production by this grass might be the primary reason for alterations in invaded environments and for the consequent impacts on macrophytes' native communities. However, biotic resistance offered by native richer sites could be an alternative explanation for our results. To mitigate potential impacts and to prevent future environmental perturbations, we propose mechanical removal of the invasive species and maintenance or restoration of riparian vegetation, for freshwater ecosystems have vital importance for the maintenance of ecological services and biodiversity and should be preserved.

  2. 75 FR 69221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... threats to their survival; to provide advance knowledge of potential listings that could affect decisions... as: The number of populations and/or extent of range of the species affected by the threat(s); the... characteristics of the species and its current abundance and distribution; whether the threats affect the species...

  3. The threatened plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media) associates with a wide range of biotrophic fungi in native Scottish pine woods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Tenna; Iason, Glenn R.; Alexander, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    The plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media, Ericaceae) is in need of conservation action in Scotland. Although widespread, it is locally distributed in dwarf shrub heath and more commonly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodlands. A recent study on the mycorrhizal status of Pyrola suggeste...

  4. 77 FR 69993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... inadequately treated effluent from industrial plants, sanitary landfills, sewage treatment plants, poultry... suppression activities, and rehabilitation efforts to recover lands that have burned. Other factors that also...

  5. Invasive Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana threatens native mussel reproduction by inducing cross‐resistance of host fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donrovich, S. W.; Douda, K.; Plechingerová, V.; Rylková, K.; Horký, P.; Slavík, O.; Liu, H.-Z.; Reichard, Martin; Lopes-Lima, M.; Sousa, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2017), s. 1325-1333 ISSN 1052-7613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : adaptive immunity * Anodonta anatina * competition * freshwater * glochidia * host–parasite relationships * invasive alien species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2016

  6. 76 FR 66369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    .... Kittlitz's murrelet is a small diving seabird that inhabits Alaskan coastal waters discontinuously, from... spills/ship wrecks, number and location of gillnets). For these reasons, this year, our focus shifted...

  7. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  8. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  9. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  10. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  11. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  12. Dataset of herbarium specimens of threatened vascular plants in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart, Neus; Ibáñez, Neus; Luque, Pere; Pedrol, Joan; Vilar, Lluís; Guàrdia, Roser

    2017-01-01

    This data paper describes a specimens' dataset of the Catalonian threatened vascular plants conserved in five public Catalonian herbaria (BC, BCN, HGI, HBIL and MTTE). Catalonia is an administrative region of Spain that includes large autochthon plants diversity and 199 taxa with IUCN threatened categories (EX, EW, RE, CR, EN and VU). This dataset includes 1,618 records collected from 17 th century to nowadays. For each specimen, the species name, locality indication, collection date, collector, ecology and revision label are recorded. More than 94% of the taxa are represented in the herbaria, which evidence the paper of the botanical collections as an essential source of occurrence data.

  13. Threatening auditory hallucinations and Cotard syndrome in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Stewart A; Molho, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). In particular, patients experience nonthreatening visual hallucinations that can occur with insight (so called hallucinosis) or without. Auditory hallucinations are uncommon, and schizophrenialike symptoms such as pejorative and threatening auditory hallucinations and delusions that are persecutory, referential, somatic, religious, or grandiose have rarely been reported. The authors present 2 PD patients who experienced threatening auditory hallucinations, without visual hallucinations, and schizophrenialike delusions with detailed description of the clinical phenomenology including 1 patient with Cotard syndrome.

  14. Management of threatened abortion with real-time sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S G

    1980-02-01

    Real-time sonography was used to evaluate 158 patients with threatened abortion. Fetal motion was first detected during the seventh gestational week and with increasing frequency thereafter in 73 patients with viable pregnancies continuing to term. Only 2 of 65 patients who aborted demonstrated fetal motion. The presence or absence of fetal motion was most reliable after 7 weeks' gestation for establishing a prognosis for a given pregnancy. Seventy-two of 74 pregnancies with fetal motion continued to term, whereas 63 of 64 pregnancies without fetal motion aborted. A method for using real-time sonography in the management of threatened abortion is presented.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT AND CLINICAL RESEARCH OF THREATENED ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-xia; XIE Gan-gong

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors review recent development of acupuncture treatment of threatened abortion from 1) clinical application of "Linggui Bafa"(灵龟八法Eight Methods of Intelligent Turtle), 2) body acupoints, and 3) acupuncture combined with Chinese materia medica, and clinical study from 1) effect of acupuncture on the blood flow of uterus, and 2) effect of acupuncture on plasma progesterone level. In addition, acupuncture therapy is also used to help women in gestation and can effectively raise the pregnant rate. "Linggui Bafa" is rather effective in preventing threatened abortion and should be studied further.

  16. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  17. Systemic and intensifying drought induces collapse and replacement of native fishes: a time-series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhi, A.; Olden, J. D.; Sabo, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the American Southwest, hydrologic drought has become a new normal as a result of increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources and increased aridity associated with global warming. Although drought has often been touted to threaten freshwater biodiversity, connecting drought to extinction risk of highly-imperiled faunas remains a challenge. Here we combine time-series methods from signal processing and econometrics to analyze a spatially comprehensive and long-term dataset to link discharge variation and community abundance of fish across the American Southwest. This novel time series framework identifies ongoing trends in daily discharge anomalies across the Southwest, quantifies the effect of the historical hydrologic drivers on fish community abundance, and allows us to simulate species trajectories and range-wide risk of decline (quasiextinction) under scenarios of future climate. Spectral anomalies are declining over the last 30 years in at least a quarter of the stream gaging stations across the American Southwest and these anomalies are robust predictors of historical abundance of native and non-native fishes. Quasiextinction probabilities are high (>50 %) for nearly ¾ of the native species across several large river basins in the same region; and the negative trend in annual anomalies increases quasiextinction risk for native but reduces this risk for non-native fishes. These findings suggest that ongoing drought is causing range-wide collapse and replacement of native fish faunas, and that this homogenization of western fish faunas will continue given the prevailing negative trend in discharge anomalies. Additionally, this combination of methods can be applied elsewhere as long as environmental and biological long-term time-series data are available. Collectively, these methods allow identifying the link between hydroclimatic forcing and ecological responses and thus may help anticipating the potential impacts of ongoing and future hydrologic

  18. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  19. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  20. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  1. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  2. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  3. Differences in the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Native and Non-Native Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, R.; Mokhtari, K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the reported use of reading strategies of native and non-native English speakers when reading academic materials. Participants were native English speaking and English-as-a-Second-Language college students who completed a survey of reading strategies aimed at discerning the strategies readers report using when coping…

  4. Threatened bird species on two little-known mountains (Chiperone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The montane forests of northern Mozambique and southern Malawi support several bird species of global conservation concern, and particularly in Malawi are seriously threatened by deforestation. However, the status of these in northern Mozambique remains poorly known. We report that some 1 600 ha of mid-altitude and ...

  5. RAPD-PCR molecular analysis of the threatened Cabrera's vole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal management and conservation programs of the threatened Cabrera's vole require investigating potential molecular genetic markers in the genomic background, if the few remaining fragile populations are to ... The results described Cabrera's vole populations as a single genetic unit with slightly restricted gene flow.

  6. Life threatening spinal shock and complete neurological recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mild to moderate trauma to the spinal cord that is complicated by existing cervical canal stenosis or spondylosis can be a life threatening event. It is against this background that we present a 41 year old male with cervical spinal stenosis who developed marked quadriparesis and respiratory embarrassment following ...

  7. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  8. Mara River and Associated Wetland as a Refuge of Threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Mara River and Lake Kirumi in January/February, 2005 to investigate the importance oJ. the wetland as a refuge site for indigenous cichlids particularly tilapiines which have either disappeared from Lake Victoria or threatened. Fish samples were obtained using experimental gillnets whose ...

  9. 76 FR 74070 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Dated: November 21, 2011. Lynn M. Lewis...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered...

  10. 78 FR 9415 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...). Authority: The authority for this notice is the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered...

  11. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N149; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of an application to...

  12. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N021; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  13. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N112; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  14. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N181; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  15. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N010; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  16. 76 FR 18576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N056; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  17. 76 FR 10063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N026; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  18. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N095; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  19. 75 FR 20621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-ES-2009-N0054]; [30120-1113-0000-F6] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  20. Life threatening arrhythmias: Knowledge and skills among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Although the majority of the participants scored highly in their level of knowledge regarding life threatening arrhythmias, they scored poorly in most of the observed skills when identifying and treating this patient group. It is important that hospital administration take into consideration the identified areas of ...

  1. Oxytocin increases amygdala reactivity to threatening scenes in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Alexander; Gamer, Matthias; Berger, Christoph; Grossmann, Annette; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Heinrichs, Markus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Domes, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is well known for its profound effects on social behavior, which appear to be mediated by an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity in the context of social stimuli. In humans, OT decreases amygdala reactivity to threatening faces in males, but enhances amygdala reactivity to similar faces in females, suggesting sex-specific differences in OT-dependent threat-processing. To further explore whether OT generally enhances amygdala-dependent threat-processing in females, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a randomized within-subject crossover design to measure amygdala activity in response to threatening and non-threatening scenes in 14 females following intranasal administration of OT or placebo. Participants' eye movements were recorded to investigate whether an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity is accompanied by enhanced exploration of salient scene features. Although OT had no effect on participants' gazing behavior, it increased amygdala reactivity to scenes depicting social and non-social threat. In females, OT may, thus, enhance the detection of threatening stimuli in the environment, potentially by interacting with gonadal steroids, such as progesterone and estrogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 63322 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... from Helianthus paradoxus (Pecos sunflower) from plants in Texas. Permit TE-829761 Applicant: Bureau of... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available...: Texas A & M University, Galveston, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for husbandry and holding of...

  3. Biomass is beginning to threaten the wood-processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this issue an exploitation of biomass in Slovak Republic is analysed. Some new projects of constructing of the stoke-holds for biomass processing are published. The grants for biomass are ascending the prices of wood raw material, which is thus becoming less accessible for the wood-processors. An excessive wood export threatens the domestic processors

  4. Breeding distribution and ecology of the threatened Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Madagascar Plover Charadrius thoracicus is a threatened wader endemic to Madagascar. We report the first detailed study of its distribution and breeding ecology. Madagascar Plovers breed on the west coast of Madagascar between the Mahavavy delta in the north and Fort-Dauphin in the south-east. Between 2002 ...

  5. Introduction of threatened species in a fragmented and deteriorated landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, P.

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands, heathlands and species-rich grassland are strongly reduced in both area and habitat quality mainly due to fragmentation, eutrophication and acidification. As a result, many plant and animal species have become (locally) extinct, or are threatened by extinction as they are forced

  6. THE OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH THREATENED ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Outcome of pregnancy in patients with threatened abortion. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was done on 106 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Out comes in the form of antenatal complications, mode of delivery and postnatal co mplications were noted. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: In the study of 106 patients 18% had spontaneous abortion. Pre - labour rupture of membranes were seen in 20% of patients and 21% had preterm labour. Threatened abortion di d not affect mode of delivery. PPROM, preterm births were more in women presenting with first trimester bleeding; PIH, PROM, and postpartum complications were more in women presenting beyond 20 weeks gestation though statistically not significant. 13.2% of women had heavy bleeding at admission out of which 50% aborted subsequently – significantly higher than the light bleeding group. CONCLUSION: The overall maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened abortion is suboptimal. Women with heavy blee ding are more likely to abort than women with light bleeding. Among the prognostic factors, only the amount of bleeding had significant prognostic accuracy

  7. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  8. Stylistic Change in Classroom Native Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of native music in classes for Native Americans. Highlights the ways in which changes in musical style evolve and the disparities between the teaching process and the music itself. Suggests methods for successfully uniting process and product. (MK)

  9. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  10. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  11. The Native Language in Teaching Kindergarten Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the native language as a medium of instruction is believed to be the fastest and most natural route towards developing a strong foundation in mathematics literacy (Mimaropa, In D.O.No. 74, s.2009). This study examined the effect of using the native language in the teaching of kindergarten mathematics. A total of 34 five to six year old…

  12. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  13. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  14. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  15. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  16. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  17. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  18. Native plants fare better against an introduced competitor with native microbes and lower nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya Shivega, W; Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura

    2017-01-24

    While the soil environment is generally acknowledged as playing a role in plant competition, the relative importance of soil resources and soil microbes in determining outcomes of competition between native and exotic plants has rarely been tested. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic species may depend on the extent to which native and exotic plant performance are mediated by abiotic and biotic components of the soil. We used a greenhouse experiment to compare performance of two native prairie plant species and one exotic species, when grown in intraspecific competition and when each native was grown in interspecific competition with the exotic species, in the presence and absence of a native prairie soil community, and when nitrogen availability was elevated or was maintained at native prairie levels. We found that elevated nitrogen availability was beneficial to the exotic species and had no effect on or was detrimental to the native plant species, that the native microbial community was beneficial to the native plant species and either had no effect or was detrimental to the exotic species, and that intraspecific competition was stronger than interspecific competition for the exotic plant species and vice-versa for the natives. Our results demonstrate that soil nitrogen availability and the soil microbial community can mediate the strength of competition between native and exotic plant species. We found no evidence for native microbes enhancing the performance of the exotic plant species. Instead, loss of the native soil microbial community appears to reinforce the negative effects of elevated N on native plant communities and its benefits to exotic invasive species. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic plant species is facilitated by the presence of an intact native soil microbial community and weakened by anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  20. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  1. Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betts Debra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding in a pregnancy that remains viable. This is a common early pregnancy complication with increased risk factors for early pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, preterm delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal antepartum haemorrhage. Currently there are no recommended medical treatment options, rather women receive advice that centres on a 'wait and see' approach. For women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage providing supportive care in a subsequent pregnancy improves live birthing outcomes, but the provision of supportive care to women experiencing threatened miscarriage has to date not been examined. Discussion While it is known that 50-70% of miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, the potential for therapeutic intervention amongst the remaining percentage of women remains unknown. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have the potential to provide supportive care for women presenting with threatened miscarriage. Within fertility research, acupuncture demonstrates beneficial hormonal responses with decreased miscarriage rates, raising the possibility acupuncture may promote specific beneficial effects in early pregnancy. With the lack of current medical options for women presenting with threatened miscarriage it is timely to examine the possible treatment benefits of providing CAM therapies such as acupuncture. Summary Despite vaginal bleeding being a common complication of early pregnancy there is often reluctance from practitioners to discuss with women and medical personal how and why CAM may be beneficial. In this debate article, the physiological processes of early pregnancy together with the concept of providing supportive care and acupuncture are examined. The aim is to raise awareness and promote discussion as to the beneficial role CAM may have for women presenting with threatened miscarriage.

  2. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Colding

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  3. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  4. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, 2012, proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a...

  5. The Agassiz's desert tortoise genome provides a resource for the conservation of a threatened species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Tollis

    Full Text Available Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii is a long-lived species native to the Mojave Desert and is listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. To aid conservation efforts for preserving the genetic diversity of this species, we generated a whole genome reference sequence with an annotation based on deep transcriptome sequences of adult skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and blood. The draft genome assembly for G. agassizii has a scaffold N50 length of 252 kbp and a total length of 2.4 Gbp. Genome annotation reveals 20,172 protein-coding genes in the G. agassizii assembly, and that gene structure is more similar to chicken than other turtles. We provide a series of comparative analyses demonstrating (1 that turtles are among the slowest-evolving genome-enabled reptiles, (2 amino acid changes in genes controlling desert tortoise traits such as shell development, longevity and osmoregulation, and (3 fixed variants across the Gopherus species complex in genes related to desert adaptations, including circadian rhythm and innate immune response. This G. agassizii genome reference and annotation is the first such resource for any tortoise, and will serve as a foundation for future analysis of the genetic basis of adaptations to the desert environment, allow for investigation into genomic factors affecting tortoise health, disease and longevity, and serve as a valuable resource for additional studies in this species complex.

  6. Threatened edible insects in Hidalgo, Mexico and some measures to preserve them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta

    2006-12-04

    Edible insects are a natural renewable resource that provides food to many ethnic groups in Mexico. Some of these species are overexploited because of increased consumption, caused by the huge human population growth in the area and because of the large demand of these insects from many restaurants in Mexico and in other countries. In Tulancalco, a small arid village in the State of Hidalgo, I carried out studies on edible insects over 25 years. The inhabitants of this village have a natural economy and use some 30 species of insects as food. At present, we have noticed a decrease in the population of several species due to overexploitation, which is carried by non-qualified independent workers who are not natives of the town. These gatherers sell their catch to make a living, thus contributing to the socioeconomic factors associated with this issue. These actions have degraded the ecosystems of this area, and consequently the prevention of these measures is critical. The study species in this paper include 14 threatened species and we discuss some pragmatic measures that could implemented to avoid their extinction. In addition, some actions for the preservation of the ethnoentomobiodiversity in the area are proposed.

  7. Engaging Digital Natives through Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital natives account for a substantial portion of the total enrollment in higher education. This calls for significant educational reforms because traditional education systems do not cater to the needs and interests of digital natives. The most effective way that both students and instructors can benefit from this paradigm shift is to integrate technology that is appropriate to the cognitive learning patterns of the digital natives into the curriculum. This paper builds upon previous research in technology/personality theory and specifically attempts to provide examples of technology that will address the instructional needs of digital natives. Further this paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of technology integration on the learning outcomes of digital natives. In this study, the authors explored the impact of targeted technology on academic performance in three businesses courses. Three functional technologies were used by the authors to build engaging course content, efficiently manage course content, and to interact with digital native students. This study found that these technologies can assist digital natives in the learning process and lead to better academic performance.

  8. The invasive alien plants threatened the balance of ecosystem in conservative area in Ontoloe Island, Flores-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius Mboka Segu Wake, Ignatius; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    Invasive alien plants threaten to biodiversity, particularly in small island with high endemicity values such as Ontoloe Island, a tourist destination area of Riung Seventeen Island in Flores. The study aims to characterized the invasive plants have attacked the conservative area in Ontoloe Island. The method used by combining the line method and the plot method with three observation stations in utilization block and four observation station in protection block. Plot of 1mx1m was used for the observation of ground cover plants and seedling, 5mx5m for the observation in stake level, 10mx10m for the observation in pole level, 20mx20m for the observation in tree level. The data level of the plants obtained then analyzed with Important Value Index (IVI). Result showed that Lamtoro plants (Leuchaena leucocephala) is the invasive alien species which has the highest IVI in both of utilization block and protection block in each level of tree, stake, and pole. There are other invasive alien plants such as Tembeleken (Lantana camara) and Bidara (Zizipus mauritiana) dominated in stake level and Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) dominated in seedling level. All the native plants in Ontoloe Island will be threatened their existing because of the less control of invasive alien plants. Therefore, needs serious handling by the government in order to keep the balanced of the ecosystems in Ontoloe Island to be maintained especially to not deviated from management objectives area of Komodo Dragons conservation (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912).

  9. Ongoing removals of invasive lionfish in Honduras and their effect on native Caribbean prey fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Friederike; Bejarano, Sonia; Palavicini de Witte, Giacomo; Wild, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish is one of the most pressing concerns in the context of coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Invasive lionfish threaten Caribbean fish communities by feeding on a wide range of native prey species, some of which have high ecological and economic value. In Roatan (Honduras) a local non-governmental organisation (i.e. Roatan Marine Park) trains residents and tourists in the use of spears to remove invasive lionfish. Here, we assess the effectiveness of local removal efforts in reducing lionfish populations. We ask whether reefs subject to relatively frequent removals support more diverse and abundant native fish assemblages compared to sites were no removals take place. Lionfish biomass, as well as density and diversity of native prey species were quantified on reefs subject to regular and no removal efforts. Reefs subject to regular lionfish removals (two to three removals month -1 ) with a mean catch per unit effort of 2.76 ± 1.72 lionfish fisher -1 h -1 had 95% lower lionfish biomass compared to non-removal sites. Sites subject to lionfish removals supported 30% higher densities of native prey-sized fishes compared to sites subject to no removal efforts. We found no evidence that species richness and diversity of native fish communities differ between removal and non-removal sites. We conclude that opportunistic voluntary removals are an effective management intervention to reduce lionfish populations locally and might alleviate negative impacts of lionfish predation. We recommend that local management and the diving industry cooperate to cost-effectively extend the spatial scale at which removal regimes are currently sustained.

  10. Thermal ecological physiology of native and invasive frog species: do invaders perform better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Pablo A; Puschel, Hans; Acuña, Paz; Bartheld, José L; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are recognized as an important biotic component of global change that threatens the composition, structure and functioning of ecosystems, resulting in loss of biodiversity and displacement of native species. Although ecological characteristics facilitating the establishment and spread of non-native species are widely recognized, little is known about organismal attributes underlying invasion success. In this study, we tested the effect of thermal acclimation on thermal tolerance and locomotor performance in the invasive Xenopus laevis and the Chilean native Calyptocephalella gayi . In particular, the maximal righting performance (μ MAX ), optimal temperature ( T O ), lower (CT min ) and upper critical thermal limits (CT max ), thermal breadth ( T br ) and the area under the performance curve (AUC) were studied after 6 weeks acclimation to 10 and 20°C. We observed higher values of μ max and AUC in X. laevis in comparison to C. gayi . On the contrary, the invasive species showed lower values of CT min in comparison to the native one. In contrast, CT max , T O and T br showed no inter-specific differences. Moreover, we found that both species have the ability to acclimate their locomotor performance and lower thermal tolerance limit at low temperatures. Our results demonstrate that X. laevis is a better performer than C. gayi . Although there were differences in CT min , the invasive and native frogs did not differ in their thermal tolerance. Interestingly, in both species the lower and upper critical thermal limits are beyond the minimal and maximal temperatures encountered in nature during the coldest and hottest month, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest that both X. laevis and C. gayi would be resilient to climate warming expectations in Chile.

  11. Ongoing removals of invasive lionfish in Honduras and their effect on native Caribbean prey fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Peiffer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish is one of the most pressing concerns in the context of coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Invasive lionfish threaten Caribbean fish communities by feeding on a wide range of native prey species, some of which have high ecological and economic value. In Roatan (Honduras a local non-governmental organisation (i.e. Roatan Marine Park trains residents and tourists in the use of spears to remove invasive lionfish. Here, we assess the effectiveness of local removal efforts in reducing lionfish populations. We ask whether reefs subject to relatively frequent removals support more diverse and abundant native fish assemblages compared to sites were no removals take place. Lionfish biomass, as well as density and diversity of native prey species were quantified on reefs subject to regular and no removal efforts. Reefs subject to regular lionfish removals (two to three removals month−1 with a mean catch per unit effort of 2.76 ± 1.72 lionfish fisher−1 h−1 had 95% lower lionfish biomass compared to non-removal sites. Sites subject to lionfish removals supported 30% higher densities of native prey-sized fishes compared to sites subject to no removal efforts. We found no evidence that species richness and diversity of native fish communities differ between removal and non-removal sites. We conclude that opportunistic voluntary removals are an effective management intervention to reduce lionfish populations locally and might alleviate negative impacts of lionfish predation. We recommend that local management and the diving industry cooperate to cost-effectively extend the spatial scale at which removal regimes are currently sustained.

  12. Misdiagnosed Ovarian Pregnancy to Threatened Abortion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaieh Rahmani Beilondi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about a patient with a history of infertility and polycystic ovarian disease who was admitted with spotting and severe abdominal pain, There was one misdiagnosis about this patient and progesterone was prescribed for treating of threatened abortion, following transvaginal ultrasound, one heterogeneous echogenic mass with dimensions of 5.8 × 18 in the vicinity of the left ovary was reported in favor of ectopic pregnancy. The patient was hospitalized and treated with methotrexate with diagnosis of an ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Pregnant women with complaints of bleeding and spotting in early pregnancy should be evaluated in terms of ectopic pregnancy in addition of abortion and molar pregnancy. The aim of this study was to introduce a new case of misdiagnosed ovarian pregnancy instead of threatened abortion.

  13. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there

  14. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  15. Investing in threatened species conservation: does corruption outweigh purchasing power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living.

  16. Signature movements lead to efficient search for threatening actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A van Boxtel

    Full Text Available The ability to find and evade fighting persons in a crowd is potentially life-saving. To investigate how the visual system processes threatening actions, we employed a visual search paradigm with threatening boxer targets among emotionally-neutral walker distractors, and vice versa. We found that a boxer popped out for both intact and scrambled actions, whereas walkers did not. A reverse correlation analysis revealed that observers' responses clustered around the time of the "punch", a signature movement of boxing actions, but not around specific movements of the walker. These findings support the existence of a detector for signature movements in action perception. This detector helps in rapidly detecting aggressive behavior in a crowd, potentially through an expedited (subcortical threat-detection mechanism.

  17. Psychotherapeutic work with Families with Life-threatening Maternal Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Chinoy, Freni

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory research study describes a child and adolescent psychotherapeutic clinical service offered to children/adolescents and their families with mothers with a life-threatening illness. The clinical service itself was also exploratory in nature. The research objectives of the study were (i) to explore whether this form of clinical work could be beneficial for such families in relieving distress and supporting their development; (ii) to discover the factors at play within and betwee...

  18. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  19. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by th...

  20. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-02-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less gave little useful information.

  1. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-01-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less ga...

  2. Rapid decline of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff M. Hilton; Phil W. Atkinson; Gerard A.L. Gray; Wayne J. Arendt; David W. Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1995, the Montserrat oriole (Icterus oberi) was confined to ca. 30 km2 of hill forest on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat, but was not listed as globally threatened. Since then, the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano has destroyed more than half of the species’ range. Recent intensive monitoring has indicated that the species has also declined...

  3. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Varada S. Shevade; Peter V. Potapov; Nancy L. Harris; Tatiana V. Loboda

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss ...

  4. Biology and management of threatened and endangered western trouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Behnke; Mark Zarn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses taxonomy, reasons for decline, life history and ecology, and suggestions for preservation and management of six closely related trouts native to western North America: Colorado River cutthroat, Salmo clarki pleuriticus; greenback trout, S. c. stomias; Lahontan cutthroat, S. c. henshawi; Paiute trout,...

  5. Status of the globally threatened forest birds of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil hosts a unique biota which is among the most threatened in the Neotropics. Near-total conversion of forest habitat to sugar cane monocultures has left the region's endemic forest-dependent avifauna marooned in a few highly-fragmented and degraded forest remnants. Here we summarise the current status of 16 globally threatened species based on surveys conducted over the last 11 years. We found a bleak situation for most of these species and consider that three endemics: Glaucidium mooreorum (Pernambuco Pygmy-owl, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Cryptic Treehunter and Philydor novaesi (Alagoas Foliage-gleaner are most likely globally extinct. Some positive news can, however, be reported for both Leptodon forbesi (White-collared Kite and Synallaxis infuscata (Pinto's Spinetail which may warrant re-evaluation of their respective red list statuses. We outline a road map to prioritise conservation interventions in the region directed at preventing the extinction of this suite of threatened bird species and their companion biota.

  6. Threatened fish and fishers along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Hallwass, Gustavo; Hanazaki, Natalia; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2017-12-01

    Small-scale fisheries of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast (BAFC) depend on fish resources for food and income. Thus, if the catch diminishes or if fish species that are a target for fishers are overexploited or impacted, this could affect fishers' livelihoods. The exclusion of threatened fish species from the catch is believed to be a threat to small-scale fisheries, which is likely to be the case along the BAFC. Many fish species are currently listed as threatened or vulnerable, whereas there is not enough biological information available to determine the status of the majority of the other species. Failure to protect the BAFC biodiversity might negatively impact fishers' income and the regional economy of local small-scale fisheries. We collected data from 1986 to 2009 through 347 interviews and 24-h food recall surveys at seven southeastern coastal sites of the Atlantic Forest. We show that important species of consumed fish are currently threatened: of the 65 species mentioned by fishers as the most consumed fishes, 33% are decreasing and 54% have an unknown status. Thus, biological and ecological data for BAFC marine species are urgently needed, along with co-management, to promote fish conservation.

  7. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  8. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  9. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  10. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  11. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Atmospheric Administration Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing...; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for Alewife and Blueback Herring AGENCY: National Marine... (Alosa aestivalis) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) throughout all or a significant...

  12. User's Manual for the Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES) Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebesta, Georgia

    1996-01-01

    The Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES), version 1.0 helps installation and government personnel locate points of contact for experts in the areas of biodiversity and threatened and endangered species...

  13. 77 FR 16554 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... nesting habitat of endangered and threatened sea turtle species in Sarasota County, Florida, for the... nesting habitat of the threatened loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), endangered leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), endangered green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), endangered hawksbill sea...

  14. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  15. NativeProtector: Protecting Android Applications by Isolating and Intercepting Third-Party Native Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong , Yu-Yang; Wang , Yu-Ping; Yin , Jie

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Software Security; International audience; An increasing number of Android developers are incorporating third-party native libraries in their applications for code reuse, CPU-intensive tasks and other purposes. However current Android security mechanism can not regulate the native code in applications well. Many approaches have been proposed to enforce security of Android applications, but few of them involve security of the native libraries in Android applications.In this paper, we p...

  16. Effects of invasive cordgrass on presence of Marsh Grassbird in an area where it is not native.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Gan, Xiaojing; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Li, Bo

    2014-02-01

    The threatened Marsh Grassbird (Locustella pryeri) first appeared in the salt marsh in east China after the salt marsh was invaded by cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a non-native invasive species. To understand the dependence of non-native Marsh Grassbird on the non-native cordgrass, we quantified habitat use, food source, and reproductive success of the Marsh Grassbird at the Chongming Dongtan (CMDT) salt marsh. In the breeding season, we used point counts and radio-tracking to determine habitat use by Marsh Grassbirds. We analyzed basal food sources of the Marsh Grassbirds by comparing the δ(13) C isotope signatures of feather and fecal samples of birds with those of local plants. We monitored the nests through the breeding season and determined the breeding success of the Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT. Density of Marsh Grassbirds was higher where cordgrass occurred than in areas of native reed (Phragmites australis) monoculture. The breeding territory of the Marsh Grassbird was composed mainly of cordgrass stands, and nests were built exclusively against cordgrass stems. Cordgrass was the major primary producer at the base of the Marsh Grassbird food chain. Breeding success of the Marsh Grassbird at CMDT was similar to breeding success within its native range. Our results suggest non-native cordgrass provides essential habitat and food for breeding Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT and that the increase in Marsh Grassbird abundance may reflect the rapid spread of cordgrass in the coastal regions of east China. Our study provides an example of how a primary invader (i.e., cordgrass) can alter an ecosystem and thus facilitate colonization by a second non-native species. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  18. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  19. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  20. Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United States but estimates of broad-scale economic impacts associated with these species are largely unavailable. We developed a novel modeling approach that maximizes the use of available data, accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty, and provides cost estimates for three major feeding guilds of non-native forest insects. For each guild, we calculated the economic damages for five cost categories and we estimated the probability of future introductions of damaging pests. We found that costs are largely borne by homeowners and municipal governments. Wood- and phloem-boring insects are anticipated to cause the largest economic impacts by annually inducing nearly $1.7 billion in local government expenditures and approximately $830 million in lost residential property values. Given observations of new species, there is a 32% chance that another highly destructive borer species will invade the U.S. in the next 10 years. Our damage estimates provide a crucial but previously missing component of cost-benefit analyses to evaluate policies and management options intended to reduce species introductions. The modeling approach we developed is highly flexible and could be similarly employed to estimate damages in other countries or natural resource sectors.

  1. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross Black-browed—Diomedea...

  2. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  3. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  4. Problems Threatening the Tigris Trout (Salmo tigridis Turan, Kottelat & Bektaş, 2011 Stock in Çatak Stream and Some Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AKKUŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the problems threatening Salmo tigridis stock inhabited in Çatak Stream and to offer some solutions to overcome these problems. Çatak is the largest stream of the region and located at 81 km southern of the Van city center. Salmo tigridis, which is only distributed in Çatak and Bahçesaray streams, faces the danger of extinction. In this study, it was observed that sand-graveling activities at Çatak Stream muddied the stream and destroyed appropriate reproduction habitats. Another problem is that Çatak Stream's over-destruction of vegetation in the catchment basin increases flood risk and flood-related sudden flow increases. In addition, it was determined that studies carried out for river improvement and flood control disturbed the natural flow regime of the stream, leading to deterioration in the base and coastal structure. Another threat is the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss that escape from fish farms. Catching with prohibited methods and fishing gears is also a problem that threatens the future of native trout stock in the stream. With this study, the problems that threaten the tigris trout stock in Çatak Stream were identified and some proposals were presented.

  5. Life-threatening hypokalemia following rapid correction of respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kendra; You, David; Collins, Eileen G; Leehey, David J; Laghi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with a history of paraplegia and chronic pain due to neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) was admitted to a spinal cord injury unit for management of a sacral decubitus ulcer. During the hospitalization, she required emergency transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of progressive deterioration of respiratory muscle function, severe respiratory acidosis, obtundation and hypotension. Upon transfer to the ICU, arterial blood gas revealed severe acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH 7.00, PCO2 120 mm Hg, PO2 211 mm Hg). The patient was immediately intubated and mechanically ventilated. Intravenous fluid boluses of normal saline (10.5 L in about 24 h) and vasopressors were started with rapid correction of hypotension. In addition, she was given hydrocortisone. Within 40 min of initiation of mechanical ventilation, there was improvement in acute respiratory acidosis. Sixteen hours later, however, the patient developed life-threatening hypokalemia (K(+) of 2.1 mEq/L) and hypomagnesemia (Mg of 1.4 mg/dL). Despite aggressive potassium supplementation, hypokalemia continued to worsen over the next several hours (K(+) of 1.7 mEq/L). Urine studies revealed renal potassium wasting. We reason that the recalcitrant life-threatening hypokalemia was caused by several mechanisms including total body potassium depletion (chronic respiratory acidosis), a shift of potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space (rapid correction of respiratory acidosis with mechanical ventilation), increased sodium delivery to the distal nephron (normal saline resuscitation), hyperaldosteronism (secondary to hypotension plus administration of hydrocortisone) and hypomagnesemia. We conclude that rapid correction of respiratory acidosis, especially in the setting of hypotension, can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels must be monitored closely in these patients, as failure to do so can lead to potentially lethal consequences

  6. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  7. When the Native Is Also a Non-Native: "Retrodicting" the Complexity of Language Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) identities on second or foreign language teachers' cognition and practices in the classroom has mainly been investigated in ESL/EFL contexts. Using complexity theory as a framework, this case study attempts to fill the gap in the literature by presenting a foreign language teacher in the…

  8. Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.

  9. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... toward the page limit. Use a font that is either 12 point or larger, and no smaller than 10 pitch.... If a tie remains after applying the tie-breaker mechanism above, priority will be given in the case... Strengthening Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions programs: a. The percentage change, over...

  10. Defining "Native Speaker" in Multilingual Settings: English as a Native Language in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…

  11. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native species invasions across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analy...

  12. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  13. Biochemical and ultrasonographic predictors of outcome in threatened abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Maged

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CA125, β HCG and progesterone are good biochemical markers and FHR and CRL are good ultrasonographic markers for the prediction of outcome in women with threatened abortion. FHR at 110 bpm gives the best predictivity followed by serum P at 25 ng/ml, β HCG at 19887 mIU/ml, CA 125 at 80 IU/ml and CRL at 21 mm with the least predictive accuracy among studied markers. Adding serum progesterone to FHR gave a sensitivity and specificity of 100%.

  14. Identifying and treating a life-threatening disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Beverley

    2014-02-01

    Meningococcal septicaemia is a life-threatening condition that all nurses working in emergency and urgent care settings are likely to come across during their careers. This article presents, and reflects on, a case study involving a woman with the disease whose signs and symptoms were atypical, and who was not therefore diagnosed with the condition immediately. The author aims to raise awareness among emergency nurses and nurse practitioners of the atypical signs and symptoms of the infection, and its consequences. The article also discusses how referring to patient scenarios can improve practice.

  15. Can femoral dialysis catheter insertion cause a life threatening complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkay Katrancıoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous catheter (VC insertion may be necessary for the patients with renal failure facing vascular access problem. Femoral VCs are commonly used for their lower complication rates especially in emergency clinics. The incidence of bleeding associated with VC is reported 0.5-1.6%, however, life threatening hemorrhage and complications requiring surgical intervention are very rare. In this manuscript, we aimed to present a case with hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated with retroperitoneal hematoma after femoral VC insertion. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 472-474

  16. Organising pneumonia presenting as acute life threatening pulmonary haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhaiah, Damodhara Honnavally; Chakravorty, Indranil; Swamy, Rajiv; Prakash, Doraiswamy

    2011-11-08

    Organising pneumonia, previously called bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia is a clinicopathological entity of unknown aetiology, which has been reported with increasing frequency. Various modes of presentation have been described such as cough, fever, weight loss and alveolar opacities on chest radiograph. Haemoptysis as primary presenting symptom has only rarely been reported. The authors report a case in which massive life-threatening haemoptysis was the major presenting symptom. No aetiology was identified for the haemoptysis and the diagnosis was confirmed on postmortem histology. This case highlights the importance of considering organising pneumonia in the differential diagnosis of acute severe haemoptysis.

  17. Understanding Utah's Native Plant Market: Coordinating Public and Private Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Virginia Harding

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lone Peak Conservation Nursery customer profiles cause state nursery leaders to question what their products are being used for and how trends in native plant use are changing the market for Utah native plants. The Utah native plant market is changing as interest in native plants is expanding to meet new conservation objectives, oftentimes in urban settings. This newer demand for native plants appears to be motivated by current changes in urban conservation behavior, continued popu...

  18. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  19. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Smith

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe stems to determine if native spiders' web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe's architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations.

  20. Nitrogen deposition, competition and the decline of a regionally threatened legume, Desmodium cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Krissa A; Holsinger, Kent E; Cardon, Zoe G

    2011-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, production of synthetic fertilizers, growth of N(2)-fixing crops and high-intensity agriculture, is one of the anthropogenic factors most likely to cause global biodiversity changes over the next century. This influence may be especially large in temperate zone forests, which are highly N limited and occur in regions with the highest levels of N deposition. Within these ecosystems, N(2)-fixing plants, including legumes, may be more sensitive to N deposition than other plant species. Though it has long been recognized that the competitive edge conferred by N(2)-fixation diminishes with increasing soil N availability, the conservation implications of increased N deposition on native N(2)-fixers have received less attention. We focus on Desmodium cuspidatum, which has experienced dramatic population losses in the last 30-40 years in the northeastern United States. We explore competition between this regionally threatened legume and a common non-N(2)-fixing neighbor, Solidago canadensis, across a gradient of N deposition. Our data show that increased N deposition may be detrimental to N(2)-fixers such as D. cuspidatum in two ways: (1) biomass accumulation in the non-N(2)-fixer, S. canadensis, responds more strongly to increasing N deposition, and (2) S. canadensis competes strongly for available mineral nitrogen and can assimilate N previously fixed by D. cuspidatum, resulting in D. cuspidatum relying more heavily on energetically expensive N(2)-fixation when grown with S. canadensis. N deposition may thus reduce or eliminate the competitive advantage of N(2)-fixing species growing in N-limited ecosystems.

  1. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  2. Status of native fishes in the western United States and issues for fire and fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieman, B.; Lee, D.; Burns, D.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Young, M.; Stowell, R.; Rinne, J.; Howell, P.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation of native fishes and changing patterns in wildfire and fuels are defining challenges for managers of forested landscapes in the western United States. Many species and populations of native fishes have declined in recorded history and some now occur as isolated remnants of what once were larger more complex systems. Land management activities have been viewed as one cause of this problem. Fires also can have substantial effects on streams and riparian systems and may threaten the persistence of some populations of fish, particularly those that are small and isolated. Despite that, major new efforts to actively manage fires and fuels in forests throughout the region may be perceived as a threat rather than a benefit to conservation of native fishes and their habitats. The management of terrestrial and aquatic resources has often been contentious, divided among a variety of agencies with different goals and mandates. Management of forests, for example, has generally been viewed as an impact on aquatic systems. Implementation of the management-regulatory process has reinforced a uniform approach to mitigate the threats to aquatic species and habitats that may be influenced by management activities. The problems and opportunities, however, are not the same across the landscapes of interest. Attempts to streamline the regulatory process often search for generalized solutions that may oversimplify the complexity of natural systems. Significant questions regarding the influence of fire on aquatic ecosystems, changing fire regimes, and the effects of fire-related management remain unresolved and contribute to the uncertainty. We argue that management of forests and fishes can be viewed as part of the same problem, that of conservation and restoration of the natural processes that create diverse and productive ecosystems. We suggest that progress toward more integrated management of forests and native fishes will require at least three steps: (1) better

  3. Threatened and endangered fish and wildlife of the midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D.W.; Robeck, K.E.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains information of federally-listed endangered and/or threatened fish and wildlife occurring in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The information was compiled as a support document for the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) project sponsored by the Regional Assessments Division of the Office of Technology Impacts within the Department of Energy. The information on midwestern endangered species distribution, habitats, and reasons for population decline included in this document are designed to help assess the potential for adverse impacts if energy activities are sited within the general range of an endangered species. It is hoped that this document will thereby enhance the reliability of one portion of energy-related assessments performed in the Midwest. This report considers only those species listed prior to October 1979 as endangered and/or threatened in the federal endangered species list published in the Federal Register and that have been known to occur in the region in the last 20 years.

  4. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  5. Tracheal intubation in the ICU: Life saving or life threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigeeshu V Divatia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal intubation (TI is a routine procedure in the intensive care unit (ICU, and is often life saving. However, life-threatening complications occur in a significant proportion of procedures, making TI perhaps one the most common but underappreciated airway emergencies in the ICU. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room (OR, the unstable physiologic state of critically ill patients along with underevaluation of the airways and suboptimal response to pre-oxygenation are the major factors for the high incidence of life-threatening complications like severe hypoxaemia and cardiovascular collapse in the ICU. Studies have shown that strategies planned for TI in the OR can be adapted and extrapolated for use in the ICU. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation for pre-oxygenation provides adequate oxygen stores during TI for patients with precarious respiratory pathology. The intubation procedure should include not only airway management but also haemodynamic, gas exchange and neurologic care, which are often crucial in critically ill patients. Hence, there is a necessity for the implementation of an Intubation Bundle during routine airway management in the ICU. Adherence to a plan for difficult airway management incorporating the use of intubation aids and airway rescue devices and strategies is useful.

  6. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  7. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  8. Life-Threatening Atypical Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajmir-Riahi, Azadeh; Wörl, Petra; Harrer, Thomas; Schliep, Stefan; Schuler, Gerold; Simon, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are known to cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as the rare acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Unlike Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis, AGEP is rarely life-threatening. Systemic involvement is not typical, and if present usually coincides with a mild elevation of the hepatic enzymes and a decrease in renal function. Hence, AGEP is known to have a good prognosis and to be life-threatening only in elderly patients or patients with chronic diseases. Herein, we report a case of AGEP in a young healthy male leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and to treatment in an intensive care unit after being treated with 5 different antibiotics. Initial symptoms were not indicative for AGEP and the patient's course of disease led promptly to critical cardiorespiratory symptoms and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We assume that the administration of the 5 different antibiotics resulted in type IV allergy as well as secondary infection with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus, while the underlying periodontitis also contributed to the severity of this case. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Techno-anthropology and the digital natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The ethnographic field guide was a short-lived genre in the annals of anthropology. In this chapter I experimentally attempt to revive it. The original guides provided the ethnographer with a set of practical pointers on how to organise fieldwork, set up camp, maintain relations, and negotiate ac...... of digital natives, and that maintaining relations with these natives presents a challenge of its own. I argue that these challenges must be taken seriously, and that techno-anthropology could be ideally suited to do just that....

  10. Hemisphericity and information processing in North American Native (Ojibwa) and non-native adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Allen, J D; Williams, N H

    1994-04-01

    Thirty-two male and female adolescents of native ancestry (Ojibwa) and 32 controls were tested using (1) four WISC-R subtests and (2) two dichotic listening tasks which employed a focused-attention paradigm for processing consonant-vowel combinations (CVs) and musical melodies. On the WISC-R, natives scored higher than controls on Block Design and Picture Completion subtests but lower on Vocabulary and Similarities subtests. On laterality measures more native males showed a left ear advantage on the CV task and the melody task. For CVs the left ear advantage was due to native males' lower right ear (i.e., left hemisphere) involvement. For melodies, the laterality index pointed to less left hemisphere involvement for native males, however, the raw scores showed that natives were performing lower overall. The findings are consistent with culturally-based strategy differences, possibly linked to "hemisphericity," but additional clarifying research regarding the cause and extent of such differences is warranted. Thus, implications for education are premature but a focus on teaching "left hemisphere type" strategies to all individuals not utilizing such skills, including many native males, may prove beneficial.

  11. Jurisprudence, Peyote and the Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Paul E.; Scholes, Jennifer

    1986-01-01

    Examines federal and state governments' attempts to suppress peyote use in Indian rituals as historically Christian-inspired. Focuses on questions of morality versus criminal law. Explains history and development of Native American Church of North America. Examines nine contemporary peyote trials. Concludes larger questions of tribal sovereignty…

  12. Native American Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Andrea

    1995-01-01

    Provides suggestions for a literature-based approach when integrating Native American culture into the middle school curriculum. Recommends resources in the following subjects: language arts, mathematics, physical education, health, home and career skills, technology, art, music, and second language. (AEF)

  13. Educating Native Students: Inspiring Future Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany

    2003-01-01

    A 7-week summer program for college-bound American Indian students prepares them for college and trains them to become leaders. Through role playing a fictitious Native tribe, students encounter realistic dilemmas similar to those facing tribal governments and realize that tribal leaders' decisions involve many social and political issues…

  14. Native American Media Needs: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerman, Laurell E.; And Others

    Twenty five urban centers, 70 Indian tribes, and 60 public television stations responded to questionnaires in an attempt to collect information useful to the process of making programmatic decisions about future goals and activities of the Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium (NAPBC). The Tribal and Urban Center questionnaires were…

  15. Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands: Symposium proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Greg L. Schenbeck; James T. O' Rourke

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings are the result of a symposium, "Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands" held on August 17, 1995 in Fort Robinson State Park, NE. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum to discuss how elements of rangeland biodiversity are being conserved today. We asked, "How resilient and sustainable are rangeland systems to the...

  16. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  17. 75 FR 13297 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... for 118.47 acres, located southeast of the Native village of Hughes, Alaska. Notice of the decision...: The Bureau of Land Management by phone at 907-271-5960, or by e-mail at ak[email protected]ak.blm.gov...

  18. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.

  19. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  20. Community-Based Native Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Minner, Sam; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes two exemplary school-based Native teacher education programs offered by Northern Arizona University (NAU) to serve Navajo students and by Lakehead University (Ontario) to serve members of the Nishnabe Nation of northern Ontario. The Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program is located in Kayenta,…

  1. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  2. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  3. Digital Natives: Where Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Ellen Johanna; Eynon, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Generational differences are seen as the cause of wide shifts in our ability to engage with technologies and the concept of the digital native has gained popularity in certain areas of policy and practice. This paper provides evidence, through the analysis of a nationally representative survey in the UK, that generation is only one of the…

  4. Strategies for Seed Propagation of Native Forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Native forbs are an increasingly important component of container production for many public and private nurseries. Propagators are often called upon to grow species with unknown requirements. A systematic approach is required to obtain plants from seeds of these species, beginning with determining what is a propagule and evaluating seed quality. Next, seed dormancy...

  5. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  6. Native plant development and deployment [Section VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Wright; Kas Dumroese; Amy Symstad; Theresa Pitts-Singer; Jim Cane; Gary Krupnick; Peggy Olwell; Byron Love; Elizabeth Sellers; John Englert; Troy Wood

    2015-01-01

    Native plant materials are needed to create, enhance, or restore pollinator habitat. They provide critical foraging and breeding areas for wild and managed pollinator species, including transnational migratory species such as hummingbirds and monarch butterflies. Although many pollinators and plants are generalists, some have limited, obligate relationships (i.e., one...

  7. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  8. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  9. Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton, 1822, a threatened fish of Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eutropiichthys vacha (Batchwa vacha is a freshwater catfish species having high economic value. It is a very popular table fish among the consumers due to high nutritional value and taste. Just recently small specimens of this species have also made their entry in ornamental fish markets. Recently due to number of reasons, populations of this fish species are facing the threat of extinction. It has already been documented as Endangered in India and Critically Endangered in Bangladesh. The present report has been prepared to summarize the information available on different aspects of this threatened fish species as well as to point out the possible measures that should be considered for its conservation.

  10. Strategic environmental policy when the governments are threatened by relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaker, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the threat of relocation influences environmental policy. The stringency of environmental policy is determined in a game between two governments. There is one firm in each jurisdiction, and both firms threaten to relocate their production to the other jurisdiction. Because there is asymmetric information about the cost of relocation, the governments do not know the credibility of the threat. We compare the outcome of this game with the outcome of a game in which relocation is not possible. We find that the threat of relocation can increase both the level of environmental regulation and welfare. The profit tax level proves to be the most decisive for the result; that is, the higher the profit tax level, the lower the level of environmental regulation

  11. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Premi, H K; Gupta, T V; Thakur, S; Gupta, K B; Randhawa, I

    1994-11-01

    One hundred and two cases of viable pregnancies with threatened abortion were studied in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Kamla Nehru Hospital, IG Medical College, Shimla between November 1987 and February 1989 and their perinatal outcome was evaluated. The pregnancies continued beyond 28 weeks in 61.7% of the cases. The incidence of prematurity was 19.0%. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) babies was 23.8%. Apgar score was less than 7 in 22.3%. The incidence of neonatal complications was 25.3%. There was no perinatal mortality. In a control group of 50 cases, the incidence of prematurity and LBW was 8% and 4% respectively. Apgar score less than 7 was noted in 4% and neonatal complications were observed only in 4% of newborns.

  12. Cell phone-induced ostracism threatens fundamental needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Andrew H; Dvir, Maayan; Wesselmann, Eric D; Kruger, Daniel J; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2018-01-01

    Cell phones are useful tools with both practical and social benefits. However, using them in the context of face-to-face conversations may be problematic. We consider this behavior a form of ostracism and test its effects on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. In Study 1 participants who recalled a time in which a friend was checking a cell phone during a serious conversation reported feeling more ostracized (ignored and excluded), greater pain, and threat to basic needs than participants recalling a conversation without a cell phone interruption or a control event. Study 2 replicated and extended this effect: Cell phone-induced ostracism's effects were partially mediated by decreased feelings of relational evaluation, and threatened basic needs both in serious and casual conversation contexts. Findings from both studies also indicated that cell phone-induced ostracism hurts women more so than men.

  13. Life-Threatening Thrombocytopenia Following Intravenous Contrast Media Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Jisun; Cho, Jinhyun

    2018-01-01

    Radiocontrast media-induced acute severe thrombocytopenia is a very rare complication and potentially life-threatening. Here, we report the case of a 63-year-old male patient with severe acute thrombocytopenia following first exposure to intravenous non-ionic contrast media without immediate allergic reactions. His platelet count dropped from 107000/μL to 2000/μL after six hours of radiocontrast infusion. After administration of corticosteroid and transfusion of platelet concentrates, the platelet count returned gradually to normal within 5 days. To the best of our knowledge, non-ionic contrast media-induced isolated acute severe thrombocytopenia following no signs or symptoms of immediate allergic reaction has never been described. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  14. Use of plant biotechnology for the propagation of threaten cataceas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The quick readiness of postures for the restoration of the vegetable cover in a degraded ecosystem constitutes one of the main factors in the ecological restoration programs. The in vitro tissue culture techniques are attractive for the propagation of threatened species, due to the discharges multiplication rates that are gotten in a relatively short time and to the reduced required departure material and from this point of view it is considered to the cactaceae like the family more worked. Cuba has a wide vascular flora, in which stand out diverse cactuses goods, but the same as other countries of the tropic have a great destruction of their habitat due to the man’s devastating action, so that the development of alternative techniques as tissue culture can help to counteract the loss of the biodiversity in the Cuban flora. Key word: micropropagation, extinction danger, biodiversity conservation, in vitro tissue culture

  15. Seronegative neuromyelitis optica presenting with life-threatening respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Zuccoli, Giulio; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Fitzgerald, Ryan T

    2016-11-01

    Dyspnea has rarely been reported as a presenting symptom in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We report an unusual case of NMO relapse presenting with rapidly progressive respiratory failure and briefly discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of this potential life-threatening complication of NMO. The 58-year-old woman with a history of bilateral optic neuritis presented to the emergency department with rapidly worsening dyspnea. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive abnormal signal with involvement of the medulla oblongata. Since in our patient chest radiography failed to disclose a diaphragmatic palsy that is commonly observed in patients with phrenic nerve involvement, this acute manifestation of the disease may be attributed to brainstem involvement instead of cervical myelitis. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical presentation of NMO, which needs to be promptly recognized and aggressively treated.

  16. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  17. Do environmental and climate change issues threaten sustainable development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric environment is presently under threat from anthropogenic emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases to the extent that irreversible changes to the climate, the ozone layer and the quality of the air could occur. While the required changes in practice and regulations may hit economies if the induced costs are to be internalised, the impact of ignoring these requirements might even threaten the concept of sustainable development. The prospects of environmental pollution, depletion of ozone layer and climate change due to human activities have sparked a variety of controversies on many fronts. These topics are discussed with respect to the imposed threats to the sustainable development, and with particular attention paid to delays in urgent emission reductions. (author)

  18. Parental spirituality in life-threatening pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Shaheed, Jenny; Beaune, Laura; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed parental spirituality in the context of pediatric cancer with a poor prognosis. Drawing upon previous research implementing a longitudinal grounded theory design examining parental hope, 35 parents were interviewed regarding their experiences with an emergent description of the role of spirituality in parents' daily lives. Spirituality included religious beliefs and practices, notions of a higher force or cosmos, relationship with a divine being, as well as elements emerging from meaning-making and relationships. Parental expectations of spirituality remained relatively constant across data collection time points (3-9 months postdiagnosis), although limited variation occurred relative to shifting circumstance (e.g., deterioration of the child's condition). Spirituality appeared to offer: greater acceptance of parents' inability to protect their child from harm related to her/his life-threatening illness, guidance and emotion decompression, and support from one's faith community. Recommendations for integrating spiritual assessment in clinical care practice are offered.

  19. Indian areas threatened by hydroelectric projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelin, P L; Santos, S.C. dos

    1981-10-01

    In Brazil, as elsewhere, high priority is being given to developing domestic energy sources due to the spectacular increase in the cost of imported petroleum in recent years. This paper discusses the present situation of the thirty-two to thirty-four various Indian areas presently known to be threatened by seven major hydro-electric projects and one flood-control project, either planned or underway, in or directly involving Brazil. A total of at least 100,000 hectares of Indian land (or nearly one hectare for each remaining Brazilian Indian) will be flooded or otherwise expropriated by these projects. Past efforts by the Brazilian National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) to protect the Indians from the pressure of ''national development'' have not been sufficient. Research, planning, publicity, and political pressure are necessary to ensure that their efforts regarding these hydroelectric projects are more successful.

  20. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  1. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  2. Reflecting on the dichotomy native-non native speakers in an EFL context

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a discussion based on constructs about the dichotomy betweennative and non-native speakers. Several models and examples are displayed about thespreading of the English language with the intention of understanding its developmentin the whole world and in Colombia, specifically. Then, some possible definitions aregiven to the term “native speaker” and its conceptualization is described as both realityand myth. One of the main reasons for writing this article is grounded on...

  3. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  4. 78 FR 34347 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY: National Marine... Recovery Plan (Plan) for the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica). ADDRESSES: Electronic copies...

  5. Bosnia: Crime and Corruption Threaten Successful Implementation of the Dayton Peace Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Harold

    2000-01-01

    Endemic crime and corruption in Bosnia are threatening the successful implementation of the Dayton Peace Agreement and until the situation is satisfactorily addressed the conditions for the complete...

  6. 36 CFR 51.83 - Sale of Native Handicrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... labeled or denoted authentic native handicrafts from the concession contract's franchise fee. (b) The sale..., Public Law 101-644, as amended. (c) Definitions. (1) Alaska Native means any citizen of the United States...

  7. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  8. Alaska Native Villages and Rural Communities Water Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant human health and water quality problems exist in Alaska Native Village and other rural communities in the state due to lack of sanitation. To address these issues, EPA created the Alaska Rural and Native Villages Grant Program.

  9. Community-level plant-soil feedbacks explain landscape distribution of native and non-native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmatiski, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have gained attention for their potential role in explaining plant growth and invasion. While promising, most PSF research has measured plant monoculture growth on different soils in short-term, greenhouse experiments. Here, five soil types were conditioned by growing one native species, three non-native species, or a mixed plant community in different plots in a common-garden experiment. After 4 years, plants were removed and one native and one non-native plant community were planted into replicate plots of each soil type. After three additional years, the percentage cover of each of the three target species in each community was measured. These data were used to parameterize a plant community growth model. Model predictions were compared to native and non-native abundance on the landscape. Native community cover was lowest on soil conditioned by the dominant non-native, Centaurea diffusa , and non-native community cover was lowest on soil cultivated by the dominant native, Pseudoroegneria spicata . Consistent with plant growth on the landscape, the plant growth model predicted that the positive PSFs observed in the common-garden experiment would result in two distinct communities on the landscape: a native plant community on native soils and a non-native plant community on non-native soils. In contrast, when PSF effects were removed, the model predicted that non-native plants would dominate all soils, which was not consistent with plant growth on the landscape. Results provide an example where PSF effects were large enough to change the rank-order abundance of native and non-native plant communities and to explain plant distributions on the landscape. The positive PSFs that contributed to this effect reflected the ability of the two dominant plant species to suppress each other's growth. Results suggest that plant dominance, at least in this system, reflects the ability of a species to suppress the growth of dominant competitors

  10. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    from a Java application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Android , NDK, Native Development Kit, C callable, Java Native Interface, JNI, Java, C/C++ 16. SECURITY ...ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  11. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must be...

  12. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  13. Developing native plant nurseries in emerging market areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Duemler

    2012-01-01

    The importance of developing a market for quality native plant materials in a region prior to the establishment of a nursery is crucial to ensure its success. Certain tactics can be applied to help develop a demand for native plant materials in a region. Using these tactics will help create a new market for native plant materials.

  14. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  15. Important biological factors for utilizing native plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren E. Wiesner

    1999-01-01

    Native plant species are valuable resources for revegetation of disturbed ecosystems. The success of these plantings is dependent on the native species selected, quality of seed used, condition of the soil, environmental conditions before and after planting, planting equipment used, time of planting, and other factors. Most native species contain dormant seed. Dormancy...

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Some Properties of Native and Oxidized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to produce native starches from cassava, yam and rice, and to modify a portion of the native starches by oxidation and compare their properties. The modification process was carried out by treating the native starches with food grade sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The proximate, swelling index and ...

  17. Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F.; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2002-01-01

    Biological invasions are drastically altering natural habitats and threatening biodiversity on both local and global levels. In one of the United States' worst invasions, Eurasian Tamarix plant species have spread rapidly to dominate over 600,000 riparian and wetland hectares. The largest Tamarix invasion consists of Tamarix chinensis and Tamarix ramosissima, two morphologically similar species. To clarify the identity, origins, and population structuring of this invasion, we analyzed DNA sequence data from an intron of a nuclear gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PepC). This intron proved to be highly variable at the population level, and the 269 native and invasive specimens yielded 58 haplotypes, from which we constructed a gene genealogy. Only four of these haplotypes were common to both the U.S. and Eurasia. Surprisingly, we found that the most common plant in this U.S. invasion is a hybrid combination of two species-specific genotypes that were geographically isolated in their native Eurasian range. Less extensive hybrids exist in the invasion, involving combinations of T. ramosissima and T. chinensis with Tamarix parviflora and Tamarix gallica. The presence of potentially novel hybrids in the U.S. illustrates how importation of exotics can alter population structures of species and contribute to invasions. PMID:12177412

  18. Challenges to Native American health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, J; Kindig, D; Sprenger, A

    1998-01-01

    Native American health care programs face complex and unprecedented challenges resulting from the increased assumption of clinical operations by tribal authorities, shortfalls in Federal funding, modifications in state and Federal health and welfare programs, and intensifying involvement with managed care organizations. These challenges are further complicated by service populations that are increasing at a faster rate than the growth in funding. The authors conducted onsite surveys of 39 Native American health programs in 10 states in order to assess the organizational and management problems they faced. The trend toward transfer of health programs from the Indian Health Service to tribal operation seems likely to continue and accelerate. The survey results indicate that in order for programs to be effective in the long run, they will need to be guided by skilled managers able to adapt to these powerful changes in the health care environment.

  19. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  20. Ecological impacts of non-native species: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Griffiths, R.A.; Kuzmin, S.L.; Heatwole, Harold; Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  1. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, R. Charles; De Cristo-Araujo, Michelly; Coppens D'Eeckenbrugge, Géo; Alves Pereira, Allessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2010-01-01

    Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emerg...

  2. 76 FR 16804 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-8102-05, AA-8102-08, AA-8102-10, AA-8102-25, AA-8102-28, AA-8102- 37, AA-8102-47; LLAK965000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims... phone at 907-271-5960, by e-mail at ak[email protected] , or by telecommunication device (TTD...

  3. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, Daniel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  4. Dextran Preserves Native Corneal Structure During Decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Amy P; Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Corneal decellularization has become an increasingly popular technique for generating scaffolds for corneal regeneration. Most decellularization procedures result in tissue swelling, thus limiting their application. Here, the use of a polysaccharide, dextran, to reduce swelling and conserve the native corneal structure during decellularization was investigated. Corneas were treated with 1% Triton X-100, 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and nucleases under constant rotation followed by extensive washing. To reduce swelling, decellularization solutions were supplemented with 5% dextran either throughout the whole decellularization process or during the washing cycles only. Quantitative analysis of DNA content showed a 96% reduction after decellularization regardless of the addition of dextran. Dextran resulted in a significant reduction in swelling from 3.85 ± 0.43 nm without to 1.94 ± 0.29-2.01 ± 0.37 nm (p dextran must be present throughout the decellularization protocol to preserve the native corneal architecture, anisotropy analysis demonstrated comparable results (0.22 ± 0.03) to the native cornea (0.24 ± 0.02), p > 0.05. Dextran can counteract the detrimental effects of decellularizing agents on the biomechanical properties of the tissue resulting in similar compressive moduli (mean before decellularization: 5.40 ± 1.18 kPa; mean after decellularization with dextran: 5.64 ± 1.34 kPa, p > 0.05). Cells remained viable in the presence of decellularized scaffolds. The findings of this study indicate that dextran not only prevents significant corneal swelling during decellularization but also enhances the maintenance of the native corneal ultrastructure.

  5. Ectopic pregnancy: a life-threatening gynecological emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani OL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Osaheni L Lawani, Okechukwu B Anozie, Paul O Ezeonu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening gynecological emergency, and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Objective: The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, and management outcomes of ectopic pregnancies at Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH in Abakaliki. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study of ectopic pregnancies managed in EBSUTH during the study period (June 1, 2002 to May 31, 2012. The medical records of the patients managed for ectopic pregnancy as well as the total birth record and gynecological admission records during the period under review were retrieved, and data were collected with the aid of data-entry forms designed for this purpose. There were 4,610 gynecological admissions and 9,828 deliveries, with 215 cases of ectopic pregnancies. A total of 205 cases were suitable for analysis after excluding cases with incomplete records. The relevant data collected were analyzed with SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results: Ectopic pregnancy constituted 4.5% of all gynecological admissions, and its incidence was 2.1%. The mean age of the patients was 27 ± 2 years, 196 of 205 (95.6% had ruptured ectopic pregnancies, and the remaining nine (4.4% were unruptured. The commonest (166 of 205, 80.0% clinical presentation was abdominal pain, and the commonest (105 of 205, 51.2% identified risk factor was a previous history of induced abortion. Three deaths were recorded, giving a case-fatality rate of 1.4% (three of 205. Conclusion: Ectopic pregnancy is a recognized cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and has remained a reproductive health challenge to Nigerian women, as well as a threat to efforts in achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goal 5 in sub-Saharan Africa

  6. Stable isotopes of C and N reveal habitat dependent dietary overlap between native and introduced turtles Pseudemys rubriventris and Trachemys scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Steven H; Avery, Harold W; Kilham, Susan S; Velinsky, David J; Spotila, James R

    2013-01-01

    Habitat degradation and species introductions are two of the leading causes of species declines on a global scale. Invasive species negatively impact native species through predation and competition for limited resources. The impacts of invasive species may be increased in habitats where habitat degradation is higher due to reductions of prey abundance and distribution. Using stable isotope analyses and extensive measurements of resource availability we determined how resource availability impacts the long term carbon and nitrogen assimilation of the invasive red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) and a native, threatened species, the red-bellied turtle (Pseudemys rubriventris) at two different freshwater wetland complexes in Pennsylvania, USA. At a larger wetland complex with greater vegetative species richness and diversity, our stable isotope analyses showed dietary niche partitioning between species, whereas analyses from a smaller wetland complex with lower vegetative species richness and diversity showed significant dietary niche overlap. Determining the potential for competition between these two turtle species is important to understanding the ecological impacts of red-eared slider turtles in wetland habitats. In smaller wetlands with increased potential for competition between native turtles and invasive red-eared slider turtles we expect that when shared resources become limited, red-eared slider turtles will negatively impact native turtle species leading to long term population declines. Protection of intact wetland complexes and the reduction of introduced species populations are paramount to preserving populations of native species.

  7. Stable isotopes of C and N reveal habitat dependent dietary overlap between native and introduced turtles Pseudemys rubriventris and Trachemys scripta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H Pearson

    Full Text Available Habitat degradation and species introductions are two of the leading causes of species declines on a global scale. Invasive species negatively impact native species through predation and competition for limited resources. The impacts of invasive species may be increased in habitats where habitat degradation is higher due to reductions of prey abundance and distribution. Using stable isotope analyses and extensive measurements of resource availability we determined how resource availability impacts the long term carbon and nitrogen assimilation of the invasive red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans and a native, threatened species, the red-bellied turtle (Pseudemys rubriventris at two different freshwater wetland complexes in Pennsylvania, USA. At a larger wetland complex with greater vegetative species richness and diversity, our stable isotope analyses showed dietary niche partitioning between species, whereas analyses from a smaller wetland complex with lower vegetative species richness and diversity showed significant dietary niche overlap. Determining the potential for competition between these two turtle species is important to understanding the ecological impacts of red-eared slider turtles in wetland habitats. In smaller wetlands with increased potential for competition between native turtles and invasive red-eared slider turtles we expect that when shared resources become limited, red-eared slider turtles will negatively impact native turtle species leading to long term population declines. Protection of intact wetland complexes and the reduction of introduced species populations are paramount to preserving populations of native species.

  8. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  9. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct mass. Indeed, a maximum entropy term in the objective function of MaxEnt, the most commonly used charge deconvolution algorithm, favors a deconvolved spectrum with many peaks over one with fewer peaks. Here we describe a new “parsimonious” charge deconvolution algorithm that produces fewer artifacts. The algorithm is especially well-suited to high-resolution native mass spectrometry of intact glycoproteins and protein complexes. Deconvolution of native mass spectra poses special challenges due to salt and small molecule adducts, multimers, wide mass ranges, and fewer and lower charge states. We demonstrate the performance of the new deconvolution algorithm on a range of samples. On the heavily glycosylated plasma properdin glycoprotein, the new algorithm could deconvolve monomer and dimer simultaneously and, when focused on the m/z range of the monomer, gave accurate and interpretable masses for glycoforms that had previously been analyzed manually using m/z peaks rather than deconvolved masses. On therapeutic antibodies, the new algorithm facilitated the analysis of extensions, truncations, and Fab glycosylation. The algorithm facilitates the use of native mass spectrometry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein assemblies. PMID:29376659

  10. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  11. Security Awareness of the Digital Natives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Gkioulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Young generations make extensive use of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablets and laptops, while a plethora of security risks associated with such devices are induced by vulnerabilities related to user behavior. Furthermore, the number of security breaches on or via portable devices increases exponentially. Thus, deploying suitable risk treatments requires the investigation of how the digital natives (young people, born and bred in the digital era use their mobile devices and their level of security awareness, in order to identify common usage patterns with negative security impact. In this article, we present the results of a survey performed across a multinational sample of digital natives with distinct backgrounds and levels of competence in terms of security, to identify divergences in user behavior due to regional, educational and other factors. Our results highlight significant influences on the behavior of digital natives, arising from user confidence, educational background, and parameters related to usability and accessibility. The outcomes of this study justify the need for further analysis of the topic, in order to identify the influence of fine-grained semantics, but also the consolidation of wide and robust user-models.

  12. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  13. Native fish conservation areas: a vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Richard N. Williams; Russell F. Thurow; Leah Elwell; David P. Philipp; Fred A. Harris; Jeffrey L. Kershner; Patrick J. Martinez; Dirk Miller; Gordon H. Reeves; Christopher A. Frissell; James R. Sedell

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we...

  14. Hyperspectral Time Series Analysis of Native and Invasive Species in Hawaiian Rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique ecosystems of the Hawaiian Islands are progressively being threatened following the introduction of exotic species. Operational implementation of remote sensing for the detection, mapping and monitoring of these biological invasions is currently hampered by a lack of knowledge on the spectral separability between native and invasive species. We used spaceborne imaging spectroscopy to analyze the seasonal dynamics of the canopy hyperspectral reflectance properties of four tree species: (i Metrosideros polymorpha, a keystone native Hawaiian species; (ii Acacia koa, a native Hawaiian nitrogen fixer; (iii the highly invasive Psidium cattleianum; and (iv Morella faya, a highly invasive nitrogen fixer. The species specific separability of the reflectance and derivative-reflectance signatures extracted from an Earth Observing-1 Hyperion time series, composed of 22 cloud-free images spanning a period of four years and was quantitatively evaluated using the Separability Index (SI. The analysis revealed that the Hawaiian native trees were universally unique from the invasive trees in their near-infrared-1 (700–1,250 nm reflectance (0.4 > SI > 1.4. Due to its higher leaf area index, invasive trees generally had a higher near-infrared reflectance. To a lesser extent, it could also be demonstrated that nitrogen-fixing trees were spectrally unique from non-fixing trees. The higher leaf nitrogen content of nitrogen-fixing trees was expressed through slightly increased separabilities in visible and shortwave-infrared reflectance wavebands (SI = 0.4. We also found phenology to be key to spectral separability analysis. As such, it was shown that the spectral separability in the near-infrared-1 reflectance between the native and invasive species groups was more expressed in summer (SI > 0.7 than in winter (SI < 0.7. The lowest separability was observed for March-July (SI < 0.3. This could be explained by the

  15. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  16. Seed rain under native and non-native tree species in the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Garcia, Andrea; Chinea, J Danilo

    2014-09-01

    Seed dispersal is a fundamental process in plant ecology and is of critical importance for the restoration of tropical communities. The lands of the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), formerly under agriculture, were abandoned in the 1970s and colonized mainly by non-native tree species of degraded pastures. Here we described the seed rain under the most common native and non-native trees in the refuge in an attempt to determine if focal tree geographic origin (native versus non-native) influences seed dispersal. For this, seed rain was sampled for one year under the canopies of four native and four non-native tree species common in this refuge using 40 seed traps. No significant differences were found for the abundance of seeds, or their diversity, dispersing under native versus non-native focal tree species, nor under the different tree species. A significantly different seed species composition was observed reaching native versus non-native focal species. However, this last result could be more easily explained as a function of distance of the closest adults of the two most abundantly dispersed plant species to the seed traps than as a function of the geographic origin of the focal species. We suggest to continue the practice of planting native tree species, not only as a way to restore the community to a condition similar to the original one, but also to reduce the distances needed for effective dispersal.

  17. Native Mass Spectrometry in Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Liliana; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-07-28

    The advent of native mass spectrometry (MS) in 1990 led to the development of new mass spectrometry instrumentation and methodologies for the analysis of noncovalent protein-ligand complexes. Native MS has matured to become a fast, simple, highly sensitive and automatable technique with well-established utility for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). Native MS has the capability to directly detect weak ligand binding to proteins, to determine stoichiometry, relative or absolute binding affinities and specificities. Native MS can be used to delineate ligand-binding sites, to elucidate mechanisms of cooperativity and to study the thermodynamics of binding. This review highlights key attributes of native MS for FBDD campaigns.

  18. Pseudohypoaldosteronism in a Neonate Presenting as Life-Threatening Hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najya A. Attia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1 is a life-threatening disease that causes severe hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest if not treated appropriately or if diagnosis is missed. Objective. To report a case of a newborn with vomiting and lethargy, ultimately diagnosed with pseudohypoaldosteronism. Patient. This case presented to the ED at an age of 14 days in hypovolemic shock. There was a family history of sudden infant death, her sister who was diagnosed with CAH and passed away at 3 months of age despite regular hormone replacement. Our patient had cardiac arrest in ED, due to hyperkalemia; while receiving fluid boluses, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. After stabilization, diagnostic workup demonstrated persistently low sodium, acidosis, and high potassium, which required peritoneal dialysis. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with CAH. It turned out later that the patient had PHA1. Two years later, the patient had a new sibling with the same disease diagnosed at birth and started immediately on treatment without any complication. Conclusions and Outcome. This case highlights the significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in treating children with PHA1. Adrenal crisis is not always CAH; delayed diagnosis can lead to complication and even death. The presence of high plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and cortisol, along with the presence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, established the diagnosis of PHA type 1 and ruled out CAH.

  19. Life-Threatening Hypokalemic Paralysis in a Young Bodybuilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty K. T. Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR 3.5–5.0 mmol/L. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition. He made a full recovery after a few days and discharged himself from the hospital against medical advice. The severe hypokalemia was thought to be caused by several mechanisms to be discussed in this report. With the ever rising number of new fitness centers recently, the ease of online purchasing of almost any drug, and the increasing numbers of youngsters getting into the bodybuilding arena, clinicians should be able to recognize the possible causes of sudden severe hypokalemia in these patients in order to revert the pathophysiology.

  20. Economic consequences of over-diagnosis of threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Marta; Kang, Fatima; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Díaz, Paloma; Méndez, Yurena; Álvarez de la Rosa, Margarita

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether adherence to a cervical length-based protocol can reduce both unnecessary admissions and the socioeconomic costs associated with inappropriately admitted patients. The present retrospective observational study included women admitted for threatened preterm labor (TPL) at 24-34 weeks of pregnancy to a tertiary hospital in the Canary Islands, 2009-2014. Data were reviewed from all patients admitted for TPL. Those with a long cervix (>25 mm) were classified as "inappropriate admissions", and both the economic burden based on diagnosis-related group (DRG) and the social costs associated with sick leave for these women were calculated. During the 6-year study period, 430 women were admitted for TPL. The rate of inappropriate hospital admissions was 45% in the first year, but was reduced to 23% in the final year (P2099. The total annual costs from inappropriate admission (both social security sick leave costs and hospital costs) were estimated to be up to €571 047.37 during the 6-year study period, and reduced from €60 420.76 in 2009 to €29 998.04 in 2014. Reductions in inappropriate admissions from applying cervical length-based management protocol could reduce healthcare costs without increasing the incidence of premature delivery. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Life-threatening hypokalemic paralysis in a young bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kitty K T; So, Wing-Yee; Kong, Alice P S; Ma, Ronald C W; Chow, Francis C C

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR) 3.5-5.0 mmol/L). He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition. He made a full recovery after a few days and discharged himself from the hospital against medical advice. The severe hypokalemia was thought to be caused by several mechanisms to be discussed in this report. With the ever rising number of new fitness centers recently, the ease of online purchasing of almost any drug, and the increasing numbers of youngsters getting into the bodybuilding arena, clinicians should be able to recognize the possible causes of sudden severe hypokalemia in these patients in order to revert the pathophysiology.

  2. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  3. Life-Threatening Hypokalemic Paralysis in a Young Bodybuilder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kitty K. T.; So, Wing-Yee; Kong, Alice P. S.; Ma, Ronald C. W.; Chow, Francis C. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR) 3.5–5.0 mmol/L). He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition. He made a full recovery after a few days and discharged himself from the hospital against medical advice. The severe hypokalemia was thought to be caused by several mechanisms to be discussed in this report. With the ever rising number of new fitness centers recently, the ease of online purchasing of almost any drug, and the increasing numbers of youngsters getting into the bodybuilding arena, clinicians should be able to recognize the possible causes of sudden severe hypokalemia in these patients in order to revert the pathophysiology. PMID:24660073

  4. Strengthening threatened communities through adaptation: insights from coastal Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Blythe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Change is a defining characteristic of coastal social-ecological systems, yet the magnitude and speed of contemporary change is challenging the adaptive capacity of even the most robust coastal communities. In the context of multiple drivers of change, it has become increasingly important to identify how threatened communities adapt to livelihood stressors. We investigate how adaptation is negotiated in two coastal fishing communities by documenting livelihood stressors, household assets, adaptive strategies, and factors that facilitate or inhibit adaptation. Declining catch is the most common stressor being experienced in both communities, however, socioeconomic, e.g., disease or theft, and ecological, e.g., severe storms and drought, changes are also creating livelihood stress. We find that specialized fishers' with higher investment in fishing gear and government support are adapting by intensifying their fishing efforts, whereas poorer fishers with more livelihood options are adapting through diversification. Adaptation is facilitated by fishers' groups, occupational pride, and family networks. It is inhibited by limited assets, competition over declining resources, and pervasive poverty. Our data suggest that adaptation is a heterogeneous process that is influenced by multiple factors. Understanding the complexity of fishers' responses to livelihood stressors is critical for fostering adaptive capacity in coastal communities, for strengthening fisheries management, and for improving the livelihoods of fishing dependent communities.

  5. Interventions for reducing extinction risk in chytridiomycosis-threatened amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Ben C; Hunter, David A; Grogan, Laura F; Berger, Lee; Kolby, Jon E; McFadden, Michael S; Marantelli, Gerry; Skerratt, Lee F; Driscoll, Don A

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife diseases pose an increasing threat to biodiversity and are a major management challenge. A striking example of this threat is the emergence of chytridiomycosis. Despite diagnosis of chytridiomycosis as an important driver of global amphibian declines 15 years ago, researchers have yet to devise effective large-scale management responses other than biosecurity measures to mitigate disease spread and the establishment of disease-free captive assurance colonies prior to or during disease outbreaks. We examined the development of management actions that can be implemented after an epidemic in surviving populations. We developed a conceptual framework with clear interventions to guide experimental management and applied research so that further extinctions of amphibian species threatened by chytridiomycosis might be prevented. Within our framework, there are 2 management approaches: reducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the fungus that causes chytridiomycosis) in the environment or on amphibians and increasing the capacity of populations to persist despite increased mortality from disease. The latter approach emphasizes that mitigation does not necessarily need to focus on reducing disease-associated mortality. We propose promising management actions that can be implemented and tested based on current knowledge and that include habitat manipulation, antifungal treatments, animal translocation, bioaugmentation, head starting, and selection for resistance. Case studies where these strategies are being implemented will demonstrate their potential to save critically endangered species. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  7. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  8. Southwesterners’ views of threatened and endangered species management: does ethnic/racial diversity make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George T. Cvetkovich

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of trust in the Forest Service to manage threatened and endangered species as measured through a survey of residents of four Southwestern States. Of particular interest were variations by ethnic/racial group, gender, concern about threatened and endangered species, and self-assessed knowledge. Increasing diversity in the United States...

  9. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, for the purpose of enhancing the species' survival. Permit... certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  10. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  11. 50 CFR 17.8 - Import exemption for threatened, CITES Appendix-II wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Import exemption for threatened, CITES Appendix-II wildlife. 17.8 Section 17.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  12. 75 FR 8053 - A Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... EPA's policy to include all comments it receives in the public docket without change and to make the... Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change AGENCY... Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change...

  13. 76 FR 43986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  14. 77 FR 41168 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... available for review pursuant to section 10(c) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). DATES: Comments and... the ESA. NMFS regulations governing permits for threatened and endangered species are promulgated at...

  15. 75 FR 14133 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  16. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permits Permit 15926... will be captured by fyke net, identified to species, enumerated and measured. Dead or moribund fish...

  17. 75 FR 14132 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The proposed modification is to extend the existing permit... regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is...

  18. 76 FR 15932 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or Threatened AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Distinct Population Segments (DPS) of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, as endangered or threatened... populations of loggerhead sea turtle'' as an endangered species under the ESA. NMFS published a notice in the...

  19. 75 FR 30769 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 223 and 224 RIN 0648-AY49 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or... loggerhead sea turtles as endangered or threatened, which was published on March 16, 2010, until September 13...

  20. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a) Background. (1) A variety of plant and animal species of the United States are so reduced in numbers that...

  1. Successful aging through the eyes of Alaska Natives: exploring generational differences among Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2010-12-01

    There is very little research on Alaska Native (AN) elders and how they subjectively define a successful older age. The lack of a culturally-specific definition often results in the use of a generic definition that portrays Alaska Native elders as aging less successfully than their White counterparts. However, there is a very limited understanding of a diverse array of successful aging experiences across generations. This research explores the concept of successful aging from an Alaska Native perspective, or what it means to age well in Alaska Native communities. An adapted Explanatory Model (EM) approach was used to gain a sense of the beliefs about aging from Alaska Natives. Research findings indicate that aging successfully is based on local understandings about personal responsibility and making the conscious decision to live a clean and healthy life, abstaining from drugs and alcohol. The findings also indicate that poor aging is often characterized by a lack of personal responsibility, or not being active, not being able to handle alcohol, and giving up on oneself. Most participants stated that elder status is not determined by reaching a certain age (e.g., 65), but instead is designated when an individual has demonstrated wisdom because of the experiences he or she has gained throughout life. This research seeks to inform future studies on rural aging that prioritizes the perspectives of elders to impact positively on the delivery of health care services and programs in rural Alaska.

  2. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in South......OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics...... in Southern Sweden. SAMPLE: A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms during...... the past week and PTS symptoms during the past year. RESULTS: Out of 1003 women, 21.4% reported another language than Swedish as their mother tongue and were defined as non-native. These women were more likely to be younger, have fewer years of education, potential financial problems, and lack of social...

  3. On the identity of Leptoxis taeniata – a misapplied name for the threatened Painted Rocksnail (Cerithioidea, Pleuroceridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan V. Whelan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Painted Rocksnail, currently known as Leptoxis taeniata, is a federally threatened species native to the Mobile River basin in Alabama, USA. Presently restricted to four disjunct populations, the species is at considerable risk of extinction after a range decline of over 95% in the 20th century because of habitat alteration following impoundment of the Coosa River. Here, we reassess the identity and historical range of the Painted Rocksnail to improve communication and conservation efforts for the species. We determined that L. taeniata is a synonym of L. picta and that the name L. taeniata has been misapplied to the current concept of the Painted Rocksnail for which L. coosaensis is the oldest available name. Leptoxis coosaensis and L. picta are herein redescribed. After examination of historical material, we determined that records of the Painted Rocksnail outside the Coosa River drainage were misidentifications. Thus, we redefine the historical range of the Painted Rocksnail as restricted to the Coosa River and select tributaries above the Fall Line at Wetumpka, Alabama, rather than extending into the Alabama River as previously thought. Leptoxis coosaensis is in dire need of conservation, and management plans should take into consideration the revised historical range of the species.

  4. Correspondence between the habitat of the threatened pudú (Cervidae) and the national protected-area system of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez-Fox, Melissa; Estay, Sergio A

    2016-01-07

    Currently, many species are facing serious conservation problems due to habitat loss. The impact of the potential loss of biodiversity associated with habitat loss is difficult to measure. This is particularly the case with inconspicuous species such as the threatened pudú (Pudu puda), an endemic Cervidae of temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Chilean protected-area system in protecting the habitat of the pudú, we measured the congruence between this specie's potential distribution and the geographical area occupied by the protected areas in central and southern Chile. The measurements of congruency were made using the Maxent modeling method. The potential habitat of the pudú was found to be poorly represented in the system (3-8%) and even the most suitable areas for the species are not currenly protected. According to these results, the protected area network cannot be considered as a key component of the conservation strategy for this species. The results presented here also serve as a guide for the reevaluation of current pudú conservation strategies, for the design of new field studies to detect the presence of this species in human-disturbed areas or remaining patches of native forest, and for the implementation of corridors to maximize the success of conservation efforts.

  5. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Crawford; Manzello, Derek; Lirman, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations. Growth plasticity may diminish the influence of local adaptation, where foreign corals grew faster than native corals at their home sites. Novel combinations of environment and genotype also significantly affected disturbance response during and after the 2015 bleaching event, where these factors acted synergistically to drive variation in bleaching and recovery. Importantly, small differences in temperature stress elicit variable patterns of survivorship based on genotype and illustrate the importance of novel combinations of coral genetics and small differences between sites representing habitat refugia. In this context, acclimatization and flexibility is especially important given the long lifespan of corals coping with complex environmental change. The combined influence of site and genotype creates short-term differences in growth and survivorship, contributing to the standing genetic variation needed for adaptation to occur over longer timescales and the recovery of degraded reefs through natural mechanisms.

  6. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Drury

    Full Text Available The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations. Growth plasticity may diminish the influence of local adaptation, where foreign corals grew faster than native corals at their home sites. Novel combinations of environment and genotype also significantly affected disturbance response during and after the 2015 bleaching event, where these factors acted synergistically to drive variation in bleaching and recovery. Importantly, small differences in temperature stress elicit variable patterns of survivorship based on genotype and illustrate the importance of novel combinations of coral genetics and small differences between sites representing habitat refugia. In this context, acclimatization and flexibility is especially important given the long lifespan of corals coping with complex environmental change. The combined influence of site and genotype creates short-term differences in growth and survivorship, contributing to the standing genetic variation needed for adaptation to occur over longer timescales and the recovery of degraded reefs through natural mechanisms.

  7. Current ambient ozone in China has threatened the health of farmland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-level Ozone (O3) has been one of global environmental issues as a result of rising concentration at most parts of the earth causing significant biological and economic damage to both agricultural and native species. Although the rising trends in O3 concentration have leveled off or decreased slightly in North America and Europe, the trends are increasing in developing countries such as India and China. Here, the impacts of ozone on crops in China are reviewed from studies during the last two decades. The field experimental methods include open-top chambers (OTC), free-air concentration enrichments (FACE) and chemical protectant EDU application. The experimental crops are winter wheat, rice, soybean, and oilrape. At a regional scale, yield loss in Yangtze River Delta by O3 was estimated to be 17%, 3% and 6% for wheat, rice and oil rape, respectively, and the corresponding economic losses were estimated to be 86 M US , 116 M US and 39 M US $ at the rate of 2007 (Yao et al., 2008). In four years' FACE studies, a mean 25% enhancement above the ambient O3 concentration significantly reduced the grain yield by, on average, 20% and 12% for winter wheat and rice, respectively, but there were significant differences in O3 sensitivity among the cultivars studied (Shi et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2011). Both flux and concentration -based dose-response relationships indicated that FACE system induced larger yield loss of crops than OTCs, suggesting that O3 effects on crop yield were underestimated. Therefore, it can be inferred that food security will be seriously threatened by rising O3 concentration due to the intensive rate of urbanization in China. However, the impacts of O3 on local food crops need to be investigated more thoroughly in different parts of China, and the combined effects of elevated O3 and other factors like warming and CO2 should be considered. ReferencesFeng, Z. Z., Tang, H.Y., Uddling, J, et al. (2012). Environ Pollut, 164, 16-23. Shi, G.Y., Yang, L

  8. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Victor B; Aspiras, Reyno A

    2011-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and mossy-pygmy forests. Inventory of plant species revealed 163 endemic species, 35 threatened species, and 33 rare species. Assessment of plants also showed seven species as new record in Mindanao and one species as new record in the Philippines. Noteworthy is the discovery of Nepenthes micramphora, a new species of pitcher plant found in the high altitudes of Hamiguitan Range. This species is also considered site endemic, rare, and threatened. The result of the study also showed that the five vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan harbor a number of endangered, endemic, and rare species of plants. Thus, the result of this study would serve as basis for the formulation of policies for the protection and conservation of these species and their habitats before these plants become extinct.

  9. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  10. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  11. Environmental niche separation between native and non-native benthic invertebrate species: Case study of the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Holger; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge and understanding of geographic distributions of species is crucial for many aspects in ecology, conservation, policy making and management. In order to reach such an understanding, it is important to know abiotic variables that impact and drive distributions of native and non-native species. We used an existing long-term macrobenthos database for species presence-absence information and biomass estimates at different environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea. Region specific abiotic variables (e.g. salinity, depth) were derived from previously constructed bathymetric and hydrodynamic models. Multidimensional ordination techniques were then applied to investigate potential niche space separation between all native and non-native invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea. Such an approach allowed to obtain data rich and robust estimates of the current native and non-native species distributions and outline important abiotic parameters influencing the observed pattern. The results showed clear niche space separation between native and non-native species. Non-native species were situated in an environmental space characterized by reduced salinity, high temperatures, high proportion of soft seabed and decreased depth and wave exposure whereas native species displayed an opposite pattern. Different placement of native and non-native species along the studied environmental niche space is likely to be explained by the differences in their evolutionary history, human mediated activities and geological youth of the Baltic Sea. The results of this study can provide early warnings and effectively outline coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea that are prone to further range expansion of non-native species as climate change is expected to significantly reduce salinity and increase temperature in wide coastal areas, both supporting the disappearance of native and appearance of non-native species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of hybridization between nonnative Rainbow Trout and native Westslope Cutthroat Trout on fitness-related traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Webb, Molly A. H.; Naish, Kerry A.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Steed, Amber C.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between introduced and native fauna is a risk to native species and may threaten the long-term persistence of numerous taxa. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has been one of the most widely introduced species around the globe and often hybridizes with native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii in the Rocky Mountains. Previous work has shown that hybridization negatively affects reproductive success, but identification of the traits contributing to that reduction has been elusive. In this study, we used a combination of field and laboratory techniques to assess how hybridization with Rainbow Trout affects seven traits during several stages of Westslope Cutthroat Trout development: embryonic survival, ova size, ova energy concentration, sperm motility, juvenile weight, juvenile survival, and burst swimming endurance. Rainbow Trout admixture was correlated with an increase in embryonic survival and ova energy concentration but with a decrease in juvenile weight and burst swimming endurance. These correlations differed from previously observed patterns of reproductive success and likely do not explain the declines in reproductive success associated with admixture. Future investigation of additional, unstudied traits and the use of different environments may shed light on the traits responsible for reproductive success in admixed Cutthroat Trout.

  13. Avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in native Hawaiian forest birds: epizootiology and demographic impacts on ‵apapane Himatione sanguinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The role of introduced avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian forest birds has become a classic example of the potential effect of invasive diseases on biological diversity of naïve populations. However, empirical evidence describing the impact of avian malaria on fitness of Hawai‵i's endemic forest birds is limited, making it difficult to determine the importance of disease among the suite of potential limiting factors affecting the distribution and abundance of this threatened avifauna. We combined epidemiological force-of-infection with multistate capture––recapture models to evaluate a 7-year longitudinal study of avian malaria in ‵apapane, a relatively common native honeycreeper within mid-elevation Hawaiian forests. We found that malaria transmission was seasonal in this mid-elevation forest; transmission peaked during fall and during some years produced epizootic mortality events. Estimated annual mortality of hatch-year birds typically exceeded 50% and mortality of adults exceeded 25% during epizootics. The substantial impact of avian malaria on this relatively common native species demonstrates the key role this disease has played in the decline and extinction of Hawaiian forest birds.

  14. Semantic and phonetic enhancements for speech-in-noise recognition by native and non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlow, Ann R; Alexander, Jennifer A

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has shown that speech recognition differences between native and proficient non-native listeners emerge under suboptimal conditions. Current evidence has suggested that the key deficit that underlies this disproportionate effect of unfavorable listening conditions for non-native listeners is their less effective use of compensatory information at higher levels of processing to recover from information loss at the phoneme identification level. The present study investigated whether this non-native disadvantage could be overcome if enhancements at various levels of processing were presented in combination. Native and non-native listeners were presented with English sentences in which the final word varied in predictability and which were produced in either plain or clear speech. Results showed that, relative to the low-predictability-plain-speech baseline condition, non-native listener final word recognition improved only when both semantic and acoustic enhancements were available (high-predictability-clear-speech). In contrast, the native listeners benefited from each source of enhancement separately and in combination. These results suggests that native and non-native listeners apply similar strategies for speech-in-noise perception: The crucial difference is in the signal clarity required for contextual information to be effective, rather than in an inability of non-native listeners to take advantage of this contextual information per se.

  15. Transvaginal ultrasound in threatened abortions with empty gestational sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Wanapirak, C; Srisomboon, J; Sirichotiyakul, S; Polsrisuthikul, T; Pongsatha, S

    1994-09-01

    To determine whether transvaginal ultrasound criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable gestational sacs at a single examination. A prospective descriptive study was undertaken and analysis performed on 211 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion and empty gestation sacs diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. The main outcome measure was the final diagnosis of viable or non-viable gestation on subsequent transvaginal sonography. The study shows that a single transvaginal ultrasound examination is useful in differentiating viable from non-viable gestation sacs. The mean sac diameter (MSD) was found to be the most useful criterion for determining non-viability. An MSD of > or = 17 mm that lacked an embryo and an MSD of > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac were reliable predictors of non-viable gestation sacs at a single examination with 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value. An MSD > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac was the most sensitive criterion. Using MSD criteria, 73% of non-viable gestations could be reliably identified without any false-positive diagnoses. Deformed shape, low position and thin decidual reaction are strong indicators of non-viable gestations but are not 100% accurate. There is still a significant proportion of empty sacs, where no accurate distinction between viable and non-viable can be made according to one criterion at a single examination and in these cases serial examinations should be carried out before any active management is advocated. In most cases, transvaginal sonographic criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable empty gestational sacs at a single examination.

  16. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE is defined as “an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing”. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common causes and factors associated with higher risk of ALTE could be resulted in a more purposeful approach, improving the decision making process, and benefiting both children and parents. The aim of this review article was to report the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, management, and disposition of ALTE. Infants with an ALTE might present no signs of acute illness and are commonly managed in the emergency settings that often require significant medical attention; hence, the emergency medicine personnel should be aware of the its clinical importance. There is no specific treatment for ALTE; therefore, the clinical evaluations should be focused on the detection of the underlying causes, which will define the outcomes and prognosis. ALTE is a confusing entity, representing a constellation of descriptive symptoms and signs; in other words, it is not a diagnosis. There are multiple possible etiologies and difficulties in evaluating and managing infants with these events, which are challenges to primary care physicians, emergency medicine specialists, and subspecialty pediatricians. The evaluation of these events in infants includes a detailed history, appropriate physical examination, diagnostic tests guided by obtained clues from the history and physical examination, and observation in the emergency department.

  17. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  18. The Television Advertisements of Health-threatening Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koorosh Etemad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: The media strongly affect in individuals consumption behavior, purchasing and food pattern and undoubtedly, if these foods doesn’t advertise, People tend not to consume them and will reduce the related diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the television advertising of healththreatening products Methods: In this study, the television advertising of one, two, three and Tehran channels were studied from 6 am to 24 midnight From January 20 to February 3 and from August 23 to September 6 ,2013. According to the list approved by the Ministry of Health, harmful products to health include the grain snack, carbonated drinks, Chips and consuming fast foods. Data were collected from recorded adverting boxes and were analyzed using Excel software. Results: In this 30-day period, 612 cases of harmful products were advertised in four TV Channels in 14567 second. From January 20 to February 3, 295 cases of harmful products were advertised in in 6853 second. From August 23 to September 6, 317 cases of harmful products were advertised in in 7714 second. Most harmful products were done in the TV channel 3. Chips were advertised more than other harmful products. Conclusion: Due to the high amount of advertisements of health-threatening products, it is suggested continuous monitoring, using the legal and regulatory strategies.

  19. Genomic variation among populations of threatened coral: Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C; Dale, K E; Panlilio, J M; Miller, S V; Lirman, D; Larson, E A; Bartels, E; Crawford, D L; Oleksiak, M F

    2016-04-13

    Acropora cervicornis, a threatened, keystone reef-building coral has undergone severe declines (>90 %) throughout the Caribbean. These declines could reduce genetic variation and thus hamper the species' ability to adapt. Active restoration strategies are a common conservation approach to mitigate species' declines and require genetic data on surviving populations to efficiently respond to declines while maintaining the genetic diversity needed to adapt to changing conditions. To evaluate active restoration strategies for the staghorn coral, the genetic diversity of A. cervicornis within and among populations was assessed in 77 individuals collected from 68 locations along the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and in the Dominican Republic. Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) identified 4,764 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pairwise nucleotide differences (π) within a population are large (~37 %) and similar to π across all individuals. This high level of genetic diversity along the FRT is similar to the diversity within a small, isolated reef. Much of the genetic diversity (>90 %) exists within a population, yet GBS analysis shows significant variation along the FRT, including 300 SNPs with significant FST values and significant divergence relative to distance. There are also significant differences in SNP allele frequencies over small spatial scales, exemplified by the large FST values among corals collected within Miami-Dade county. Large standing diversity was found within each population even after recent declines in abundance, including significant, potentially adaptive divergence over short distances. The data here inform conservation and management actions by uncovering population structure and high levels of diversity maintained within coral collections among sites previously shown to have little genetic divergence. More broadly, this approach demonstrates the power of GBS to resolve differences among individuals and identify subtle genetic structure

  20. Biodegradable airway stents in infants - Potential life-threatening pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztanó, B; Kiss, G; Márai, K; Rácz, G; Szegesdi, I; Rácz, K; Katona, G; Rovó, L

    2016-12-01

    The solution of severe tracheobronchial obstructions in early childhood means a great challenge. Biodegradable stents were intended to be a minimally invasive temporary solution which may decrease the number of interventions and limit the possible complications of stenting procedures. However, our first experiences have brought out a new, - especially in childhood - potentially life-threatening complication of this concept. Five SX-ELLA biodegradable polydioxanone stents was applied in three patients because of severe tracheobronchial obstruction: congenital tracheomalacia (7 day-old), acquired tracheomalacia (10 month-old), and congenital trachea-bronchomalacia (10 month-old). The breathing of all children improved right after the procedure. We observed degradation of the stent from the 5th postoperative week which resulted in large intraluminar fragments causing significant airway obstruction: one patient died of severe pneumonia, the other baby required urgent bronchoscopy to remove the obstructing 'foreign body' from the trachea. In the third case repeated stent placements successfully maintained the tracheal lumen. Polydioxanone stents may offer an alternative to metallic or silastic stents for collapse or external compression of the trachea in children; however, large decaying fragments mean a potential risk especially in the small size pediatric airway. The fragmentation of the stent, which generally starts in the 4-6 postoperative weeks, may create large sharp pieces. These may be anchored to the mucosa and covered by crust leading to obstruction. As repeated interventions are required, we do not consider the application of biodegradable stents unambiguously advantageous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  2. Native kidney reincarnation following a failed transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Roberts, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 51-year-old woman with end stage renal failure secondary to Haemolytic Uraemic syndrome underwent a cadaveric renal transplant. A routine post transplant DTPA scan was performed which demonstrated satisfactory renal transplant perfusion and function. Incidental note was made of tracer uptake in the pelvis in the mid-line, which was suspected to be a uterine fibroid. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and at surgery. One week post transplantation the patient became acutely unwell and at laparotomy a perforated diverticular abscess was drained. Intraoperatively the transplant kidney was examined and the surgeon thought there was a area of infarction. This was confirmed on biopsy. As the patient's creatinine was rising a repeat DTPA study was performed. Perfusion and function of the transplant kidney was virtually absent while Doppler studies showed no flow. The patient however continued to produce urine and the creatinine was stable. Subsequently a mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG) 3 study was performed which again confirmed absent perfusion and function by the the transplanted kidney as well as the previous noted uterine fibroid. The native kidneys however demonstrated good perfusion and function. The patient's renal function remained stable and she did not require dialysis. A necrotic infarcted transplant kidney was removed uneventfully. This case illustrates the importance of imaging the native kidneys as well as the transplant kidney when there are puzzling clinical features. The presumed cause of the recovery of native renal function was the immunosuppression given for the transplant. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  4. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  5. Native gel analysis for RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of their target mRNAs via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A core component of RISC is the Argonaute (Ago) protein, which dictates the RISC function. In Drosophila, miRNAs and siRNAs are generally loaded into Ago1-containing RISC (Ago1-RISC) and Ago2-containing RISC (Ago2-RISC), respectively. We developed a native agarose gel system to directly detect Ago1-RISC, Ago2-RISC, and their precursor complexes. Methods presented here will provide powerful tools to biochemically dissect the RISC assembly pathways.

  6. Incidence and management of life-threatening adverse events during cardiac catheterization for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Huie; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marshall, Audrey C; Porras, Diego; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Balzer, David T; Beekman, Robert H; Torres, Alejandro; Vincent, Julie A; Moore, John W; Holzer, Ralf; Armsby, Laurie; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Continued advancements in congenital cardiac catheterization and interventions have resulted in increased patient and procedural complexity. Anticipation of life-threatening events and required rescue measures is a critical component to preprocedural preparation. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of life-threatening adverse events in congenital and pediatric cardiac catheterization, risk factors, and resources necessary to anticipate and manage events. Data from 8905 cases performed at the 8 participating institutions of the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes were captured between 2007 and 2010 [median 1,095/site (range 133-3,802)]. The incidence of all life-threatening events was 2.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.4 %], whereas mortality was 0.28 % (95 % CI 0.18-0.41 %). Fifty-seven life-threatening events required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whereas 9 % required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of a risk adjustment model showed that age events. Using this model, standardized life-threatening event ratios were calculated, thus showing that one institution had a life-threatening event rate greater than expected. Congenital cardiac catheterization and intervention can be performed safely with a low rate of life-threatening events and mortality; preprocedural evaluation of risk may optimize preparation of emergency rescue and bailout procedures. Risk predictors (age < 1, hemodynamic vulnerability, and procedure risk category) can enhance preprocedural patient risk stratification and planning.

  7. Investigating evolutionary constraints on the detection of threatening stimuli in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsido, Andras N; Deak, Anita; Losonci, Adrienn; Stecina, Diana; Arato, Akos; Bernath, Laszlo

    2018-04-01

    Numerous objects and animals could be threatening, and thus, children learn to avoid them early. Spiders and syringes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias of the modern word. However, they are of different origins: while the former is evolutionary relevant, the latter is not. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms that make the quick detection of such stimuli possible and enable the impulse to avoid them in the future. The respective categories of threatening and non-threatening targets were similar in shape, while low-level visual features were controlled. Our results showed that children found threatening cues faster, irrespective of the evolutionary age of the cues. However, they detected non-threatening evolutionary targets faster than non-evolutionary ones. We suggest that the underlying mechanism may be different: general feature detection can account for finding evolutionary threatening cues quickly, while specific features detection is more appropriate for modern threatening stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  9. (Non)native Speakered: Rethinking (Non)nativeness and Teacher Identity in TESOL Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Geeta A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its imprecision, the native-nonnative dichotomy has become the dominant paradigm for examining language teacher identity development. The nonnative English speaking teacher (NNEST) movement in particular has considered the impact of deficit framings of nonnativeness on "NNEST" preservice teachers. Although these efforts have…

  10. Are native songbird populations affected by non-native plant invasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda M. Conover; Christopher K. Williams; Vincent. D' Amico

    2011-01-01

    Development into forested areas is occurring rapidly across the United States, and many of the remnant forests within suburban landscapes are being fragmented into smaller patches, impacting the quality of this habitat for avian species. An ecological effect linked to forest fragmentation is the invasion of non-native plants into the ecosystem.

  11. Minimal effectiveness of native and non-native seeding following three high-severity wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken A. Stella; Carolyn H. Sieg; Pete Z. Fule

    2010-01-01

    The rationale for seeding following high-severity wildfires is to enhance plant cover and reduce bare ground, thus decreasing the potential for soil erosion and non-native plant invasion. However, experimental tests of the effectiveness of seeding in meeting these objectives in forests are lacking. We conducted three experimental studies of the effectiveness of seeding...

  12. Impact of Non-Native Birds on Native Ecosystems: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Albarracin, Valeria L; Amico, Guillermo C; Simberloff, Daniel; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and naturalization of non-native species is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity. Birds have been widely introduced worldwide, but their impacts on populations, communities, and ecosystems have not received as much attention as those of other groups. This work is a global synthesis of the impact of nonnative birds on native ecosystems to determine (1) what groups, impacts, and locations have been best studied; (2) which taxonomic groups and which impacts have greatest effects on ecosystems, (3) how important are bird impacts at the community and ecosystem levels, and (4) what are the known benefits of nonnative birds to natural ecosystems. We conducted an extensive literature search that yielded 148 articles covering 39 species belonging to 18 families -18% of all known naturalized species. Studies were classified according to where they were conducted: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America, Islands of the Indian, of the Pacific, and of the Atlantic Ocean. Seven types of impact on native ecosystems were evaluated: competition, disease transmission, chemical, physical, or structural impact on ecosystem, grazing/ herbivory/ browsing, hybridization, predation, and interaction with other non-native species. Hybridization and disease transmission were the most important impacts, affecting the population and community levels. Ecosystem-level impacts, such as structural and chemical impacts were detected. Seven species were found to have positive impacts aside from negative ones. We provide suggestions for future studies focused on mechanisms of impact, regions, and understudied taxonomic groups.

  13. Discriminating native from non-native speech using fusion of visual cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakis, Christos; Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The task of classifying accent, as belonging to a native language speaker or a foreign language speaker, has been so far addressed by means of the audio modality only. However, features extracted from the visual modality have been successfully used to extend or substitute audio-only approaches

  14. Discrimination Between Native and Non-Native Speech Using Visual Features Only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakis, Christos; Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Accent is a soft biometric trait that can be inferred from pronunciation and articulation patterns characterizing the speaking style of an individual. Past research has addressed the task of classifying accent, as belonging to a native language speaker or a foreign language speaker, by means of the

  15. Haunting Native Speakerism? Students' Perceptions toward Native Speaking English Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-huei; Ke, Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese university students perceive their native-speaking English teachers (NESTs). Mutual expectations between the NESTs and students are also investigated. Collected data include questionnaires from 107 students and interviews with three NESTs and 19 students who have filled out the questionnaire. The result…

  16. Topic Continuity in Informal Conversations between Native and Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Adams, Muna

    2013-01-01

    Topic management by non-native speakers (NNSs) during informal conversations has received comparatively little attention from researchers, and receives surprisingly little attention in second language learning and teaching. This article reports on one of the topic management strategies employed by international students during informal, social…

  17. 75 FR 17377 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... list of endangered and threatened wildlife and plant species at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12... endangered nor threatened for one or more of the following reasons: (1) the species is considered extinct; (2...

  18. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Ylä-Pelto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  19. Crossing Boundaries: Nativity, Ethnicity, and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E.; Baston, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration often focuses on panethnic differences and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican, Mexican, Chinese, and Filipino origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a less extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  20. Pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion with demonstrable fetal cardiac activity: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Srisomboon, J; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Pongsatha, S; Polsrisuthikul, T

    1995-08-01

    Pregnancy with visible fetal heart beat complicated by first trimester threatened abortion had significant increased risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy. To compare pregnancy outcomes in cases complicated by first trimester threatened abortion with those that were not. Prospective cohort study of 255 cases of first trimester threatened abortions but with visible heart beat and 265 other normal pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion rates of 5.5% (with relative abortal risk of 2.91) was found for study group, compared to 1.88% for controls (p abortion rate than those without.

  1. Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Arai, Yasuaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

  2. Records of threatened bird and mammal species in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Torrecilha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a detailed review of threatened bird and mammal occurrence records obtained from surveys across Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern region of Brazil which has an extent of 357,145 km2, aiming to support environmental and biodiversity conservation initiatives, as strategic plans to protect threatened species in this region. We included all records of species categorized as threatened by the Brazilian and global red list of threatened species. We collected 760 records of threatened birds and mammals in Mato Grosso do Sul State, with 319 records of 40 bird’s species and 441 records of 24 mammal’s species. The status of the 40 bird species under de Brazilian threat category were as follow: 1 Critically Threatened (CR, 6 Endangered (EN, 11 Vulnerable (VU, 11 Near Threatened (NT, and 11 species only in the IUCN red list. Under the IUCN category for the bird´s species, were as follow: 3 EN, 13 VU, 18 NT, 5 Least Concern (LC and 1 taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List. Regarding mammal’s species under the Brazilian threat category were as follow: 2 EN, 18 VU, 2 NT and 1 only in the IUCN red list. Under the IUCN status the species ranged from 2 EN, 6 VU, 10 NT, and 6 LC. Each record identified corresponds to the existence of at least one occurrence of threatened birds or mammals in a particular region. The records of threatened species belongs to the three biomes in the state: 269 mammal’s records and 147 bird’s records from Cerrado (Neotropical Savanna biome, 117 mammal’s records and 162 bird’s records from Pantanal (Wetland biome, and 55 mammal’s records and 10 bird’s records from Atlantic Forest biome. In addition, we also included in the dataset environmental information where each record was obtained. Supplementary Files 1- Records of Threatened Mammals_MS_Brazil and Supplementary File 2. Records of Threatened Birds of_MS_Brazil Keywords: Threatened species, Protected areas, Database, Brazil

  3. Student perceptions of native and non-native speaker language instructors: A comparison of ESL and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Callahan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the native vs. non-native speaker status of second and foreign language instructors has been investigated chiefly from the perspective of the teacher. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have strong opinions on the relative qualities of instruction by native and non-native speakers. Most research focuses on students of English as a foreign or second language. This paper reports on data gathered through a questionnaire administered to 55 university students: 31 students of Spanish as FL and 24 students of English as SL. Qualitative results show what strengths students believe each type of instructor has, and quantitative results confirm that any gap students may perceive between the abilities of native and non-native instructors is not so wide as one might expect based on popular notions of the issue. ESL students showed a stronger preference for native-speaker instructors overall, and were at variance with the SFL students' ratings of native-speaker instructors' performance on a number of aspects. There was a significant correlation in both groups between having a family member who is a native speaker of the target language and student preference for and self-identification with a native speaker as instructor. (English text

  4. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steve C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-10-01

    projections showed drastic declines in the polar bear population by the end of the 21st century. These projections were instrumental in the decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

  5. Tension pneumothorax, is it a really life-threatening condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening occurrence that is infrequently the consequence of spontaneous pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for the development of tension pneumothorax and its effect on clinical outcomes. Methods We reviewed patients who were admitted with spontaneous pneumothorax between August 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011. Electronic medical records and the radiological findings were reviewed with chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography scans that were retrieved from the Picture Archiving Communication System. Results Out of the 370 patients included in this study, tension pneumothorax developed in 60 (16.2%). The bullae were larger in patients with tension pneumothorax than in those without (23.8 ± 16.2 mm vs 16.1 ± 19.1 mm; P = 0.007). In addition, the incidence of tension pneumothorax increased with the lung bulla size. Fibrotic adhesion was more prevalent in the tension pneumothorax group than in that without (P = 0.000). The bullae were large in patients with fibrotic adhesion than in those without adhesion (35.0 ± 22.3 mm vs 10.4 ± 11.5 mm; P = 0.000). On multivariate analysis, the size of bullae (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, P = 0.001) and fibrotic adhesion (OR = 10.76, P = 0.000) were risk factors of tension pneumothorax. Hospital mortality was 3.3% in the tension pneumothorax group and it was not significantly different from those patients without tension pneunothorax (P = 0.252). Conclusions Tension pneumothorax is not uncommon, but clinically fatal tension pneumothorax is extremely rare. The size of the lung bullae and fibrotic adhesion contributes to the development of tension pneumothorax. PMID:24128176

  6. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: A stochastic demographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Runge, M.C.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    declines in the polar bear population by the end of the 21st century. These projections were instrumental in the decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  8. Syntactic constraints and individual differences in native and non-native processing of wh-movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne eJohnson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a debate as to whether second language (L2 learners show qualitatively similar processing profiles as native speakers or whether L2 learners are restricted in their ability to use syntactic information during online processing. In the realm of wh-dependency resolution, research has examined whether learners, similar to native speakers, attempt to resolve wh-dependencies in grammatically licensed contexts but avoid positing gaps in illicit contexts such as islands. Also at issue is whether the avoidance of gap filling in islands is due to adherence to syntactic constraints or whether islands simply present processing bottlenecks. One approach has been to examine the relationship between processing abilities and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands. Grammatical accounts of islands do not predict such a relationship as the parser should simply not predict gaps in illicit contexts. In contrast, a pattern of results showing that individuals with more processing resources are better able to establish wh-dependencies in islands could conceivably be compatible with certain processing accounts. In a self-paced reading experiment which examines the processing of wh- dependencies, we address both questions, examining whether native English speakers and Korean learners of English show qualitatively similar patterns and whether there is a relationship between working memory, as measured by counting span and reading span, and processing in both island and non-island contexts. The results of the self-paced reading experiment suggest that learners can use syntactic information on the same timecourse as native speakers, showing qualitative similarity between the two groups. Results of regression analyses did not reveal a significant relationship between working memory and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands but we did observe significant relationships between working memory and the processing of licit wh-dependencies. As the

  9. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  10. Digital native advertising: Practitioner perspectives and a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Bianca; Bijmolt, Tammo; Hoekstra, Janita

    2018-01-01

    Digital native advertising is a subtle form of digital advertising that is integrated closely with its context. Practitioners are increasingly assigning budgets to this advertising strategy. On the basis of 22 in-depth expert interviews with senior executives of advertising brands, publishing companies, and media agencies, this study provides new insights into the effectiveness of digital native advertising. We also shed light on factors in the field of content and context of digital native a...

  11. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...

  12. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  13. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures

  14. Overview of the Camcore (NC State University) and USDA Forest Service cooperative gene conservation program for threatened and endangered tree species native to the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Jetton; W. Andrew Whittier; William S. Dvorak; Gary R. Hodge; Barbara S. Crane; James “Rusty”. Rhea

    2017-01-01

    The southern United States is home to some of the world’s most biologically diverse temperate forests. These forests range from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains to the Southern Appalachian Mountains and are home to more than 140 tree species which provide a number of ecosystem services, including clean air and water, carbon storage, recreational opportunities, wood...

  15. The ecological footprint of Acca sellowiana domestication maintains the residual vertebrate diversity in threatened highlands of Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Juliano André; Graipel, Maurício Eduardo; Peroni, Nivaldo

    2018-01-01

    Past and contemporary human actions are causing numerous changes in patterns and processes at various ecosystem scales and trophic levels, including unintended downstream changes, such as species interactions. In its native range Acca sellowiana (Feijoa) combines some characteristics of human interactions: incipient domestication, restricted to subtropical Atlantic Forest highlands, associated with the threatened conifer Araucaria angustifolia (Araucaria), within a domesticated landscape with anthropogenic forest patches, and provides fruit at a time of resource shortage (Araucaria seeds-pinhão). We quantify the trophic relationships between Feijoa and vertebrates, and evaluate the influences on interactions caused by environmental variations, Feijoa domestication evidences, spatial distance and fruit availability. In four sites within protected areas, we selected 28 focal individuals of Feijoa (seven/site) and collected three temporal replicas between 2015 and 2016, when we measured productivity and frugivory via 45-second videos taken with camera traps. Using ecological network, rarefaction curves and variation partitioning analyses, we evaluate the frugivory network topology, the spatiotemporal structure of communities in relation to fruit availability and the influence of predictive variables on frugivory. We found a large spatiotemporal variation in productivity of Feijoa and that 20 species consumed Feijoa fruits, with a species degree of 2.8 (±5.7) and average Feijoa degree of 14.4 (±10.1), in a modular network with intermediary connectance. Rarefaction curves showed that richness and the independent records are congruent with the fruit amount. Variation partitioning showed that, for the focal individuals, canopy area, green coverage, patch size and distance to water influenced frugivory, and the Feijoa domestication influenced significantly the mammalian frugivory. Feijoa is an important resource that provides food during the time of year when Pinhão is

  16. The ecological footprint of Acca sellowiana domestication maintains the residual vertebrate diversity in threatened highlands of Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Past and contemporary human actions are causing numerous changes in patterns and processes at various ecosystem scales and trophic levels, including unintended downstream changes, such as species interactions. In its native range Acca sellowiana (Feijoa) combines some characteristics of human interactions: incipient domestication, restricted to subtropical Atlantic Forest highlands, associated with the threatened conifer Araucaria angustifolia (Araucaria), within a domesticated landscape with anthropogenic forest patches, and provides fruit at a time of resource shortage (Araucaria seeds—pinhão). We quantify the trophic relationships between Feijoa and vertebrates, and evaluate the influences on interactions caused by environmental variations, Feijoa domestication evidences, spatial distance and fruit availability. In four sites within protected areas, we selected 28 focal individuals of Feijoa (seven/site) and collected three temporal replicas between 2015 and 2016, when we measured productivity and frugivory via 45-second videos taken with camera traps. Using ecological network, rarefaction curves and variation partitioning analyses, we evaluate the frugivory network topology, the spatiotemporal structure of communities in relation to fruit availability and the influence of predictive variables on frugivory. We found a large spatiotemporal variation in productivity of Feijoa and that 20 species consumed Feijoa fruits, with a species degree of 2.8 (±5.7) and average Feijoa degree of 14.4 (±10.1), in a modular network with intermediary connectance. Rarefaction curves showed that richness and the independent records are congruent with the fruit amount. Variation partitioning showed that, for the focal individuals, canopy area, green coverage, patch size and distance to water influenced frugivory, and the Feijoa domestication influenced significantly the mammalian frugivory. Feijoa is an important resource that provides food during the time of year when Pinh

  17. Phylogenetic Signal of Threatening Processes among Hylids: The Need for Clade-Level Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Corey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, global declines among amphibians are partly alarming because many occur for apparently unknown or enigmatic reasons. Moreover, the relationship between phylogeny and enigmatic declines in higher clades of the amphibian phylogeny appears at first to be an intractable problem. I present a working solution by assessing threatening processes potentially underlying enigmatic declines in the family, Hylidae. Applying comparative methods that account for various evolutionary scenarios, I find extreme concentrations of threatening processes, including pollution and habitat loss, in the clade Hylini, potentially influenced by traits under selection. The analysis highlights hotspots of declines under phylogenetic influence in the genera Isthmohyla, Plectrohyla and Ptychohyla, and geographically in Mexico and Guatemala. The conservation implications of concentrated phylogenetic influence across multiple threatening processes are twofold: Data Deficient species of threatened clades should be prioritized in future surveys and, perhaps, a greater vulnerability should be assigned to such clades for further consideration of clade-level conservation priorities.

  18. Caring for children with life-limiting and life-threatening illnesses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-03

    Jul 3, 2011 ... She currently works with funding support from the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and the ... Children with life-limiting illnesses may also develop life-threatening ... bodies in an age-appropriate manner a basic.

  19. 78 FR 60254 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on findings... conduct water quality, [[Page 60255

  20. 78 FR 43145 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC767 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This...

  1. 78 FR 34653 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC717 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of decision and availability of...

  2. Installation Summaries from the 1996 Survey of Threatened and Endangered Species on Army Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreiber, Eric

    1997-01-01

    ...) species residing on and contiguous to its lands. This report, intended for installation use, provides quick access to basic information from the survey on the Federally Threatened, Endangered, Proposed, and Candidate (TEPC...

  3. Management of Peatland Shrub- and Forest-Dominated Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    ... or agricultural uses, and they support several threatened, endangered, and sensitive species (TES). Several of these plant communities are rare due to alterations in fire and hydrology over large expanses of the region...

  4. 78 FR 4836 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... steelhead promulgated under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The plan specifies fishery management...: January 17, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources...

  5. 77 FR 31835 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC049 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  6. 76 FR 49735 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA631 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Therese Conant, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  7. 78 FR 4834 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC444 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... species. Dated: January 16, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected...

  8. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The HGMPs specify the operations of four... Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries...

  9. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Garnett, Stephen T; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  10. 78 FR 47722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... rarest species of fish in the nation and may be close to extinction. Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where it is again a secure, self-sustaining member of its ecosystem...

  11. Memecylon clarkeanum Cogn. (Melastomataceae - a Threatened Species, New Record for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambikabai Raghavanpillai Sivu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon clarkeanum Cogn., an endemic and threatened species of Sri Lanka characterized by narrowly filiform foliar sclereids is reported and described as a new record for India from Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram and Palakkad districts of Kerala.

  12. Real-Time Change and Damage Detection of Landslides and Other Earth Movements Threatening Public Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Geologic hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, seismic loading, etc. constantly threaten public highway construction and maintenance. Repeat surveys using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, ground-based LiDAR) enable rapid 3D data acquisition to...

  13. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  14. Combining geodiversity with climate and topography to account for threatened species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, Helena; Bailey, Joseph J; Field, Richard; Kangas, Katja; Hjort, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Understanding threatened species diversity is important for long-term conservation planning. Geodiversity-the diversity of Earth surface materials, forms, and processes-may be a useful biodiversity surrogate for conservation and have conservation value itself. Geodiversity and species richness relationships have been demonstrated; establishing whether geodiversity relates to threatened species' diversity and distribution pattern is a logical next step for conservation. We used 4 geodiversity variables (rock-type and soil-type richness, geomorphological diversity, and hydrological feature diversity) and 4 climatic and topographic variables to model threatened species diversity across 31 of Finland's national parks. We also analyzed rarity-weighted richness (a measure of site complementarity) of threatened vascular plants, fungi, bryophytes, and all species combined. Our 1-km 2 resolution data set included 271 threatened species from 16 major taxa. We modeled threatened species richness (raw and rarity weighted) with boosted regression trees. Climatic variables, especially the annual temperature sum above 5 °C, dominated our models, which is consistent with the critical role of temperature in this boreal environment. Geodiversity added significant explanatory power. High geodiversity values were consistently associated with high threatened species richness across taxa. The combined effect of geodiversity variables was even more pronounced in the rarity-weighted richness analyses (except for fungi) than in those for species richness. Geodiversity measures correlated most strongly with species richness (raw and rarity weighted) of threatened vascular plants and bryophytes and were weakest for molluscs, lichens, and mammals. Although simple measures of topography improve biodiversity modeling, our results suggest that geodiversity data relating to geology, landforms, and hydrology are also worth including. This reinforces recent arguments that conserving nature's stage

  15. A Metacognitive Perspective on the Cognitive Deficits Experienced in Intellectually Threatening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schmader, Toni; Forbes, Chad E.; Zhang, Shen; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2009-01-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that negative metacognitive interpretations of anxious arousal under stereotype threat create cognitive deficits in intellectually threatening environments. Study 1 showed that among minority and White undergraduates, anxiety about an intelligence test predicted lower working memory when participants were primed with doubt as compared to confidence. Study 2 replicated this pattern with women and showed it to be unique to intellectually threatening environme...

  16. Native Americans and state and local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusco, E.R. [Cultural Resources Consultants, Ltd. Reno, Nevada (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  17. Native Americans and state and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusco, E.R.

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans' concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain

  18. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  19. Introducing native landscape ecology to Hanford cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Nguyen, G.; Barry, B.

    1995-01-01

    Responsible management of environmental and public health risk requires a fundamental understanding of the intra-, inter-, and integral components of the hierarchical interaction dynamics within a pollution affected ecosystem. Because the ecosphere is a heterogeneous combination of many subecosystems of plant and animal species, its component interactions sustaining the complex whole are spatially mediated, and such an adaptive self-stabilizing ecomosaic often possesses long disintegration and regeneration times for the manifestation of observable consequences, quantitative assessment of its future structural and functional changes can be deceptive or plagued with irreducible uncertainty. This paper presents an holistic framework for the direct integration of native traditional environmental knowledge with the landscape ecology information system to refine and actualize the understanding of acceptable long-range risk and its collective estimation for an endangered population or community. An illustrative application of riparian zone restoration in the Hanford reach for wild salmon runs and habitat preservation is also discussed

  20. Native American Training Program in Petroleum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Winifred M.; Kokesh, Judith H.

    1999-04-27

    This report outlines a comprehensive training program for members of Native American tribes whose lands have oil and gas resources. The program has two components: short courses and internships. Programs are proposed for: (1) adult tribes representatives who are responsible for managing tribal mineral holdings, setting policy, or who work in the oil and gas industry; (2) graduate and undergraduate college students who are tribal members and are studying in the appropriate fields; and (3) high school and middle school teachers, science teachers. Materials and program models already have been developed for some components of the projects. The plan is a coordinated, comprehensive effort to use existing resources to accomplish its goals. Partnerships will be established with the tribes, the BIA, tribal organizations, other government agencies, and the private sector to implement the program.

  1. Natively unstructured loops differ from other loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Schlessinger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%-70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein-protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested

  2. Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Meijer

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native. Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.

  3. Determinants of bird conservation-action implementation and associated population trends of threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, David A; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hayward, Matt W; Kester, Marieke E; Lamoreux, John; Upgren, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Conservation actions, such as habitat protection, attempt to halt the loss of threatened species and help their populations recover. The efficiency and the effectiveness of actions have been examined individually. However, conservation actions generally occur simultaneously, so the full suite of implemented conservation actions should be assessed. We used the conservation actions underway for all threatened and near-threatened birds of the world (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species) to assess which biological (related to taxonomy and ecology) and anthropogenic (related to geoeconomics) factors were associated with the implementation of different classes of conservation actions. We also assessed which conservation actions were associated with population increases in the species targeted. Extinction-risk category was the strongest single predictor of the type of conservation actions implemented, followed by landmass type (continent, oceanic island, etc.) and generation length. Species targeted by invasive nonnative species control or eradication programs, ex situ conservation, international legislation, reintroduction, or education, and awareness-raising activities were more likely to have increasing populations. These results illustrate the importance of developing a predictive science of conservation actions and the relative benefits of each class of implemented conservation action for threatened and near-threatened birds worldwide. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. The biogeography of threatened insular iguanas and opportunities for invasive vertebrate management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershy, Bernie R.; Newton, Kelly M.; Spatz, Dena R.; Swinnerton, Kirsty; Iverson, John B.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S.; Holmes, Nick D.; Croll, Donald A.; Iverson, J.B.; Grant, T. D.; Knapp, C. R.; Pasachnik, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Iguanas are a particularly threatened group of reptiles, with 61% of species at risk of extinction. Primary threats to iguanas include habitat loss, direct and indirect impacts by invasive vertebrates, overexploitation, and human disturbance. As conspicuous, charismatic vertebrates, iguanas also represent excellent flagships for biodiversity conservation. To assist planning for invasive vertebrate management and thus benefit threatened iguana recovery, we identified all islands with known extant or extirpated populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered insular iguana taxa as recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. For each island, we determined total area, sovereignty, the presence of invasive alien vertebrates, and human population. For the 23 taxa of threatened insular iguanas we identified 230 populations, of which iguanas were extant on 185 islands and extirpated from 45 islands. Twenty-one iguana taxa (91% of all threatened insular iguana taxa) occurred on at least one island with invasive vertebrates present; 16 taxa had 100% of their population(s) on islands with invasive vertebrates present. Rodents, cats, ungulates, and dogs were the most common invasive vertebrates. We discuss biosecurity, eradication, and control of invasive vertebrates to benefit iguana recovery: (1) on islands already free of invasive vertebrates; (2) on islands with high iguana endemicity; and (3) for species and subspecies with small total populations occurring across multiple small islands. Our analyses provide an important first step toward understanding how invasive vertebrate management can be planned effectively to benefit threatened insular iguanas.

  5. Selective processing of threatening information: effects of attachment representation and anxiety disorder on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, Ingeborg A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; de Ruiter, Corine; Brosschot, Jos F

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the mental representation of attachment on information processing, 28 anxiety disorder outpatients, as diagnosed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised, were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. They also completed an emotional Stroop task with subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, a free recall memory task, and a recognition test. All tasks contained threatening, neutral, and positively valenced stimuli. A nonclinical comparison group of 56 participants completed the same measures. Results on the Stroop task showed color-naming interference for threatening words in the supraliminal condition only. Nonclinical participants with insecure attachment representations showed a global response inhibition to the Stroop task. Clinical participants with secure attachment representations showed the largest Stroop interference of the threatening words compared to the other groups. Results on the free recall task showed superior recall of all types of stimuli by participants with secure attachment representations. In the outpatient group, participants with secure attachment representations showed superior recall of threatening words on the free recall task, compared to insecure participants. Results on the recognition task showed no differences between attachment groups. We conclude that secure attachment representations are characterized by open communication about and processing of threatening information, leading to less defensive exclusion of negative material during the attentional stage of information processing and to better recall of threatening information in a later stage. Attachment insecurity, but not the type of insecurity, seems a decisive factor in attention and memory processes.

  6. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  7. The Physical-Digital Divide: Exploring the Social Gap Between Digital Natives and Physical Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher; Francis, Jessica; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Kadylak, Travis; Cotten, Shelia R; Rikard, R V

    2017-09-01

    Older adults are the most digitally divided demographic group. The present study explores how older adults perceive the physical use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly across generations and contexts. Data for the present study come from nine focus groups. Seniors acknowledge that ICTs help them connect with geographically distant social ties, but that they lead to feelings of disconnection with geographically close social ties. We label this phenomenon the "physical-digital divide," which exists when a group feels ostracized or offended when those around them engage with ICTs while they themselves are not or cannot engage with ICTs. Younger generations are often referred to as "digital natives" and older generations as "digital immigrants." A more apt label for older adults may be "physical natives," as their preferred method of communication involves physical face-to-face interactions and traditional codes of etiquette. Suggestions are made for reducing the physical-digital divide.

  8. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  9. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibbs

    Full Text Available Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in

  10. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Elle, Elizabeth; Bobiwash, Kyle; Haapalainen, Tiia; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-01-01

    Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha) to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in the same crop can

  11. Capillary electrophoresis hyphenated with UV-native-laser induced fluorescence detection (CE/UV-native-LIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, François; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Véréna

    2017-01-01

    Native laser-induced fluorescence using UV lasers associated to CE offers now a large related literature, for now 30 years. The main works have been performed using very expensive Ar-ion lasers emitting at 257 and 275 nm. They are not affordable for routine analyses, but have numerous applications such as protein, catecholamine, and indolamine analysis. Some other lasers such as HeCd 325 nm have been used but only for few applications. Diode lasers, emitting at 266 nm, cheaper, are extensively used for the same topics, even if the obtained sensitivity is lower than the one observed using the costly UV-Ar-ion lasers. This review presents various CE or microchips applications and different UV lasers used for the excitation of native fluorescence. We showed that CE/Native UV laser induced fluorescence detection is very sensitive for detection as well as small aromatic biomolecules than proteins containing Trp and Tyr amino acids. Moreover, it is a simple way to analyze biomolecules without derivatization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  13. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Sudanese native chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Five Sudanese native chicken breeds were compared with populations studied previously, which included six purebred lines, six African populations and one ...

  14. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  15. Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…

  16. Inculturation: Sowing Seeds of Catholicism in Native Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Plains Indians' relationship with the Catholic Church. Argues that some Catholics who denied the validity of Native American ritual turned Indians away from the Church. But currently, the Church's attempts to allow incorporation of those rituals into Church services have helped to revitalize the Native Catholic Church.…

  17. Teaching Native American Music with Story for Multicultural Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    States that the alliance between story and music within Native American culture can be carried over into the curriculum. Provides a rationale for utilizing story while teaching Native American music, specifically related to the multicultural curriculum. Discusses the value of cultural music to the multicultural curriculum. (CMK)

  18. The Native American Studies Program at the University of Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2001-01-01

    Begun in 1994, the Native American Studies program at the University of Oklahoma is an interdisciplinary B.A. program with a liberal arts orientation and strong emphasis on contemporary American Indian policy. Program strengths include the number and diversity of the faculty involved, the four Native languages taught, connections to tribal…

  19. The Status of Native American Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…

  20. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  1. Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants: Teaching with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen Marie Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Education is witnessing an increasing demand for technology use in the classroom. At the same time, new teachers are entering the profession in high numbers, some being labeled as "Digital Natives" while others are labeled "Digital Immigrants". This qualitative case study investigated the technology practices of Digital Native and Digital…

  2. Will Tidal Wetland Restoration Enhance Populations of Native Fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands might enhance populations of native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary of California. The purpose of this paper is to: (1 review the currently available information regarding the importance of tidal wetlands to native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary, (2 construct conceptual models on the basis of available information, (3 identify key areas of scientific uncertainty, and (4 identify methods to improve conceptual models and reduce uncertainty. There are few quantitative data to suggest that restoration of tidal wetlands will substantially increase populations of native fishes. On a qualitative basis, there is some support for the idea that tidal wetland restoration will increase populations of some native fishes; however, the species deriving the most benefit from restoration might not be of great management concern at present. Invasion of the San Francisco Estuary by alien plants and animals appears to be a major factor in obscuring the expected link between tidal wetlands and native fishes. Large-scale adaptive management experiments (>100 hectares appear to be the best available option for determining whether tidal wetlands will provide significant benefit to native fishes. Even if these experiments are unsuccessful at increasing native fish populations, the restored wetlands should benefit native birds, plants, and other organisms.

  3. The Non-Native English Speaker Teachers in TESOL Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi-Stein, Lía D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been almost 20 years since what is known as the non-native English-speaking (NNES) professionals' movement--designed to increase the status of NNES professionals--started within the US-based TESOL International Association. However, still missing from the literature is an understanding of what a movement is, and why non-native English…

  4. The Native Speaker, Identity, and the Authenticity Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses an ideology of native language and identity, which holds that native language is seen as a central element of individual identity. Argues that although this ideology can be very valuable in certain circumstances, it can also create an atmosphere of suspicion toward members of certain ethnicities who choose not to use their ancestral…

  5. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  6. Native Americans in California Surveyed on Diets, Nutrition Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Joanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the diets of 51 Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region was undertaken to develop a culturally relevant nutrition education and counseling program. Native Americans in this region have limited opportunities to obtain the foods they need for a healthy diet and also need information on obtaining help from federally…

  7. Victimization and Substance Use among Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jillian; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Patterson Silver Wolf, David A.

    2017-01-01

    According to Tribal Critical Race Theory, Native American students have low retention rates due to the structural barriers and racism inherent in colleges and universities. Similarly, structural barriers and racism could put Native American students at risk for victimization and substance use, thus influencing their academic success. The purposes…

  8. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  9. 75 FR 65611 - Native American Tribal Insignia Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Native American Tribal Insignia Database ACTION... comprehensive database containing the official insignia of all federally- and State- recognized Native American... to create this database. The USPTO database of official tribal insignias assists trademark attorneys...

  10. Give It Your Best! Profiles of Native American Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Russell; Kast, Sherry

    The purpose of this publication is to encourage and enhance the participation of American Indian and Alaska Native athletes in organized sports at the secondary, collegiate, and professional levels. Profiles are given of 37 young Native American women and men who are succeeding in competitive athletics, as well as in the classroom. One page is…

  11. From Realities to Values: A Strategy Framework for Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Helene

    2010-01-01

    For many Digital Natives, text messaging or SMS is the communication channel of choice, but preferences in communication channels aren't the only distinguishing traits of Digital Natives. Attitudes and perceptions related to digital privacy, identity, creativity, piracy, and advocacy also help to set younger generations apart. So how does one take…

  12. Supporting Digital Natives to Learn Effectively with Technology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Georgina, David

    2013-01-01

    Majority of learners in our classrooms are digital natives or Millennials--a category of learners who tend toward independence and autonomy in their learning styles. The primary challenges then facing instructors include: How do digital natives learn and how do you teach them? The answers to these questions will help instructors to: (a) identify…

  13. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  14. A Novel Approach for Designing Mobile Native Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Pani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are differed from desktop based systems in terms of particular execution environment, constrained resources, and high mobility requirement. To overcome these shortcomings, various agile based methodologies are developed for native mobile applications such as Mobile-D, Scrum etc. These agile techniques are based on various phases and these phases begin from exploring, initializing and implementing the mobile apps. But these techniques are not focusing on elaborating design model for mobile native apps. The aim of the paper is to provide a layered approach or layered model for design of mobile native apps which can be used as a framework for developing mobile native apps. Any mobile native app developer can use this sequential approach or design model for design and development of mobile native apps. This design model gives a standard or framework, based on which generic native mobile apps can be designed and developed. This paper also shows an empirical analysis among the web app design models with the proposed design model for mobile native app development.

  15. Native American Visual Vocabulary: Ways of Thinking and Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyc, Gloria; Milligan, Carolyn

    Visual literacy is a culturally-derived strength of Native American students. On a continent with more than 200 languages, Native Americans relied heavily on visual intelligence for trade and communication between tribes. Tribal people interpreted medicine paint, tattoos, and clothing styles to determine the social roles of those with whom they…

  16. Right under Their Noses: Native Plants in the Schoolyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bracken

    2003-01-01

    A Portland (Oregon) middle school teacher teaches an ethnobotany class using plants identified in Lewis and Clark's journals. After months of learning about native plants, Native American culture, and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the class culminates in a 3-day canoe trip down the Columbia River. A Lewis and Clark Rediscovery grant provides…

  17. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Holliday, Adrian; Swan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  18. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  19. Two sides of the same coin? Rare and pest plants native to the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John Paul; Stephens, Patrick R; Drake, John M

    2012-07-01

    Plant biodiversity is at risk, with as many as 10% of native species in the United States being threatened with extinction. Habitat loss has led a growing number of plant species to become rare or threatened, while the introduction or expansion of pest species has led some habitats to be dominated by relatively few, mostly nonindigenous, species. As humans continue to alter many landscapes and vegetation types, understanding how biological traits determine the location of species along a spectrum from vulnerability to pest status is critical to designing risk assessment protocols, setting conservation priorities, and developing monitoring programs. We used boosted regression trees to predict rarity (based on The Nature Conservancy global rankings) and pest status (defined as legal pest status) from data on traits for the native vascular flora of the United States and Canada including Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (n approximately = 15,000). Categories were moderately to highly predictable (AUCpest = 0.87 on 25% holdout test set, AUCrarity = 0.80 on 25% holdout test set). Key predictors were chromosome number, ploidy, seed mass, and a suite of traits suggestive of specialist vs. generalist adaptations (e.g., facultative wetland habitat association and phenotypic variability in growth form and life history). Specifically, pests were associated with high chromosome numbers, polyploidy, and seed masses ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg, whereas rare species were associated with low chromosome numbers, low ploidy, and large (>1000 mg) seed masses. In addition, pest species were disproportionately likely to be facultatively associated with wetlands, and variable in growth form and life history, whereas rare species exhibited an opposite pattern. These results suggest that rare and pest species contrast along trait axes related to dispersal and performance in disturbed or novel habitats.

  20. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.