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Sample records for necrosis virus disease

  1. Control of spread of Augusta disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in tulip by composting residual waste of small bulbs, tunics, roots and soil debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, C.J.; Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the elimination of the infectious virus/fungus complex of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV; cause of Augusta disease in tulip) and Olpidium brassicae in different soil types and residual waste material of soil debris, small tulip bulbs, roots and tunics by temperature treatments of

  2. Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Transmission and Disease among Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed in Culture Compared to Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Foott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of IHNV infection and disease were followed in a juvenile Chinook salmon population both during hatchery rearing and for two weeks post-release. Cumulative weekly mortality increased from 0.03%–3.5% as the prevalence of viral infection increased from 2%–22% over the same four-week period. The majority of the infected salmon was asymptomatic. Salmon demonstrating clinical signs of infection shed 1000 pfu mL-1 of virus into the water during a 1 min observation period and had a mean concentration of 106 pfu mL-1 in their mucus. The high virus concentration detected in mucus suggests that it could act as an avenue of transmission in high density situations where dominance behavior results in nipping. Infected smolts that had migrated 295 km down river were collected at least two weeks after their release. The majority of the virus positive smolts was asymptomatic. A series of transmission experiments was conducted using oral application of the virus to simulate nipping, brief low dose waterborne challenges, and cohabitation with different ratios of infected to naïve fish. These studies showed that asymptomatic infections will occur when a salmon is exposed for as little as 1 min to >102 pfu mL-1, yet progression to clinical disease is infrequent unless the challenge dose is >104 pfu mL-1. Asymptomatic infections were detected up to 39 d post-challenge. No virus was detected by tissue culture in natural Chinook juveniles cohabitated with experimentally IHNV-infected hatchery Chinook at ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20 for either 5 min or 24 h. Horizontal transmission of the Sacramento River strain of IHNV from infected juvenile hatchery fish to wild cohorts would appear to be a low ecological risk. The study results demonstrate key differences between IHNV infections as present in a hatchery and the natural environment. These differences should be considered during risk assessments of the impact of IHNV infections on wild salmon and

  3. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout: hematological and blood chemical changes in moribund fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, D.F.; Smith, L.

    1975-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is a rhabdoviral disease of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Trout were injected with IHNV, and various hematological and biochemical measurements of clinically ill fish were compared to uninfected controls. Infected fish had reduced corpuscular counts, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, but normal mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The percentage of immature erythrocytes was increased, but the percentage of leukocytes was unchanged. Differential leukocyte counts showed a significant decrease in neutrophils, increase in lymphocytes, but no change in monocytes. Unidentifiable necrobiotic cells were prevelant in blood smears and hematopoietic tissue imprints. Plasma bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, and osmolality were significantly reduced, but plasma glucose and anterior kidney ascorbate were unchanged. Plasma pH increased and the alpha fractions of the serum proteins were altered. No change was found in plasma enzymes, except that a LDH isozyme was significantly increased. The alkali reserve was diminished and alterations in acid-base and fluid balance occurred. Death probably resulted from a severe electrolyte and fluid imbalance caused by renal failure.

  4. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurath, G.; Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323...... IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8(.)6%, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which...... varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic. diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors...

  5. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tove; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Batts, William

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11...

  6. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Paley, Richard; Alegria-Moran, Raul; Oidtmann, Birgit

    2016-06-10

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid species, including the main salmonid species produced in aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We reviewed the scientific literature on IHNV on a range of topics, including geographic distribution; host range; conditions required for infection and clinical disease; minimum infectious dose; subclinical infection; shedding of virus by infected fish; transmission via eggs; diagnostic tests; pathogen load and survival of IHNV in host tissues. This information is required for a range of purposes including import risk assessments; parameterisation of disease models; for surveillance planning; and evaluation of the chances of eradication of the pathogen to name just a few. The review focuses on issues that are of relevance for the European context, but many of the data summarised have relevance to IHN globally. Examples for application of the information is presented and data gaps highlighted.

  8. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  9. Targeting of regulated necrosis in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martin-Sanchez

    2018-03-01

    (p. ej., con determinados inhibidores de la caspasa pueden desencadenar una necrosis y, por lo tanto, una lesión renal mediada por inflamación. En segundo lugar, y lo que es más revolucionario, ha surgido el concepto de necrosis regulada. Se han descrito varias modalidades de necrosis regulada como necroptosis, ferroptosis, piroptosis y necrosis regulada por transición de permeabilidad mitocondrial. De forma análoga a la apoptosis, la necrosis regulada se modula a través de moléculas específicas que actúan como dianas terapéuticas. Al contrario que la apoptosis, la necrosis regulada puede ser extremadamente proinflamatoria y, lo que es importante para el trasplante renal, inmunogénica. Además, la necrosis regulada puede desencadenar una necrosis sincronizada, en la que todas las células del interior de un túbulo concreto mueren de manera sincronizada. Revisaremos las diferentes modalidades de necrosis regulada, la evidencia de una función en las diversas formas de lesión renal y las nuevas oportunidades de intervención terapéutica. Keywords: Apoptosis, Ferroptosis, Necroptosis, Kidney, Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, Transplantation, Acute rejection, Delayed graft function, Palabras clave: Apoptosis, Ferroptosis, Necroptosis, Riñón, Lesión renal aguda, Enfermedad renal crónica, Trasplante, Rechazo agudo, Función retardada del injerto

  10. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  11. First evidence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenen, O L M; Schuetze, H; Cieslak, M

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2008, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands. The virus was isolated from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from a put-and-take fishery with angling ponds. IHNV is the causative agent of a serious fish disease...... that these 12 isolates clustered into two different monophyletic groups within the European IHNV genogroup E. One of these two groups indicates a virus-introduction event by a German trout import, whereas the second group indicates that IHNV was already (several years) in the Netherlands before its discovery...

  12. An avascular necrosis in Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Uren, R.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis is frequently associated with sickle cell disease and other haemoglobinopathies. It is less commonly associated with Gaucher's disease. A case with multi-modality imaging is presented. A 33-year-old male patient presented with a 4-day history of severe right knee pain. He was a febrile with mild swelling of the right knee. A diagnosis of Gaucher's disease had been made by bone marrow biopsy on a clinical picture of hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopenia some years earlier. A radiograph of the knee demonstrated an Erlenmeyer flask deformity of the distal femur. A bone scan demonstrated reduced perfusion to the distal right femoral shaft and femoral condyles. Delayed images demonstrated decreased tracer uptake in the distal right femur extending to the right medial femoral condyle consistent with a vascular necrosis. An MRI of the thighs demonstrated lipid accumulation in the marrow space of both femora consistent with Gaucher's disease associated with changes of bone oedema in the metadiaphysis and epiphysis of the right femur. The patient was treated with supportive measures and made an uneventful recovery and is being commenced on enzyme replacement therapy (Algucerase)

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, Paul M; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Thompson, Patrick M; Waltzek, Thomas B; Becker, Joy A; Whittington, Richard J

    2017-11-01

    Low genetic diversity of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) was determined for the complete genome of 16 isolates spanning the natural range of hosts, geography and time since the first outbreaks of disease. Genomes ranged from 125,591-127,487 nucleotides with 97.47% pairwise identity and 106-109 genes. All isolates shared 101 core genes with 121 potential genes predicted within the pan-genome of this collection. There was high conservation within 90,181 nucleotides of the core genes with isolates separated by average genetic distance of 3.43 × 10 -4 substitutions per site. Evolutionary analysis of the core genome strongly supported historical epidemiological evidence of iatrogenic spread of EHNV to naïve hosts and establishment of endemic status in discrete ecological niches. There was no evidence of structural genome reorganization, however, the complement of non-core genes and variation in repeat elements enabled fine scale molecular epidemiological investigation of this unpredictable pathogen of fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

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  15. Occurrence of different types of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.; Engelking, H.M.; Leong, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The virion protein patterns of 71 isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from the Pacific Northwest were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [ 35 S]-methionine-labeled virus. This analysis led to the classification of these virus isolates into four or more types. Type 1 virus was characterized by a nucleocapsid protein with an approximate molecular weight of 40,500. Type 2 and type 3 viruses have nucleocapsid proteins with molecular weights of 42,800 and 43,250, respectively. Type 2 virus was responsible for the recent epizootics of IHNV among fish in the lower Columbia River. The California IHNV isolates were type 3 with the exception of some of those isolated from fish at the Coleman Hatchery on the Sacramento River. These Coleman Hatchery isolates belonged to a type 4 virus group characterized by a larger glycoprotein of approximately 70,000 molecular weight. All other viruses examined had glycoproteins of 67,000 molecular weight. The type 5 virus isolates were grouped together because they were not sufficiently distinct to warrant classification into a separate type. These findings have been useful in determining that (i) a particular virus type is characteristic for a geographic area and will infect many different salmonid species in that area and (ii) the same type isolated from parental fish is responsible for the subsequent outbreak of the diseases in progeny

  16. Radioactive labelling with 125 I of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Ch, M.; Farias O, G.; Kuznar H, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between a cellular receptor and a ligand the photochemical crosslinking method has been widely used. This method has been utilized as an approach to determine the presence or absence of virus receptors in susceptible cells. Successful detection of crosslinks is achieved if one of the components, in the crosslinked product, has been radioactively labeled. The incorporation of a radioactive isotope, in the virus-receptor complex, enables the identification of the receptor. To undertake this study in the future, in this communication the radioactive labeling of virus particles is presented. The infectious necrosis pancreatic virus (IPN virus) was the chosen moiety to be in vitro labeled with 125 I using a direct method. Three oxidizing agents were used in the iodination procedure for comparison: an enzyme, lactoperoxidase and two chemical reagents, N-Chloro-benceno-sulfonamide (Iodo-Beads) and 1,3,4,6-Tetra chloro-3a,6a-diphenyl glycouril (Iodo-Gen). The results are analysed to select the method which guarantee the incorporation of 125 I in the viral capsid protein, while preserving its full infectivity. (author)

  17. Vertical transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Isolation of virus from dead eggs and fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The control of epizootics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus in salmonid fishes is presently based on examination and certification of adult brood fish to prevent the introduction of virus-infected eggs into hatcheries (Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service 1976; McDaniel 1979). This strategy is based on the assumption that the virus is vertically transmitted in association with the gametes. However, evidence for vertical transmission of IHN virus is circumstantial, based mostly on the appearance of the disease outside the enzootic area (the west coast of North America) in fish hatched from eggs obtained from within that area (Plumb 1972; Holway & Smith 1973; Wolf, Quimby, Pettijohn & Landolt 1973; Sano, Nishimura, Okamoto, Yamazaki, Hanada & Watanabe1977; Carlisle, Schat & Elston 1979). An indirect demonstration of vertical transmission was made by placing known virus-free fish in the water above and below raceways containing fish that suffered an IHN epizootic in an effort to eliminate waterborne virus as a source of infection (Wingfield & Chan 1970). The fish placed below the raceway developed IHN, due to waterborne virus released from the affected fish in the raceway, but the fish placed above the raceway failed to develop IHN. These results suggested that the source of infection of the fish in the raceway was not the water supply, although it is possible that the virus was no longer present in the water supply at the time the sentinel fish were exposed to the water.

  18. First report of natural infection of Vigna mungo var. silvestris L. by Groundnut bud necrosis virus, a tospovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AKRAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2008, Vigna mungo var. silvestris growing in the experimental field of the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India, showed chlorosis around some lateral veins and vein branches (mainly near the leaflet margin, downward curling of the leaf margins, necrosis of the stems and petioles, and twisting of the leaflets. Disease incidence was 20%. Symptoms indicated that the cause was Groundnut bud necrosis virus. The virus was identified on the basis of the symptoms on the diagnostic host, and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using specific primers of the NSm and NP genes. To our knowledge this is the first report of Groundnut bud necrosis virus on V. mungo var. silvestris.

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

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  20. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

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  1. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

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  2. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  3. Modeling Virus Coinfection to Inform Management of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Frank M; Allen, Linda J S; Bokil, Vrushali A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Feng, Zhilan; Garrett, Karen A; Gross, Louis J; Hamelin, Frédéric M; Jeger, Michael J; Manore, Carrie A; Power, Alison G; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Rúa, Megan A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-10-01

    Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus and a potyvirus, often Sugarcane mosaic virus. To better understand the dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we modeled the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil, and seed, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterization, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons. Resource-rich farmers with large holdings can achieve good control by combining clean seed and insect control. However, crop rotation is often required to effect full control. Resource-poor farmers with smaller holdings must rely on rotation and roguing, and achieve more limited control. For both types of farmer, unless management is synchronized over large areas, exogenous sources of infection can thwart control. As well as providing practical guidance, our modeling framework is potentially informative for other cropping systems in which coinfection has devastating effects. Our work also emphasizes how mathematical modeling can inform management of an emerging disease even when epidemiological information remains scanty. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .

  4. The complete genome structure and phylogenetic relationship of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzunov , Sergey P.; Winton, James R.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    1995-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, causes a severe disease with high mortality in salmonid fish. The nucleotide sequence (11, 131 bases) of the entire genome was determined for the pathogenic WRAC strain of IHNV from southern Idaho. This allowed detailed analysis of all 6 genes, the deduced amino acid sequences of their encoded proteins, and important control motifs including leader, trailer and gene junction regions. Sequence analysis revealed that the 6 virus genes are located along the genome in the 3′ to 5′ order: nucleocapsid (N), polymerase-associated phosphoprotein (P or M1), matrix protein (M or M2), surface glycoprotein (G), a unique non-virion protein (NV) and virus polymerase (L). The IHNV genome RNA was found to have highly complementary termini (15 of 16 nucleotides). The gene junction regions display the highly conserved sequence UCURUC(U)7RCCGUG(N)4CACR (in the vRNA sense), which includes the typical rhabdovirus transcription termination/polyadenylation signal and a novel putative transcription initiation signal. Phylogenetic analysis of M, G and L protein sequences allowed insights into the evolutionary and taxonomic relationship of rhabdoviruses of fish relative to those of insects or mammals, and a broader sense of the relationship of non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Based on these data, a new genus, piscivirus, is proposed which will initially contain IHNV, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and Hirame rhabdovirus.

  5. OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS (IPNV IN FARMED RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHORHYNCHUS MYKISS IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Rexhepi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the research carried out for the detection of viruses responsible for VHS, IHN and IPN diseases in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in Kosovo for the three-year period between 2006 and 2008. Losses are often reported in trout fingerlings, but no virus has ever been isolated in the rainbow trout in Kosovo. A research project was carried out to determine the occurrence of VHSV, IHNV & IPNV from the samples of fish tissue and ovarian fluids from mature broodfish. In total, 467 fishes from 113 (pools in 10 rainbow trout aquaculture facilities were screened. Laboratory analysis was performed at the TGD (Tiergesundheitsdienst Bayern e. V laboratory in Germany using the biomolecular method of RT-PCR and nested-PCR. The Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus was detected in seven trout farms, and prevalence from total samples (pools was 11.5 %. This is the first research and report for IPN virus diagnosis in farmed rainbow trout fry, on-growing fish and broodfish in Kosovo. Keywords: Rainbow trout, viral diseases, IPN, RT-PCR, nested PCR

  6. Ebola Virus Disease

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    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  7. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  8. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio

    2006-04-11

    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis.

  9. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M. Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P.; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis. PMID:16581912

  10. Differential virulence mechanisms of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include host entry and virus replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Purcell, M.K.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Host specificity is a phenomenon exhibited by all viruses. For the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), differential specificity of virus strains from the U and M genogroups has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), M IHNV strains are consistently more prevalent and more virulent than U IHNV. The basis of the differential ability of these two IHNV genogroups to cause disease in rainbow trout was investigated in live infection challenges with representative U and M IHNV strains. When IHNV was delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the mortality caused by U IHNV increased, indicating that the low virulence of U IHNV is partly due to inefficiency in entering the trout host. Analyses of in vivo replication showed that U IHNV consistently had lower prevalence and lower viral load than M IHNV during the course of infection. In analyses of the host immune response, M IHNV-infected fish consistently had higher and longer expression of innate immune-related genes such as Mx-1. This suggests that the higher virulence of M IHNV is not due to suppression of the immune response in rainbow trout. Taken together, the results support a kinetics hypothesis wherein faster replication enables M IHNV to rapidly achieve a threshold level of virus necessary to override the strong host innate immune response. ?? 2009 SGM.

  11. Inhibitory effect of aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from Heliotropium filifolium on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Sandino, Ana María; Arata, Loredana; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria; Torres, René

    2010-02-24

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a disease caused by a birnavirus affecting several wild and commercial aquatic organisms. This infectious disease results in significant losses in the farming industry and therefore effective therapeutic agents are needed to control outbreaks caused by this pathogen. Our goal was to evaluate in vitro antiviral effect of a group of natural compounds (geranyl aromatic derivatives) isolated from the resinous exudate of the plant Heliotropium filifolium (Heliotropiaceae), semi-synthetics compounds obtained from them, and the resinous exudate, on CHSE-214 cell line infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using a virus plaque inhibition assay at various concentrations. The compound ester filifolinyl senecionate was the best antiviral with EC(50) 160 microg/mL and a cytotoxic concentration required to reduce cell viability by 50% up to 400 microg/mL. In order to obtain information about the mechanism of the antiviral action, was evaluated the influence of ester filifolinyl senecionate on the viral RNA synthesis. This compound produced inhibition of the synthesis of viral genomic RNA, suggesting that the ester could be interacting with the viral RNA during the viral cycle. Additionally, a preliminary study of the interaction between ester and a sample of single-stranded RNA was studied at the level of theory Restricted Hartree Fock PM3 method. The results showed that the ester formed hydrogen bonds mainly with nitrogenous bases but not with ribose and phosphate. These results allow propose that the ester filifolinyl senecionate is a good candidate for used as antiviral therapy for IPN virus in salmon fry. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility of Koi and Yellow Perch to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by experimental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alexander D.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a novirhabdoviral pathogen that originated in western North America among anadromous Pacific salmonids. Severe disease epidemics in the late 1970s resulting from IHNV's invasion into farmed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in North America, Asia, and Europe emphasized IHNV's ability to adapt to new hosts under varying rearing conditions. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio (hereafter, “Koi”) are aquaculture-reared fish that are highly valued in sport fisheries and the ornamental fish trade, respectively, but it is unknown whether these fish species are vulnerable to IHNV infection. In this study, we exposed Yellow Perch, Koi, and steelhead (anadromous Rainbow Trout) to IHNV by intraperitoneal injection (106 PFU/fish) and by immersion (5.7×105 PFU/mL) for 7 h, and monitored fish for 28 d. The extended immersion exposure and high virus concentrations used in the challenges were to determine if the tested fish had any level of susceptibility. After experimental exposure, Yellow Perch and Koi experienced low mortality (35%). Virus was found in dead fish of all species tested and in surviving Yellow Perch by plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), with a higher prevalence in Yellow Perch than Koi. Infectious virus was also detected in Yellow Perch out to 5 d after bath challenge. These findings indicate that Yellow Perch and Koi are highly resistant to IHNV disease under the conditions tested, but Yellow Perch are susceptible to infection and may serve as possible virus carriers.

  13. Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Scott, Robert J.; Kerr, Benjamin; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-01

    Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day 3 post-infection, after which viral load was maintained or gradually dropped through day 7. Host innate immune response measured as stimulation of Mx-1 gene expression generally followed within host viral loads. Shedding also began very quickly and peaked within 2 days, defining a generally uniform early peak period of shedding from 1 to 4 days after exposure to virus. This was followed by a post-peak period where shedding declined, such that the majority of fish were no longer shedding by day 12 post-infection. Despite similar kinetics, the average shedding rate over the course of infection was significantly lower in mixed compared to single genotype infections, suggesting a competition effect, however, this did not significantly impact the total amount of virus shed. The data also indicated that the duration of shedding, rather than peak amount of virus shed, was correlated with fish mortality. Generally, the majority of virus produced during infection appeared to be shed into the environment rather than maintained in the host, although there was more retention of within host virus during the post-peak period. Viral virulence was correlated with shedding, such that the more virulent of the two genotypes shed more total virus. This fundamental understanding of IHNV

  14. Identification and Molecular Analysis of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Moradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among legume crops, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important worldwide crops, because of its cultivation area and nutritional value. The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV are the most common and most destructive viruses that infect common beans throughout the world. The viruses induced similar symptoms in numerous bean genotypes, including mosaic, leaf distortion, stunting, and lethal necrosis. Like all potyviruses, BCMV and BCMNV have non-enveloped flexuous filamentous virions of 750 nm long and 11–13 nm wide, which encapsidate a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule of approximately 10,000 nt long. Both are naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner and by seed, which explains their worldwide distribution. These viruses are major constraints on bean production and can cause serious crop losses. Mazanadaran province in north of Iran is one of the major producing areas of legumes, so identification of these viruses is a concern. However, so far, no studies have been done with these viruses in this province. The aim of this research was to study the existence of BCMV and BCMNV in research areas and determining of their phylogenetic relationship. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with degenerate primers for conserved sequences of the viral genomes has facilitated the rapid detection of many potyviruses and enabled partial genomic sequencing. In the absence of complete genomic sequences of potyviruses, CI-coding region is more suitable for diagnostic and taxonomy purposes, rather than the coat protein (CP usually used. The CI gene most accurately reflects the taxonomic status according to the complete ORF. Materials and Methods: From July to September 2013 and 2014, a total of 50 leaf samples of beans showing virus symptoms were collected from different bean fields in Mazandaran province. Total RNA was extracted from all

  15. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in two dogs with different underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; McNeil, P E; Evans, H; Srebernik, N

    1995-05-06

    Two dogs with metabolic epidermal necrosis had hyperkeratosis of the footpads accompanied by erythematous, erosive and crusting lesions affecting the muzzle, external genitalia, perineum and periocular regions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a superficial hydropic dermatitis with marked parakeratosis. Both dogs had high plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase and high concentrations of glucose, and also a marked hypoaminoacidaemia. Despite these similarities, the cutaneous eruptions were associated with different underlying diseases. One dog had a pancreatic carcinoma which had metastasised widely; the primary tumour and the metastases showed glucagon immunoreactivity on immunocytochemical staining, and the dog's plasma glucagon concentration was markedly greater than that of control dogs. The other dog had diffuse hepatic disease; its plasma glucagon concentration was similar to that of control samples and cirrhosis was identified post mortem. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in dogs is a distinct cutaneous reaction pattern which may be associated with different underlying systemic diseases; however, the pathogenesis of the skin lesions remains unclear.

  16. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  17. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  18. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  19. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  20. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presents with an exacerbation of Crohn's ileocolitis. He received a diagnosis of Crohn's disease 8 years ago and has been treated on three previous occasions with prednisone. Because of a recurrent need for glucocorticoids, treatment with azathioprine (150 mg per day) was starte...... colonoscopy show acute and chronic granulomatous inflammation, and the gastroenterologist recommends treatment with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor....

  1. Resistance and Protective Immunity in Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Exposed to M Type Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle; Purcell, Maureen K.; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Differential virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from the U and M phylogenetic subgroups is clearly evident in the Redfish Lake (RFL) strain of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. In these fish, experimental immersion challenges with U isolates cause extremely high mortality and M isolates cause low or no mortality. When survivors of M virus immersion challenges were exposed to a secondary challenge with virulent U type virus they experienced high mortality, indicating that the primary M challenge did not elicit protective immunity. Delivery of a moderate dose (2 × 104 plaque-forming units [PFU]/fish) of virus by intraperitoneal injection challenge did not overcome RFL sockeye salmon resistance to M type IHNV. Injection challenge with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU/fish) of M type virus caused 10% mortality, and in this case survivors did develop protective immunity against a secondary U type virus challenge. Thus, although it is possible for M type IHNV to elicit cross-protective immunity in this disease model, it does not develop after immersion challenge despite entry, transient replication of M virus to low levels, stimulation of innate immune genes, and development of neutralizing antibodies in some fish.

  2. Vertical transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum): isolation of virus from dead eggs and fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The control of epizootics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IIHN) virus in salmonid fishes is presently based on examination and certification of adult brood fish to prevent the introduction of virus-infected eggs into hatcheries (Canadian Fisherics and Marine Service 1976; McDaniel 1979). This strategy is based on the assumption that the virus is vertically transmitted in association with the gametes. However, evidence for vertical transmission of lHN virus is circumstantial, based mostly on the appearance of the disease outside the enzootic area (the west coast of North America) in fish hatched from eggs obtained from within that area (Plumb 1972; Holway & Smith 1973; Wolf, Quimby, Pettijohn & Landolt 1973, Sano, Nishimura, Okamoto, Yamazaki, Hanada & Watanabe 1977. Carlisle, Schat & Elston 1979). An indirect demonstration of vertical transmission was made by placing known virus-free fish in the water above and below raceways containing fish that suffered an IEEN epizootic in an cffort to climinate waterborne virus as a source of infection (Wingficid & Chan 1970). The fish placed below the raceway developed IHN, due to waterborne virus released from the affected fish in the raceway, but the fish placed above the raceway failed to develop IHN. These results suggested that the source of infection of the fish in the raceway was not the water supply, although it is possible that the virus was no longer present in the water supply at the time the sentinel fish were exposed to the water.

  3. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  4. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, D; Eissler, Y; Torres, P; Jorquera, E; Espinoza, J C; Kuznar, J

    2015-10-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that is endemic to salmon farming in Chile and causes great economic losses to the industry. Here we compared different diagnostic methods to detect IPNV in field samples, including 3 real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, cell culture isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genogroups prevailing in Chile, as well as their geographic distribution and virulence. The 3 qRT-PCR assays used primers that targeted regions of the VP2 and VP1 genes of the virus and were tested in 46 samples, presenting a fair agreement within their results. All samples were positive for at least 2 of the qRT-PCR assays, 29 were positive for cell culture, and 23 for IFAT, showing less sensitivity for these latter 2 methods. For the phylogenetic analysis, portions of 1180 and 523 bp of the VP2 region of segment A were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared with sequences from reference strains and from isolates reported by previous studies carried out in Chile. Most of the sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (European origin), and 5 were classified within genogroup 1 (American origin). Chilean isolates formed clusters within each of the genogroups found, evidencing a clear differentiation from the reference strains. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study completed for IPNV in Chile, covering isolates from sea- and freshwater salmon farms and showing a high prevalence of this virus in the country.

  5. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Dale, Ole B.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Falk, Knut; Busch, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.

  6. Acute retinal necrosis results in low vision in a young patient with a history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Sanjeet K

    2017-05-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment. Clinical manifestations of this disease may include increased intraocular pressure, optic disc oedema, optic neuropathy and sheathed retinal arterioles. A complete work up is essential to rule out cytomegalovirus retinitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, herpes virus, syphilis, posterior uveitis and other conditions. Depending on the severity of the disease, the treatment options consist of anticoagulation therapy, cycloplegia, intravenous acyclovir, systemic steroids, prophylactic laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy with silicon oil for retinal detachment. An extensive history and clinical examination is crucial in making the correct diagnosis. Also, it is very important to be aware of low vision needs and refer the patients, if expressing any sort of functional issues with completing daily living skills, especially reading. In this article, we report one case of unilateral ARN 20 years after herpetic encephalitis. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  7. Diagnostic scope of computer tomography in hip disease - Paget's disease, femoral head necrosis, coxarthrosis, coxarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, G; Lingg, G; Reid, W

    1982-10-01

    The value of computer tomography was investigated in Paget's disease of the hip, femoral head necrosis (adult avascular and osteoradionecrosis), coxarthrosis and coxarthritis (bacterial and rheumatoid). The greatest value of CT is in the diagnosis of adult avascular necrosis of the femoral head and is valuable for localising the necrotic area in the axial plane. This is of value in planning surgical treatment (displacement osteotomy or endoprosthesis). In Paget's disease, coxarthrosis and coxarthritis, CT provides only additional or more precise information.

  8. Diagnostic scope of computer tomography in hip disease - Paget's disease, femoral head necrosis, coxarthrosis, coxarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, G.; Lingg, G.; Reid, W.

    1982-01-01

    The value of computer tomography was investigated in Paget's disease of the hip, femoral head necrosis (adult avascular and osteoradionecrosis), coxarthrosis and coxarthritis (bacterial and rheumatoid). The greatest value of CT is in the diagnosis of adult avascular necrosis of the femoral head and is valuable for localising the necrotic area in the axial plane. This is of value in planning surgical treatment (displacement osteotomy or endoprosthesis). In Paget's disease, coxarthrosis and coxarthritis, CT provides only additional or more precise information. (orig.) [de

  9. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders

    . By a reverse genetics approach using the related novirrhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) as basis, four hybrid IHNV-VHSV variants were generated. These chimeric variants included substitution of the IHNV glyco(G) or nonstrutrual (Nv) protein with the corresponding G or Nv-protein from......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the economically most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. The virus was introduced to fresh water farms in the 1950ies from a reservoir of VHSV in the marine environment. Isolates from wild marine fish and fresh water farms...... are difficult to distinguish serologically but they show different virulence profiles: marine isolates typically cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout fry following experimental waterborne challenge, while freshwater isolates often kill the majority of the fish. Genetic analysis reveal that the change...

  10. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  11. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  12. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater and seawater environments at various temperatures. By these methods, we found no correlation between increased viral fitness and displacement in the field. These results suggest that other pressures likely exist in the field with important consequences for IHNV evolution.

  14. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  15. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  16. In vitro infection of salmonid epidermal tissues by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of two rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), to infect fish skin was investigated by in vitro infection of excised tissues. Virus replication was determined by plaque assay of homogenized tissue extracts, and the virus antigen was detected by immunohistology of tissue sections. Gill, fin, and ventral abdominal skin tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that had been infected in vitro with a virulent strain of IHNV (193–110) produced substantial increases in virus titer within 24 h. Titers continued to increase up until day 3 of incubation; by this time, virus had increased 1,000-fold or more. This increase in IHNV titer occurred in epidermal tissues of fingerlings and of older fish. In another experiment, IHNV replicated in excised rainbow trout tissues whether the fish had been subject to prior infection with a virulent strain of IHNV (Western Regional Aquaculture Consortium isolate) or whether the fish had been infected previously with an attenuated strain of the virus (Nan Scott Lake, with 100 passes in culture). A virulent strain of VHSV (23/75) replicated effectively in excised gill tissues and epidermal tissues of rainbow trout and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha; however, the avirulent North American strain of VHSV (Makah) replicated poorly or not at all.

  17. Parapoxvirus orf virus infection induces an increase in interleukin-8, tumour necrosis factor-α, and decorin in goat skin fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lingling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orf virus (ORFV is a prototype Parapoxvirus species in the Poxviridae family that causes serious zoonotic infectious disease. Goat skin fibroblast (GSF cells are the major host targets of ORFV. Interleukin 8 (IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are known to play a vital role in immune response during viral infections. However, the manner of variation over time of their level of expression in GSF cells remains unclear.

  18. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin alpha Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced...Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702,1 and Department of Microbiology , Mount Sinai...34–36. 32. Prescott , J., C. Ye, G. Sen, and B. Hjelle. 2005. Induction of innate immune response genes by Sin Nombre hantavirus does not require

  19. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  20. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  1. Virulence of a chimeric recombinant infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus expressing the spring viraemia of carp virus glycoprotein in salmonid and cyprinid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Mérour, Emilie; Glenn, Jolene. A; Palmer, Alexander D.; Brémont, Michel; Kurath, Gael

    2018-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) are both rhabdoviruses of fish, listed as notifiable disease agents by the World Organization for Animal Health. Recombinant rhabdoviruses with heterologous gene substitutions have been engineered to study genetic determinants and assess the potential of these recombinant viruses for vaccine development. A recombinant IHNV (rIHNV), containing the full-length genome of a European IHNV strain, was modified by deleting the glycoprotein (G) gene and replacing it with a European SVCV G-gene to make the rIHNV-Gsvcv. The chimeric rIHNV-Gsvcv level of virulence in rainbow trout, common carp and koi was assessed, and its ability to induce a protective immune response in surviving koi against wild-type SVCV infection was tested. The rIHNV-Gsvcv infection of trout led to high mortality, ranging from 78% to 92.5%, after immersion. In contrast, no deaths occurred in juvenile common carp after infection with rIHNV-Gsvcv by either immersion or intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Similarly, koi infected with rIHNV-Gsvcv via IP injection had little to no mortality (≤9%). Koi that survived initial infection with a high dose of recombinant virus rIHNV-Gsvcv were protected against a virulent SVCV challenge resulting in a high relative per cent survival of 82.5%.

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Survival of CD169+ Cells Promotes Immune Activation during Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Prashant V; Xu, Haifeng C; Maney, Sathish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169(+) cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169(+) cells during viral infections remain...... stomatitis virus infection, phagocytes produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which signals via TNFR1 and promote "enforced virus replication" in CD169(+) macrophages. Consequently, lack of TNF or TNFR1 resulted in defective immune activation and VSV clearance....

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Iranian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) based on the glycoprotein gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Amiri, Alireza Babaalian; Dada, Maryam; Kurath, Gael; Laktarashi, Bahram; Ghajari, Amrolah; Breyta, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae and genus Novirhabdoviridae, causes a highly lethal disease of salmon and trout. In Iran IHNV was first detected in 2001 on farms rearing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To evaluate the genetic relationships of IHNV from northern and western Iran, the sequences of a 651-nt region of the glycoprotein gene were determined for two Iranian isolates. These sequences were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates representing the five known genogroups of IHNV. Iranian isolates were most closely related to European isolates within the genogroup E rather than those of North American genogroups U, M and L, or the Asian genogroup J. It appears that Iranian IHNV was most likely introduced to Iran from a source in Europe by the movement of contaminated fish eggs.

  4. Geography and host species shape the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Allison; Breyta, Rachel; Bedford, Trevor; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that infects wild and cultured salmonids throughout the Pacific Coastal United States and Canada, from California to Alaska. Although infection of adult fish is usually asymptomatic, juvenile infections can result in high mortality events that impact salmon hatchery programs and commercial aquaculture. We used epidemiological case data and genetic sequence data from a 303 nt portion of the viral glycoprotein gene to study the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup IHNV in the Pacific Northwestern United States from 1971 to 2013. We identified 114 unique genotypes among 1,219 U genogroup IHNV isolates representing 619 virus detection events. We found evidence for two previously unidentified, broad subgroups within the U genogroup, which we designated ‘UC’ and ‘UP’. Epidemiologic records indicated that UP viruses were detected more frequently in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and in coastal waters of Washington and Oregon, whereas UC viruses were detected primarily in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, which is a large, complex watershed extending throughout much of interior Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. These findings were supported by phylogenetic analysis and by FST. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated that early UC viruses in the Columbia River Basin initially infected sockeye salmon but then emerged via host shifts into Chinook salmon and steelhead trout sometime during the 1980s. We postulate that the development of these subgroups within U genogroup was driven by selection pressure for viral adaptation to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout within the Columbia River Basin.

  5. Biological characterization and variability of the nucleocapsid protein gene of Groundnut bud necrosis virus isolates infecting pea from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AKRAM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A disease of pea characterized by browning in veins, leaves and stems, mostly in growing tips, and brown circular spots on pods, was recorded in four districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The causal agent of this disease was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers pair HRP 26/HRP 28 and identified as Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV on the basis of nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. Virus isolates from Bareilly (BRY, Kanpur (KNP, Udham Singh Nagar (USN and Shahjahanpur (SJP were designated as GBNV-[Pea_BRY], GBNV-[Pea_KNP], GBNV-[Pea_USN] and GBNV-[Pea_SJP] and their NP genes sequenced. The sequence data of each isolate were deposited at NCBI database (JF281101-JF281104. The complete nucleotide sequence of the NP genes of all the GBNV isolates had a single open reading frame of 831 nucleotides and 276 amino acids. The isolates had among them 2% variability at amino acid level and 2‒3 variability at nucleotide level, but had variability with other GBNV isolates of fabaceous hosts in the range of 0‒6% at amino acid level and 1‒8% at nucleotide level. Though this variation in nucleotide sequences of GBNV isolates from fabaceous hosts is within the limits of species demarcation for tospoviruses, formation of a separate cluster within the GBNV isolates indicates the possibility of distinct variants in GBNV.

  6. Protein A from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus triggers type I interferon production in fish cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runqing; Zhou, Qiong; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Jing; He, Jianguo; Xie, Junfeng

    2018-05-04

    Family Nodaviridae consists of two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, and the latter is classified into four genotypes, including red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a central role in the innate immune system and antiviral responses, and the interactions between IFN and NNV have been investigated in this study. We have found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), named protein A, was capable of activating IFN promoter in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Transient expression of protein A was found to induce IFN expression and secretion, endowing FHM cells with anti-tiger frog virus ability. Protein A from SJNNV can also induce IFN expression in FHM cells but that from Flock House virus (FHV), a well-studied representative species of genus Alphanodavirus, cannot. RdRp activity and mitochondrial localization were shown to be required for protein A to induce IFN expression by means of activating IRF3 but not NFκB. Furthermore, DsRNA synthesized in vitro transcription and poly I:C activated IFN promoter activity when transfected into FHM cells, and dsRNA were also detected in NNV-infected cells. We postulated that dsRNA, a PAMP, was produced by protein A, leading to activation of innate immune response. These results suggest that protein As from NNV are the agonists of innate immune response. This is the first work to demonstrate the interaction between NNV protein A and innate immune system, and may help to understand pathogenesis of NNV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS (IPNV) IN FARMED RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHORHYNCHUS MYKISS) IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rexhepi; Kristaq Berxholli; Peter Scheinert; Afrim Hamidi; Kurtesh Sherifi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the research carried out for the detection of viruses responsible for VHS, IHN and IPN diseases in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kosovo for the three-year period between 2006 and 2008. Losses are often reported in trout fingerlings, but no virus has ever been isolated in the rainbow trout in Kosovo. A research project was carried out to determine the occurrence of VHSV, IHNV & IPNV from the samples of fish tissue and ovarian fluids from mature broodf...

  8. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  9. PKR Activation Favors Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Replication in Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A.A. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR is a Type I interferon (IFN stimulated gene that has important biological and immunological functions. In viral infections, in general, PKR inhibits or promotes viral replication, but PKR-IPNV interaction has not been previously studied. We investigated the involvement of PKR during infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV infection using a custom-made rabbit antiserum and the PKR inhibitor C16. Reactivity of the antiserum to PKR in CHSE-214 cells was confirmed after IFNα treatment giving an increased protein level. IPNV infection alone did not give increased PKR levels by Western blot, while pre-treatment with PKR inhibitor before IPNV infection gave decreased eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α phosphorylation. This suggests that PKR, despite not being upregulated, is involved in eIF2α phosphorylation during IPNV infection. PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells with compromised membranes in IPNV-permissive cell lines. These findings suggest that IPNV uses PKR activation to promote virus replication in infected cells.

  10. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; An, Hiromi; Naruto, Takuya; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Shima, Yoshio; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei

    2010-04-01

    It is clear that inflammation plays an important role in developing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. The purpose of the present study is to investigate changes of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 levels over time in infants with chronic lung disease. The serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 were measured after delivery, and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age in 10 infants with chronic lung disease and in 18 infants without chronic lung disease. The serum level of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was significantly higher in infants with chronic lung disease than in infants without chronic lung disease after delivery. The differences between these two groups remained up to 28 days of age. Prenatal inflammation with persistence into postnatal inflammation may be involved in the onset of chronic lung disease.

  11. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  12. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  13. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  14. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA. PMID:19013331

  15. Stability of Cucumber Necrosis Virus at the Quasi-6-Fold Axis Affects Zoospore Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael B; Kakani, Kishore; Rochon, D'Ann; Jiang, Wen; Voss, Neil R; Smith, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (K. Kakani, R. Reade, and D. Rochon, J Mol Biol 338:507-517, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.008). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (M. Li et al., J Virol 87:12166-12175, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01965-13) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N termini of the C subunit at the quasi-6-fold axes. To better understand how this buried residue might affect vector transmission, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of wild-type CNV in the native and swollen state and of the transmission-defective mutant, P73G, under native conditions. With the wild-type CNV, the swollen structure demonstrated the expected expansion of the capsid. However, the zinc binding region at the quasi-6-fold at the β-annulus axes remained intact. By comparison, the zinc binding region of the P73G mutant, even under native conditions, was markedly disordered, suggesting that the β-annulus had been disrupted and that this could destabilize the capsid. This was confirmed with pH and urea denaturation experiments in conjunction with electron microscopy analysis. We suggest that the P73G mutation affects the zinc binding and/or the β-annulus, making it more fragile under neutral/basic pH conditions. This, in turn, may affect zoospore transmission. IMPORTANCE Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a member of the genus Tombusvirus , is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus While a number of plant viruses are transmitted via insect vectors

  16. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  17. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  18. Demonstration of helicase activity in the nonstructural protein, NSs, of the negative-sense RNA virus, groundnut bud necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Lokesh; Abraham, Ambily; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Rana, Vipin Singh; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Savithri, Handanahal Subbarao

    2015-04-01

    The nonstructural protein NSs, encoded by the S RNA of groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has earlier been shown to possess nucleic-acid-stimulated NTPase and 5' α phosphatase activity. ATP hydrolysis is an essential function of a true helicase. Therefore, NSs was tested for DNA helicase activity. The results demonstrated that GBNV NSs possesses bidirectional DNA helicase activity. An alanine mutation in the Walker A motif (K189A rNSs) decreased DNA helicase activity substantially, whereas a mutation in the Walker B motif resulted in a marginal decrease in this activity. The parallel loss of the helicase and ATPase activity in the K189A mutant confirms that NSs acts as a non-canonical DNA helicase. Furthermore, both the wild-type and K189A NSs could function as RNA silencing suppressors, demonstrating that the suppressor activity of NSs is independent of its helicase or ATPase activity. This is the first report of a true helicase from a negative-sense RNA virus.

  19. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.G; Meyers, T.R.; Burton, T.O.; Kurath, G.

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This

  20. Atypical RNA Elements Modulate Translational Readthrough in Tobacco Necrosis Virus D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, Laura R; White, K Andrew

    2017-04-15

    Tobacco necrosis virus, strain D (TNV-D), is a positive-strand RNA virus in the genus Betanecrovirus and family Tombusviridae The production of its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, p82, is achieved by translational readthrough. This process is stimulated by an RNA structure that is positioned immediately downstream of the recoding site, termed the readthrough stem-loop (RTSL), and a sequence in the 3' untranslated region of the TNV-D genome, called the distal readthrough element (DRTE). Notably, a base pairing interaction between the RTSL and the DRTE, spanning ∼3,000 nucleotides, is required for enhancement of readthrough. Here, some of the structural features of the RTSL, as well as RNA sequences and structures that flank either the RTSL or DRTE, were investigated for their involvement in translational readthrough and virus infectivity. The results revealed that (i) the RTSL-DRTE interaction cannot be functionally replaced by stabilizing the RTSL structure, (ii) a novel tertiary RNA structure positioned just 3' to the RTSL is required for optimal translational readthrough and virus infectivity, and (iii) these same activities also rely on an RNA stem-loop located immediately upstream of the DRTE. Functional counterparts for the RTSL-proximal structure may also be present in other tombusvirids. The identification of additional distinct RNA structures that modulate readthrough suggests that regulation of this process by genomic features may be more complex than previously appreciated. Possible roles for these novel RNA elements are discussed. IMPORTANCE The analysis of factors that affect recoding events in viruses is leading to an ever more complex picture of this important process. In this study, two new atypical RNA elements were shown to contribute to efficient translational readthrough of the TNV-D polymerase and to mediate robust viral genome accumulation in infections. One of the structures, located close to the recoding site, could have functional

  1. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G G Foreman

    Full Text Available Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

  2. Replication of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Different Cell Lines and in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvienko Natalija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV isolated in natural reservoirs in Ukraine are presented. The pathogenicity of isolates was investigated in vitro on cell cultures and in vivo on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, fingerlings. Experimental indications were that the Ukrainian IPNV isolates have affinity with reference European strains. During the reproduction of these isolates in cell cultures of FHM (fat head minnow, RTG-2 (rainbow trout gonads, and BF-2 (bluegill caudal peduncle, complicated degenerative changes were visible that finally led to the full destruction of cell monolayers. The experimental infection of rainbow trout fingerlings resulted in typical disease symptoms that were systemic. However, obvious evidence of viral infection was noted in single individuals only, and the majority of experimental fish died without visible disease symptoms. During the study of physicochemical properties, it was noted that Ukrainian isolates completely lost their infectivity with chloroform treatment and heating to 60°C. This proved that IPNV isolates are resistant to Ion concentrations in the range of pH 3.0 to 12.0.

  3. Avascular necrosis of bilateral femoral heads in a patient with Fabry's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Francis

    2012-07-13

    The underlying cause of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is often not apparent. We report the case of a 26 year old builder with a four month history of bilateral hip pain, and a diagnosis of bilateral femoral head avascular necrosis. Fabry\\'s disease was identified as the probable cause. Since 2001, enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry\\'s disease has become available, with a potential to influence the disease process, and this is of potential importance to clinicians treating AVN.

  4. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  5. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels in Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelakakis, H.; Spanou, C.; Kondyli, A.; Dimitriou, E.; van Weely, S.; Hollak, C. E.; van Oers, M. H.; Aerts, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels were measured in the plasma of patients with different types of Gaucher disease (GD) and patients with other lysosomal storage diseases. The highest TNF-a levels were observed in the most severe neuronopathic type of GD, exceeding those found in healthy

  6. A case of aseptic vertebral necrosis in the context of metastatic lumbar disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panow, C.; Valavanis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aseptic bone necrosis has many well recognized etiologies: caisson disease, corticosteroids, alcohol, Gaucher's disease and sickle cell anemia being a few of a long list. Little attention has been paid to metastatic disease as a possible cause and we were unable to find reference in the literature to this association. We present imaging features of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma involving the vertebral spine, which, in certain aspects, mimics other well-known entities of this region, such as Kuemmell's and Scheuermann's diseases. (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous and bilateral avascular necrosis of the navicula: Müller-Weiss disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Erdem; Ayanoğlu, Tacettin; Hatipoğlu, Yasin; Kanatlı, Ulunay

    2016-12-01

    Although, trauma, foot deformity (pesplanovalgus), systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and lupus, drugs (steroids, antineoplastic) and excessive alcohol consumption have all been accused in the etiology of avascular necrosis of the tarsal bones, spontaneous avascular necrosis of the navicular bone, especially in adults, is a rare entity. In this article, we report a 50-year-old female patient with bilateral, spontaneous avascular necrosis of the navicular bone and related severe talonavicular arthrosis. Clinical and radiological findings were concordant with Müller-Weiss disease, which is a rare disease with complex idiopathic foot condition of the adult tarsal navicular bone characterized by progressive navicular fragmentation and talonavicular joint destruction. The patient was successfully treated with two-staged bilateral talonavicular arthrodesis.

  8. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  9. TNF-Overexpression in Borna Disease Virus-Infected Mouse Brains Triggers Inflammatory Reaction and Epileptic Seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Katharina; Schaudien, Dirk; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Herzog, Sibylle; Richt, Juergen A.; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang; Herden, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus

  10. Imbalance of tumor necrosis factor receptors during progression in bovine leukemia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, Satoru; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ikeda, Manabu; Kohara, Junko; Hirata, Toh-ichi; Okada, Kosuke; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we found an up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α and an imbalance of TNF receptors in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). In order to investigate the different TNF-α-induced responses, in this study we examined the TNF-α-induced proliferative response and the expression levels of two distinct TNF receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from BLV-uninfected cattle and BLV-infected cattle that were aleukemic (AL) or had persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The proliferative response of PBMC isolated from those cattle with PL in the presence of recombinant bovine TNF-α (rTNF-α) was significantly higher than those from AL cattle and uninfected cattle and the cells from PL cattle expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of TNF receptor type II (TNF-RII) than those from AL and BLV-uninfected cattle. No difference was found in TNF-RI mRNA levels. Most cells expressing TNF-RII in PL cattle were CD5 + or sIgM + cells and these cells showed resistance to TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations between the changes in provirus load and TNF-RII mRNA levels, and TNF-α-induced proliferation and TNF-RII mRNA levels. These data suggest that imbalance in the expression of TNF receptors could at least in part contribute to the progression of lymphocytosis in BLV infection

  11. Incorporation of uridine-H3 into healthy and tobacco necrosis virus-infected mesophyll cells of Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccioli, G.; Rubies-Autonel, C.

    1975-01-01

    Tritiated uridine was selectively incorporated into the nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm of actinomycin D-treated Chenopodium amaranticolor cells locally infected with a strain of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), 3 days after inoculation. Healthy cells did not show such an incorporation. Chloroplasts, in both types of cells, were free of label. Treatment with pancreatic ribonuclease removed the label completely in the majority of nuclei and nucleoli of infected cells. Since infectivity tests showed that AMD treatment increased virus multiplication by 10-12%, it is conceivable to think that the incorporation observed was due to virus synthesis. Preliminary infectivity experiments also showed that treatment of the cells with cycloheximide inhibited virus multiplication up to 80%, while chloramphenicol increased such multiplication. Our results lead to the conclusion that nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm but not chloroplasts are the sites involved in the synthesis of TNV. (orig.) [de

  12. Protection of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus four days after specific or semi-specific DNA vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaPatra, S.E.; Corbeil, S.; Jones, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    A DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was shown to provide significant protection as soon as 4 d after intramuscular vaccination in 2 g rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held at 15 degreesC. Nearly complete protection was also observed at late......-protection against IHNV challenge for a transient period of time, whereas a rabies virus DNA vaccine was not protective. This indication of distinct early and late protective mechanisms was not dependent on DNA vaccine doses from 0.1 to 2.5 mug....

  13. THE USE OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR α INHIBITORS IN PATIENTS WITH WEBER-CHRISTIAN DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolayevna Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber-Christian disease (WCD, also known as idiopathic lobular panniculitis, is a rare disease belonging to the group of diffuse connective tissue diseases. No therapy for WCD has been developed; empirical treatment is typically used. The first description of the use of tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors in a female patient with infiltrative WCD is presented. The tactics of managing this patient category are analyzed.

  14. Simultaneous demonstration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry by use of paired immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Ø.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which is the causative agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), are both highly pathogenic for rainbow trout fry. Several...

  15. Multiplication of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout following immersion infection: whole-body assay and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Batts, W.N.; Arakawa, C.K.; Winton, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The sites of replication of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in infected tissues were detected in fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by in situ histologic techniques following immersion infection. Virus antigens in tissues were detected by a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody and a one-step anti-mouse biotin-streptavidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. The efficiency of infection and virulence of the virus determined by mortality rates showed high virulence of the selected IHNV isolates, and viral replication in individual fish showed that virus content of the fish increased rapidly from the second day to the seventh day postinfection. The earliest viral lesions following infection were detected in the epidermis of the pectoral fins, opercula, and ventral surface of the body. Virus lesions became evident in kidneys on the third day. By the fifth day, when there was a significant increase in virus titer, foci of viral replication were detected in gill tissue and in the anterior internal tissues below the epidermis. Subsequently, extensive virus replication and tissue destruction were observed in the spleen, dorsal adipose tissues, ventricle, and pseudobranch. Replication in the liver, the muscularis layers of the digestive tract, and the general body musculature followed later. These infection experiments indicated that the epidermis and gills of fish constitute important sites of early IHNV replication.

  16. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  17. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  18. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  1. Insights into Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 functions: Interactions with Nicotiana benthamiana PsbO correlate with chloroplast vesiculation and veinal necrosis caused by TGB3 overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein is involved in viral movement. AltMV TGB3 subcellular localization was previously shown to be distinct from that of Potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, and a chloroplast binding domain identified; veinal necrosis and chloroplast vesiculati...

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 1 and immunity to hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie C; Lee, Nikki P; Zheng, Ning; Yang, Pai-Hao; Wong, Oscar G; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Hui, Chee-Kin; Luk, John M; Lau, George Ka-Kit

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the gene expression profile in a pair of HBV-infected twins. METHODS: The gene expression profile was compared in a pair of HBV-infected twins. RESULTS: The twins displayed different disease outcomes. One acquired natural immunity against HBV, whereas the other became a chronic HBV carrier. Eighty-eight and forty-six genes were found to be up- or down-regulated in their PBMCs, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 1 (TNF-αIP1) that expressed at a higher level in the HBV-immune twins was identified and four pairs of siblings with HBV immunity by RT-PCR. However, upon HBV core antigen stimulation, TNF-αIP1 was downregulated in PBMCs from subjects with immunity, whereas it was slightly upregulated in HBV carriers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a K+ channel tetramerization domain in TNF-αIP1 that shares a significant homology with some human, mouse, and C elegan proteins. CONCLUSION: TNF-αIP1 may play a role in the innate immunity against HBV. PMID:16437679

  3. Molecular characterization of the virulent infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV strain 220-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaPatra Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV is the type species of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae, infecting several species of wild and hatchery reared salmonids. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, IHNV has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11,000 nucleotides. The IHNV genome encodes six genes; the nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, non-virion protein and polymerase protein genes, respectively. This study describes molecular characterization of the virulent IHNV strain 220-90, belonging to the M genogroup, and its phylogenetic relationships with available sequences of IHNV isolates worldwide. Results The complete genomic sequence of IHNV strain 220-90 was determined from the DNA of six overlapping clones obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of 220-90 comprises 11,133 nucleotides (GenBank GQ413939 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. An additional uracil nucleotide was found at the end of the 5'-trailer region, which was not reported before in other IHNV strains. The first 15 of the 16 nucleotides at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the genome are complementary, and the first 4 nucleotides at 3'-ends of the IHNV are identical to other novirhadoviruses. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of the glycoprotein genes show that 220-90 strain is 97% identical to most of the IHNV strains. Comparison of the virulent 220-90 genomic sequences with less virulent WRAC isolate shows more than 300 nucleotides changes in the genome, which doesn't allow one to speculate putative residues involved in the virulence of IHNV. Conclusion We have molecularly characterized one of the well studied IHNV isolates, 220-90 of genogroup M, which is virulent for rainbow trout, and compared phylogenetic relationship with North American

  4. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  5. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Faigenbaum, Or; Smirnov, Margarita; Fellig, Yakov; Inbal, Adi; Kotler, Moshe

    2015-05-15

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a member of the Betanodavirus genus that causes fatal diseases in over 40 species of fish worldwide. Mortality among NNV-infected fish larvae is almost 100%. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the susceptibility of fish larvae to NNV, we exposed zebrafish larvae to NNV by bath immersion at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days postfertilization (dpf). Here, we demonstrate that developing zebrafish embryos are resistant to NNV at 2 dpf due to the protection afforded by the egg chorion and, to a lesser extent, by the perivitelline fluid. The zebrafish larvae succumbed to NNV infection during a narrow time window around the 4th dpf, while 6- and 8-day-old larvae were much less sensitive, with mortalities of 24% and 28%, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Description of an as yet unclassified DNA virus from diseased Cyprinus carpio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-02-01

    Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may

  7. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  8. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus Induced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment. PMID:23341861

  10. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine...

  11. The 3' untranslated region of tobacco necrosis virus RNA contains a barley yellow dwarf virus-like cap-independent translation element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruizhong; Miller, W Allen

    2004-05-01

    RNAs of many viruses are translated efficiently in the absence of a 5' cap structure. The tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) genome is an uncapped, nonpolyadenylated RNA whose translation mechanism has not been well investigated. Computational analysis predicted a cap-independent translation element (TE) within the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of TNV RNA that resembles the TE of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), a luteovirus. Here we report that such a TE does indeed exist in the 3' UTR of TNV strain D. Like the BYDV TE, the TNV TE (i) functions both in vitro and in vivo, (ii) requires additional sequence for cap-independent translation in vivo, (iii) has a similar secondary structure and the conserved sequence CGGAUCCUGGGAAACAGG, (iv) is inactivated by a four-base duplication in this conserved sequence, (v) can function in the 5' UTR, and (vi) when located in its natural 3' location, may form long-distance base pairing with the viral 5' UTR that is conserved and probably required. The TNV TE differs from the BYDV TE by having only three helical domains instead of four. Similar structures were found in all members of the Necrovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, except satellite tobacco necrosis virus, which harbors a different 3' cap-independent translation domain. The presence of the BYDV-like TE in select genera of different families indicates that phylogenetic distribution of TEs does not follow standard viral taxonomic relationships. We propose a new class of cap-independent TE called BYDV-like TE.

  12. The 3′ Untranslated Region of Tobacco Necrosis Virus RNA Contains a Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruizhong; Miller, W. Allen

    2004-01-01

    RNAs of many viruses are translated efficiently in the absence of a 5′ cap structure. The tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) genome is an uncapped, nonpolyadenylated RNA whose translation mechanism has not been well investigated. Computational analysis predicted a cap-independent translation element (TE) within the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of TNV RNA that resembles the TE of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), a luteovirus. Here we report that such a TE does indeed exist in the 3′ UTR of TNV strain D. Like the BYDV TE, the TNV TE (i) functions both in vitro and in vivo, (ii) requires additional sequence for cap-independent translation in vivo, (iii) has a similar secondary structure and the conserved sequence CGGAUCCUGGGAAACAGG, (iv) is inactivated by a four-base duplication in this conserved sequence, (v) can function in the 5′ UTR, and (vi) when located in its natural 3′ location, may form long-distance base pairing with the viral 5′ UTR that is conserved and probably required. The TNV TE differs from the BYDV TE by having only three helical domains instead of four. Similar structures were found in all members of the Necrovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, except satellite tobacco necrosis virus, which harbors a different 3′ cap-independent translation domain. The presence of the BYDV-like TE in select genera of different families indicates that phylogenetic distribution of TEs does not follow standard viral taxonomic relationships. We propose a new class of cap-independent TE called BYDV-like TE. PMID:15078948

  13. Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) disease is a rare disorder in which persons are unable to control infection with the virus. The disease is progressive with markedly elevated levels of EBV DNA in the blood and infiltration of organs by EBV-positive lymphocytes. Patients often present with fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, EBV hepatitis, or pancytopenia. Over time, these patients develop progressive immunodeficiency and if not treated, succumb to opportunistic infections, hemophagocytosis, multiorgan failure, or EBV-positive lymphomas. Patients with CAEBV in the United States most often present with disease involving B or T cells, while in Asia, the disease usually involves T or NK cells. The only proven effective treatment for the disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current studies to find a cause of this disease focus on immune defects and genetic abnormalities associated with the disease.

  14. Chronic Active Epstein–Barr Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kimura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV disease is a rare disorder in which persons are unable to control infection with the virus. The disease is progressive with markedly elevated levels of EBV DNA in the blood and infiltration of organs by EBV-positive lymphocytes. Patients often present with fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, EBV hepatitis, or pancytopenia. Over time, these patients develop progressive immunodeficiency and if not treated, succumb to opportunistic infections, hemophagocytosis, multiorgan failure, or EBV-positive lymphomas. Patients with CAEBV in the United States most often present with disease involving B or T cells, while in Asia, the disease usually involves T or NK cells. The only proven effective treatment for the disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current studies to find a cause of this disease focus on immune defects and genetic abnormalities associated with the disease.

  15. Mechanisms behind efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Caroline Meyer; Coskun, Mehmet; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors is successful in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All TNF inhibitors antagonize the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α but with varying efficacies in IBD. The variations in efficacy probably are caused by structural ...... inhibitors in order to identify mechanisms of importance for their efficacy in IBD. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for clinical efficacy can lead to a more rational use of TNF inhibitors in the management of IBD....

  16. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  17. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  18. Oral DNA vaccination of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus using PLGA [Poly(D,L-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid)] nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomako, M; St-Hilaire, S; Zheng, Y; Eley, J; Marcum, R D; Sealey, W; Donahower, B C; Lapatra, S; Sheridan, P P

    2012-03-01

    A DNA vaccine against infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is effective at protecting rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against disease, but intramuscular injection is required and makes the vaccine impractical for use in the freshwater rainbow trout farming industry. Poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved polymer that can be used to deliver DNA vaccines. We evaluated the in vivo absorption of PLGA nanoparticles containing coumarin-6 when added to a fish food pellet. We demonstrated that rainbow trout will eat PLGA nanoparticle coated feed and that these nanoparticles can be detected in the epithelial cells of the lower intestine within 96 h after feeding. We also detected low levels of gene expression and anti-IHNV neutralizing antibodies when fish were fed or intubated with PLGA nanoparticles containing IHNV G gene plasmid. A virus challenge evaluation suggested a slight increase in survival at 6 weeks post-vaccination in fish that received a high dose of the oral vaccine, but there was no difference when additional fish were challenged at 10 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to induce an immune response using an orally delivered DNA vaccine, but the current system needs improvement. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Experimental infection with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzym Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the determination of the susceptibility of Polish farmed redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum to experimental infection with haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV. A bath challenge model was tested at two temperature ranges: 13-15°C and 20-22°C. After 7 d, the first clinical signs and mortality were observed in fish kept at these temperatures. Significantly more mortality cases were reported in the redfin perch population, reaching a maximum of 24% compared with 12% in the rainbow trout group at 20-22°C. EHNV was reisolated from redfin perch and rainbow trout tissue in cell culture and the infection was confirmed by a molecular method and histopathology during the duration of the experiment. This study revealed that fish from Polish farms can be susceptible to EHNV even at lower temperatures.

  20. Ebola Virus Disease – An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is a severe, haemorrhagic febrile disease, often fatal in humans, caused by a non segmented, negative sense RNA virus of the family Filoviridae and genus Ebolavirus. It is also known as Ebola Haemorrhagic fever. There are five species of Ebolavirus, namely Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus and Tai Forest ebolavirus. The Zaire species has caused multiple large outbreaks with mortality rates of 55 to 88 percent since first appearance of the disease whereas the Sudan virus has been associated with an approximate 50 percent case-fatality rate in four known epidemics: two in Sudan in the 1970s, one in Uganda in 2000, and another in Sudan in 2004 [1-5].

  1. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  2. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and t...

  3. Avascular Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Reports Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Avascular Necrosis Home > Cancer Resources > Late Effects of Treatment > Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a disorder resulting from ...

  4. Carp edema virus/Koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in Central-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-02-01

    Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  6. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  7. Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes ("host-microbe ecosystem"). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes-viruses in particular-with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.

  8. Viruses and kidney disease: beyond HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2008-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they also may experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections owing to immunodeficiency or risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA.

  9. Detection of natural infection of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus in farmed tilapia by hydroxynapthol blue-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsing, R; Pradeep, P J; Jitrakorn, S; Sirithammajak, S; Kampeera, J; Turner, W A; Saksmerprome, V; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Kiatpathomchai, W

    2016-07-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) has recently been recognized as a causative agent of serious systemic disease in tilapia. Our objective was to establish a new colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with pre-addition of hydroxynapthol blue (blue-LAMP) to investigate ISKNV transmission in tilapia. The blue-LAMP, targeting a major capsid protein gene of ISKNV, was conducted at 65°C for 45 min, allowing unaided visual detection of the pathogen based on colour change without cross-amplification of other known fish pathogens tested. Comparison of blue-LAMP and PCR assays revealed a higher detection level for blue-LAMP assay (41·33%) in a population of farmed tilapia infected with ISKNV. The investigation of ISKNV transmission pattern in farmed red tilapia using the blue-LAMP revealed a possible matroclinical form. The presence of ISKNV in the gonad samples was confirmed by in situ LAMP assay. Positive signals only appeared in ovarian follicles, and not in oocytes. Moreover, tissue tropism assay revealed that the brain was the main target organ in both farmed red tilapia (40%) and Nile tilapia (20%). The developed blue-LAMP assay has the potential to be used as a viable tool for screening covert and natural infections of ISKNV in tilapia. The evidence of vertical transmission of ISKNV infection in tilapia indicates the seriousness of this disease and will require a close attention and collaboration between tilapia hatcheries and disease experts in order to find a solution. The new blue-LAMP assay is a time-saving and economically viable detection tool, which allows unaided visual detection for ISKNV in tilapia, and it could be applicable for field applications. Evidence on the vertical transmission of ISKNV in farmed tilapia suggests a need for developing farm management practices to control the spread of virus in aquaculture industries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Paris mosaic necrosis virus, a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genomic sequence of a novel potyvirus was determined from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Its genomic RNA consists of 9,660 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3’-terminal poly (A) tail, containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein. The virus shares 52.1-69.7%...

  11. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... In the present study, the production of lentogenic Asplin F strain of Newcastle disease virus by ... future live Newcastle disease vaccine production in larger ..... Production of yellow fever virus in microcarrier-based Vero cell ...

  12. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  13. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Nam, Jiryun; Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Moon; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Jang, Chan-Yong; Lee, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hong Gi; Roh, Mark; Hammond, John

    2014-01-01

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP SP ) with that from AltMV-Po (CP Po ) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP Po [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP SP but not CP Po interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP SP than CP Po in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein

  14. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub, E-mail: hyounlim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiryun, E-mail: jilyoon@naver.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Eun-Young, E-mail: sey22@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Moon, E-mail: moonlit51@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Vaira, Anna Maria, E-mail: a.vaira@ivv.cnr.it [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino 10135 (Italy); Bae, Hanhong, E-mail: hanhongbae@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Geongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chan-Yong, E-mail: sunbispirit@gmail.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Ho, E-mail: chlee1219@hanmail.net [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seokyoung University, Seoul 136-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Gi, E-mail: hgkim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Mark, E-mail: marksroh@gmail.com [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Laboratory of Floriculture and Plant Physiology, School of Bio-Resource Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hammond, John, E-mail: john.hammond@ars.usda.gov [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP{sub SP}) with that from AltMV-Po (CP{sub Po}) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP{sub Po} [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP{sub SP} but not CP{sub Po} interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP{sub SP} than CP{sub Po} in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein.

  15. Fatal infections in older patients with inflammatory bowel disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Seah Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years. All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. One patient developed disseminated tuberculosis, another patient developed cholera diarrhea followed by nosocomial pneumonia, while the third patient developed multiple opportunistic infections (Pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcal septicemia and meningitis, Klebsiella septicemia. All 3 patients died within 1 year from the onset of the infection(s. We recommend that anti-TNF, especially when combined with other immunosuppressive therapy, should be used with extreme caution in older adult patients with IBD.

  16. Treatment for avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan; Agreda-Pérez, Luis H

    2016-08-09

    Avascular necrosis of bone is a frequent and severe complication of sickle cell disease and its treatment is not standardised. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. To determine the impact of any surgical procedure compared with other surgical interventions or non-surgical procedures, on avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease in terms of efficacy and safety. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional trials were sought from the reference lists of papers identified by the search strategy.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 27 May 2016. Randomized clinical trials comparing specific therapies for avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease. Each author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Since only one trial was identified, meta-analysis was not possible. One trial (46 participants) was eligible for inclusion. After randomization eight participants were withdrawn, mainly because they declined to participate in the trial. Data were analysed for 38 participants at the end of the trial. After a mean follow up of three years, hip core decompression and physical therapy did not show clinical improvement when compared with physical therapy alone using the score from the original trial (an improvement of 18.1 points for those treated with intervention therapy versus an improvement of 15.7 points with control therapy). There was no significant statistical difference between groups regarding major complications (hip pain, risk ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.56 to 1.60; vaso-occlusive crises, risk ratio 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.80; very low quality of evidence); and acute chest syndrome, risk

  17. Interference in plant defense and development by non-structural protein NSs of Groundnut bud necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Sahana, Nandita; Pandey, Vanita; Doblas, Paula; Jain, R K; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) infects a large number of leguminous and solanaceous plants. To elucidate the biological function of the non-structural protein encoded by the S RNA of GBNV (NSs), we studied its role in RNA silencing suppression and in viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrated that GBNV NSs functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing using the agroinfiltration patch assay. An in silico analysis suggested the presence of pro-apoptotic protein Reaper-like sequences in the GBNV NSs, which were known to be present in animal infecting bunyaviruses. Utilizing NSs mutants, we demonstrated that a Leu-rich domain was required for RNA silencing suppression activity, but not the non-overlapping Trp/GH3 motif of the Reaper-like sequence. To investigate the role of NSs in symptom development we generated transgenic tomato expressing the GBNV NSs and showed that the expression of NSs in tomato mimics symptoms induced by infection with GBNV, such as leaf senescence and necrosis. As leaf senescence is controlled by miR319 regulation of the transcription factor TCP1, we assessed the accumulation of both RNAs in transgenic NSs-expressing and GBNV-infected tomato plants. In both types of plants the levels of miR319 decreased, while the levels of TCP1 transcripts increased. We propose that GBNV-NSs affects miRNA biogenesis through its RNA silencing suppressor activity and interferes with TCP1-regulated leaf developmental pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  19. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  20. Hepatitis C virus liver disease in women infected with contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is carried out by detection of antibodies to the virus (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA)) with confirmation by identification of HCV RNA genome in serum (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). We describe the histological features on liver biopsy in 88 women with chronic HCV infection (serum positive on ELISA, RIBA and PCR) acquired from virus contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. For the majority of these patients the time interval from virus infection to presentation was between 17 and 18 years. We separately assessed necroinflammatory disease activity and architectural features on liver biopsy and applied a scoring system which permitted semi-quantitative documentation of abnormal features. Only three women showed liver biopsies within normal limits (+\\/-focal steatosis). The remaining 85 cases showed a predominantly mild or moderate degree of disease activity with interface hepatitis (56.8% of cases), spotty necrosis, apoptosis and focal inflammation (88.6% of cases) and portal inflammation (90.9% of cases). Confluent necrosis was an uncommon finding (2.3% of cases). Assessment of architectural features showed normal appearance in 35.2% of biopsies. The predominant architectural abnormality noted was portal tract fibrosis. Ten per cent of cases, however, showed significant fibrous band and\\/or nodule formation.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease: A Review of Its Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease.

  2. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  3. Development of a biotinylated DNA probe for detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, R.E.; Arakawa, C.K.; Oshima, K.H.; O'Hara, P.J.; Landolt, M.L.; Winton, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A nonrad~oact~ve DNA probe assay was developed to detect and ~dent~fy infect~ous hernatopoiet~c necrosls virus (IHNV) uslng a dot blot format The probe a synthet~c DNA oligonucleot~de labeled enzymatlcally w~th biotln hybnd~zed spec~f~cally w~th nucleocaps~d mRNA extracted from Infected cells early In the vlrus repl~cation cycle A rap~d guan~dln~um th~ocyanate based RNA extraction method uslng RNAzol B and rn~crocentrifuge tubes eff~c~ently pioduced h~gh qual~ty RNA from 3 commonly used f~sh cell llnes, CHSE-214, CHH-1, and EPC The probe reacted with 6 d~verse ~solates of IHNV, but d~d not react \

  4. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  5. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  6. Protective immunity and lack of histopathological damage two years after DNA vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Corbeil, Serge; Elliott, Diane G.; Anderson, Eric D.; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    The DNA vaccine pIHNw-G encodes the glycoprotein of the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Vaccine performance in rainbow trout was measured 3, 6, 13, 24, and 25 months after vaccination. At three months all fish vaccinated with 0.1 μg pIHNw-G had detectable neutralizing antibody (NAb) and they were completely protected from lethal IHNV challenge with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 100% compared to control fish. Viral challenges at 6, 13, 24, and 25 months post-vaccination showed protection with RPS values of 47–69%, while NAb seroprevalence declined to undetectable levels. Passive transfer experiments with sera from fish after two years post-vaccination were inconsistent but significant protection was observed in some cases. The long-term duration of protection observed here defined a third temporal phase in the immune response to IHNV DNA vaccination, characterized by reduced but significant levels of protection, and decline or absence of detectable NAb titers. Examination of multiple tissues showed an absence of detectable long-term histopathological damage due to DNA vaccination.

  7. Relationship between apoptosis and the BH2 domain sequence of the VP5 peptide of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ortega S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the level of apoptosis induced by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV is related to the amino acid sequence of the BH2 domain of the VP5 protein and the level of infectivity. Materials and methods. Three IPNV strains were used, the VP2 protein gene was amplified for genotyping and the VP5 sequence was also obtained. The infectivity of the strains was calculated using the viral titer obtained at 12, 24, 36 and 45 hpi in CHSE-214 cells. The percentage of apoptosis in infected cells was visualized by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry (caspase 3 detection. Results. The V70/06 and V33/98 strains corresponded to genotype Sp, while V112/06 to VR-299; the amino acid analysis of the V70/06 strain allows its classification as middle virulent strain and V33/98 and V112/06 strains as low virulent ones; infection with the V112/06 strain produced a lower viral titer (p0.05. Conclusions. The results showed that the differences in the BH2 sequence of the VP5 protein, infectivity and the VP2 sequence are not associated with the modulation of apoptosis.

  8. Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus - infectious mononucleosis in an adult with liver failure, splenic rupture, and spontaneous esophageal bleeding with ensuing esophageal necrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Daniel; Hilswicht, Sarah; Schöb, Dominik S; von Trotha, Klaus T; Junge, Karsten; Gassler, Nikolaus; Truong, Son; Neumann, Ulf P; Binnebösel, Marcel

    2014-02-05

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome most commonly associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. The majority of patients with infectious mononucleosis recovers without apparent sequelae. However, infectious mononucleosis may be associated with several acute complications. In this report we present a rare case of esophageal rupture that has never been described in the literature before. We present the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian man affected by severe infectious mononucleosis complicated by fulminant hepatic failure, splenic rupture and esophageal necrosis. Although primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is rarely fatal, fulminant infection may occur - in this case leading to hepatic failure, splenic rupture and esophageal necrosis, subsequently making several surgical interventions necessary. We show here that infectious mononucleosis is not only a strictly medical condition, but can also lead to severe surgical complications.

  9. Optimizing screening for tuberculosis and hepatitis B prior to starting tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Mike; Oldenburg, Bas; Fidder, Herma H; Belderbos, Tim D G; Siersema, Peter D; van Oijen, Martijn G H

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with potentially serious infections, including tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of extensive TB screening and HBV screening prior to initiating TNF-α inhibitors in CD. We constructed two Markov models: (1) comparing tuberculin skin test (TST) combined with chest X-ray (conventional TB screening) versus TST and chest X-ray followed by the interferon-gamma release assay (extensive TB screening) in diagnosing TB; and (2) HBV screening versus no HBV screening. Our base-case included an adult CD patient starting with infliximab treatment. Input parameters were extracted from the literature. Direct medical costs were assessed and discounted following a third-party payer perspective. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses were performed over wide ranges of probability and cost estimates. At base-case, the ICERs of extensive screening and HBV screening were €64,340 and €75,760 respectively to gain one quality-adjusted life year. Sensitivity analyses concluded that extensive TB screening was a cost-effective strategy if the latent TB prevalence is more than 12 % or if the false positivity rate of TST is more than 20 %. HBV screening became cost-effective if HBV reactivation or HBV-related mortality is higher than 37 and 62 %, respectively. Extensive TB screening and HBV screening are not cost-effective compared with conventional TB screening and no HBV screening, respectively. However, when targeted at high-risk patient groups, these screening strategies are likely to become cost-effective.

  10. Challenge studies of European stocks of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Jensen, Ann Britt Bang

    2009-01-01

    indicate that EHNV does not pose a high risk for wild perch and trout populations in Europe by natural exposure. Mortality appears to be primarily a function of environmental factors, with temperature playing an important role, and not just the presence of the virus in the fish.......A challenge model for comparison of the virulence of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) to European stock of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), was tested. The model investigated intraperitoneal (IP), bath and cohabitation routes at 10...

  11. Systemic effects of zoledronic acid in children with traumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Briody, Julie; McQuade, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intravenous bisphosphonate therapy is associated with preservation of femoral head sphericity and congruence in 77% of children with traumatic avascular necrosis. The aim was to describe the systemic effects of intravenous zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone and mineral metabolism in otherwise...... normal children and adolescents with femoral head AVN. Material and methods: 37 children (age 10.8+/-2.76 years) diagnosed with avascular necrosis AVN (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE), N=20 or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), N=17) were treated with at least 12 months of ZA. Bone mineral...

  12. Overview of Ebola virus disease in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Peng Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In late December 2013, a deadly infectious epidemic, Ebola virus disease (EVD, emerged from West Africa and resulted in a formidable outbreak in areas including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. EVD is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission occurs through blood or body fluid exposure, which can jeopardize first-line healthcare workers if there is a lack of stringent infection control or no proper personal protective equipment available. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of travel or contact history for patients with constitutional symptoms.

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  14. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a non-enveloped, single stranded RNA virus ... continents of Asia, Africa, and some regions in the South America. .... FCT = Federal Capital Territory; NE = North East, NC = North Central; NW =.

  15. Ebola virus disease: preparedness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Yugo; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Egawa, Shinichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is due to a lack of resources, untrained medical personnel, and the specific contact-mediated type of infection of this virus. In Japan's history, education and mass vaccination of the native Ainu people successfully eradicated epidemics of smallpox. Even though a zoonotic virus is hard to control, appropriate precautions and personal protection, as well as anti-symptomatic treatment, will control the outbreak of EVD. Ebola virus utilizes the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection to seed the cells of various organs. The pathogenesis of EVD is due to the cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the lack of antiviral interferon-α2. Matricellular proteins of galectin-9 and osteopontin might also be involved in the edema and abnormality of the coagulation system in EVD. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment will be effective. In the era of globalization, interviews of travelers with fever within 3 weeks of departure from the affected areas will be necessary. Not only the hospitals designated for specific biohazards but every hospital should be aware of the biology of biohazards and establish measures to protect both patients and the community.

  16. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type ...

  17. CT evaluation of chronic hip joint diseases: avascular necrosis vs. osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Suh, Jin Seok; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    Computed tomography (CT) of the hip was done on 37 patients those who have been suffered from chronic hip joint pain. There were 18 patients of avascular necrosis of hip (AVN), 67% of whom were affected bilaterally, 15 patients of degenerative arthritis (DA), 33% bilaterally; one patient of tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and traumatic arthritis respectively. Comparison of the staging by means of the CT and plain film showed good correlation between the two methods. The CT findings of the AVN and OA were also compared; crescent sign or fissure, loss of congruity, and loss or change of normal asterisk sign were more commonly seen in AVN. Acetabular change especially associated cystic appearance, osteophytes formation and joint narrowing were more frequent in OA. CT showed primary and secondary change of AVN and OA more clearly without confusion than plain film. We think that CT can be helpful in evaluation and understanding of each disease process and differentiation of the two lesions in difficult case000.

  18. CT evaluation of chronic hip joint diseases: avascular necrosis vs. osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Suh, Jin Seok; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the hip was done on 37 patients those who have been suffered from chronic hip joint pain. There were 18 patients of avascular necrosis of hip (AVN), 67% of whom were affected bilaterally, 15 patients of degenerative arthritis (DA), 33% bilaterally; one patient of tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and traumatic arthritis respectively. Comparison of the staging by means of the CT and plain film showed good correlation between the two methods. The CT findings of the AVN and OA were also compared; crescent sign or fissure, loss of congruity, and loss or change of normal asterisk sign were more commonly seen in AVN. Acetabular change especially associated cystic appearance, osteophytes formation and joint narrowing were more frequent in OA. CT showed primary and secondary change of AVN and OA more clearly without confusion than plain film. We think that CT can be helpful in evaluation and understanding of each disease process and differentiation of the two lesions in difficult cases.

  19. Suspected de novo Hepatitis B in a Patient Receiving Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 45-year-old female patient who developed acute hepatic disorder during anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. She was diagnosed as colonic CD and placed on infliximab (IFX. She was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen at the initiation of IFX therapy, but developed acute hepatitis after the 30th administration of IFX 4 years and 1 month after the first administration. She was suspected to have had occult hepatitis B virus infection before IFX therapy, and de novo hepatitis B was considered the most likely diagnosis. Hepatitis subsided after discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy and initiation of treatment with entecavir. She started to receive adalimumab to prevent relapse of CD. She has continued maintenance therapy with entecavir and adalimumab and has since been asymptomatic. As de novo hepatitis B may be fatal, virological testing for hepatitis B is essential for patients who are being considered for treatment that may weaken the immune system.

  20. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and

  1. Ebola virus disease: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kimura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  2. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Kyu Choi

    Full Text Available The nonvirion (NV protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP, a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the (32EGDL(35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the (32EGDL(35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.. While treatment with poly I∶C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I∶C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of (32EGDL(35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    evidence that oral vaccines fail in populations with disturbed microbiota, poor nutrition , and high intestinal inflammation [102-104]. Additionally...countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public- health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate...members of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae) cause two diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be

  4. Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis with special reference to caisson disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, P.J.; Walder, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as 'hot spots' on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation established during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease. (author)

  6. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis, with special reference to caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1980-05-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using 99mTc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as "hot-spots" on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease.

  7. Effectiveness and Safety of Immunomodulators With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Mark T; Haynes, Kevin; Delzell, Elizabeth; Zhang, Jie; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brensinger, Colleen M; Chen, Lang; Xie, Fenglong; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lewis, James D

    2015-07-01

    The benefit of continuing immunomodulators when "stepping up" to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy for Crohn's disease (CD) is uncertain. This study assessed the effectiveness and safety of immunomodulators with anti-TNF therapy in CD. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new users of anti-TNF therapy for CD in Medicare. Users of anti-TNF combination therapy with immunomodulators were matched to up to 3 users of anti-TNF monotherapy via propensity score and compared by using 3 metrics of effectiveness-surgery, hospitalization, and discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or surgery-and 2 metrics of safety-serious infection and non-Candida opportunistic infection. Cox regression was used for all analyses. Among new users of infliximab, we matched 381 users of combination therapy to 912 users of monotherapy; among new users of adalimumab, we matched 196 users of combination therapy to 505 users of monotherapy. Combination therapy occurred predominantly as "step up" after thiopurine therapy. The rates of surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.96), hospitalization (HR, 0.82; 0.57-1.19), discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or surgery (HR, 1.09; 0.88-1.34), and serious infection (HR, 0.93; 0.88-1.34) did not differ between users of anti-TNF combination therapy and monotherapy. However, the risks of opportunistic infection (HR, 2.64; 1.21-5.73) and herpes zoster (HR, 3.16; 1.25-7.97) were increased with combination therapy. We found that continuation of immunomodulators after "stepping up" to anti-TNF therapy did not improve outcomes but was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infection. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  9. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or

  10. Liver safety of non-tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatic patients with past hepatitis B virus infection: an observational, controlled, long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalopoulos, Ioannis; Fanouriakis, Antonis; Kougkas, Nikolaos; Flouri, Irini; Sourvinos, George; Bertsias, George; Repa, Argyro; Avgoustidis, Nestor; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2018-01-01

    The risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation with non-tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (non-TNFi) biologic agents in patients with rheumatic diseases and past HBV infection has not been definively elucidated. We assessed the comparative safety of non-TNFi and TNFi biologic agents in such patients in real-life clinical settings. We carried out a retrospective cohort study from the Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital of Heraklion. Patients who received abatacept (ABA), tocilizumab (TCZ) or rituximab (RTX) during the period 2003-2016 and were HbsAg(-), anti-HBc(+), anti-HBs(±) at baseline, were monitored for HBV reactivation. Patients treated with TNFi agents during the same period were used as a control group. 101 cases of non-TNFi (39 ABA, 32 RTX and 30 TCZ) and 111 cases of TNFi treatment were identified. In non-TNFi, 76 cases (75.2%) were anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(+) and 25 (24.8%) were anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(-), as compared to 82 (73.9%) and 29 (26.1%) in TNFi-treated, respectively. After a median (IQR) observation of 24.0 (34.7) months, two cases (2.0%) of HBV reactivation were identified in the non-TNFi group; one with ABA, successfully treated with entecavir, and one fatal case with RTX and prior exposure to cyclophosphamide. No reactivation was observed in the TNFi group (p=0.226 vs. non-TNFi). Αnti-HBs titres were significantly reduced compared to baseline in the non-TNFi group [median (IQR) 203.9 (954.7) mIU/ml before treatment versus 144.9 (962.9) mIU/ml after treatment, p=0.03]. Two cases of HBV reactivation highlight the risk for this complication in patients with past HBV infection under biologic therapy.

  11. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymocha, R; Akaoka, H; Dutuit, M; Malcus, C; Didier-Bazes, M; Belin, M F; Giraudon, P

    2000-07-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In this disease, lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes. We and others have hypothesized that these T lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS may play a prominent role in TSP/HAM. Here, we show that transient contact of human or rat astrocytes with T lymphocytes chronically infected by HTLV-1 impairs some of the major functions of brain astrocytes. Uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes was significantly decreased after transient contact with infected T cells, while the expression of the glial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 was decreased. In two-compartment cultures avoiding direct cell-to-cell contact, similar results were obtained, suggesting possible involvement of soluble factors, such as cytokines and the viral protein Tax-1. Recombinant Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Tax-1 probably acts by inducing TNF-alpha, as the effect of Tax-1 was abolished by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. The expression of glutamate-catabolizing enzymes in astrocytes was increased for glutamine synthetase and decreased for glutamate dehydrogenase, the magnitudes of these effects being correlated with the level of Tax-1 transcripts. In conclusion, Tax-1 and cytokines produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells impair the ability of astrocytes to manage the steady-state level of glutamate, which in turn may affect neuronal and oligodendrocytic functions and survival.

  12. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  13. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  14. Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models: possible involvement of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Lisa E; Young, Howard A; Jahrling, Peter B; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2002-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are characterized by dysregulation of normal host immune responses. Insight into the mechanism came from recent studies in nonhuman primates, which showed that EBOV infects cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), resulting in apoptosis of bystander lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated serum levels of cytokines/chemokines in EBOV-infected nonhuman primates, as possible correlates of this bystander apoptosis. Increased levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-beta, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta were observed in all EBOV-infected monkeys, indicating the occurrence of a strong proinflammatory response. To investigate the mechanism(s) involved in lymphoid apoptosis, soluble Fas (sFas) and nitrate accumulation were measured. sFas was detected in 4/9 animals, while, elevations of nitrate accumulation occurred in 3/3 animals. To further evaluate the potential role of these factors in the observed bystander apoptosis and intact animals, in vitro cultures were prepared of adherent human monocytes/macrophages (PHM), and monocytes differentiated into immature dendritic cells (DC). These cultures were infected with EBOV and analyzed for cytokine/chemokine induction and expression of apoptosis-related genes. In addition, the in vitro EBOV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in strong cytokine/chemokine induction, a marked increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and an increase in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes examined by electron microscopy. Increased levels of sFAS were detected in PHM cultures, although, 90% of EBOV-infected PHM were positive for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by immunohistochemistry, RNA analysis, and flow cytometry. Inactivated EBOV also effected increased TRAIL expression in PHM, suggesting that the TNF receptor superfamily may be involved in apoptosis of the host lymphoid cells, and that induction may occur

  15. Seroprevalence of Marek's Disease Virus antibody in some poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports a survey of Marek's disease virus (MDV) antibody done in 21 selected poultry flocks in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states of southwestern Nigeria. A total of 315 serum samples were examined using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Marek's disease virus antibody was present in ...

  16. hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... INTRODUCTION. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an infectious viral disease characterized by a high case-fatality rate which may be as high as 90%.1,2 Ebola virus may be acquired during contact with blood or body fluids of an infected animal, commonly monkeys or fruit bats.2 Once human infection occurs ...

  17. The occurrence and prevention of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in rainbow trout fish farms: the importance of improved sanitary practices

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM REXHEPI; KURTESH SHERIFI; PETER SCHEINERT; LINDA GRAPCI-KOTORRI

    2014-01-01

    The viral diseases of rainbow trout are of worldwide concern including infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN). On this study good sanitary practices are applied to prevent outbreaks and minimize losses caused from IPN disease. To highlight importance of improvements on sanitary practices in IPN prevention were compared results from two studies, first conducted in year 2006-2009 with results from one year later study conducted in 2010. In year 2010, samples of organs are collected from 260 fish ...

  18. Age- and weight-dependent susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to isolates of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) of varying virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, S.M.; Fichtner, D.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2003-01-01

    The virulence of 5 European and 1 North American isolate of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was compared by infecting female sibling rainbow trout ('lsle of Man' strain) of different weights and ages (2, 20 and 50 g). The fish were exposed to 104 TCID50 IHNV per ml of water...... by immersion, and the mortality was recorded for 28 d. Two new IHNV isolates from Germany were included in the investigation. One was isolated from European eels kept at 23degreesC (+/-2degreesC) and the other was not detectable by immunofluorescence with commercially available monoclonal antibodies...

  19. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  20. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 family in immune homeostasis and inflammatory cancer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y Y; Yao, Y M; Sheng, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Within the immune system homeostasis is maintained by a myriad of mechanisms that include the regulation of immune cell activation and programmed cell death. The breakdown of immune homeostasis may lead to fatal inflammatory diseases. We set out to identify genes of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) family that has a functional role in the process of immune homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8), which functions as an oncogenic molecule, is also associated with enhanced cell survival and inhibition of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) governs immune homeostasis in both the innate and adaptive immune system and prevents hyper-responsiveness by negatively regulating signaling via T cell receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). There also exist two highly homologous but uncharacterized proteins, TIPE1 and TIPE3. This review is an attempt to provide a summary of TNFAIP8 family associated with immune homeostasis and inflammatory cancer diseases.

  1. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) treatment in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice and to establish a cohort...... in clinical trials. Funding: The work was funded by Health Research Fund of Central Denmark Region, Colitis-Crohn Foreningen and the University of Aarhus (PhD grant). Trial registration: Clinicaltrials NCT02322008....

  2. Impact of Stopping Tumor Necrosis Factor-inhibitors on Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Burden of Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiti Moghadam, Marjan; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Kneepkens, Eva L.; Klaasen, Ruth; Stolk, Jan N.; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Vreugdenhil, Simone A.; van Woerkom, Jan M.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Yvonne P.M.; Landewé, Robert B.M.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Jansen, Tim L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of stopping tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of physical and mental health status, health utility, pain, disability and fatigue in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: In the pragmatic

  3. Impact of Stopping Tumor Necrosis Factor-inhibitors on Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Burden of Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiti Moghadam, Marjan; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; Kneepkens, Eva L.; Klaasen, Ruth; Stolk, Jan N.; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Vreugdenhil, Simone A.; van Woerkom, Jan M.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Yvonne P. M.; Landewé, Robert B. M.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.; Jansen, Tim L.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of stopping tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of physical and mental health status, health utility, pain, disability and fatigue in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the pragmatic 12-month POET trial,

  4. Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor as markers of disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E. E.; van der Poll, T.; Mevissen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFRs) were measured before and after antimony therapy in 25 Sudanese patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Both sTNFR types I and II were significantly elevated in patients with VL compared with healthy controls from

  5. Impact of Stopping Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors on Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Burden of Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiti Moghadam, Marjan; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Kneepkens, Eva L.; Klaasen, Ruth; Stolk, Jan N.; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Vreugdenhil, Simone A.; van Woerkom, Jan M.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Yvonne P.M.; Landewé, Robert B.M.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Jansen, Tim L.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of stopping tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of physical and mental health status, health utility, pain, disability and fatigue in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: In the pragmatic

  6. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  7. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis during Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Russell D.; Pettit, April C.; Wright, Patty W.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Moreland, Larry W.; McLain, David A.; Gnann, John W.; Bloch, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    We report 3 cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors for rheumatologic disorders. Although TNF-α inhibitors have been reported to increase the risk of other infectious diseases, to our knowledge, an association between anti–TNF-α drugs and herpes simplex virus encephalitis has not been previously described.

  8. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  9. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  10. Early viral replication and induced or constitutive immunity in rainbow trout families with differential resistance to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; LaPatra, S.E.; Woodson, J.C.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess correlates of innate resistance in rainbow trout full-sibling families that differ in susceptibility to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). As part of a commercial breeding program, full-sibling families were challenged with IHNV by waterborne exposure at the 1 g size to determine susceptibility to IHNV. Progeny from select families (N = 7 families) that varied in susceptibility (ranging from 32 to 90% cumulative percent mortality (CPM)) were challenged again at the 10 g size by intra-peritoneal injection and overall mortality, early viral replication and immune responses were evaluated. Mortality challenges included 20–40 fish per family while viral replication and immune response studies included 6 fish per family at each time point (24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (hpi)). CPM at the 1 g size was significantly correlated with CPM at the 10 g size, indicating that inherent resistance was a stable trait irrespective of size. In the larger fish, viral load was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in the anterior kidney and was a significant predictor of family disease outcome at 48 hpi. Type I interferon (IFN) transcript levels were significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 48 and 72 hpi, while type II IFN gene expression was significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 24 and 48 hpi. Mean family type I but not type II IFN gene expression was weakly associated with susceptibility at 72 hpi. There was no association between mean family susceptibility and the constitutive expression of a range of innate immune genes (e.g. type I and II IFN pathway genes, cytokine and viral recognition receptor genes). The majority of survivors from the challenge had detectable serum neutralizing antibody titers but no trend was observed among families. This result suggests that even the most resistant families experienced sufficient levels of viral replication to trigger specific

  11. A fatal case of immune hyperhemolysis with bone marrow necrosis in a patient with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Karafin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients with sickle cell disease, hyperhemolysis is a rare but life-threatening complication of transfusion. In this case report, we describe a 61 year-old woman with hemoglobin sickle cell (SC disease and history of alloimmunization who developed hyperhemolysis associated with a transfusion. She was found to have a warm and a clinically-significant cold autoantibody. Severe anemia (Hb 2.7 g/dL with reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia prompted a bone marrow biopsy, which demonstrated extensive bone marrow necrosis. Despite treatment, the bone marrow failure did not improve and the patient died on hospital day 38. This case illustrates the potential risks of transfusion in a patient with sickle cell disease, especially one with previous hemolytic reactions. While uncommon, hyperhemolysis can cause death, in this case by extensive bone marrow necrosis. In patients with sickle cell disease, judicious use of red cell transfusions with phenotypically-matched units can diminish, but never completely abrogate, the risks associated with transfusion.

  12. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2017-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P.; Castón, José R.; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particl...

  15. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  16. One-step cross-genogroup multiplex RT-qPCR with an internal control system for the detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferer, Marc; Braun, Anne; Skrypski, Julia; Bock, Sabine; Thalheim, Sabine; Sting, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes great losses in fish hatcheries world-wide. The detection of IPNV can be challenging in certain circumstances, particularly due to low viral load and the genetic variability of this RNA virus. For the first time, this project created a quantitative triplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), including an endogenous control system, for specific, sensitive and rapid detection of IPNV in routine diagnostics. Multiple sequence alignment of 46 nucleotide sequences of the segment A genome obtained from the NCBI database allowed the design of two RT-qPCR systems covering the IPNV genogroup 1 and genogroups 2-5, respectively. The completed triplex RT-qPCR including a salmonid-specific endogenous control showed high specificity and an analytical sensitivity of 20-40 oligonucleotide copies. Testing of dilution series of virus-loaded cell culture suspensions proved equality of the triplex RT-qPCR with virus detection in cell culture and a higher sensitivity than conventional RT-PCR in field samples. In comparative studies of a total of 77 field samples tested, 51 showed identical positive and 19 identical negative results in cell culture and the triplex RT-qPCR. However, seven other samples yielded positive results in the triplex RT-qPCR, but negative results in cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline.

  18. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha serum level in obese and lean women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Emaduldin; Hasan, Momen; Khalifa, Eissa M.; Ramadan, Ahmad; Hefzy, Enas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the level of the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as an inflammatory biomarker in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), who are resistant to clomiphene citrate (CCR-PCOD). Patients and design: It is a case controlled study, where one hundred and fifty (n = 150) PCOD women (study group), who are resistant to clomiphene citrate (CCR-PCOD) had been recruited, in addition to one hundred (n = 100) women wi...

  19. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  20. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  1. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  2. Risk of Lymphoma in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treated With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Agents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Huang, Junlin; Huang, Xiaowen; Huang, Shaozhuo; Cheng, Jiaxin; Liao, Weixin; Chen, Xuewen; Wang, Xueyi; Dai, Shixue

    2018-05-12

    The association between anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents and the risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease has already been sufficiently reported. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Hence, this analysis was conducted to investigate whether anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents can increase the risk of lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies which evaluated the risk of lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled incidence rate ratios as well as risk ratios. Twelve studies comprising 285811 participants were included. The result showed that there was no significantly increased risk of lymphoma between anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents exposed and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents unexposed groups (random effects: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.43 95%CI, 0.91-2.25, p= 0.116; random effects: risk ratio [RR], 0.83 95%CI, 0.47-1.48, p=0.534). However, monotherapy of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents (random effects: IRR=1.65, 95%CI, 1.16-2.35; p=0.006; random effects: RR=1.00, 95%CI, 0.39-2.59; p=0.996) or combination therapy (random effects: IRR=3.36, 95%CI, 2.23-5.05; ptumor necrosis factor alpha agents in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with a higher risk of lymphoma. Combination therapy and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents monotherapy can significantly increase the risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  4. Treatment of therapy-resistant perineal metastatic Crohn's disease after proctectomy using anti-tumor necrosis factor chimeric monoclonal antibody, cA2 - Report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dullemen, HM; de Jong, E; Slors, F; Tytgat, GNJ; van Denventer, SJH

    PURPOSE: Two young females with well-documented Crohn's disease and nonhealing perineal wounds following proctectomy compatible with "metastatic Crohn's disease" are described, We hypothesized that metastatic Crohn's disease would be a tumor necrosis factor-dependent inflammatory-reaction and have

  5. Nature of the endogenous pyrogen (EP) induced by influenza viruses: lack of correlation between EP levels and content of the known pyrogenic cytokines, interleukin 1, interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, K J; Bird, C R; Thorpe, R; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1991-03-01

    Fever in influenza results from the release of endogenous pyrogen (EP) following virus-phagocyte interaction and its level correlates with the differing virulence of virus strains. However, the different levels of fever produced in ferrets by intracardial inoculation of EP obtained from the interaction of different virus strains with ferret of human phagocytes did not correlate with the levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 or tumour necrosis factor in the same samples as assayed by conventional in vitro methods. Hence, the EP produced by influenza virus appears to be different to these cytokines.

  6. Effect of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy on bone turnover in patients with active Crohn's disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B M; Russel, M G V M; Schurgers, L; Wichers, M; Sijbrandij, J; Stockbrugger, R W; Schoon, E

    2004-10-15

    Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of osteoporosis. Disease activity and circulating proinflammatory cytokines are thought to play a role in this process. Infliximab, a chimaeric antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment with infliximab on bone turnover in Crohn's disease patients. This was a prospective trial. Twenty-four patients with active Crohn's disease were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg). Bone markers were assayed pre- and post-treatment. Bone formation was measured using serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and total osteocalcin and bone resorption using serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen. Infliximab therapy caused a significant increase in both markers of bone formation in patients with active Crohn's disease. No significant change in the bone resorption marker serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 was found. Infliximab therapy had a significant beneficial effect on bone metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. These findings further support the theory that active ongoing inflammation and high levels of circulating cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss in patients with Crohn's disease.

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  8. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  9. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.

  10. Evaluation of radiolabelled annexin A5 for scintigraphic imaging of cell processes (necrosis/apoptosis) in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarda-Mantel, L.

    2007-03-01

    Annexin A5, a 35KDa protein, specifically binds with high affinity to phosphatidylserine (P.S.) which is actively redistributed to the external leaflet of plasmic membranes in apoptotic cells and activated platelets. Annexin A5 radiolabelled with 99m Tc( 99m Tc-ANX5) was developed by Strauss (stanford, Usa) to image apoptosis in vivo: tumours cells apoptosis induced by chemo-radiotherapy, ischemia/reperfusion lesions in animals and patients, graft rejection. Additionally, many in vitro data suggest that annexin A5 also stains necrosis (membrane disruption), which occurs in all types of cell death. This preclinical work aimed to evaluate the potential interest of 99m Tc-ANX5 imaging as a clinical tool in cardiovascular diseases. Four studies performed in rat models of myocardial infarction by coronary ligation and ischemia-reperfusion, and in rat models of subacute and acute (isoproterenol-induced) myocarditis show the ability of 99m Tc-ANX5 to detect in vivo cardio myocytes death by apoptosis and necrosis. Another study demonstrates that 99m Tc-ANX5 is highly accurate to evaluate in vivo the biological activity of parietal thrombus in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm. These results suggest that 99m Tc-ANX5 imaging could be used in patients for non invasive diagnosis, prognostic evaluation in acute myocarditis and in various thrombotic cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  11. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, lymphocidal disease that has been a threat to poultry production in Nigeria and a major disease problem of poultry producing areas of the world. A serological detection of antibodies to the virus was conducted on 300 sera samples derived from local chickens slaughtered at Sheik ...

  12. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  13. A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, John; Burmakina, Svetlana V; Thomas, Colleen; Spackman, Erica; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Swayne, David E; Palese, Peter

    2008-01-24

    The protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved through vaccination, as part of a broader disease control strategy. We have previously generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing, (i) an H5 hemagglutinin protein, modified by the removal of the polybasic cleavage peptide and (ii) the ectodomain of the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein in the place of the ectodomain of influenza neuraminidase (Park MS, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(21):8203-8). Here we show this virus is attenuated in primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture, and demonstrate protection of C57BL/6 mice from lethal challenge with an H5 HA-containing influenza virus through immunisation with the recombinant virus. In addition, in-ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryonated chicken eggs provided 90% and 80% protection against highly stringent lethal challenge by NDV and H5N1 virus, respectively. We propose that this virus has potential as a safe in-ovo live, attenuated, bivalent avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus vaccine.

  14. Hepatitis C virus in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Hasan, Syed; Giday, Samuel; Alamgir, Laila; Banks, Alpha; Frederick, Winston; Smoot, Duane; Castro, Oswaldo

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV) in patients with sickle cell disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1983 and 2001, 150 patients from the Howard University Hospital Center for Sickle Cell Disease were screened for HCV antibody (52% women, 48% men, mean age 34 years). Frozen serum samples from 56 adult sickle cell patients who had participated in previous surveys (1983-92) of HIV and HTLV-1 serology and who were tested in 1992 for anti-HCV antibody--when commercial ELISA test (Ortho) became available--were included in this paper. Of the 150 patients in the study, 132 had sickle cell anemia genotype (SS), 15 had sickle cell hemoglobin-C disease (SC) and three had sickle beta thalassemia. Clinical charts were reviewed for history of blood transfusion, IV drug abuse, homosexuality, tattooing, iron overload, and alcohol abuse. RESULTS: Antibodies to HCV were detected in 53 patients (35.3%). Of the 55 patients who had frozen serum samples tested in 1992, 32 (58%) were reactive for anti-HCV, while only 21 of the 95 patients (22%) tested after 1992 were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). Thirty-nine of 77 patients (51%) who received more than 10 units of packed red blood cells were positive for HCV antibody, and only 14 of 61 patients (23%) who received less than 10 units of packed red blood cells transfusion were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). None of the 12 patients who never received transfusion were positive for HCV antibody. In the 53 anti-HCV positive patients, the mean alanine amino-transferase (ALT) value was 98- and 81 U/L, respectively, for males and females. These values were normal for the HCV-antibody negative patients. The aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and the total bilirubin were also higher in the anti-HCV positive patients compared to patients in the anti-HCV negative group. Forty-four patients (57.1%) who were transfused more than 10 units developed iron overload defined by a serum ferritin

  15. Travel to tropical areas: Zika virus disease

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.   Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.

  16. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  17. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maciel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During dengue virus (DV infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA, TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes.

  18. Modulation of genes related to the recruitment of immune cells in the digestive tract of trout experimentally infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or orally vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Natalia A; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Aquilino, Carolina; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    There are still many details of how intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved in teleost. Although leukocytes are present all along the digestive tract, most immunological studies have focused on the posterior segments and the importance of each gut segment in terms of immunity has barely been addressed. In the current work, we have studied the regulation of several immune genes along five segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract, comparing the effects observed in response to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection to those elicited by oral vaccination with a plasmid coding for viral VP2. We have focused on the regulation of several mucosal chemokines, chemokine receptors, the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the recruitment of IgM(+) cells and CD3(+) cells was evaluated along the different segments in response to IPNV by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results provide evidences that there is a differential regulation of these immune genes in response to both stimuli along the gut segments. Along with this chemokine and chemokine receptor induction, IPNV provoked a mobilization of IgM(+) and IgT(+) cells to the foregut and pyloric caeca region, and CD3(+) cells to the pyloric caeca and midgut/hindgut regions. Our results will contribute to a better understanding of how mucosal immunity is orchestrated in the different gut segments of teleost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure Communication Resources Videos Audio Infographics & Illustrations Factsheets Posters Virus Ecology Graphic Signs and Symptoms Recommend on ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  20. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.

  1. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  2. A 9 year-old girl with herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis treated with intravitreal foscarnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John; Chung, Mina; DiLoreto, David A

    2007-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of redness in the left eye. Examination revealed vitritis, retinal whitening, vasculitis, and optic nerve head edema. Polymerase chain reaction testing of the aqueous fluid revealed herpes simplex virus type 2. The retinitis was controlled with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The clinical course was complicated by retinal neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage, which was treated by pars plana vitrectomy and endolaser. While there are few case reports of herpes simplex virus type 2 retinitis in children, this one is unique for the following reasons: it is the first reported case of herpes simplex virus type 2 retinitis in a child less than 10 years old without a previous history of neonatal infection or central nervous system involvement; no other children have been reported to have been treated with intravitreal foscarnet; and retinal neovascularization complicated the recovery.

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vania López Rodríguez; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Vicente Fardales Macías; Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determi...

  4. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  5. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  6. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using ..... gallisepticum. Avian diseases, 28 (4): 877-883. Sa'idu L, Tekdek LB & Abdu PA (2004). Prevalence of ND antibodies in domestic and semi domestic birds in Zaria, Nigeria.

  7. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  8. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease-Causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Maintain an Antibacterial Type VI Secretion System with Versatile Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Kinch, Lisa N; Ray, Ann; Dalia, Ankur B; Cong, Qian; Nunan, Linda M; Camilli, Andrew; Grishin, Nick V; Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2017-07-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus , we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control. IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type

  9. Simultaneous Detection of Barley Virus Diseases in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Choon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV, Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV have been identified as an important causative agents for an economically important disease of winter barley in Korea. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR method was used for the simultaneous detection. Three sets of virus-specific primers targeted to the capsid protein coding genes of BaMMV, BaYMV and BYDV were used to amplify fragments that were 594 bp, 461 bp, and 290 bp, respectively. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by multiplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer concentrations and RT-PCR conditions were determined for the multiplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR assay was found to be a better and rapid virus diagnostic tool of specific barley diseases and potential for investigating the epidemiology of these viral diseases.

  10. Evaluation of an anti-tumor necrosis factor therapeutic in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick C liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. The majority of NPC patients die in their teen years due to progressive neurodegeneration; however, half of NPC patients also suffer from cholestasis, prolonged jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. We previously showed that a key mediator of NPC liver disease is tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, which is involved in both proinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blocking TNF action with an anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (CNTO5048 will slow the progression of NPC liver disease.Treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice with NPC1-specific antisense oligonucleotides led to knockdown of NPC1 protein expression in the liver. This caused classical symptoms of NPC liver disease, including hepatic cholesterol accumulation, hepatomegaly, elevated serum liver enzymes, and lipid laden macrophage accumulation. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells and a proliferation of stellate cells. Concurrent treatment of NPC1 knockdown mice with anti-TNF had no effect on the primary lipid storage or accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages. However, anti-TNF treatment slightly blunted the increase in hepatic apoptosis and stellate cell activation that was seen with NPC1 knockdown.Current therapeutic options for NPC disease are limited. Our results provide proof of principle that pharmacologically blocking the TNF-α inflammatory cascade can slightly reduce certain markers of NPC disease. Small molecule inhibitors of TNF that penetrate tissues and cross the blood-brain barrier may prove even more beneficial.

  11. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Trevor; Roy-Burman, Arup; Tuholske, Cascade; Busch, Michael P; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Coleman, Jayleen; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-08-01

    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.

  12. Increased Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Its Promoter Polymorphisms Correlate with Disease Progression and Higher Susceptibility towards Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, as abnormal immune responses have frequently been observed in vitiligo patients. Moreover, vitiligo patients show higher lesion levels of TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of TNF-α are involved in the regulation of its expression. The present study explores TNF-α promoter polymorphisms and correlates them with TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients and controls of Gujarat along with its effect on disease onset and progression. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of these polymorphisms in 977 vitiligo patients and 990 controls. TNF-α transcript and protein levels were measured by Real time PCR and ELISA respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies for the investigated polymorphisms were significantly associated with vitiligo patients. The study revealed significant increase in TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients compared to controls. In particular, haplotypes: AATCC, AACCT, AGTCT, GATCT, GATCC and AGCCT were found to increase the TNF-α levels in vitiligo patients. Analysis of TNF-α levels based on the gender and disease progression suggests that female patients and patients with active vitiligo had higher levels of TNF-α. Also, the TNF-α levels were high in patients with generalized vitiligo as compared to localized vitiligo. Age of onset analysis of the disease suggests that the haplotypes: AACAT, AACCT, AATCC and AATCT had a profound effect in the early onset of the disease. Moreover, the analysis suggests that female patients had an early onset of vitiligo. Overall, our results suggest that TNF-α promoter polymorphisms may be genetic risk factors for susceptibility and progression of the disease. The up-regulation of TNF-α transcript and protein levels in individuals with susceptible haplotypes advocates

  13. Alveolar macrophage release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic alcoholics without liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; Casey, R; Nelson, S; Olariu, R; Shellito, J E

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol is an immunosuppressive drug, and chronic abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of infections, including bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophages are the resident phagocytes of the lung and play a central role in lung host defenses against infection ranging from direct antibacterial activity to the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). TNFalpha, in particular, plays a key role in the development of the early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on alveolar macrophage release of TNFalpha in vitro. We prospectively studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of TNFalpha from alveolar macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in 22 alcoholic (18 smokers, 4 nonsmokers) and 7 nondrinking healthy volunteers (3 smokers, 4 nonsmokers). The total number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their differential distribution were not significantly different in alcoholics versus controls (43 +/- 8 x 10(6) and 39 +/- 13 x 10(6), respectively). However, the total number of cells recovered from BALF was significantly higher in smokers (51 +/- 8 x 10(6)) than in nonsmokers (19 +/- 5 x 10(6)). Spontaneous (basal) release of TNFalpha by alveolar macrophages was the same in alcoholics and controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated release of TNFalpha was significantly suppressed in alcoholics compared with that of controls (1343 +/- 271 vs. 3806 +/- 926 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells, respectively, p < 0.015). When controlled for smoking, LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was suppressed in alcoholic nonsmokers (563 +/- 413 U TNF/ml/10(6)) compared with control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6)). LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was also less in control smokers (2063 +/- 386 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells) than in control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells). There was no difference

  14. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  16. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaim, K.A.; Javed, F.; Askar, A.; Rasheed, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and inter dental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to identify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction. (author)

  17. Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. A spectrum of herpes virus-induced diseases determined by the immune state of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Y; Rochat, C; Herbort, C P

    1997-12-01

    Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), a new spectrum of diseases induced by viruses of the herpes family (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus), includes acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring in apparently immunocompetent patients and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) described in severely immuno-compromised patients. Signs of impaired cellular immunity were seen in 16% of ARN patients in a review of 216 reported cases, indicating that immune dysfunction is not only at the origin of PORN but might also be at the origin of ARN. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical findings in NHR patients with their immunologic parameters. Charts from patients with the diagnosis of ARN or PORN seen from 1990 to 1995 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and disease patterns were correlated with immunological parameters taking into account CD4 lymphocyte rate in AIDS patients and blood-lymphocyte subpopulation determination by flow cytometry, cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity testing and lymphocytic proliferation rate to seven antigens in HIV-negative patients. During the period considered, 11 patients and 7 patients fulfilled the criteria of ARN and PORN respectively. Immune dysfunctions were identified in most patients. Mild type of ARN and classical ARN were associated with discrete immune dysfunctions, ARN with features of PORN was seen in more immunodepressed patients and classical PORN was always seen in severely immunodepressed HIV patients. Our findings suggest that NHR is a continuous spectrum of diseases induced by herpes viruses, whose clinical expression depends on the immune state of the host going from mild or classical ARN at one end in patients with non-detectable or slight immune dysfunction to PORN in severely immunodepressed patients at the other end and with intermediary forms between these extremes.

  18. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Zika virus disease: a new look at a well-known disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shestakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information about Zika virus disease for professionals and patients.

  20. Inhibition of Inflammation Mediated Through the Tumor Necrosis Factor α Biochemical Pathway Can Lead to Favorable Outcomes in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Daniah; Laskowski, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin. Studies were performed on mice, rats, and monkeys, with induction of neurodegenerative physiology either through the use of chemical agents or through the use of transgenic animals. Most of these agents showed an improvement in cognitive function as tested with the Morris water maze, and immunohistochemical and histopathological staining studies consistently showed better outcomes with these agents. Brains of treated animals showed significant reduction in pro-inflammatory TNF-α and reduced the burden of neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid precursor protein, and β-amyloid plaques. Also, recruitment of microglial cells in the central nervous system was significantly reduced through these drugs. These studies provide a clearer mechanistic understanding of the role of TNF-α modulation in Alzheimer disease. All studies in this review explored the use of these drugs as prophylactic agents to prevent Alzheimer disease through immune modulation of the TNF inflammatory pathway, and their success highlights the need for further research of these drugs as therapeutic agents.

  1. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica B Graham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile virus (WNV leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans.

  2. The effect of Atorvastatin therapy tumour necrosis factor- and vascular adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with no prior history of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Charlton-Menys, V.; Bao, W.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Colhoun, H.M.; Betteridge, D.J.; Durrington, P.; Hitman, G.; Neil, H.A.W.; Livingstone, S.J.; Fuller, J.H.; DeMicco, D.A.; Preston, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of atorvastatin (and placebo) on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)a, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in patients with type 2 diabetes without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) and investigated whether

  3. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    , of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF-alpha...... in the BAL fluid of calves killed post inoculation day (PID) 2 and 4 was at the same very low level as in the uninfected control animals. Large amounts of TNF-alpha were detected on PID 6, maximum levels of TNF-alpha were reached on PID 7, and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha were seen on PID 8. The high levels...... of TNF-alpha appeared on the days where severe lung lesions and clinical signs were obvious and the amounts of BRSV-antigen were at their greatest. Although Pasteurellaceae were isolated from some of the BRSV-infected calves, calves treated with antibiotics before and through the whole period...

  4. [Effect of tumour necrosis factor α blockade on bone metabolism in chronic inflammatory joint diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Del Rey, Francisco Javier; García Portales, Rosa; Haro Liger, Manuel; Rodríguez Andreu, José; Casals Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez González, Rita

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF treatments on bone mineral density (BMD), bone remodelling markers (BRM) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with chronic inflammatory joint diseases. A longitudinal prospective study was performed under clinical practice conditions on 31 patients diagnosed of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy and ankylosing spondylitis who had received treatment with anti-TNF alpha drugs for one year. BMD, OPG and RANKL soluble form (sRANKL) were studied at the onset and end of the study. During the study (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month), disease activity (SDAI, BASDAI and CRP), functional capacity (HAQ, BASFI), BRM and vitamin D were studied. BMD was not modified after one year of treatment. The patients who took corticosteroids had a mean bone mass loss of 3% in the lumbar spine (±1.6, P=.02). In regards to the BRM, did not experience significant changes over the course of the study. Disease activity, both SDAI (P=.002) and BASDAI (P=.002), decreased. OPG was maintained without changes during the year of treatment while both the sRANKL (0.28±0.22, P=.013) and sRANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased (0.04±0.03, P=.031). The patients being treated with anti-TNF did not present with a significant loss of DMO during the study (one year), at the same time experiencing an improvement in disease activity. This protection has been clearer in the responding patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Pearson, Caroline R; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R; Lamien, Charles E; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S.M.; Pearson, Caroline R.; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J.; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R.; Lamien, Charles E.; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. PMID:24973760

  7. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  9. Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from live poultry markets and chickens from commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  10. Expression of VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain in Northeast of China, under control of the ats1A promoter from Rubisco small subunit genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, was introduced into the transfer deoxyribonucleic acid (T-DNA) region of plant transfer vector pCAMBIA1300 and transferred to ...

  11. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  12. Detection of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in naturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...

  13. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.

  14. West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: The Africa Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe acute viral illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, myalgia, malaise, and severe headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea and, in some instances, bleeding. The 2014 West Africa outbreak is the largest in history, affecting ...

  15. Hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious viral infection that requires a high risk perception and practice of good hand hygiene by regular hand washing or use of hand sanitizers for infection control at all time. The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health Organization on the ...

  16. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  17. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  18. Social vulnerability and Ebola virus disease in rural Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Melvin L. Warren; Susan Charnley; Christie M. Stegall

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate...

  19. Histopathology of Marine and Freshwater Fish Lymphocytosis Disease Virus (LCDV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.; Myung-Joo, Oh

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)

  20. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and ...

  1. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  2. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU) found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  3. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Holzer

    Full Text Available The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV. NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus. We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  4. Susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to isolates of the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to viral strains from the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) present in western North America. The goal of this investigation was to establish a baseline understanding of the susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to infection and mortality caused by exposure to commonly detected strains of L, U, and M IHNV. The L IHNV strain tested here was highly infectious and virulent in both Chinook salmon populations, following patterns previously reported for Chinook salmon. Furthermore, ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon fry at 1 g can also become subclinically infected with U and M strains of IHNV without experiencing significant mortality. The stream-type life history phenotype was generally more susceptible to infection and suffered greater mortality than the ocean-type phenotype. Between the U and M genogroup strains tested, the U group strains were generally more infectious than the M group strains in both Chinook salmon types. Substantial viral clearance occurred by 30 d post exposure, but persistent viral infection was observed with L, U, and M strains in both host populations. While mortality decreased with increased host size in stream-type Chinook salmon, infection prevalence was not lower for all strains at a greater size. These results suggest that Chinook salmon may serve as reservoirs and/or vectors of U and M genogroup IHNV.

  5. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish by-products is inactivated with inorganic acid (pH 1) and base (pH 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrmel, M; Modahl, I; Nygaard, H; Lie, K M

    2014-04-01

    The aquaculture industry needs a simple, inexpensive and safe method for the treatment of fish waste without heat. Microbial inactivation by inorganic acid (HCl) or base (KOH) was determined using infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as a model organism for fish pathogens. Salmonella and spores of Clostridium perfringens were general hygiene indicators in supplementary examinations. IPNV, which is considered to be among the most chemical- and heat-resistant fish pathogens, was reduced by more than 3 log in 4 h at pH 1.0 and pH 12.0. Salmonella was rapidly inactivated by the same treatment, whereas spores of C. perfringens were hardly affected. The results indicate that low and high pH treatment could be particularly suitable for fish waste destined for biogas production. pH treatment at aquaculture production sites could reduce the spread of fish pathogens during storage and transportation without disturbing the anaerobic digestion process. The treatment could also be an alternative to the current energy-intensive steam pressure sterilization of fish waste to be used by the bioenergy, fertilizer and soil improver industries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  7. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  8. An orphan viral TNF receptor superfamily member identified in lymphocystis disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Sánchez, Carolina; Martín, Rocío; Mulero, Victoriano; Alcami, Antonio; Alejo, Alí

    2013-06-07

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is a large icosahedral dsDNA-containing virus of the Lymphocystivirus genus within the Iridoviridae family that can cause disease in more than 140 marine and freshwater fish species. While several isolates have been charcaterized and classified into distinct genotypes the complete genomic sequence is currently only available from two species, the LCDV-1, isolated from flounder (Platichtys flesus) in Europe and the LCDV-C, isolated from Japanese cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in China. Analysis of the genome of LCDV-C showed it to encode a protein named LDVICp016 with similarities to the Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily with immunomodulatory potential. We have expressed and purified the recombinant protein LDVICp016 and screened for potential interaction partners using surface plasmon resonance. Commercially available human and mouse members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF), along with a representative set of fish-derived TNFSF were tested.We have found the LDVICp016 protein to be secreted and we have identified a second viral TNFR encoded by ORF 095 of the same virus. None of the 42 tested proteins were found to interact with LDVICp016. We show that LDVICp016 is a secreted protein belonging to the TNF receptor family that may be part of a larger gene family in Lymphocystiviruses. While the ligand of this protein remains unknown, possibly due to the species specific nature of this interaction, further investigations into the potential role of this protein in the blockade of immune responses in its fish host are required.

  9. Timing of initiation of enzyme replacement therapy after diagnosis of type 1 Gaucher disease: effect on incidence of avascular necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pramod K; Deegan, Patrick; Vellodi, Ashok; Cole, J Alexander; Yeh, Michael; Weinreb, Neal J

    2009-01-01

    Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry were analysed to assess the relationship between enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase (ERT) and incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), and to determine whether the time interval between diagnosis and initiation of ERT influences the incidence rate of AVN. All patients with GD1 enrolled in the Gaucher Registry who received ERT and did not report AVN prior to starting therapy (n = 2700) were included. The incidence rate of AVN following initiation of ERT was determined. An incidence rate of AVN of 13·8 per 1000 person-years was observed in patients receiving ERT. Patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis had an incidence rate of 8·1 per 1000 person-years; patients who started ERT ≥2 years after diagnosis had an incidence rate of 16·6 per 1000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0·59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36–0·96, P = 0·0343]. Splenectomy was an independent risk factor for AVN (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·23, 95% CI 1·61–3·08, P < 0·0001). In conclusion, the risk of AVN was reduced among patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis, compared to initiating treatment ≥2 years after diagnosis. A higher risk of AVN was observed among patients who had previously undergone splenectomy. PMID:19732054

  10. Increased risk of avascular necrosis in patients with psoriatic disease: A nationwide population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Wang, I-Ting; Huang, Weng-Foung; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Shiu, Ming-Neng; Tsai, Tsen-Fang

    2017-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) and psoriasis have some pathogenic mechanisms and associated conditions in common. To examine the association between psoriasis and AVN. This study used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2004-2006 and identified 28,268 patients with psoriasis, who were then matched for age and sex with 113,072 controls without psoriasis from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for the analysis. The unadjusted risk of AVN was significantly higher for patients with psoriasis than for controls (hazard ratio [HR] 2.29) and remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors (adjusted HR 1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.62-2.38). The risk for AVN increased in relation to psoriasis severity and was higher for patients with psoriasis and arthritis than for patients without arthritis. The adjusted HRs were higher for male patients than for female patients and for patients younger than 30 years compared with older patients. We lacked information on daily tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The risk for AVN increased with the disease severity of psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae

  12. Specificity of DNA vaccines against the U and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; LaPatra, S.E.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes significant mortality in salmonid species. In North America IHNV has three major genogroups designated U, M, and L. Host-specificity of the M and U genogroups of IHNV has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges, with M isolates being more prevalent and more virulent in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and U isolates being more prevalent and highly virulent in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In this study, efficacy of DNA vaccines containing either M (pM) or U (pU) virus glycoprotein genes was investigated during intra- and cross-genogroup challenges in rainbow trout. In virus challenges at 7 days post-vaccination (early antiviral response), both pM and pU were highly protective against either M or U IHNV. In challenges at 28 days post-vaccination (specific antiviral response), both pM and pU were protective against M IHNV but the homologous pM vaccine was significantly more protective than pU in one of two experiments. At this stage both pM and pU induced comparably high protection against U IHNV challenge. Correlates of protection were also investigated by assessing the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Mx-1 and the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) following pM or pU DNA vaccination. Mx-1 gene expression, measured at 4 and 7 days post-vaccination as an indicator of the host innate immune response, was found to be significantly higher after pM than pU vaccination in some cases. Neutralizing antibody was produced in response to the two vaccines, but antibody titers did not show consistent correlation with protection. The results show that the rainbow trout innate and adaptive immune responses have some ability to distinguish between the U and M genogroup IHNV, but overall the pM and pU vaccines were protective against both homologous and cross-genogroup challenges.

  13. A study of serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in child patients with cyanotic and acyanotic, congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahramian, I.; Noori, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease. Methods: The prospective cohort study, was conducted at imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2009-10 and comprised 64 subjects, including patients and controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorpent assay kits, serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha were measured and compared among patients (both cyanotic and acyanotic) and the controls, SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 64 subjects, 24 (37.5%) were cyanotic, 21(32.8%) were acynotic and 19(29.68%) were healthy controls. The three groups were homogenous in terms of age and gender characteristics. There was no significant difference among the groups leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels (p>0.05). There were also no significant differences in terms of weight, height and body mass index (P>0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha did not change in acyanotic and cyanotic patients with congenital heart disease, suggesting that other crucial factors may regulate individuals' nutrient intake, growth, weight and energy intake and output. (author)

  14. Nurses leading the fight against Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Priscilla L

    2015-05-01

    The current Ebola crisis has sparked worldwide reaction of panic and disbelief in its wake as it decimated communities in West Africa, particularly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, including its health care workers. This article affirms the crucial role nurses play in maintaining health and preventing diseases, connects the devastating havoc of the Ebola virus disease to another issue of nursing shortage in underdeveloped countries, and asserts the key leadership nurses play in protecting the communities they serve while maintaining their safety and those of other health care workers. Nurses must actively seek a place at the table, as echoed by the American Academy of Nursing and American Nurses Association and the American Nurses Association, when decisions are being made regarding Ebola virus disease: at care settings, in the board room, and at federal, state, and local levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Ghrelin levels in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: relation to anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Trachana, Maria; Agakidis, Charalampos; Pratsidou-Gertsi, Polyxeni; Taparkou, Anna; Lampoudi, Sotiria; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, Florentia

    2011-10-01

    Studies in adults with rheumatoid arthritis reported low serum ghrelin that increased following anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) infusion. Data on juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to explore serum ghrelin levels in patients with JIA and the possible association with anti-TNF treatment, disease activity, and nutritional status. Fifty-two patients with JIA (14/52 on anti-TNF treatment) were studied. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was inactive in 3 of 14 anti-TNF-treated patients and in 11 of 38 non-anti-TNF-treated patients. The nutritional status, energy intake/requirements, appetite, and fasting serum ghrelin levels were assessed. Ghrelin control values were obtained from 50 individuals with minor illness matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Ghrelin levels in patients with JIA were significantly lower than in controls (P ghrelin levels were comparable to control values only in 3 patients with anti-TNF-induced remission. Ghrelin in non-anti-TNF-treated patients in remission was low. Multiple regression analysis showed that disease activity (P = .002, CI = -84.16 to -20.01) and anti-TNF treatment (P = .003, CI = -82.51 to -18.33) were significant independent predictors of ghrelin after adjusting for other potential confounders. Ghrelin did not correlate with nutritional status, energy balance, and appetite. Serum ghrelin is low in patients with JIA and is restored to values similar to those in controls following anti-TNF-induced remission. Our study provides evidence that TNF blockade is independently associated with serum ghrelin, which possibly contributes to anti-TNF-induced remission. These preliminary results could form the basis for future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Necrosis of nose skin after varicella zoster infection : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Bart Jorrit; Visconti, Giuseppe; Grabietz, Patrice D.; Werker, Paul M. N.

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causal agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection is a common childhood disease, but elderly patients and those having a compromised immune system are also at risk. We present the case of progressive necrosis of the nose

  17. OUTBREAK OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Tsankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.

  18. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to other adrenal hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with chronic inflammatory disease: role of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Lehle, Karin; Herfarth, Hans; Weber, Markus; Falk, Werner; Preuner, Jurgen; Scholmerich, Jurgen

    2002-03-01

    Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) are low in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the reasons are unexplained. Furthermore, the behaviour of serum levels of these hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state is not well known. In this study in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state (13 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery) and patients with chronic inflammation (61 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)) vs. 120 controls, we aimed to investigate adrenal hormone shifts looking at serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. Furthermore, we tested the predictive role of serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) for a change of serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEA/androstenedione (ASD) was increased in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was decreased in patients with chronic inflammation. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA was reduced during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was increased in patients with chronic inflammation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEA/ASD in all groups (for IL-6 in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state only), and, similarly, elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA only in IBD (for IL-6 only in healthy subjects). This study indicates that changes of serum levels of DHEA in relation to serum levels of other adrenal hormones are completely different in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with patients with chronic inflammation. The decrease of serum levels of DHEAS and DHEA is typical for chronic inflammation and TNF and IL-6 play a predictive role for these changes.

  20. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.

  1. Molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus and sheeppox virus based on P32 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.A.Rashid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV and sheeppox virus (SPV have a considerable economic impact on the cattle and small ruminant industry. They are listed in group A of contagious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. This study addressed molecular characterisation of first LSDV outbreak and an endemic SPV in Kurdistan region of Iraq based on P32 gene. The results indicated that P32 gene can be successfully used for diagnosis of LSDV. The phylogenic and molecular analysis showed that there may be a new LSDV isolate circulating in Kurdistan which uniquely shared the same characteristic amino acid sequence with SPV and GPV, leucine at amino acid position 51 in P32 gene as well as few genetically distinct SPV causing pox disease in Kurdistan sheep. This study provided sequence information of P32 gene for several LSDV isolates, which positively affects the epidemiological study of Capripoxvirus

  2. Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-W.; Moon, C.H.; Harmache, A.; Wargo, A.R.; Purcell, M.K.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout-derived RTG-2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non-virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U- or M-type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U- or M-type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG-2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U- and M-type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG-2 cells suppressed the growth of both U- and M-type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M-infected cells were significantly higher than in U-infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1-inducible protein kinase PKR, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), did not affect the growth of U- or M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells. Prediction of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U- and M-type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG-2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U- and M-type viruses. However, 100 μm of the

  3. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors versus combination intensive therapy with conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in established rheumatoid arthritis: TACIT non-inferiority randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David L; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Farewell, Vern; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Walker, David; Kelly, Clive; Birrell, Fraser; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Maddison, Peter; Heslin, Margaret; Patel, Anita; Kingsley, Gabrielle H

    2015-03-13

    To determine whether intensive combinations of synthetic disease modifying drugs can achieve similar clinical benefits at lower costs to high cost biologics such as tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis resistant to initial methotrexate and other synthetic disease modifying drugs. Open label pragmatic randomised multicentre two arm non-inferiority trial over 12 months. 24 rheumatology clinics in England. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were eligible for treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors according to current English guidance were randomised to either the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy or the combined disease modifying drug strategy. Biologic strategy: start tumour necrosis factor inhibitor; second biologic in six month for non-responders. Alternative strategy: start combination of disease modifying drugs; start tumour necrosis factor inhibitors after six months in non-responders. reduction in disability at 12 months measured with patient recorded heath assessment questionnaire (range 0.00-3.00) with a 0.22 non-inferiority margin for combination treatment versus the biologic strategy. quality of life, joint damage, disease activity, adverse events, and costs. Intention to treat analysis used multiple imputation methods for missing data. 432 patients were screened: 107 were randomised to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and 101 started taking; 107 were randomised to the combined drug strategy and 104 started taking the drugs. Initial assessments were similar; 16 patients were lost to follow-up (seven with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy, nine with the combined drug strategy); 42 discontinued the intervention but were followed-up (19 and 23, respectively). The primary outcome showed mean falls in scores on the health assessment questionnaire of -0.30 with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy and -0.45 with the alternative combined drug strategy. The difference between

  4. Zika and Spondweni Viruses: Historic Evidence of Misidentification, Misdiagnosis and Serious Clinical Disease Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    isolations of 153 Zika virus from Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus (Theobald) taken in and above a Uganda Forest. 154 Bulletin of the World Health...1 Zika and Spondweni viruses : Historic evidence of misidentification, misdiagnosis, and serious clinical disease manifestations Andrew D...serogroup (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) consists of two members: Zika 3 and Spondweni viruses . Both viruses have been historically misidentified

  5. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  6. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the structures of three circoviruses: chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, R A; Berriman, J A; Curran, W L; Allan, G M; Todd, D

    2003-12-01

    Circoviruses are small, nonenveloped icosahedral animal viruses characterized by circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Their genomes are the smallest possessed by animal viruses. Infections with circoviruses, which can lead to economically important diseases, frequently result in virus-induced damage to lymphoid tissue and immunosuppression. Within the family Circoviridae, different genera are distinguished by differences in genomic organization. Thus, Chicken anemia virus is in the genus Gyrovirus, while porcine circoviruses and Beak and feather disease virus belong to the genus CIRCOVIRUS: Little is known about the structures of circoviruses. Accordingly, we investigated the structures of these three viruses with a view to determining whether they are related. Three-dimensional maps computed from electron micrographs showed that all three viruses have a T=1 organization with capsids formed from 60 subunits. Porcine circovirus type 2 and beak and feather disease virus show similar capsid structures with flat pentameric morphological units, whereas chicken anemia virus has stikingly different protruding pentagonal trumpet-shaped units. It thus appears that the structures of viruses in the same genus are related but that those of viruses in different genera are unrelated.

  8. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  9. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  10. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  11. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  12. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  13. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control.

  14. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes in response to acute hepatopancreas necrosis disease (AHPND) causing Vibrio parahemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihong; Wang, Fan; Aweya, Jude Juventus; Li, Ruiwei; Yao, Defu; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Yueling

    2018-03-01

    The recent emergence of acute hepatopancreas necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps has posed a major challenge in the shrimp aquaculture industry. The Pir toxin proteins carried by some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are believed to play essential roles in the pathogenesis of AHPND. However, few studies have so far explored how the host immune system responds to these bacteria. In this study, AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (with Pir) and non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (without Pir) were injected into two groups of shrimps, and the hemocytes collected for comparative transcriptomic analyses. A total of 1064 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 910 were up-regulated and 154 were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were involved in a number of biological processes such as cellular process, metabolic process and single-organism process in the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus injected group than the non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus injected group. Among these, major metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were further identified as the major responsive gene groups. We observed that genes involved in cell growth and anti-apoptosis including src, iap2, cas2, cytochrome P450, gst and cytochromecoxidase were strongly activated in the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus group than in the non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus group. Collectively, our results unveiled that shrimp hemocytes respond to AHPND related strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection at the transcriptional level, which is useful in furthering our understanding of AHPND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging Predicts Therapeutic Outcomes of Patients With Crohn's Disease Treated With Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Stefania; Fraquelli, Mirella; Coletta, Marina; Branchi, Federica; Magarotto, Andrea; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Mazza, Stefano; Conte, Dario; Basilisco, Guido; Caprioli, Flavio

    2018-01-05

    Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a non-invasive technique developed to evaluate fibrosis. Measuring tissue strain by ultrasound elasticity imaging can reliably detect severe ileal fibrosis in patients with Crohn's disease [CD]. We have hypothesised that a more severe range of fibrosis might influence the therapeutic response to anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to predict the therapeutic outcome for CD patients. Consecutive patients with ileal/ileocolonic CD, starting anti-TNF treatment, were enrolled for the study. These patients underwent bowel ultrasound and ultrasound elasticity imaging at baseline and at 14 and 52 weeks after anti-TNF treatment. Bowel wall stiffness was quantified by calculating the strain ratio between the mesenteric tissue and the bowel wall. Strain ratio ≥ 2 was used to identify severe ileal fibrosis. Transmural healing at 14 and 52 weeks was defined as bowel wall thickness ≤ 3 mm. Thirty patients with CD were enrolled. Five patients underwent surgery for bowel obstruction. The frequency of surgeries was significantly greater in patients with a strain ratio ≥ 2 at baseline [p = 0.003]. A significant reduction of the bowel thickness was observed after 14 and 52 weeks of anti-TNF treatment [p < 0.005]. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the strain ratio values at baseline and the thickness variations following anti-TNF therapy [p = 0.007]; 27% of patients achieved transmural healing at 14 weeks. The baseline strain ratio was significantly lower in patients with transmural healing [p < 0.05]. This study shows that ultrasound elasticity imaging predicts therapeutic outcomes for CD patients treated with anti-TNF. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Microculture system for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Gratzek, J B; Kleven, S H; Scott, T A

    1974-05-01

    A microculture system utilizing cytopathic effect (CPE) and hemadsorption (HAd) end points was effective in determining the level of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies. The microculture system was of comparable sensitivity to the plaque reduction test for the detection of NDV antibodies. The standards by which the CPE and HAd microculture tests would be considered reproducible were defined. The results indicate that the CPE and HAd microculture tests are reproducible within one twofold dilution.

  18. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544 in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó. Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification

  19. The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M

    2017-01-24

    For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.

  20. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus Sequence Variation—Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzellos, Stelios; Farrell, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Some key questions in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) biology center on whether naturally occurring sequence differences in the virus affect infection or EBV associated diseases. Understanding the pattern of EBV sequence variation is also important for possible development of EBV vaccines. At present EBV isolates worldwide can be grouped into Type 1 and Type 2, a classification based on the EBNA2 gene sequence. Type 1 EBV is the most prevalent worldwide but Type 2 is common in parts of Africa. Type 1 transforms human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines much more efficiently than Type 2 EBV. Molecular mechanisms that may account for this difference in cell transformation are now becoming clearer. Advances in sequencing technology will greatly increase the amount of whole EBV genome data for EBV isolated from different parts of the world. Study of regional variation of EBV strains independent of the Type 1/Type 2 classification and systematic investigation of the relationship between viral strains, infection and disease will become possible. The recent discovery that specific mutation of the EBV EBNA3B gene may be linked to development of diffuse large B cell lymphoma illustrates the importance that mutations in the virus genome may have in infection and human disease. PMID:25436768

  2. Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone (Kienböck’s disease) secondary to scapholunate ligament tear as a consequence of trauma – a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulhawik, Dorota; Szałaj, Tomasz; Grabowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone (Kienböck’s disease), is a condition in which lunate bone, loses its blood supply, leading to necrosis of the bone. There is probably no single cause of Kienbock’s disease. Its origin may involve multiple factors, such as the blood supply (arteries), blood drainage (veins), and skeletal variations. Trauma, either isolated or repeated, may possibly be a factor in some cases. This case presented with multifactorial etiology. In the presented case, a patient with negative ulnar variant had injured her right wrist and presented at an orthopedic clinic due to nonspecific pain 6 months later. An arthro-MRI examination revealed necrosis of the lunate bone, scapholunate ligament tear and coexisting TFCC (triangular fibrocartilage complex) tear. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent progression of necrotic lesions and bone collapse. MRI examination seems to be the key diagnostic method in the early stage of the Kienböck’s disease with negative x-ray and CT images. Arthro-MRI examination also allows us to identify the underlying ligamentous injury. In cases of traumatic etiology, an additional CT test enables stating the final diagnosis

  3. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are positively associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eun-Sil; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-07-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may induce chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relation between inflammatory biomarkers and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, which has not yet been reported in Asian populations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 543 patients recruited from diabetic clinics for an ongoing, prospective study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease equation using plasma creatinine). The risk of chronic kidney disease increased in the highest quartiles of C-reactive protein (CRP) [multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.19-1.70] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (multivariate OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.63-12.11) compared to the lowest quartiles after adjustments for age, sex, zinc intake, and other putative risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Our results suggest that CRP and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A causal mechanism of this association should be evaluated in a followup study of Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Genetic associations with adverse events from anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Daniel; Yoon, Soon Man; Yan, Xiaofei; Robbins, Lori; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Zhenqiu; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot Pb

    2017-10-28

    To study the type and frequency of adverse events associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and evaluate for any serologic and genetic associations. This study was a retrospective review of patients attending the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centers at Cedars-Sinai IBD Center from 2005-2016. Adverse events were identified via chart review. IBD serologies were measured by ELISA. DNA samples were genotyped at Cedars-Sinai using Illumina Infinium Immunochipv1 array per manufacturer's protocol. SNPs underwent methodological review and were evaluated using several SNP statistic parameters to ensure optimal allele-calling. Standard and rigorous QC criteria were applied to the genetic data, which was generated using immunochip. Genetic association was assessed by logistic regression after correcting for population structure. Altogether we identified 1258 IBD subjects exposed to anti-TNF agents in whom Immunochip data were available. 269/1258 patients (21%) were found to have adverse events to an anti-TNF-α agent that required the therapy to be discontinued. 25% of women compared to 17% of men experienced an adverse event. All adverse events resolved after discontinuing the anti-TNF agent. In total: n = 66 (5%) infusion reactions; n = 49 (4%) allergic/serum sickness reactions; n = 19 (1.5%) lupus-like reactions, n = 52 (4%) rash, n = 18 (1.4%) infections. In Crohn's disease, IgA ASCA ( P = 0.04) and IgG-ASCA ( P = 0.02) levels were also lower in patients with any adverse events, and anti-I2 level in ulcerative colitis was significantly associated with infusion reactions ( P = 0.008). The logistic regression/human annotation and network analyses performed on the Immunochip data implicated the following five signaling pathways: JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription), measles, IBD, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and toxoplasmosis for any adverse event. Our study shows 1 in 5 IBD patients experience an adverse

  5. Extension of myocardial necrosis differently affects MIBG retention in heart failure caused by ischaemic heart disease or by dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Cecilia; Giorgetti, Assuero; Gimelli, Alessia; Kusch, Annette; Sereni, Nadia; Marzullo, Paolo; Sambuceti, Gianmario [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); L' Abbate, Antonio [Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between cardiac sympathetic nervous function (CSNF) and myocardial perfusion/function in patients with heart failure (HF) due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or ischaemic heart disease (CAD). Twenty patients (10 DCM, 10 CAD, 17 males, age 69{+-}5 years) with NYHA class IIIb HF were studied. CSNF was evaluated by early/delayed {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake and regional washout (WO). Myocardial perfusion and function were evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin gated single-photon emission tomography (G-SPECT) using a 20-segment model for 400 segments. In each segment, regional MIBG WO was computed as (count density in early images-count density in delayed images/count density in early images) x 100. DCM and CAD showed similar summed rest perfusion score (6.7{+-}5 vs 9.5{+-}5, p=NS) and mean ejection fraction values (29{+-}7% vs 30{+-}9%, p=NS). By contrast, the summed thickening score was higher in DCM than in CAD patients (26{+-}7 vs 17{+-}6, p<0.05). QGS analysis identified akinesis/dyskinesis in 129/137 (94%) severely hypoperfused segments which were considered as damaged. According to the underlying aetiology of HF, marked differences in regional MIBG WO were observed. In fact, within the CAD group, regional MIBG WO was lower in reference than in damaged segments (38{+-}21% vs 46{+-}19%, p<0.05). By contrast, in DCM patients, regional MIBG WO was faster in reference than in damaged segments (49{+-}18% vs 41{+-}30%, p<0.05). When the two groups were directly compared, regional MIBG WO from damaged areas was similar irrespective of the underlying disease, while it was faster in DCM than in CAD patients from reference segments. These data confirm the hypothesis that the presence of myocardial necrosis in HF due to CAD and the consequent loss of neuronal endings cause alterations in regional MIBG WO different from those observed in DCM. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of skin blister fluids from children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo; Toma, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Hanae; Koizumi, Eiko; Shirahashi, Tetsujiro; Matsuda, Yusuke; Yachie, Akihiro

    2018-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T- or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Patients may present with severe skin manifestations, including hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) and hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruption, which are characterized by blister formation and necrotic ulceration. Skin biopsy specimens show inflammatory reactions comprising EBV-infected lymphocytes. However, blister fluids have not been fully assessed in patients with this disease. Blister fluids were collected from three patients with EBV-associated LPD: two with HMB and one with HV. Immunophenotyping of blister lymphocytes and measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in blister fluids were performed. The patients with HMB and HV exhibited markedly increased percentages of NK and γδ T cells, respectively, in both peripheral blood and blister fluids. These NK and γδ T cells strongly expressed the activation marker human leukocyte antigen-DR and were considered to be cellular targets of EBV infections. TNF-α was highly elevated in all blister fluids. Severe local skin reactions of EBV-associated LPD may be associated with infiltrating EBV-infected lymphocytes and a high TNF-α concentration in blister fluids. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Primus, Alexander; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in raptors. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 60 casualty raptors during January to March 2009 in Minnesota. Inoculation of all these samples (n=120) in 9-day-old embryonated hens' eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating viruses in three samples from two bald eagles and one great horned owl. These three haemagglutinating viruses were confirmed as NDV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fusion gene-specific primers, and were negative for avian influenza virus by RT-PCR. Further characterization revealed that all three possessed (112)GKQGRL(117) at the fusion gene cleavage site, indicating that they were lentogenic strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all three isolates clustered with published class II genotype II NDVs. The nucleotide sequence homology of the three NDV isolates among themselves was 98.4 to 99.6% and the sequence homology with lentogenic strains from wild birds used for comparison varied between 94.5 and 100%. Detection of NDV strains from raptors merits further epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence of different NDV strains in raptors and their impact in relation to transmission to domestic poultry.

  8. GATA2 Deficiency and Epstein-Barr Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-01-01

    GATA2 is a transcription factor that binds to the promoter of hematopoietic genes. Mutations in one copy of the gene are associated with haploinsufficiency and reduced levels of protein. This results in reduced numbers of several cell types important for immune surveillance including dendritic cells, monocytes, CD4, and NK cells, as well as impaired NK cell function. Recently, GATA2 has been associated with several different presentations of severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease including primary infection requiring repeated hospitalizations, chronic active EBV disease, EBV-associated hydroa vacciniforme with hemophagocytosis, and EBV-positive smooth muscle tumors. EBV was found predominantly in B cells in each of the cases in which it was studied, unlike most cases of chronic active EBV disease in which the virus is usually present in T or NK cells. The variety of EBV-associated diseases seen in patients with GATA2 deficiency suggest that additional forms of severe EBV disease may be found in patients with GATA2 deficiency in the future.

  9. GATA2 Deficiency and Epstein–Barr Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I. Cohen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available GATA2 is a transcription factor that binds to the promoter of hematopoietic genes. Mutations in one copy of the gene are associated with haploinsufficiency and reduced levels of protein. This results in reduced numbers of several cell types important for immune surveillance including dendritic cells, monocytes, CD4, and NK cells, as well as impaired NK cell function. Recently, GATA2 has been associated with several different presentations of severe Epstein–Barr virus (EBV disease including primary infection requiring repeated hospitalizations, chronic active EBV disease, EBV-associated hydroa vacciniforme with hemophagocytosis, and EBV-positive smooth muscle tumors. EBV was found predominantly in B cells in each of the cases in which it was studied, unlike most cases of chronic active EBV disease in which the virus is usually present in T or NK cells. The variety of EBV-associated diseases seen in patients with GATA2 deficiency suggest that additional forms of severe EBV disease may be found in patients with GATA2 deficiency in the future.

  10. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tim J. G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward. PMID:27413095

  11. Potent Inhibitors against Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paola; La Rocca, Paolo; Piccoli, Marco; Montefiori, Marco; Cirillo, Federica; Olsen, Lars; Orioli, Marica; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2018-02-06

    Neuraminidase activity is essential for the infection and propagation of paramyxoviruses, including human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) and the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Thus, many inhibitors have been developed based on the 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid inhibitor (DANA) backbone. Along this line, herein we report a series of neuraminidase inhibitors, having C4 (p-toluenesulfonamido and azido substituents) and C5 (N-perfluorinated chains) modifications to the DANA backbone, resulting in compounds with 5- to 15-fold greater potency than the currently most active compound, the N-trifluoroacetyl derivative of DANA (FANA), toward the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (NDV-HN). Remarkably, these inhibitors were found to be essentially inactive against the human sialidase NEU3, which is present on the outer layer of the cell membrane and is highly affected by the current NDV inhibitor FANA. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  13. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  14. 10-Year Associations Between Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors 1 and 2 and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Axel C; Ruge, Toralph; Kjøller, Erik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the associations and predictive powers between the soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (TNFR1 and TNFR2) and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: CLARICOR (Effect of Clarithromycin on Mortality...... and Morbidity in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease) is a randomized clinical trial comparing clarithromycin with placebo in patients with stable coronary heart disease. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, cerebrovascular disease, and all...... factors improved prediction only modestly (concentrations of circulating TNFR1 and TNFR2 were associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Yet, the utility of measuring TNFR1 and TNFR2 to improve risk...

  15. Genetic Modification of Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Weijia; Xu, Qi; Harper, James; Carroll, Danielle; Galinski, Mark S; Suzich, JoAnn; Jin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Clinical development of a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy has been hampered by its select agent status due to its pathogenicity in avian species. Using reverse genetics, we have generated a lead candidate oncolytic NDV based on the mesogenic NDV-73T strain that is no longer classified as a select agent for clinical development. This recombinant NDV has a modification at the fusion protein (F) cleavage site to reduce the efficiency of F protein cleavage and an insertion of a 198-nucleotide sequence into the HN-L intergenic region, resulting in reduced viral gene expression and replication in avian cells but not in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, except for viral polymerase (L) gene expression, viral gene expression is not negatively impacted or increased by the HN-L intergenic insertion. Furthermore, the virus can be engineered to express a foreign gene while still retaining the ability to grow to high titers in cell culture. The recombinant NDV selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells and is able to drive potent tumor growth inhibition following intratumoral or intravenous administration in a mouse tumor model. The candidate is well positioned for clinical development as an oncolytic virus. Avian paramyxovirus type 1, NDV, has been an attractive oncolytic agent for cancer virotherapy. However, this virus can cause epidemic disease in poultry, and concerns about the potential environmental and economic impact of an NDV outbreak have precluded its clinical development. Here we describe generation and characterization of a highly potent oncolytic NDV variant that is unlikely to cause Newcastle disease in its avian host, representing an essential step toward moving NDV forward as an oncolytic agent. Several attenuation mechanisms have been genetically engineered into the recombinant NDV that reduce chicken pathogenicity to a level that is acceptable worldwide without impacting viral production in

  16. Epstein-Barr virus infection and related hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    Once the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has infected a person, it then latently infects B cells. This latent infection lasts a lifetime. However, EBV can infect T or NK cells (T/NK cells) in rare cases. Therefore, EBV causes various hematological diseases. Among these diseases, CAEBV is regarded as the most problematic because, although it is not particularly uncommon, the diagnostic tests for this disease are not covered by health insurance, a serious illness in the "non-active" periods is lacking, and the appropriate motivation for early initiation of treatment can easily be lost. However, the symptoms may suddenly change; and if the manifestations are resistant when such exacerbation occurs, CAEBC is potentially lethal. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure. Once the diagnosis has been made, earlier treatment initiation, safer bridging to allogeneic HSCT with multi-drug chemotherapy, and then, planned HSCT can be completed more safely and thereby achieve a better outcome.

  17. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS. PREVENTION OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Shakhtakhtinskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among the population attracts attention of specialists in all countries due to frequent development of complications resulting in reproductive dysfunction. The article presents one of the urgent issues of modern medicine — papillomavirus infection, which is the most common sexually transmitted disease. 70–80% of the sexually active persons contract human papilloma virus at one point. HPV induces a broad range of oncological reproductive diseases, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer and anogenital condylomae, which are observed both in men and women. The only reliable method of preventing papillomavirus infection is vaccination. The authors present new data on the use of the quadrivalent vaccine, including a new immunization pattern for 9–14-years-old girls.

  18. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  19. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Magaldi, Monica; Rosas, Maria F.; Borrego, Belen; Brocchi, Emiliana; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV (∼ 5 log) and VSV (∼ 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells

  20. Ebola virus disease and social media: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Duke, Carmen Hope; Finch, Kathryn Cameron; Snook, Kassandra Renee; Tseng, Pei-Ling; Hernandez, Ana Cristina; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2016-12-01

    We systematically reviewed existing research pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyze social media. We searched 6 databases for research articles pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media. We extracted the data using a standardized form. We evaluated the quality of the included articles. Twelve articles were included in the main analysis: 7 from Twitter with 1 also including Weibo, 1 from Facebook, 3 from YouTube, and 1 from Instagram and Flickr. All the studies were cross-sectional. Eleven of the 12 articles studied ≥ 1of these 3 elements of social media and their relationships: themes or topics of social media contents, meta-data of social media posts (such as frequency of original posts and reposts, and impressions) and characteristics of the social media accounts that made these posts (such as whether they are individuals or institutions). One article studied how news videos influenced Twitter traffic. Twitter content analysis methods included text mining (n = 3) and manual coding (n = 1). Two studies involved mathematical modeling. All 3 YouTube studies and the Instagram/Flickr study used manual coding of videos and images, respectively. Published Ebola virus disease-related social media research focused on Twitter and YouTube. The utility of social media research to public health practitioners is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Change in Occurrence of Rice stripe virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012.Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found inGangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan inJeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, fromChina in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.

  2. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  3. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask | Arifin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the production of lentogenic Asplin F strain of Newcastle disease virus by using cell culture method was studied. Experiments were carried out in T-flasks to investigate the effects of serum concentration in the culture medium during virus replication phase and multiplicity of infection (MOI) on ND virus ...

  4. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  5. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  6. Therapeutic potential of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, Shay; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Panet, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) features a natural preference for replication in many tumor cells compared with normal cells. The observed antitumor effect of NDV appears to be a result of both selective killing of tumor cells and induction of immune responses. Genetic manipulations to change viral tropism and arming the virus with genes encoding for cytokines improved the oncolytic capacity of NDV. Several intracellular proteins in tumor cells, including antiapoptotic proteins (Livin) and oncogenic proteins (H-Ras), are relevant for the oncolytic activity of NDV. Defects in the interferon system, found in some tumor cells, also contribute to the oncolytic selectivity of NDV. Notwithstanding, NDV displays effective oncolytic activity in many tumor types, despite having intact interferon signaling. Taken together, several cellular systems appear to dictate the selective oncolytic activity of NDV. Some barriers, such as neutralizing antibodies elicited during NDV treatment and the extracellular matrix in tumor tissue appear to interfere with spread of NDV and reduce oncolysis. To further understand the oncolytic activity of NDV, we compared two NDV strains, ie, an attenuated virus (NDV-HUJ) and a pathogenic virus (NDV-MTH-68/H). Significant differences in amino acid sequence were noted in several viral proteins, including the fusion precursor (F0) glycoprotein, an important determinant of replication and pathogenicity. However, no difference in the oncolytic activity of the two strains was noted using human tumor tissues maintained as organ cultures or in mouse tumor models. To optimize virotherapy in clinical trials, we describe here a unique organ culture methodology, using a biopsy taken from a patient's tumor before treatment for ex vivo infection with NDV to determine the oncolytic potential on an individual basis. In conclusion, oncolytic NDV is an excellent candidate for cancer therapy, but more knowledge is needed to ensure success in clinical trials.

  7. Newcastle disease virus triggers autophagy in U251 glioma cells to enhance virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Zhou, Zhizhi; Jiang, Ke; Yu, Shengqing; Jia, Lijun; Wu, Yantao; Liu, Yanqing; Meng, Songshu; Ding, Chan

    2012-06-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can replicate in tumor cells and induce apoptosis in late stages of infection. However, the interaction between NDV and cells in early stages of infection is not well understood. Here, we report that, shortly after infection, NDV triggers the formation of autophagosomes in U251 glioma cells, as demonstrated by an increased number of double-membrane vesicles, GFP-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) a dot formations, and elevated production of LC3II. Moreover, modulation of NDV-induced autophagy by rapamycin, chloroquine or small interfering RNAs targeting the genes critical for autophagosome formation (Atg5 and Beclin-1) affects virus production, indicating that autophagy may be utilized by NDV to facilitate its own production. Furthermore, the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Beclin-1 pathway plays a role in NDV-induced autophagy and virus production. Collectively, our data provide a unique example of a paramyxovirus that uses autophagy to enhance its production.

  8. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...... viruses under all conditions tested. The implications for disease spread are discussed....

  9. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  10. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with Brincidofovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Dunning

    Full Text Available The nucleotide analogue brincidofovir was developed to prevent and treat infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses. Based on in vitro data suggesting an antiviral effect against Ebola virus, brincidofovir was included in the World Health Organisation list of agents that should be prioritised for clinical evaluation in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD during the West African epidemic.In this single-arm phase 2 trial conducted in Liberia, patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD (two months of age or older, enrolment bodyweight ≥50 kg received oral brincidofovir 200 mg as a loading dose on day 0, followed by 100 mg brincidofovir on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. Bodyweight-adjusted dosing was used for patients weighing <50 kg at enrolment. The primary outcome was survival at Day 14 after the first dose of brincidofovir. Four patients were enrolled between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2015. The trial was stopped following the decision by the manufacturer to terminate their program of development of brincidofovir for EVD. No Serious Adverse Reactions or Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions were identified. All enrolled subjects died of an illness consistent with EVD.Due to the small sample size it was not possible to determine the efficacy of brincidofovir for the treatment of EVD. The premature termination of the trial highlights the need to establish better practices for preclinical in-vitro and animal screening of therapeutics for potentially emerging epidemic infectious diseases prior to their use in patients.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000939962.

  11. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  12. Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, L; Osmani, M G; Kalam, M A; Chakraborty, R K; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; Hammond, J M; Benigno, C

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh, and to implement an effective FMD control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. Here, we report on the characterization of FMD virus (FMDV) recovered from FMD outbreaks in Bangladesh in late 2009. All isolated viruses belonged to the FMDV serotype O. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineages, one named Ind-2001 (the other has not been named). Within both sublineages, the 2009 Bangladesh isolates were most closely related to viruses from Nepal collected during 2008 and 2009. Additionally, both sublineages contained older viruses from India collected in 2000 and 2001. In South Asia, there is extensive cross-border cattle movement from Nepal and India to Bangladesh. Both these findings have implications for the control of FMD in Bangladesh. Because of the porous borders, a regional FMD control strategy should be developed. Further, animal identification and monitoring animal movements are necessary to identify the cross-border movements and market chain interactions of ruminants, leading to improved border and movement controls. Additionally, a vaccination strategy should be developed with the initial objective of protecting small-scale dairy herds from disease. For any successful FMD control programme, long-term Government commitment and adequate resources are necessary. A sustainable programme will also need farmer education, commitment and financial contributions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Airway necrosis after salvage esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norimitsu; Hokamura, Nobukazu; Tachimori, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Salvage esophagectomy is the sole curative intent treatment for patients with persistent or recurrent locoregional disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal carcinoma. However, salvage esophagectomy is a very high-risk operation, and airway necrosis is a fatal complication. Between 1997 and 2007, 49 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. We retrospectively compared patients with and without airway necrosis, and investigated operative procedures related to airway necrosis. Airway necrosis occurred in five patients (10.2%), of four patients (80%) died during their hospitalization. Airway necrosis seemed to be closely related to operative procedures, such as resection of bronchial artery and cervical and subcarinal lymph node dissection. Bronchogastric fistula following necrosis of gastric conduit occured in 2 patients reconstructed through posterior mediastinal route. Airway necrosis is a highly lethal complication after salvage esophagectomy. It is important in salvage esophagectomy to take airway blood supply into consideration sufficiently and to reconstruct through retrosternal route to prevent bronchogastric fistula. (author)

  14. The Role of Exosomal VP40 in Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleet, Michelle L; DeMarino, Catherine; Lepene, Benjamin; Aman, M Javad; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease - detecting alterations in the apparent diffusion coefficient in hips with avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, John D.; Hernandez, Andrea; Pena, Andres; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Jaramillo, Diego; Ruppert, Kai; Jawad, Abbas F.; Wells, Lawrence; Smith-Whitley, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common morbidity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that leads to pain and joint immobility. However, the diagnosis is often uncertain or delayed. To examine the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted imaging to detect AVN in children with SCD. ADC values were calculated at the hips of normal children (n = 19) and children with SCD who were either asymptomatic with no known previous hip disease (n = 13) or presented for the first time with clinical symptoms of hip pathology (n = 12). ADC values were compared for differences among groups with and without AVN using non-parametric statistical methods. The ADC values were elevated in the hips of children with AVN (median ADC = 1.57 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s [95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.10]) and differed significantly in pairwise comparisons (all P < 0.05) from normal children (0.74 [0.46-0.98]), asymptomatic children with SCD (0.55 [0.25-0.85]), and SCD children who had symptoms referable to their hips but did not show findings of hip AVN on conventional MRI or radiographs (0.46 [0.18-0.72]). Children with sickle cell disease have elevated apparent diffusion coefficient values in their affected hips on initial diagnosis of avascular necrosis. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease - detecting alterations in the apparent diffusion coefficient in hips with avascular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, John D. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hernandez, Andrea; Pena, Andres; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruppert, Kai [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jawad, Abbas F. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith-Whitley, Kim [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Hematology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common morbidity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that leads to pain and joint immobility. However, the diagnosis is often uncertain or delayed. To examine the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted imaging to detect AVN in children with SCD. ADC values were calculated at the hips of normal children (n = 19) and children with SCD who were either asymptomatic with no known previous hip disease (n = 13) or presented for the first time with clinical symptoms of hip pathology (n = 12). ADC values were compared for differences among groups with and without AVN using non-parametric statistical methods. The ADC values were elevated in the hips of children with AVN (median ADC = 1.57 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.10]) and differed significantly in pairwise comparisons (all P < 0.05) from normal children (0.74 [0.46-0.98]), asymptomatic children with SCD (0.55 [0.25-0.85]), and SCD children who had symptoms referable to their hips but did not show findings of hip AVN on conventional MRI or radiographs (0.46 [0.18-0.72]). Children with sickle cell disease have elevated apparent diffusion coefficient values in their affected hips on initial diagnosis of avascular necrosis. (orig.)

  17. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Holck Draborg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Duus, Karen; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  20. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important. In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein. The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks. Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and

  2. Effect of temperature on the expression of IFN-1 (α, STAT-1 and Mx-1 genes in Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae exposed with the virus of the infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV is the causative agent of an acute illness well characterized in salmonids worldwide. Clinical signs and mortality rates are dependent on several factors such as the viral dose, the age of the fish, the water temperature, among others. An experimental study was conducted to measure the effect of temperature on the gene expression profile of IFN-1(α, STAT-1 and Mx-1 in rainbow trout fry, exposed to IPNV. Fry (n=198 were exposed at 8, 12 and 16°C, and samples were taken for 21 days to determine the virus titer and gene expression. In the first 11 days the greatest viral titer was recorded at 8°C compared with the values obtained at 12 and 16°C. At 8°C, there was a significant increase on day 4 of mRNA Mx-1 (t-test, p<0.05, time in which the viral titer began to decrease. Furthermore, as the viral titer increased, STAT-1 and Mx-1 (r=0.91 and (r=0.96 increased, respectively. The animals were able to recover from day 4 from some of the symptoms of IPN. Clinical disease was developed only in fish exposed to 12°C and all died between days 6 and 14, despite the highly significant increase shown in the average expression level of Mx-1, compared with the values recorded at 8°C and 16°C (Tukey, p<0.0001. Additionally, the expression profiles of IFN-1(α and STAT-1 decreased completely (~0.016 and (~0.020 times on day 7. The highest expression level of IFN-1(α, occurred at 16°C (Tukey, p<0.0005. Fry exposed at 16°C were normal during the experiment. IFN-1(α possibly generated a protector effect from day 2 when they showed a significant expression increase compared with the results at 8°C and 12°C (t-student, p<0.0001; however, STAT-1 was not significantly affected by temperature, although the highest average expression value was recorded at 16°C. Our research supports the expression of relevant anti-viral response genes as IFN-1(α, STAT-1 and Mx-1 are physiologically modulated by the water temperature

  3. Patho-epidemiological study on Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus infection in commercial vaccinated layer farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Khorajiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to study the patho-epidemiological aspects of Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in commercial layer in and around Anand, Gujarat. As the outbreaks have reported in vaccinated flocks, it was felt necessary to study the disease with respect to its changing pathogenicity and relevant aspects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of patho-epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND by information collected from different layer farms suffering from the disease in relation to incidence pattern and mortality, duration of mortality, susceptible age, and loss due to production performance. Clinical signs were recorded based on observations. During postmortem, gross lesions were also recorded. For histopathological examination visceral organs according to lesions were collected in 10% formalin and processed slide stained by hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Cultivation of virus was done in embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF eggs of 9-11 days and isolation of virus was done for haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and to identify pathotype of virus by intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test to determine the virulence of virus. The Genotype-XIII NDV was confirmed by F gene sequence and whole genome sequence. Results: During the study mortality due to ND was recorded in 13 layer flocks in spite of routine vaccination, which usually contain Genotype-II strain of virus. The mortality was observed as high as above 50% with an average of 21.21%. The susceptible age for disease was found to be 6-14 weeks. The duration of mortality observed was 23 days. The disease resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, feed intake and drop in egg production. Majority of the outbreaks appeared during extremely hot months of April to June. Greenish diarrhoea was frequently seen in birds that survived early in infection. Mortality continued for 2

  4. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  5. Pathogenesis and immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr experimentally infected with salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvignes, L; Quentel, C; Lamour, F; le, Ven A

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic salmon parr were injected intraperitoneally with salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) grown on CHSE-214 cells. The viraemia, the histopathological changes in target organs and some immune parameters were taken at intervals up to 30 days post-infection (dpi). The earliest kind of lesion was necrosis of exocrine pancreas, appearing as soon as 2 dpi. It progressed towards complete tissue breakdown at 9 dpi before resolving gradually. Concurrent to this necrosis, a strong inflammatory response was in evidence from 9 dpi in the pancreatic area for a majority of fish. A necrosis of the myocardial cells of the ventricle occurred in infected fish mainly at 16 dpi and it faded thereafter. The monitoring of the plasma viral load showed a rapid haematogenous spreading of SPDV, peaking at 4 dpi, but also the absence of a secondary viraemia. No interferon (IFN) was detected following the infection of parr with SPDV, probably owing to an IFN activity in Atlantic salmon below the detection level of the technique. Neutralising antibodies against SPDV were in evidence from 16 dpi and they showed a time-related increasing titre and prevalence. The phagocytic activity in head-kidney leucocytes was always significantly higher in the infected fish than in the control fish, being particularly high by 9 dpi. Lysozyme and complement levels were both increased and they peaked significantly in the infected fish at 9 and 16 dpi respectively. These results demonstrated that an experimental infection of Atlantic salmon parr with SPDV provoked a stimulation of both specific and non-specific immunity with regards to the viraemia and the histopathology.

  6. Humanized Mouse Model of Ebola Virus Disease Mimics the Immune Responses in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-03-01

    Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P < .01). Neither neuter status nor health status were risk factors for proteinuria in FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  9. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....

  10. Differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a let...

  11. A systems view and lessons from the ongoing Ebola Virus disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the on-going (2014) Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa from a systems perspective; and draws out lessons for West Africa in general and Ghana in particular. Keywords: Ebola Virus Disease, West Africa , Ghana , Systems , Prevention and Control ...

  12. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  13. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  14. Genetic characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated from cattle in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an Orbivirus not previously reported in Israel, was isolated from Israeli cattle during a “bluetongue like” disease outbreak in 2006. To ascertain the origin of this new virus, three isolates from the outbreak were fully sequenced and compared with availab...

  15. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham J

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for one of the most economically important infectious diseases of livestock. The virus spreads very easily and continues to affect many countries (mainly in Africa and Asia). The risks associated with the introduction of FMDV result in major...

  16. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn’s disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Per Olov Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents are increasi......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... are increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Taking into consideration the biologics' mechanism of action, fears have been expressed that they might increase the rate of post-operative complications. Results from 18 retrospective studies were conflicting, and meta-analyses based...... an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after...

  17. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents are increasi......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... are increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Taking into consideration the biologics' mechanism of action, fears have been expressed that they might increase the rate of post-operative complications. Results from 18 retrospective studies were conflicting, and meta-analyses based...... an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after...

  18. 99Tcm-MIBI single photon emission tomography (SPET) for detecting myocardial ischaemia and necrosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciammarella, M.G.; Fragasso, G.; Gerundini, P.; Maffioli, L.; Cappelletti, A.; Margonato, A.; Savi, A.; Chierchia, S.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET) to detect myocardial ischaemia and necrosis was assessed in 56 patients with clinically recognised ischaemic heart disease (IHD). All underwent coronary angiography (CA) and left ventriculography (LV). SPET images were obtained at rest and at peak exercise 90 min after injection of 99 Tc m -MIBI. The presence of persistent (P) or reversible (R) perfusion defects (PD) was then correlated to the resting and exercise ECG and to the results of CA and LV. Of the 56 patients, 34 had reversible underperfusion (RPD), 46 persistent underperfusion (PPD) and 31 had both. The occurrence of RPD correlated well with the occurrence of exercise-induced ST segment depression and/or angina (27 patients of 34 patients, 79%) and with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (33 of 44, 73%). In 45 of 46 patients (98%) PPD corresponded to akinetic or severely hypokinetic segments (LV) usually explored by ECG leads exhibiting diagnostic Q waves (42 of 46 patients, 91%). The scan was normal both at rest and after stress in four of 11 patients with no CAD, and in two of 45 patients with CAD. Finally, an abnormal resting scan was seen in seven of 11 patients with normal coronary arteries, of whom six had regional wall motion abnormalities. In conclusion, MIBI SPET is a highly reliable technique for assessing the presence and location of myocardial ischaemia and necrosis. (Author)

  19. [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-MIBI single photon emission tomography (SPET) for detecting myocardial ischaemia and necrosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciammarella, M.G.; Fragasso, G.; Gerundini, P.; Maffioli, L.; Cappelletti, A.; Margonato, A.; Savi, A.; Chierchia, S. (Istituto Scientifico H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    The ability of [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET) to detect myocardial ischaemia and necrosis was assessed in 56 patients with clinically recognised ischaemic heart disease (IHD). All underwent coronary angiography (CA) and left ventriculography (LV). SPET images were obtained at rest and at peak exercise 90 min after injection of [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-MIBI. The presence of persistent (P) or reversible (R) perfusion defects (PD) was then correlated to the resting and exercise ECG and to the results of CA and LV. Of the 56 patients, 34 had reversible underperfusion (RPD), 46 persistent underperfusion (PPD) and 31 had both. The occurrence of RPD correlated well with the occurrence of exercise-induced ST segment depression and/or angina (27 patients of 34 patients, 79%) and with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (33 of 44, 73%). In 45 of 46 patients (98%) PPD corresponded to akinetic or severely hypokinetic segments (LV) usually explored by ECG leads exhibiting diagnostic Q waves (42 of 46 patients, 91%). The scan was normal both at rest and after stress in four of 11 patients with no CAD, and in two of 45 patients with CAD. Finally, an abnormal resting scan was seen in seven of 11 patients with normal coronary arteries, of whom six had regional wall motion abnormalities. In conclusion, MIBI SPET is a highly reliable technique for assessing the presence and location of myocardial ischaemia and necrosis. (Author).

  20. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... development ... Biotechnology Center, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 58711-00200, Nairobi, ... Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya.

  2. An inactivated whole-virus porcine parvovirus vaccine protects pigs against disease but does not prevent virus shedding even after homologous virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Tessa; Streck, André Felipe; Speck, Stephanie; Selbitz, Hans-Joachim; Lindner, Thomas; Truyen, Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Inactivated whole-virus vaccines against porcine parvovirus (PPV) can prevent disease but not infection and virus shedding after heterologous virus challenge. Here, we showed that the same is true for a homologous challenge. Pregnant sows were vaccinated with an experimental inactivated vaccine based on PPV strain 27a. They were challenged on day 40 of gestation with the virulent porcine parvovirus PPV-27a from which the vaccine was prepared (homologous challenge). On day 90 of gestation, the fetuses from vaccinated sows were protected against disease, while the fetuses of the non-vaccinated sows (control group) exhibited signs of parvovirus disease. All gilts, whether vaccinated or not vaccinated, showed a boost of PPV-specific antibodies indicative of virus infection and replication. Low DNA copy numbers, but not infectious virus, could be demonstrated in nasal or rectal swabs of immunized sows, but high copy numbers of challenge virus DNA as well as infectious virus could both be demonstrated in non-vaccinated sows.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  4. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  5. Ebola virus disease: Effects of respiratory protection on healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa sends an alarming message to all countries in the world, to increase the level of coordination and application of preventive measures globally to avoid a disastrous epidemic in the World, as the current situation in West Africa is critical especially after the World Health Organization increased the alarming level to an emergency in public health all over the world. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are important because they can readily spread within a hospital or mortuary setting, there is no effective cure or vaccine, they have a high mortality rate and they are difficult to recognize and diagnose rapidly. WHO has recommended respiratory protection for HCWs performing certain tasks such as aerosol-generating procedures, laboratory procedures, and autopsies. Particulate respirators are designed to help reduce the wearer’s exposure to certain airborne particles. The most effective way to block aerosolized particles is to use either a half-face or a full-face respirator. HCWs still need shoe covers, a full face respirator and latex or nitrile gloves to decrease the risk of Ebola virus contamination.

  6. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  7. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chu, Hsin; Zimmerman, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (Taiwan); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen [Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (Taiwan); Chu, Hsin [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Taipei (Taiwan); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Defective interfering particles in monolayer-propagated Newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, J.M.; Simon, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serially passaged in chick embryo fibroblasts (M-NDV) gives rise to defective interfering (NDV-DI) particles, while NDV passaged in embryonated eggs (E-NDV) does not. Co-infection with these particles and infectious virions results in a 99 percent reduction in yield. Interference is not due to interferon or to prevention of absorption of infectious virions and is specific for NDV. The particles mediating interference sediment at the same velocity as infectious virions. The accumulation of NDV-DI particles in monolayers but not in eggs may be a consequence of the fact that M-NDV virions are larger and probably contain more RNA, or it may reflect differences in NDV replicative processes in eggs and monolayers, or both

  10. Planning and response to Ebola virus disease: An integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip W; Boulter, Kathleen C; Hewlett, Angela L; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Beam, Elizabeth J; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John-Martin J; Schwedhelm, Michelle M

    2015-05-01

    The care of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) requires the application of critical care medicine principles under conditions of stringent infection control precautions. The care of patients with EVD requires a number of elements in terms of physical layout, personal protective apparel, and other equipment. Provision of care is demanding in terms of depth of staff and training. The key to safely providing such care is a system that brings many valuable skills to the table, and allows communication between these individuals. We present our approach to leadership structure and function--a variation of incident command--in providing care to 3 patients with EVD. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  12. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year...

  13. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  14. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  15. Interaction of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus ORF119L with PINCH leads to dominant-negative inhibition of integrin-linked kinase and cardiovascular defects in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji-Min; He, Bai-Liang; Yang, Lu-Yun; Guo, Chang-Jun; Weng, Shao-Ping; Li, Shengwen Calvin; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the Megalocytivirus genus, Iridoviridae family, causing a severe systemic disease with high mortality in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) in China and Southeast Asia. At present, the pathogenesis of ISKNV infection is still not fully understood. Based on a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of ISKNV-encoded proteins, we found that ISKNV open reading frame 119L (ORF119L) is predicted to encode a three-ankyrin-repeat (3ANK)-domain-containing protein, which shows high similarity to the dominant negative form of integrin-linked kinase (ILK); i.e., viral ORF119L lacks the ILK kinase domain. Thus, we speculated that viral ORF119L might affect the host ILK complex. Here, we demonstrated that viral ORF119L directly interacts with particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein (PINCH) and affects the host ILK-PINCH interaction in vitro in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. In vivo ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos resulted in myocardial dysfunctions with disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disk. Importantly, ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish highly resembles the phenotype of endogenous ILK inhibition, either by overexpressing a dominant negative form of ILK or by injecting an ILK antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. Intriguingly, ISKNV-infected mandarin fish develop disorganized sarcomeric Z disks in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream effector of ILK, was remarkably decreased in ORF119L-overexpressing zebrafish embryos. With these results, we show that ISKNV ORF119L acts as a domain-negative inhibitor of the host ILK, providing a novel mechanism for the megalocytivirus pathogenesis. Our work is the first to show the role of a dominant negative inhibitor of the host ILK from ISKNV (an iridovirus). Mechanistically, the viral ORF119L directly binds to the host PINCH, attenuates the host PINCH-ILK interaction, and thus impairs ILK signaling. Intriguingly

  16. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Q&As on Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in these fluids, but CDC and partners are working together to study how long the virus persists in ... Health, CDC, and the World Health Organization are working together to determine how long Ebola virus persists or ...

  17. Interleukin-10 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio is a predictive biomarker in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: interleukin-10 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ratio in steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Reem M; Mahmoud, Mona F; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala M

    2008-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance (IR) as an investigative biomarker is only concerned with fatty liver that results from DM type 2 associated with metabolic syndrome. Irrespective of IR, DM is generally characterized by overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas action of the latter is modulated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using TNF-alpha alone or IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio compared to IR, as a promising biomarker for fatty liver assessment in DM. Furthermore, we hypothesized that using garlic as an immunomodulator may decrease TNF-alpha and increase IL-10 production to improve steatohepatitis. DM was induced metabolically by a high-fat diet to bring about IR, or chemically by alloxan, producing insulin deficiency, in male albino rats. Garlic powder was supplemented (15 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Fatty liver was depicted histologically and biochemically (aspartic aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, HOMA-IR, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio). We found that, in contrast to obese rats, garlic decreased IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio, despite decreasing TNF-alpha in alloxan diabetic rats in agreement with the histology, which revealed more prominent improvement in the obese group. Moreover, the effect of garlic was not linked to improvement of IR in obese rats. We conclude that IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio may be considered as a convenient biomarker for investigation of fatty liver of different grades, apart from being associated with IR, and immunomodulation of this ratio in favor of increasing it may exert significant improvement.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  20. A systematic approach to novel virus discovery in emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of novel viruses is of great importance to human health-both in the setting of emerging infectious disease outbreaks and in disease syndromes of unknown etiology. Despite the recent proliferation of many efficient virus discovery methods, careful selection of a combination of methods is important to demonstrate a novel virus, its clinical associations, and its relevance in a timely manner. The identification of a patient or an outbreak with distinctive clinical features and negative routine microbiological workup is often the starting point for virus hunting. This review appraises the roles of culture, electron microscopy, and nucleic acid detection-based methods in optimizing virus discovery. Cell culture is generally slow but may yield viable virus. Although the choice of cell line often involves trial and error, it may be guided by the clinical syndrome. Electron microscopy is insensitive but fast, and may provide morphological clues to choice of cell line or consensus primers for nucleic acid detection. Consensus primer PCR can be used to detect viruses that are closely related to known virus families. Random primer amplification and high-throughput sequencing can catch any virus genome but cannot yield an infectious virion for testing Koch postulates. A systematic approach that incorporates carefully chosen combinations of virus detection techniques is required for successful virus discovery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  2. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  3. Epstein-Barr virus: general factors, virus-related diseases and measurement of viral load after transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Fagundes Gequelin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus is responsible for infectious mononucleosis syndrome and is also closely associated to several types of cancer. The main complication involving Epstein-Barr virus infection, both in recipients of hematopoietic stem cells and solid organs, is post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The importance of this disease has increased interest in the development of laboratory tools to improve post-transplant monitoring and to detect the disease before clinical evolution. Viral load analysis for Epstein-Barr virus through real-time polymerase chain reaction is, at present, the best tool to measure viral load. However, there is not a consensus on which sample type is the best for the test and what is its predictive value for therapeutic interventions.

  4. [Role of hepatitis A and E viruses in the development of autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimchuk, K S; Malinnikova, E Iu; Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of development of autoimmune diseases may be associated with a complex of genetic, immune, hormonal, and infectious factors. Autoimmune diseases include a wide range of systemic and organ-specific diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). It is currently assumed that the pathogenesis of AIH is due to compromised immune regulation in the presence of an exogenous triggering factor. Exogenous factors, such as viruses, may be triggers of AIH. There may be different ways of initiating an autoimmune response by viruses, which includes nonspecific T-lymphocyte activation and molecular mimicry. There is much evidence supporting the initiating role of hepatitis viruses in the development of AIH and other autoimmune diseases. The development of AIH symptoms during hepatitis A and E virus infections has been described elsewhere. The creation of animal models of viral hepatitis is required to confirm the hypothesis that the viruses trigger the development of AIH and other autoimmune manifestations.

  5. Viraemia and Ebola virus secretion in survivors of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward; Hunt, Luke; Ross, J C Gareth; Nissen, Nina Marie; Curran, Tanya; Badhan, Anjna; Sutherland, Katherine A; Richards, Jade; Lee, James S; Allen, Samuel H; Laird, Steven; Blackman, Mandy; Collacott, Ian; Parker, Paul A; Walbridge, Andrew; Phillips, Rebecca; Sellu, Sia Jammie; Dama, Agnes; Sheriff, Alpha Karim; Zombo, Joseph; Ngegba, Doris; Wurie, Alieh H; Checchi, Francesco; Brooks, Timothy J

    2016-09-01

    In survivors of Ebola virus disease, clinical sequelae including uveitis, arthralgia, and fatigue are common and necessitate systematic follow-up. However, the infection risk to health-care providers is poorly defined. Here we report Ebola virus RT-PCR data for body site and fluid samples from a large cohort of Ebola virus survivors at clinic follow-up. In this cross-sectional cohort study, consecutive survivors of Ebola virus disease attending Kerry Town survivor clinic (Freetown, Sierra Leone), who had been discharged from the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit, were invited to participate. We collected and tested axillary, blood, conjunctival, forehead, mouth, rectal, semen, urine, and vaginal specimens for presence of Ebola virus using RT-PCR. We regarded samples to be positive for Ebola virus disease if the cycle threshold was 40 or lower. We collected demographic data from survivors of their age, sex, time since discharge from the treatment unit, and length of acute admission in the Ebola treatment unit using anonymised standard forms. Between April 2, and June 16, 2015, of 151 survivors of Ebola virus disease invited to participate, 112 (74%) provided consent. The median age of participants was 21·5 years (IQR 14-31·5) with 34 (30%) participants younger than 16 years. 50 (45%) of 112 participants were male. We tested a total of 555 specimens: 103 from the axilla, 93 from blood, 92 from conjunctiva, 54 from forehead, 105 from mouth, 17 from the rectum, one from semen, 69 from urine, and 21 from the vagina. The median time from Ebola treatment unit discharge to specimen collection was 142 days (IQR 127-159). 15 participants had a total of 74 swabs taken less than 100 days from discharge. The semen sample from one participant tested positive for Ebola virus at 114 days after discharge from the treatment unit; specimens taken from the axilla, blood, conjunctiva, forehead, mouth, rectum, and urine of the same participant tested negative. All specimens from the

  6. Modeling the transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Shi-Fu; Li, Shen-Long; Huang, Liu-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Sun, Gui-Quan; Gai, Zhong-Tao; Jin, Zhen

    2015-09-08

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) has erupted many times in some zones since it was first found in 1976. The 2014 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest ever, which has caused a large number of deaths and the most serious country is Liberia during the outbreak period. Based on the data released by World Health Organization and the actual transmission situations, we investigate the impact of different transmission routes on the EVD outbreak in Liberia and estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.012 in the absence of effective control measures. Through sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, we reveal that the transmission coefficients of suspected and probable cases have stronger correlations on the basic reproduction number. Furthermore, we study the influence of control measures (isolation and safe burial measures) on EVD outbreak. It is found that if combined control measures are taken, the basic reproduction number will be less than one and thus EVD in Liberia may be well contained. The obtained results may provide new guidance to prevent and control the spread of disease.

  7. Biochemical map of polypeptides specified by foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, M J; Robertson, B H; Morgan, D O; Moore, D M; Dowbenko, D

    1984-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bovine kidney cells revealed stable and unstable viral-specific polypeptides. To identify precursor-product relationships among these polypeptides, antisera against a number of structural and nonstructural viral-specific polypeptides were used. Cell-free translations programmed with foot-and-mouth disease virion RNA or foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bovine kidney cell lysates, which were shown to contain almost identical pol...

  8. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding......, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent...... on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production....

  9. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  10. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  12. Isolation of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Lumpy Skin Disease was found to be a serious disease in the study area. So, further investigation is needed on identification of the causative agents and Molecular characterization of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus and risk factors of the disease in South Wollo Zone. Keywords: Cattle, Dessie and Kombolcha, LSD, LSDV, ...

  13. Pathotyping of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarani, K; Muthusamy, S; Tirumurugaan, K G; Sakthivelan, S M; Kumanan, K

    2010-03-01

    This report describes Newcastle disease in peacock and the isolation and characterization of the virus. The virus had an intracerbral pathogenicity index of 1.71 and mean death time of 47 h. The isolate had multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site sequence ((110)GGRRQRRFIG(119)) with a phenylalanine at residue 117. Biological and molecular characterization revealed that the virus is velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II.

  14. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkun; Bai Renju

    2013-01-01

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  15. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. [Several issues on the epidemiology of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.

  17. Diagnostic and Prognostic Particularities of the Implications of the Presence of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yero Ieremie Lia Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease can have significant effects by increasing the circulating levels of TNF-α, therefore its prevention and treatment is important in maintaining the overall health of the body. Objective: The aim of our research was to assess the differences in the salivary concentration of TNF-α between patients with periodontal disease and those free of the disease and to studz whether it can represent an indicator of the evolution of periodontal disease. We also aimed to assess the practical applicability of the method for the determination of this cytokine in the saliva. Materials and methods: Our study included two groups of subjects, the first group consisting in patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, while the control group included subjects free of periodontal disease. TNF-α concentration was determined with the ELISA test for human TNF-α and the results were expressed in pg/ mL. The data were statistically processed with GraphPad software and the statistical nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. Results: We observe nearly double values of the TNF-α salivary level in the group of patients suffering from periodontal disease compared to the subjects free of periodontal disease, which allows us to notice that saliva analysis is a useful and safely enough method for the diagnosis and follow-up in the development of periodontal disease. Conclusion: The salivary level of TNF-α in patients with periodontal disease is not only an indicator of periodontal disease progression, but also a reflection of the pathogen potential that periodontal disease may have on the overall health of the body.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to and presence of endogenous avian leukosis viruses impose no significant impact on survival days of chickens challenged with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicks of distinct genotypes at the tumor virus B locus (TVB) in combination with presence or absence of endogenous avian leukosis virus ev21 gene in their genomes were examined for survival day patterns after challenge with very virulent plus Marek’s disease virus (vv+MDV) in three consecutive tria...

  19. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Stanturf

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  20. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting.

  1. Molecular characterization of a virus from the family Luteoviridae associated with cotton blue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R L; Silva, T F; Simões-Araújo, J L; Barroso, P A V; Vidal, M S; Vaslin, M F S

    2005-07-01

    Cotton blue disease is an aphid-transmitted cotton disease described in Brazil in 1962 as Vein Mosaic "var. Ribeirão Bonito". At present it causes economically important losses in cotton crops if control measures are not implemented. The observed symptoms and mode of transmission have prompted researchers to speculate that cotton blue disease could be attributed to a member of the family Luteoviridae, but there was no molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis. We have amplified part of the genome of a virus associated with this disease using degenerate primers for members of the family Luteoviridae. Sequence analysis of the entire capsid and a partial RdRp revealed a virus probably belonging to the genus Polerovirus. Based on our results we propose that cotton blue disease is associated with a virus with the putative name Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV).

  2. Incidence of Viral Diseases and Occurrence of Three Unreported Viruses in Yams in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Hwan Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 to 2014, a survey for the presence of viral diseases in yam plants was carried out in a field of the Institute for Bioresources Research in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. A total of 88 leaf samples were collected and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using specific primer sets. Eighty-one samples were positive for Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2, Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (ChYNMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Japanese yam mosaic virus (JYMV, and Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV, whereas Yam mosaic virus (YMV was not detected. Additionally, seven samples were negative for all viruses. Several samples exhibited mixed (double and triple infections. Three viruses (CMV, JYMV, and YMMV were detected for the first time in yam plants in Korea. A BLAST search showed that three viruses shared nucleotide identities with CMV-Ca (98%, JYMV-O2 (91%, and YMMV-TG_NH_1 (86%. Thus, our findings confirmed that yam plants cultivated in Korea were infected with multiple viruses with three of these viruses reported for the first time in Korea.

  3. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (l NDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a l NDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultan...

  4. Recombination of strain O segments to HCpro-encoding sequence of strain N of Potato virus Y modulates necrosis induced in tobacco and in potatoes carrying resistance genes Ny or Nc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan-Ping; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to strains O and C of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) is conferred by potato genes Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr), respectively; however, PVY N strains overcome these resistance genes. The viral helper component proteinases (HCpro, 456 amino acids) from PVY(N) and PVY(O) are distinguished by an eight-amino-acid signature sequence, causing HCpro to fold into alternative conformations. Substitution of only two residues (K269R and R270K) of the eight-amino-acid signature in PVY(N) HCpro was needed to convert the three-dimensional (3D) model of PVY(N) HCpro to a PVY(O) -like conformation and render PVY(N) avirulent in the presence of Ny(tbr), whereas four amino acid substitutions were necessary to change PVY(O) HCpro to a PVY(N) -like conformation. Hence, the HCpro conformation rather than other features ascribed to the sequence were essential for recognition by Ny(tbr). The 3D model of PVY(C) HCpro closely resembled PVY(O), but differed from PVY(N) HCpro. HCpro of all strains was structurally similar to β-catenin. Sixteen PVY(N) 605-based chimeras were inoculated to potato cv. Pentland Crown (Ny(tbr)), King Edward (Nc(tbr)) and Pentland Ivory (Ny(tbr)/Nc(tbr)). Eleven chimeras induced necrotic local lesions and caused no systemic infection, and thus differed from both parental viruses that infected King Edward systemically, and from PVY(N) 605 that infected Pentland Crown and Pentland Ivory systemically. These 11 chimeras triggered both Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr) and, in addition, six induced veinal necrosis in tobacco. Further, specific amino acid residues were found to have an additive impact on necrosis. These results shed new light on the causes of PVY-related necrotic symptoms in potato. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham J

    2012-05-24

    The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus.In the present study we compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region.Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected with the O1K/O-UKG chimera or the field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) developed fulminant disease. Furthermore, 3 of 4 in-contact pigs exposed to the O1K/O-UKG virus died in the acute phase of infection, likely from myocardial infection. However, in the group exposed to the O1K/A-TUR chimeric virus, only 1 pig showed symptoms of disease within the time frame of the experiment (10 days). All pigs that developed clinical disease showed a high level of viral RNA in serum and infected pigs that survived the acute phase of infection developed a serotype specific antibody response. It is concluded that the capsid coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs.

  6. The use of convalescent plasma to treat emerging infectious diseases: focus on Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Anne M; Koepsell, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the use of convalescent plasma for the treatment of emerging infectious diseases, focusing on the recent use for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola convalescent plasma has been used as a therapy for treatment of EVD during the 2014 West Africa epidemic. Several cases from the United States and Europe have been recently published, in addition to multiple ongoing clinical trials in the United States and West Africa. Even more recently, convalescent plasma has been used for treatment of individuals with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Although the first reports of successful treatment with passive immune therapy date back to the early 1900s, convalescent plasma has materialized as a possible therapy for patients who develop infection from one of the emerging infectious diseases such as EVD or MERS-CoV, although the efficacy of such therapy has yet to be proven in clinical trials.

  7. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus Lymphoproliferative Disease Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prediction and Early Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.J. van Esser (Joost)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of both infectious and malignant human diseases. These viruses are characterized by (B-cell) lymphotropism, their ability to establish latent infection in host cells and to induce proliferation of these latently infected cells.

  9. Immune Evasion During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Infection of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...

  10. Influenza A (H10N7) Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Wohlsein, Peter; Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A M; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic

  11. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  13. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of

  14. Rate of Foot-and mouth Disease Virus Transmission by Carriers Quantified from Experimental Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. These carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. An analysis was carried out

  15. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  16. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Solyom, F.; Felkai, V.; Oroszlany, P.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD. However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129, and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5, while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1. Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  18. Characterizing the transmission dynamics and control of ebola virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carefully calibrated transmission models have the potential to guide public health officials on the nature and scale of the interventions required to control epidemics. In the context of the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in Liberia, Drake and colleagues, in this issue of PLOS Biology, employed an elegant modeling approach to capture the distributions of the number of secondary cases that arise in the community and health care settings in the context of changing population behaviors and increasing hospital capacity. Their findings underscore the role of increasing the rate of safe burials and the fractions of infectious individuals who seek hospitalization together with hospital capacity to achieve epidemic control. However, further modeling efforts of EVD transmission and control in West Africa should utilize the spatial-temporal patterns of spread in the region by incorporating spatial heterogeneity in the transmission process. Detailed datasets are urgently needed to characterize temporal changes in population behaviors, contact networks at different spatial scales, population mobility patterns, adherence to infection control measures in hospital settings, and hospitalization and reporting rates.

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease exacerbation associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulia, Evangelia; Pitiriga, Vassiliki C; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Spanakis, Nicholas E; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but its role as a pathogenetic or exacerbating factor remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in regard to exacerbation of disease activity. This was a nonrandomized crosssectional study in subgroups of patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with a control group with noninflammatory disease. Participants were patients treated for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and individuals undergoing evaluation for noninflammatory disease recruited from 2 urban adult gastrointestinal referral centers in Greece. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease was based on standard clinical and endoscopic criteria. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all participants were recorded. Whole blood samples and fresh tissue samples from biopsy of intestinal sites were obtained from each participant. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus was determined by amplifying the LMP1 gene of the virus in blood and intestinal tissue samples. The study comprised 94 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (63 with ulcerative colitis and 31 with Crohn's disease) and 45 controls with noninflammatory disease. Of the 94 patients, 67 (71.3%) had disease exacerbation and 27 (28.7%) were in remission. The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus genome was significantly higher in patients than in controls for intestinal tissue (44 patients, 46.8% vs 6 controls, 13.3%; p = 0.001), but not for whole blood (24 patients, 25.5% vs 9 controls, 20%; p = 0.3). The viral genome was found significantly more frequently in intestinal samples from patients with disease exacerbation compared with patients in remission (38 patients with exacerbation, 56.7% vs 6 patients in remission, 22.2%; p = 0.001), but no significant difference was found for whole blood (18 patients with exacerbation, 26.8% vs 6 patients in remission, 22

  20. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) related microRNAs in Litopenaeus vannamei infected with AHPND-causing strain of Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihong; Aweya, Jude Juventus; Wang, Fan; Yao, Defu; Lun, Jingsheng; Li, Shengkang; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Yueling

    2018-05-08

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has emerged as a major debilitating disease that causes massive shrimp death resulting in substantial economic losses in shrimp aquaculture. Given that several diseases and infections have been associated with microRNAs (miRNAs), we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis using the AHPND (VA) and non-AHPND (VN) strains of Vibrio parahemolyticus to identify miRNAs potentially involved in AHPND pathogenesis in Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 83 miRNAs (47 upregulated and 36 downregulated) were significantly differentially expressed between the VA and VN challenged groups, while 222 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the miRNAs target genes were involved in multiple biological processes including metabolic pathways, amoebiasis, Vibrio cholerae infection etc. Finally, interaction network and qPCR (Real-time Quantitative PCR) analysis of 12 potential key AHPND-related miRNAs and their predicted target genes, revealed their possible involvement in modulating several immune-related processes in the pathogenesis of AHPND. We have shown using comparative transcriptomic analysis, miRNAs and their target genes that are responsive to AHPND V. parahemolyticus infection in shrimp, therefore suggesting their possible role in defense response to AHPND V. parahemolyticus infection.

  1. Cassava brown streak disease in Rwanda, the associated viruses and disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganyinka, E; Ateka, E M; Kihurani, A W; Kanyange, M C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Ndunguru, J

    2018-02-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32.2%) incidence, followed by roots (25.7%), leaf + stem (20.3%), leaf + root (10.4%), leaf + stem + root (5.2%), stem + root (3.7%), and stem (2.5%) symptoms. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that single infections of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) were most common (74.2% of total infections) and associated with all the seven phenotypes studied. Single infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) were predominant (15.3% of total infections) in CBSD-affected plants showing symptoms on stems alone. Mixed infections (CBSV + UCBSV) comprised 10.5% of total infections and predominated in the combinations of leaf + stem + root phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and the estimates of evolutionary divergence, using partial sequences (210 nt) of the coat protein gene, revealed that in Rwanda there is one type of CBSV and an indication of diverse UCBSV. This study is the first to report the occurrence and distribution of both CBSV and UCBSV based on molecular techniques in Rwanda.

  2. 9. Fight Ebola virus disease in Africa, a question related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Environment; Ebola virus disease; West Africa ... (Spain, United States of America, Italy, Mali,. Nigeria, United ... particularly dry conditions at the end of a wet season: this can ... Hypsignathus and Epomops, forest antelopes and. 4.

  3. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  4. Horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease by using a recombinant myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, J; Morales, M; Vázquez, B; Boga, J A; Parra, F; Lucientes, J; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Blasco, R; Torres, J M

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals.

  5. Human papilloma virus and lupus: the virus, the vaccine and the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Yahel; Calabrò, Michele; Kanduc, Darja; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well known, widespread autoimmune disease, involving multiple organ systems, with a multifaceted, widely unmapped etiopathogenesis. Recently, a new aspect of morbidity has been described among SLE patients: infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). We set out to review data regarding the intricate relationship between the two and attempt to determine whether HPV may pose as a contributing factor to the development of SLE. We relate to epidemiological, molecular and clinical data. We have found evidence in all these fields suggesting HPV to be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE: increased prevalence of HPV infection among SLE patients; vast molecular homology between viral peptides and human proteins associated with SLE; several reports of SLE development post-HPV vaccination. Our findings suggest a possible involvement of HPV infection in the induction of SLE, via a mechanism of immune cross-reaction due to molecular homology. We review clinical, epidemiological and molecular data suggesting involvement of HPV infection in the pathogenesis of SLE. We suggest that these findings may justify the development of new HPV vaccines containing viral peptides that bear no homology to the human proteome, in order to avoid possible adverse immune cross-reactivity.

  6. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  7. The Disease Caused by Zika Virus: Current Clinical and Epidemiological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Duda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issue of today — the disease caused by Zika virus. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease were described, attention is paid to the examination of a patient with suspected Zika virus. Laboratory tests available in the Synevo laboratory are listed. Recommendations for the treatment are given taking into account the fact that today the causal antiviral treatment is not developed.

  8. Impact of Ultraviolet-Blocking Plastic Films on Insect Vectors of Virus Diseases Infesting Crisp Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Desani, Beatriz M.; Biurrun, R.; Moreno, Aránzazu; Nebreda, Miguel; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did...

  9. Hepatitis C virus viremia increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Lundgren, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.......Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined....

  10. The complete genome sequence of a virus associated with cotton blue disease, cotton leafroll dwarf virus, confirms that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Ana J; Bonacic Kresic, Ivan; Hopp, H Esteban

    2010-11-01

    Cotton blue disease is the most important virus disease of cotton in the southern part of America. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of the cotton blue disease-associated virus was determined for the first time. It comprised 5,866 nucleotides, and the deduced genomic organization resembled that of members of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirm that this virus (previous proposed name cotton leafroll dwarf virus) is a member of a new species within the genus Polerovirus.

  11. Differential Persistence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in African Buffalo Is Related to Virus Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Gubbins, Simon; Zhang, Fuquan; Seago, Julian; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Reid, Liz; Scott, Katherine; van Schalkwyk, Louis; Bengis, Roy; Charleston, Bryan; Juleff, Nicholas

    2016-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. In particular, the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the African buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple SAT serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. However, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. FMD in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study FMDV persistence, as transmission from carrier ruminants has convincingly been demonstrated for only this species. Following coinfection of naive African buffaloes with isolates of three SAT serotypes from field buffaloes, palatine tonsil swabs were the sample of choice for recovering infectious FMDV up to 400 days postinfection (dpi). Postmortem examination identified infectious virus for up to 185 dpi and viral genomes for up to 400 dpi in lymphoid tissues of the head and neck, focused mainly in germinal centers. Interestingly, viral persistence in vivo was not homogenous, and the SAT-1 isolate persisted longer than the SAT-2 and SAT-3 isolates. Coinfection and passage of these SAT isolates in goat and buffalo cell lines demonstrated a direct correlation between persistence and cell-killing capacity. These data suggest that FMDV persistence occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid tissue but that the duration of persistence is related to virus replication and cell-killing capacity. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in domestic livestock and wildlife species. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the primary carrier hosts of FMDV in African savannah ecosystems, where the disease is endemic. We have shown that the virus persists for up to 400 days in buffaloes and that there is competition between viruses during mixed infections. There was similar competition in cell culture: viruses that killed cells quickly persisted more

  12. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan

    2015-01-01

    personal identification number of Danish citizens (the CPR number) from blood samples with data from the National Patient Registry, patients with International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10) codes K50-K63 were identified. Treatment efficacy reflected the maximum response within 22 weeks...

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha G-238A polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis of 4,222 patients and 4,832 controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua XP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xian-Ping Hua,1,* Xiao-Dong Zhang,2,* Joey SW Kwong,3,* Xian-Tao Zeng,4 Zhen-Jian Zhang,1 Wan-Lin Wei21Department of Cardiology, Suizhou Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Suizhou, Hubei Province, 2Department of Cardiology and 4th Cadres Ward, General Hospital of Beijing Military Command, Beijing, 3Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Center and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 4Center for Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α gene G-238A polymorphism and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD using a meta-analytical approach.Methods: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant publications up to January 13, 2015. Four authors (XPH, XDZ, XTZ, and ZJZ independently selected the studies, extracted, and analyzed the data using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The sensitivity and subgroups analyses were also performed. Either a fixed effects or a random effects model was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: Finally, ten articles including eleven case-control studies involving 4,222 patients and 4,832 controls were yielded. The results indicated no significant association between G-238A polymorphism and CAD risk (A vs G: OR =1.08, 95% CI =0.89–1.30; AA vs GG: OR =1.15, 95% CI =0.59–2.25; GA vs GG: OR =1.14, 95% CI =0.88–1.48; AA vs [GG + GA]: OR =1.09, 95% CI =0.56–2.14; (GA + AA vs GG: OR =1.11, 95% CI =0.90–1.38. In the subgroup analyses, similar results were obtained with overall populations. The sensitivity analyses showed that the overall results were robust. No publication bias was detected.Conclusion: Based on current evidence, we can conclude that TNF-α G-238A polymorphism

  14. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological...... in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coil using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most....... Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques...

  15. Infections and treatment of patients with rheumatic diseasesTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzeni, F.; Bendtzen, K.; Bobbio-Pallavicini, F.

    2008-01-01

    /inflammatory conditions, and current therapies have the aim of providing adequate (low) compensatory doses, the timing of GC administration, such as during the nocturnal turning-on phase of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion, can be extremely important. The use of the lowest possible GC dose, at night......, and for the shortest possible time should therefore greatly reduce the risk of infections. Infection is a major co-morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can increase the risk of their occurrence, including tuberculosis. TNF-alpha plays a key role...

  16. Borna disease virus and its role in the pathology of animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Mikheev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases that are caused by numerous pathogenic microorganisms – bacteria, viruses, protozoa or fungi – can be transmitted from patients or carriers to healthy people or animals. A large group of infectious disease is caused by pathogens of animal infections – zoonoses. The issue of zoonoses is of great significance in human pathology and requires comprehensive study. This is of particular relevance to Ukraine, as the question of prevalence, level within the population and threats to human life and health from zoonoses, though highly important, has remained insufficiently studied. Information about many of these pathogens is absent in the existing scientific literature accessible in Ukraine – both veterinary and medical. This applies, in particular, to a causative agent of viral zoonoses the Borna disease virus or Bornavirus. For this purpose, an analysis of the literature concerning the role of the Bornavirus in the pathology of animals and humans was conducted. It is well known that a large number of pathogens of animal infections (zoonoses, including viral, pose a potential threat to human health. Among these potential threats is the Borna disease virus belonging to the family of Bornaviridae, order Mononegavirales. This order includes representatives of deadly human diseases like rabies (family Rhabdoviridae, Ebola virus (family Filoviridae and Nipah virus (family Paramyxoviridae. Borna virus disease affects mainly mammals, but can infect birds and even reptiles (Aspid bornavirus. It is established that Bornaviruses have a wide range of natural hosts (horses, sheeps, cats, bats and various birds, including domestic animals, which poses a potential threat to human health. This is evidenced by numerous, although contradictory, research into the role of the Borna disease virus in human pathologies such as schizophrenia, depression, prolonged fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis and others. Analysis of the literature clearly

  17. Draft genome sequence of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2, associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease isolate from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Restrepo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found. The isolates from the geographic collection of Southeast Asia and Mexico show variable regions on the plasmid genome, indicating that even though they are not alike they still conserve the toxin genes. In this paper, we report for the first time, a pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in shrimp from South America that showed symptoms of AHPND. The genomic analysis revealed that this strain of V. parahaemolyticus found in South America appears to be more related to the Southeast Asia as compared to the Mexican strains. This finding is of major importance for the shrimp industry, especially in regards to the urgent need for disease control strategies to avoid large EMS outbreaks and economic loss, and to determine its dispersion in South America. The whole-genome shotgun project of V. parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2 have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PRJNA335761.

  18. Stem Cell Therapy for Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head in Sickle Cell Disease: Report of 11 Cases and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Azam, Md Q; Elshabouri, Ezzat M; Tantawy, Ahmad M; Acharya, Sadananda

    2017-11-30

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is quite common in eastern Saudi Arabia and Avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) occurs in 30% of the young patients leading to early joint arthroplasty. This study was conducted to assess the benefits of injection of osteoblasts in the avascular lesions of the head of femur. A preset technique was used, 10 CC of bone marrow aspiration was performed under local anesthesia and aseptic technique. Osteoblasts were separated from the bone marrow cells. The avascular area was drilled and 10 million osteoblasts were transplanted at the lesion site. Patients were seen in the out patient clinic after two weeks for removal of the suture and addressed the questionnaire and examined for the range of movement. The follow up MRI was performed at 4 months. The average age was 20.2±3.9 years. The mean hemoglobin S was 81.6±4.8 percent. Quality of Life Score for Chronic Hip Disease was assessed and found at 8.6 (1 being the severe limitation and 10 being normal), whereas Harris hip score improved from 41.7±5.1 to 88.93±3.6 (p avascular lesions. The short term results were good and we believe the injection of osteoblast in the avascular lesion of head of femur is a less invasive procedure devoid of any untoward complications and merits such treatment in large patient group with longer follow up.

  19. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  20. Control of Ebola virus disease - firestone district, liberia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Mabande, Lyndon G; Thoroughman, Douglas A; Arwady, M Allison; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-10-24

    On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).

  1. Predicting Subnational Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Dynamics from Sociodemographic Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Valeri

    Full Text Available The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa has spread wider than any previous human EVD epidemic. While individual-level risk factors that contribute to the spread of EVD have been studied, the population-level attributes of subnational regions associated with outbreak severity have not yet been considered.To investigate the area-level predictors of EVD dynamics, we integrated time series data on cumulative reported cases of EVD from the World Health Organization and covariate data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. We first estimated the early growth rates of epidemics in each second-level administrative district (ADM2 in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia using exponential, logistic and polynomial growth models. We then evaluated how these growth rates, as well as epidemic size within ADM2s, were ecologically associated with several demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the ADM2, using bivariate correlations and multivariable regression models.The polynomial growth model appeared to best fit the ADM2 epidemic curves, displaying the lowest residual standard error. Each outcome was associated with various regional characteristics in bivariate models, however in stepwise multivariable models only mean education levels were consistently associated with a worse local epidemic.By combining two common methods-estimation of epidemic parameters using mathematical models, and estimation of associations using ecological regression models-we identified some factors predicting rapid and severe EVD epidemics in West African subnational regions. While care should be taken interpreting such results as anything more than correlational, we suggest that our approach of using data sources that were publicly available in advance of the epidemic or in real-time provides an analytic framework that may assist countries in understanding the dynamics of future outbreaks as they occur.

  2. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  3. Critical Role of Airway Macrophages in Modulating Disease Severity during Influenza Virus Infection of Mice ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Michelle D.; Pickett, Danielle L.; van Rooijen, Nico; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    Airway macrophages provide a first line of host defense against a range of airborne pathogens, including influenza virus. In this study, we show that influenza viruses differ markedly in their abilities to infect murine macrophages in vitro and that infection of macrophages is nonproductive and no infectious virus is released. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) infected macrophages with high efficiency and was associated with mild disease following intranasal infection of mice. In contrast, virus strain PR8 (H1N1) was poor in its ability to infect macrophages and highly virulent for mice. Depletion of airway macrophages by clodronate-loaded liposomes led to the development of severe viral pneumonia in BJx109-infected mice but did not modulate disease severity in PR8-infected mice. The severe disease observed in macrophage-depleted mice infected with BJx109 was associated with exacerbated virus replication in the airways, leading to severe airway inflammation, pulmonary edema, and vascular leakage, indicative of lung injury. Thymic atrophy, lymphopenia, and dysregulated cytokine and chemokine production were additional systemic manifestations associated with severe disease. Thus, airway macrophages play a critical role in limiting lung injury and associated disease caused by BJx109. Furthermore, the inability of PR8 to infect airway macrophages may be a critical factor contributing to its virulence for mice. PMID:20504924

  4. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Based on the atomic structure of the viral particles. (Coulibaly et al., 2005) the .... investigation of the molecules involved in the cause of virus entry. ... National Science Foundation Grant (No.30571374 and. No. 30771603).

  5. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  6. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement.

  7. Using epidemiological information to develop effective integrated virus disease management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger A C

    2004-03-01

    Virus diseases cause serious losses in yield and quality of cultivated plants worldwide. These losses and the resulting financial damage can be limited by controlling epidemics using measures that minimise virus infection sources or suppress virus spread. For each combination of virus, cultivated plant and production system, there is an 'economic threshold' above which the financial damage is sufficient to justify using such measures. However, individual measures used alone may bring only small benefits and they may become ineffective, especially over the long term. When diverse control measures that act in different ways are combined and used together, their effects are complementary resulting in far more effective overall control. Such experiences have led to the development of integrated management concepts for virus diseases that combine available host resistance, cultural, chemical and biological control measures. Selecting the ideal mix of measures for each pathosystem and production situation requires detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the causal virus and the mode of action of each individual control measure so that diverse responses can be devised to meet the unique features of each of the different scenarios considered. The strategies developed must be robust and necessitate minimal extra expense, labour demands and disruption to standard practices. Examples of how epidemiological information can be used to develop effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies for diverse situations are described. They involve circumstances where virus transmission from plant-to-plant occurs in four different ways: by contact, non-persistently or persistently by insect vectors, and by root-infecting fungi. The examples are: Subterranean clover mottle virus (SCMoV) (contact-transmitted) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (non-persistently aphid-transmitted) in annually self-regenerating clover pasture; three seed-borne viruses (all non-persistently aphid

  8. Emerging sexually transmitted viral infections: 1. Review of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Rachel J; Manavi, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD has a high mortality rate and, of note, has been detected in the semen of those who have cleared the virus from their blood and have clinically recovered from the disease. As the result of emerging data, the WHO now recommends safe sex practices for all male survivors of EVD for 12 months after the onset of the disease or after having had two consecutive negative tests of semen specimens for the virus. This review provides an up-to-date summary of what is currently known about EVD and its implications for sexual health practice.

  9. Vero cell technology for rapid development of inactivated whole virus vaccines for emerging viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P Noel; Terpening, Sara J; Snow, Doris; Cobb, Ronald R; Kistner, Otfried

    2017-09-01

    Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses. The utility of this platform in rapidly developing inactivated whole virus vaccines against pandemic (-like) influenza viruses and other emerging viruses such as West Nile, Chikungunya, Ross River and SARS is reviewed. The potential of the platform for development of vaccines against other emerging viruses such as Zika virus is described. Expert commentary: Use of this platform can substantially accelerate process development and facilitate licensure because of the substantial existing data set available for the cell matrix. However, programs to provide vaccines against emerging diseases must allow alternative clinical development paths to licensure, without the requirement to carry out large scale field efficacy studies.

  10. Molecular Basis for the Neutralization of Tumor Necrosis Factor α by Certolizumab Pegol in the Treatment of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Un Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies against TNFα, including infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab pegol, are widely used for the treatment of the inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, the crystal structures of TNFα, in complex with the Fab fragments of infliximab and adalimumab, have revealed the molecular mechanisms of these antibody drugs. Here, we report the crystal structure of TNFα in complex with the Fab fragment of certolizumab pegol to clarify the precise antigen-antibody interactions and the structural basis for the neutralization of TNFα by this therapeutic antibody. The structural analysis and the mutagenesis study revealed that the epitope is limited to a single protomer of the TNFα trimer. Additionally, the DE loop and the GH loop of TNFα play critical roles in the interaction with certolizumab, suggesting that this drug exerts its effects by partially occupying the receptor binding site of TNFα. In addition, a conformational change of the DE loop was induced by certolizumab binding, thereby interrupting the TNFα-receptor interaction. A comprehensive comparison of the interactions of TNFα blockers with TNFα revealed the epitope diversity on the surface of TNFα, providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TNFα blockers. The accumulation of these structural studies can provide a basis for the improvement of therapeutic antibodies against TNFα.

  11. Deep sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals RNA sequences involved in genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grace; Newman, Joseph; Wright, Caroline F; Lasecka-Dykes, Lidia; Haydon, Daniel T; Cottam, Eleanor M; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2017-10-18

    Non-enveloped viruses protect their genomes by packaging them into an outer shell or capsid of virus-encoded proteins. Packaging and capsid assembly in RNA viruses can involve interactions between capsid proteins and secondary structures in the viral genome as exemplified by the RNA bacteriophage MS2 and as proposed for other RNA viruses of plants, animals and human. In the picornavirus family of non-enveloped RNA viruses, the requirements for genome packaging remain poorly understood. Here we show a novel and simple approach to identify predicted RNA secondary structures involved in genome packaging in the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). By interrogating deep sequencing data generated from both packaged and unpackaged populations of RNA we have determined multiple regions of the genome with constrained variation in the packaged population. Predicted secondary structures of these regions revealed stem loops with conservation of structure and a common motif at the loop. Disruption of these features resulted in attenuation of virus growth in cell culture due to a reduction in assembly of mature virions. This study provides evidence for the involvement of predicted RNA structures in picornavirus packaging and offers a readily transferable methodology for identifying packaging requirements in many other viruses. Importance In order to transmit their genetic material to a new host, non-enveloped viruses must protect their genomes by packaging them into an outer shell or capsid of virus-encoded proteins. For many non-enveloped RNA viruses the requirements for this critical part of the viral life cycle remain poorly understood. We have identified RNA sequences involved in genome packaging of the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus. This virus causes an economically devastating disease of livestock affecting both the developed and developing world. The experimental methods developed to carry out this work are novel, simple and transferable to the

  12. Association between pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections disease and tumor necrosis factor-? gene?308 g/a, ?850 c/t polymorphisms in 4-12-year-old children in Adana/Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Luleyap, H. Umit; Onatoglu, Dilge; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Alptekin, Davut; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y.; Cetiner, Salih; Pazarbasi, Ayfer; Unal, Ilker; Avci, Ayse; Comertpay, Gamze

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is a newly defined disease in neuropsychiatry and occurs with an autoimmune mechanism after Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) infection. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), encoded by TNF-α gene has an important role in the apoptotic mechanisms of autoimmune diseases. Recently, TNF-α polymorphisms and autoimmune/psychiatric disorders have been reported to be related. In this regar...

  13. The effect of temperature on the in vitro transcriptase reaction of bluetongue virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and African horsesickness virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H.

    1982-01-01

    Virions of bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and African horsesickness virus (AHSV) can be converted to core particles by treatment with chymotrypsin and magnesium. The conversion is characterized by the removal of the 2 outer capsid polypeptides of the virion. The loss of these 2 proteins results in an increase in density from 1,36 g/ml to 1,40 g/ml on CsCl gradients. The BTV, EHDV and AHSV core particles have an associated double-stranded RNA dependent RNA transcriptase that appears to transcribe mRNA optimally at 28 degrees Celsius. It was found, at least in the case of BTV, that this low temperature preference is not an intrinsic characteristic of the transcriptase, but is due to a temperature-dependent inhibition of transcription at high core concentrations

  14. Progress toward an enhanced vaccine: Eight marked attenuated viruses to porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Allyn; Wang, Feng-Xue; Kappes, Matthew A; Das, Phani B; Faaberg, Kay S

    2018-03-01

    Recombinant viruses of strain Ingelvac® PRRS porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live virus vaccine were produced with two individual small in-frame deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2; Δ23 and Δ87) and also the same deletions supplanted with foreign tags (Δ23-V5, Δ23-FLAG, Δ23-S, Δ87-V5, Δ87-FLAG, Δ87-S). The viruses, but one (Δ87-FLAG), were stable for 10 passages and showed minimal effects on in vitro growth. Northern hybridization showed that the Δ23-tagged probe detected intracellular viral genome RNA as well as shorter RNAs that may represent heteroclite species, while the Δ87-tagged probe detected predominantly only genome length RNAs. When the tagged viruses were used to probe nsp2 protein in infected cells, perinuclear localization similar to native nsp2 was seen. Dual infection of Δ23-S and Δ87-S viruses allowed some discrimination of individual tagged nsp2 protein, facilitating future research. The mutants could potentially also be used to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. M2 Macrophages Play Critical Roles in Progression of Inflammatory Liver Disease in Hepatitis C Virus Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Kimura, Kiminori; Tokunaga, Yuko; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Tateno, Chise; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages in liver tissue are widely defined as important inflammatory cells in chronic viral hepatitis due to their proinflammatory activity. We reported previously that interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) play significant roles in causing chronic hepatitis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) transgenic mice (S. Sekiguchi et al., PLoS One 7:e51656, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051656). In addition, we showed that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing an HCV nonstructural protein (rVV-N25) could protect against the progression of chronic hepatitis by suppression of macrophage activation. Here, we focus on the role of macrophages in liver disease progression in HCV transgenic mice and examine characteristic features of macrophages following rVV-N25 treatment. The number of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) CD11c(-) CD206(+) (M2) macrophages in the liver of HCV transgenic mice was notably increased compared to that of age-matched control mice. These M2 macrophages in the liver produced elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. rVV-N25 infection suppressed the number and activation of M2 macrophages in liver tissue. These results suggested that inflammatory cytokines produced by M2-like macrophages contribute to the induction of chronic liver inflammation in HCV transgenic mice. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of rVV-N25 might be induced by the suppression of the number and activation of hepatic macrophages. HCV causes persistent infections that can lead to chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma; the search for an HCV curative is the focus of ongoing research. Recently, effective anti-HCV drugs have been developed; however, vaccine development still is required for the prevention and therapy of infection by this virus. We demonstrate here that M2 macrophages are important for the pathogenesis of HCV-caused liver diseases and additionally show that M2 macrophages contribute to the therapeutic mechanism observed following r

  16. Demyelinizing neurological disease after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha-inhibiting agents in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theibich, Ali; Dreyer, Lene; Magyari, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Biological treatment with inhibitors of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha has dramatically improved the disease course of several chronic rheumatologic conditions. Adverse events (AEs) are primarily infections and hypersensitivity reactions. Demyelinizing neurological symptoms resembling...... multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described as a rare AE. During about 10-year use of anti TNF-alpha, the Danish Medicines Agency has recorded eight cases of MS like AEs. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of demyelinizing AEs both in the central and peripheral nervous system after...... treatment with anti TNF-alpha in a cohort of patients from a large rheumatologic outpatient clinic in Copenhagen. In a 4-year period from January 2008 to December 2011, approximately 550 patients annually were undergoing treatment with anti TNF-alpha inhibitors in our department. We collected data on all...

  17. Association between tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Pasternak, Björn; Basit, Saima

    2014-01-01

    -α antagonist users and nonusers, estimated using Poisson regression adjusted for age, calendar year, disease duration, propensity scores, and use of other IBD medications. RESULTS: During 489,433 person-years of follow-up (median, 9.3 years [interquartile range, 4.2-14.0]), 81 of 4553 patients exposed to TNF......-α antagonists (1.8%) (median follow-up, 3.7 years [interquartile range, 1.8-6.0]) and 3465 of 51,593 unexposed patients (6.7%) developed cancer, yielding a fully adjusted RR of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.85-1.36). There was no significantly increased risk of cancer in analyses according to time since first TNF...

  18. Effects of Combination Therapy With Immunomodulators on Trough Levels and Antibodies Against Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yun; Mao, Ren; Chen, Bai-Li; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; Guo, Jing; He, Yao; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Chen, Min-Hu

    2017-09-01

    It is not clear whether combination therapy with immunomodulators affects the immunogenicity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the effects of combined immunomodulator therapy on the presence of antibodies against TNF antagonists (antidrug antibodies [ADAs]) and trough levels of anti-TNF agents. We systematically searched publication databases for studies that reported prevalence of ADAs in patients who received anti-TNF agents. Raw data from studies that met the inclusion criteria were pooled to determine effect estimates. We performed subgroup and metaregression analyses to determine the level of heterogeneity among study outcomes. We analyzed findings from 35 studies that met inclusion criteria (results reported from 6790 patients with inflammatory bowel disease). The pooled risk ratio for formation of ADAs in patients receiving combined therapy with immunomodulators, versus that of patients receiving anti-TNF monotherapy, was 0.49 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.59; P immunomodulators (standardized mean difference, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.41; P = .47). Subgroup analyses of patients treated with different TNF antagonists revealed no difference in the formation of ADAs (P = .50 for interaction); the protective effect of immunomodulators did not differ with type of drug patients were given (methotrexate vs thiopurines), or assay for ADA. We observed heterogeneity only among studies of patients with ulcerative colitis (I 2  = 76%). Funnel plot and Egger test analyses indicated publication bias in the studies (P = .001). In a meta-analysis of published studies, we associated combined treatment with immunomodulators with reduced risk of formation of antibodies against TNF antagonists in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (Pducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (Pducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Novel serotype of bluetongue virus in South America and first report of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdezoto, J; Breard, E; Viarouge, C; Quenault, H; Lucas, P; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Augot, D; Zapata, S

    2018-02-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are closely related Orbiviruses that affect domestic and wild ruminants. In Ecuador previous serological studies reported the presence of BTV; however, no data are available about the presence of EHDV. In this study, 295 cattle without symptoms of infection were sampled from two farms located in Andean and Amazonian regions and from a slaughterhouse in the coastal region. ELISA analyses showed high prevalence of BTV (98.9%) and EHDV (81.3%) antibodies, and RT-qPCRs revealed the presence of EHDV (24.1%) and BTV (10.2%) genomes in cattle blood samples. Viral isolation allowed to identify EHDV serotype 1 (EHDV1) and BTV serotypes 9 (BTV9), 13 and 18. These findings suggest that BTV and EHDV are enzootic diseases in Ecuador. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  2. Phenotype variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  3. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. In the present study we...... compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K...... coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs....

  4. Virus-host interactions and their roles in coral reef health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Payet, Jérôme P; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling. Last, we outline how marine viruses are an integral part of the reef system and suggest that the influence of viruses on reef function is an essential component of these globally important environments.

  5. Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J

    1992-05-15

    Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

  6. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccines against human and animal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Houqiang; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recombinant genetic engineering techniques have brought forward a leap in designing new vaccines in modern medicine. One attractive strategy is the application of reverse genetics technology to make recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) deliver protective antigens of pathogens. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that rNDV-vectored vaccines can induce quicker and better humoral and mucosal immune responses than conventional vaccines and are protective against pathogen challenges. With deeper understanding of NDV molecular biology, it is feasible to develop gene-modified rNDV vaccines accompanied by good safety, high efficacy, low toxicity and better immunogenicity. This review summarizes the development of reverse genetics technology in using NDV as a promising vaccine vector to design new vaccines for human and animal use.

  7. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-I in the cord blood as predictors of chronic lung disease in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hiromi; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Ohyama, Makiko; Haruki, Atsushi; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Mori, Masaaki; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei

    2004-11-01

    In order to predict the late-development of chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD), cytokines in the cord blood were assessed in this study. Eighteen premature infants with CLD were enrolled. Cord blood plasma levels of cytokines of these infants and 12 control infants without CLD were measured including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF receptor-I, and soluble IL-6 receptor using a cytometric bead array and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cord blood IL-6, IL-8, and sTNFR-I levels were significantly elevated in CLD infants compared with those in control (P < .05). IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma were undetectable in both groups. CLD infants with maternal chorioamnionitis had higher IL-6 than those without chorioamnionitis (P < .01). In CLD infants, IL-6 was higher in the infants who required prolonged oxygen therapy (P < .05). Elevated inflammatory cytokines in the cord blood are associated with the progression to CLD.

  8. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV...

  9. Quantification of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Transmission Rates Using Published Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers

  10. Characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seago, J.; Jackson, T.; Doel, C.; Fry, E.; Stuart, D.; Harmsen, M.M.; Charleston, B.; Juleff, N.

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool

  11. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  12. Viral shedding and emission of airborne infectious bursal disease virus from a broiler room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.; Fabri, T.

    2013-01-01

    1. The significance of airborne transmission in epidemics of infectious diseases in the livestock production industry remains unclear. The study therefore investigated the shedding route (faeces vs. exhaled air) of a vaccine strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by broilers and the

  13. Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.  Created: 8/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/19/2014.

  14. Perturbations in the antioxidant metabolism during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken. Protective role of vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Kadiam C. Venkata; Raniprameela, D.; Visweswari, Gopalareddygari; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Lokanatha, Valluru

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on pro/anti-oxidant status in the liver, brain and heart of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infected chickens. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- S-transferase (GST) and the levels of reduced glutathione and malonaldehyde were estimated in selected tissues of uninfected, NDV-infected and NDV + vit. E-treated chickens. A significant increase in MDA levels in brain and liver ( p neuronal necrosis and degeneration of Purkinje cells were observed in brain and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in heart. However such histological alterations were not observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals. The results of the present study, thus demonstrated that antioxidant defense mechanism is impaired after the induction of NDV, suggesting its critical role in cellular injury in brain and liver. Further, the results also suggest that vitamin E treatment will ameliorate the antioxidant status in the infected animals. The findings could be beneficial to understand the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of NDV and therapeutic interventions of antioxidants.

  15. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... region within the O1K B64 strain that inhibits replication in cattle. These chimeric infectious cDNA plasmids provide a basis for the analysis of FMDV pathogenicity and characterization of receptor utilization in vivo....

  16. Herpes simplex type 2 virus deleted in glycoprotein D protects against vaginal, skin and neural disease

    OpenAIRE

    Petro, Christopher; Gonz?lez, Pablo A; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jandl, Thomas; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; B?nard, Ang?le; Sengupta, Mayami; Herold, Betsy C; Jacobs, William R

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Herpes simplex virus 2 (or HSV-2) infects millions of people worldwide and is the leading cause of genital diseases. The virus initially infects skin cells, but then spreads to nerve cells where it persists for life. Often, the virus remains in a dormant state for long periods of time and does not cause any symptoms. However, HSV-2 can periodically re-activate, leading to repeated infections; this can be life-threatening in patients who suffer from a weak immune system. There is ...

  17. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus's viral peptides with LC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pzdemir, Z.O.; Bulut, E.K.; Mustafeva, Z.; Karahan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides and proteins play a central role in numerous biological and physiological processes in living organisms. Viral capsid peptides are part of the viruses' outer shell of genetic materials. Viruses are recognized by immune system via capsid peptides. Depending on this property of capsid peptides, prototypes synthetic peptide-based vaccine can be developed. In this work, we synthesized three different viral peptide sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus with microwave enhanced solid phase synthesis method. These peptides were characterized by using liquid chromatography electro spray interface mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) with electro spray ionization. We briefly describe the essential facts for peptide characterization. (author)

  18. Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Hong Kong on local and imported poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J

    1978-09-01

    Surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowl originating in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China at a poultry dressing plant in Hong Kong yielded 67 isolates of Newcastle disease virus. More than twice as many viruses were isolated from the cloaca than from the trachea. Twelve representative isolates were examined in virulence tests--all six of the fowl isolates and two of five duck isolates behaved as velogenic strains, the other four were lentogenic.

  19. Quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population. We therefore quantified virus transmission by performing experiments with FMD virus strain O/NET/2001 in groups of lambs. We used six

  20. Effect of low dose gamma-radiation upon Newcastle disease virus antibody level in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Gottstein, Z.; Ciglar Grozdanic, I.; Matanovic, K.; Miljanic, S.; Mazija, H.; Kraljevic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The specific antibody response against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs exposed to low dose gamma-radiation was studied. Materials and methods: Two groups of eggs of commercial meat chicken lines were irradiated with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60 Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19 th day of incubation, respectively. The same number of eggs unexposed to gamma-radiation served as controls. After hatching the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19 th day of incubation was not vaccinated while the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation was vaccinated on the 14 day. Specific serum anti-Newcastle disease virus antibodies were quantified by the hemagglutination inhibition assay with 4 HA units of Newcastle disease virus La Sota strain. Result: Specific antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation and vaccinated on the 14 th day significantly increased on the 28 th day. Specific antibody titre against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19 th day of incubation and non-vaccinated was significantly higher on the 1 st and 14 th day. Conclusion: Acute irradiation of heavy breeding chicken eggs with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60 Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19 th day of incubation could have a stimulative effect on humoral immunity in chickens.

  1. Virus Excretion from Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Carrier Cattle and Their Potential Role in Causing New Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Aravindh Babu R; Mahapatra, Mana; Gubbins, Simon; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-01

    The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from FMDV infection. In this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of FMDV infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. We collected nasal and saliva samples from 32 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated FMDV carrier cattle and 48 vaccinated and 13 unvaccinated non-carrier cattle (total n=100) during the acute phase of infection (up to 28 days post-challenge) and then from limited number of animals up to a maximum 168 days post-challenge. We demonstrate that unvaccinated cattle excrete significantly higher levels of virus for longer periods compared with vaccinated cattle and this is independent of whether or not they subsequently become carriers. By introducing naïve cattle in to the FMDV carrier population we show the risk of new outbreaks is clearly very low in controlled conditions, although there could still be a potential threat of these carrier animals causing new outbreaks in the field situation. Finally, we compared the complete genome sequences of viruses from carrier cattle with the challenge virus and found no evidence for viral determinants of the carrier state.

  2. Virus Excretion from Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Carrier Cattle and Their Potential Role in Causing New Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravindh Babu R Parthiban

    Full Text Available The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from FMDV infection. In this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of FMDV infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. We collected nasal and saliva samples from 32 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated FMDV carrier cattle and 48 vaccinated and 13 unvaccinated non-carrier cattle (total n=100 during the acute phase of infection (up to 28 days post-challenge and then from limited number of animals up to a maximum 168 days post-challenge. We demonstrate that unvaccinated cattle excrete significantly higher levels of virus for longer periods compared with vaccinated cattle and this is independent of whether or not they subsequently become carriers. By introducing naïve cattle in to the FMDV carrier population we show the risk of new outbreaks is clearly very low in controlled conditions, although there could still be a potential threat of these carrier animals causing new outbreaks in the field situation. Finally, we compared the complete genome sequences of viruses from carrier cattle with the challenge virus and found no evidence for viral determinants of the carrier state.

  3. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with greater odds of remission with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α medications among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R W; Collins, E; Cao, B; Carrellas, M; Crowell, A M; Korzenik, J R

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin D has been linked to disease activity among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Prior investigation has also suggested that vitamin D levels may affect duration of therapy with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) medications among patients with IBD. To evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and odds of reaching remission while on an anti-TNF-α medication. A total of 521 IBD patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women's IBD Centre database were eligible for inclusion. Patients treated with anti-TNF-α therapy who had vitamin D levels drawn within 6 months prior or 2 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF-α medication and who had reported remission status at 3 months were included. A logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, IBD diagnosis, anti-TNF-α medication (infliximab vs. adalimumab) and first or subsequent anti-TNF-α medication was used to identify the effect of vitamin D level on initial response to anti-TNF-α therapy. A total of 173 patients were included in the final analysis. On logistic regression, patients with normal vitamin D levels n = 122 at the time of anti-TNF-α medication initiation had a 2.64 increased odds of remission at 3 months compared to patients with low vitamin D levels n = 51 when controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, type of anti-TNF-α medication and first or subsequent anti-TNF-α medication (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31-5.32, P = 0.0067). These findings suggest that vitamin D levels may influence initial response to anti-TNF-α medication and that low vitamin D levels may pre-dispose patients to decreased odds of remission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 99Tcm-MIBI single photon emission tomography (SPET) for detecting myocardial ischaemia and necrosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, M G; Fragasso, G; Gerundini, P; Maffioli, L; Cappelletti, A; Margonato, A; Savi, A; Chierchia, S

    1992-12-01

    The ability of 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET) to detect myocardial ischaemia and necrosis was assessed in 56 patients (45 male, 11 female, aged 55 +/- 5 years), with clinically recognized ischaemic heart disease (IHD). All underwent coronary angiography (CA) and left ventriculography (LV). SPET images were obtained at rest and at peak exercise (Modified Bruce) 90 min after injection of 99Tcm-MIBI (650-850 MBq). Data were acquired in 30 min over 180 degrees (from 45 degrees RAO to 45 degrees LPO) with no correction for attenuation, using a 64 x 64 matrix. The presence of persistent (P) or reversible (R) perfusion defects (PD) was then correlated to the resting and exercise ECG and to the results of CA and LV. Of the 56 patients, 34 had reversible underperfusion (RPD), 46 persistent underperfusion (PPD) and 31 had both. The occurrence of RPD correlated well with the occurrence of exercise-induced ST segment depression and/or angina (27 patients of 34 patients, 79%) and with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (33 of 44, 73%). In 45 of 46 patients (98%) PPD corresponded to akinetic or severely hypokinetic segments (LV) usually explored by ECG leads exhibiting diagnostic Q waves (42 of 46 patients, 91%). The scan was normal both at rest and after stress in four of 11 patients with no CAD, and in two of 45 patients with CAD. Finally, an abnormal resting scan was seen in seven of 11 patients with normal coronary arteries, of whom six had regional wall motion abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxin-like genes in a plasmid of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F. J.; Tran, Loc H.; Lightner, Donald V.

    2016-01-01

    The 69 kb plasmid pVPA3-1 was identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain 13-028/A3 that can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease is responsible for mass mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp and is referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS). The plasmid has a GC content of 45.9% with a copy number of 37 per bacterial cell as determined by comparative quantitative PCR analyses. It consists of 92 open reading frames that encode mobilization proteins, replication enzymes, transposases, virulence-associated proteins, and proteins similar to Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins. In V. parahaemolyticus, these Pir toxin-like proteins are encoded by 2 genes ( pirA- and pirB-like) located within a 3.5 kb fragment flanked with inverted repeats of a transposase-coding sequence (1 kb). The GC content of these 2 genes is only 38.2%, substantially lower than that of the rest of the plasmid, which suggests that these genes were recently acquired. Based on a proteomic analysis, the pirA-like (336 bp) and pirB-like (1317 bp) genes encode for 13 and 50 kDa proteins, respectively. In laboratory cultures of V. parahaemolyticus 13-028/A3, both proteins were secreted into the culture medium. We developed a duplex PCR diagnostic method, with a detection limit of 105 CFU ml−1 and targeting pirA- and pirB-like genes in this strain of V. parahaemolyticus. This PCR protocol can reliably detect AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus and does not cross react with non-pathogenic strains or with other species of Vibrio isolated from shrimp ponds. PMID:25667334

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade exacerbates murine psoriasis-like disease by enhancing Th17 function and decreasing expansion of Treg cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hak-Ling; Napierata, Lee; Stedman, Nancy; Benoit, Stephen; Collins, Mary; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Young, Deborah A

    2010-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis respond well to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) blockers in general; however, there is now mounting evidence that a small cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who receive TNFalpha blockers develop psoriasis. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms underlying TNFalpha blockade-induced exacerbation of skin inflammation in murine psoriasis-like skin disease. Skin inflammation was induced in BALB/c scid/scid mice after they received CD4+CD45RB(high)CD25- (naive CD4) T cells from donor mice. These mice were treated with either anti-interleukin-12 (anti-IL-12)/23p40 antibody or murine TNFRII-Fc fusion protein and were examined for signs of disease, including histologic features, various cytokine levels in the serum, and cytokine or FoxP3 transcripts in the affected skin and draining lymph node (LN) cells. In a separate study, naive CD4+ T cells were differentiated into Th1 or Th17 lineages with anti-CD3/28 magnetic beads and appropriate cytokines in the presence or absence of TNFalpha. Cytokine gene expression from these differentiated cells was also determined. Neutralization of TNFalpha exacerbated skin inflammation and markedly enhanced the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22 but suppressed FoxP3 expression in the skin and reduced the number of FoxP3-positive Treg cells in the draining LNs. TNFalpha also demonstrated a divergent role during priming and reactivation of naive T cells. These results reveal a novel immunoregulatory role of TNFalpha on Th17 and Treg cells in some individuals, which may account for the exacerbation of skin inflammation in some patients who receive anti-TNF treatments.

  7. Prevalence and Associations of Avascular Necrosis of the Hip in a Large Well-characterized Cohort of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Vineet S; Patel, Anish V; Learch, Thomas J; Li, Dalin; Karayev, Dmitry; Williams, Chadwick; Siddanthi, Madhavi L; Targan, Stephan R; Weisman, Michael H; McGovern, Dermot P B

    2018-05-24

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is associated with significant morbidity potentially causing severe pain and debility; patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher prevalence of AVN compared with non-IBD populations. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of AVN in our IBD population and to evaluate these subjects for the presence of clinical characteristics associated with AVN on computed tomography (CT) imaging. In 1313 IBD patients with abdomen/pelvis CT scans, we identified 27 patients (2.1%) with CT findings consistent with AVN. Through historical chart review, we confirmed that most patients had prior exposure to steroids, although 2 patients had no documented steroid exposure at all. We found that 59% of the concurrent radiology reports did not comment on the presence of AVN, suggesting that incidental CT findings of AVN among IBD patients are likely underreported. Notably, we found that 63% of these cases had documented complaints of low-back and/or hip pain. Using logistic regression, we found an association between anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive status across IBD (P = 0.007) and a smoking history in Crohn disease (P = 0.03) with the presence of AVN. We found that a significant proportion of IBD patients with AVN are reported in their records as not having hip or low-back pain, and review of CT imaging under dedicated bone windows may identify AVN among this population. Our findings also suggest that additional etiological factors, beyond corticosteroids, contribute to the development of AVN in IBD. Further investigation is warranted regarding the mechanisms associated with AVN in IBD.

  8. How should immunomodulators be optimized when used as combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in the management of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mark G; Irving, Peter M; Sparrow, Miles P

    2015-10-28

    In the last 15 years the management of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved greatly, largely through the increased use of immunomodulators and, especially, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents. Within this time period, confidence in the use of anti-TNFs has increased, whilst, especially in recent years, the efficacy and safety of thiopurines has been questioned. Yet despite recent concerns regarding the risk: benefit profile of thiopurines, combination therapy with an immunomodulator and an anti-TNF has emerged as the recommended treatment strategy for the majority of patients with moderate-severe disease, especially those who are recently diagnosed. Concurrently, therapeutic drug monitoring has emerged as a means of optimizing the dosage of both immunomodulators and anti-TNFs. However the recommended therapeutic target levels for both drug classes were largely derived from studies of monotherapy with either agent, or studies underpowered to analyze outcomes in combination therapy patients. It has been assumed that these target levels are applicable to patients on combination therapy also, however there are few data to support this. Similarly, the timing and duration of treatment with immunomodulators when used in combination therapy remains unknown. Recent attention, including post hoc analyses of the pivotal registration trials, has focused on the optimization of anti-TNF agents, when used as either monotherapy or combination therapy. This review will instead focus on how best to optimize immunomodulators when used in combination therapy, including an evaluation of recent data addressing unanswered questions regarding the optimal timing, dosage and duration of immunomodulator therapy in combination therapy patients.

  9. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  10. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  11. Vaccine-induced anti-HA2 antibodies promote virus fusion and enhance influenza virus respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Loving, Crystal L; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Gauger, Phillip C; Henningson, Jamie; Vincent, Amy L; Golding, Hana

    2013-08-28

    Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. We investigated a swine model to evaluate mismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. WIV-H1N2 immune sera contained high titers of cross-reactive anti-pH1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies that bound exclusively to the HA2 domain but not to the HA1 globular head. No hemagglutination inhibition titers against pH1N1 (challenge virus) were measured. Epitope mapping using phage display library identified the immunodominant epitope recognized by WIV-H1N2 immune sera as amino acids 32 to 77 of pH1N1-HA2 domain, close to the fusion peptide. These cross-reactive anti-HA2 antibodies enhanced pH1N1 infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by promoting virus membrane fusion activity. The enhanced fusion activity correlated with lung pathology in pigs. This study suggests a role for fusion-enhancing anti-HA2 antibodies in VAERD, in the absence of receptor-blocking virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies.

  12. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-11-14

    To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively ( P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans.

  13. Zika virus infection: The resurgence of a neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kambale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Zika virus" (ZIKV is an enveloped, icosahedral virus and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 11 kb in length. Genetic studies have revealed three ZIKV lineages: East African, West African, and Asian. Serologic studies and virus isolations have demonstrated that the virus has a wide geographic distribution, spanning East and West Africa, the Americas, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. ZIKV can cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis. During pregnancy ZIKV infection can lead to miscarriages and microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, macular neuroretinal atrophy, and loss of foveal reflex in the fetus. A clinically suspected case of infection with dengue negative result should be further tested for Flavivirus, including Zika. Immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used to detect specific IgM or IgG antibodies against ZIKV. In cases of positive ZIKV infection, symptomatic treatment should be given after excluding other condition such as dengue, malaria, and bacterial infections.

  14. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  15. Understanding the biological mechanisms of Zika virus disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will use advanced biomolecular, genomics and proteomics techniques to explain the molecular mechanisms by which the Zika virus infects and persists in the human body, how it affects the human reproductive and central nervous system, and how the risk of fetal abnormalities can be better predicted in infected ...

  16. Comparison of vaccine efficacy for different antigen delivery systems for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a cohabitation challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Fredriksen, Børge N; Mutoloki, Stephen; Brudeseth, Bjørn; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Marjara, Inderjit S; Dalmo, Roy A; Evensen, Øystein

    2012-06-08

    Two strains of IPNV made by reverse genetics on the Norwegian Sp strain NVI-015 (GenBank AY379740) backbone encoding the virulent (T(217)A(221)) and avirulent (P(217)T(221)) motifs were used to prepare inactivated whole virus (IWV), nanoparticle vaccines with whole virus, Escherichia coli subunit encoding truncated VP2-TA and VP2-PT, VP2-TA and VP2-PT fusion antigens with putative translocating domains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin, and plasmid DNA encoding segment A of the TA strain. Post challenge survival percentages (PCSP) showed that IWV vaccines conferred highest protection (PCSP=42-53) while nanoparticle, sub-unit recombinant and DNA vaccines fell short of the IWV vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) postsmolts challenged with the highly virulent Sp strain NVI-015 (TA strain) of IPNV after 560 degree days post vaccination. Antibody levels induced by these vaccines did not show antigenic differences between the virulent and avirulent motifs for vaccines made with the same antigen dose and delivery system after 8 weeks post vaccination. Our findings show that fish vaccinated with less potent vaccines comprising of nanoparticle, DNA and recombinant vaccines got infected much earlier and yielded to higher infection rates than fish vaccinated with IWV vaccines that were highly potent. Ability of the virulent (T(217)A(221)) and avirulent (P(217)T(221)) motifs to limit establishment of infection showed equal protection for vaccines made of the same antigen dose and delivery systems. Prevention of tissue damage linked to viral infection was eminent in the more potent vaccines than the less protective ones. Hence, there still remains the challenge of developing highly efficacious vaccines with the ability to eliminate the post challenge carrier state in IPNV vaccinology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Generation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoprotein gB or gD as Dual Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.

  18. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  19. Enfermedad del virus del Ébola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast proporciona información general sobre la enfermedad del virus del Ébola y el brote en África Occidental. El programa contiene declaraciones del director de los CDC, Dr. Tom Frieden, así como una breve descripción de las actividades de respuesta de los CDC.

  20. Rapid Engineering of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine and Challenge Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Park, Jeong-Nam; Park, Min-Eun; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-08-15

    There are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), each of which has intratypic variants. In the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. The capsid-encoding gene (P1) of the vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the O, A, Asia1, C, SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 serotypes. Viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. Each chimeric FMDV with a replacement of P1 showed serotype-specific antigenicity and varied in terms of pathogenesis in pigs and mice. Vaccination of pigs with an experimental trivalent vaccine containing the inactivated recombinants based on the main serotypes O, A, and Asia1 effectively protected them from virus challenge. This technology could be a potential strategy for a customized vaccine with challenge tools to protect against epizootic disease caused by specific serotypes or subtypes of FMDV. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) causes significant economic losses. For vaccine preparation, the selection of vaccine strains was complicated by high antigenic variation. In the present study, we suggested an effective strategy to rapidly prepare and evaluate mass-produced customized vaccines against epidemic strains. The P1 gene encoding the structural proteins of the well-known vaccine virus was replaced by the synthetic or amplified genes of viruses of seven representative serotypes. These chimeric viruses generally replicated readily in cell culture and had a particle size similar to that of the original vaccine strain. Their antigenicity mirrored that of the original serotype from which their P1 gene was derived. Animal infection experiments revealed that the recombinants varied in terms of pathogenicity. This strategy will be a useful tool for rapidly generating customized FMD vaccines or challenge viruses for all serotypes, especially for FMD-free countries