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Sample records for necrosis virus disease

  1. Control of spread of Augusta disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in tulip by composting residual waste of small bulbs, tunics, roots and soil debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, C.J.; Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the elimination of the infectious virus/fungus complex of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV; cause of Augusta disease in tulip) and Olpidium brassicae in different soil types and residual waste material of soil debris, small tulip bulbs, roots and tunics by temperature treatments of

  2. Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Transmission and Disease among Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed in Culture Compared to Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Foott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of IHNV infection and disease were followed in a juvenile Chinook salmon population both during hatchery rearing and for two weeks post-release. Cumulative weekly mortality increased from 0.03%–3.5% as the prevalence of viral infection increased from 2%–22% over the same four-week period. The majority of the infected salmon was asymptomatic. Salmon demonstrating clinical signs of infection shed 1000 pfu mL-1 of virus into the water during a 1 min observation period and had a mean concentration of 106 pfu mL-1 in their mucus. The high virus concentration detected in mucus suggests that it could act as an avenue of transmission in high density situations where dominance behavior results in nipping. Infected smolts that had migrated 295 km down river were collected at least two weeks after their release. The majority of the virus positive smolts was asymptomatic. A series of transmission experiments was conducted using oral application of the virus to simulate nipping, brief low dose waterborne challenges, and cohabitation with different ratios of infected to naïve fish. These studies showed that asymptomatic infections will occur when a salmon is exposed for as little as 1 min to >102 pfu mL-1, yet progression to clinical disease is infrequent unless the challenge dose is >104 pfu mL-1. Asymptomatic infections were detected up to 39 d post-challenge. No virus was detected by tissue culture in natural Chinook juveniles cohabitated with experimentally IHNV-infected hatchery Chinook at ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20 for either 5 min or 24 h. Horizontal transmission of the Sacramento River strain of IHNV from infected juvenile hatchery fish to wild cohorts would appear to be a low ecological risk. The study results demonstrate key differences between IHNV infections as present in a hatchery and the natural environment. These differences should be considered during risk assessments of the impact of IHNV infections on wild salmon and

  3. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout: hematological and blood chemical changes in moribund fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, D.F.; Smith, L.

    1975-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is a rhabdoviral disease of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Trout were injected with IHNV, and various hematological and biochemical measurements of clinically ill fish were compared to uninfected controls. Infected fish had reduced corpuscular counts, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, but normal mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The percentage of immature erythrocytes was increased, but the percentage of leukocytes was unchanged. Differential leukocyte counts showed a significant decrease in neutrophils, increase in lymphocytes, but no change in monocytes. Unidentifiable necrobiotic cells were prevelant in blood smears and hematopoietic tissue imprints. Plasma bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, and osmolality were significantly reduced, but plasma glucose and anterior kidney ascorbate were unchanged. Plasma pH increased and the alpha fractions of the serum proteins were altered. No change was found in plasma enzymes, except that a LDH isozyme was significantly increased. The alkali reserve was diminished and alterations in acid-base and fluid balance occurred. Death probably resulted from a severe electrolyte and fluid imbalance caused by renal failure.

  4. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurath, G.; Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323...... IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8(.)6%, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which...... varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic. diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors...

  5. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tove; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Batts, William

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11...

  6. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. First evidence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, Olga; Schuetze, H.; Cieslak, M.; S., Oldenburg; Spierenburg, M.; Roozenburg-Hengst, R.E.M.; Voorbergen-Laarman, H.A.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Olesen, N.

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2008, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands. The virus was isolated from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from a put-and-take fishery with angling ponds. IHNV is the causative agent of a serious fish disease,

  8. Targeting of regulated necrosis in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martin-Sanchez

    2018-03-01

    (p. ej., con determinados inhibidores de la caspasa pueden desencadenar una necrosis y, por lo tanto, una lesión renal mediada por inflamación. En segundo lugar, y lo que es más revolucionario, ha surgido el concepto de necrosis regulada. Se han descrito varias modalidades de necrosis regulada como necroptosis, ferroptosis, piroptosis y necrosis regulada por transición de permeabilidad mitocondrial. De forma análoga a la apoptosis, la necrosis regulada se modula a través de moléculas específicas que actúan como dianas terapéuticas. Al contrario que la apoptosis, la necrosis regulada puede ser extremadamente proinflamatoria y, lo que es importante para el trasplante renal, inmunogénica. Además, la necrosis regulada puede desencadenar una necrosis sincronizada, en la que todas las células del interior de un túbulo concreto mueren de manera sincronizada. Revisaremos las diferentes modalidades de necrosis regulada, la evidencia de una función en las diversas formas de lesión renal y las nuevas oportunidades de intervención terapéutica. Keywords: Apoptosis, Ferroptosis, Necroptosis, Kidney, Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, Transplantation, Acute rejection, Delayed graft function, Palabras clave: Apoptosis, Ferroptosis, Necroptosis, Riñón, Lesión renal aguda, Enfermedad renal crónica, Trasplante, Rechazo agudo, Función retardada del injerto

  9. Possible reactivation of potential hepatitis B virus occult infection by tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocker in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jung; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Lee, Hye-Soon

    2010-02-01

    To assess the safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) therapy in patients with rheumatic diseases in terms of the reactivation of potential hepatitis B virus (HBV) occult infection. Patients who had taken anti-TNF-alpha for the treatment of rheumatic diseases from January 2002 to May 2008 were included in the study. In this patient group, we retrospectively investigated a series of serum aminotransferase levels, HBV serologic status, the type of anti-TNF-alpha therapy, duration of the anti-TNF-alpha treatment, and concurrent use of hepatotoxic drugs. A total of 266 cases were documented using 3 serologic markers for HBV infection: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV surface antibody (HBsAb), and HBV core IgG Ab (HBcAb). Of these, 8 cases had chronic hepatitis B (HBsAg+), 170 cases were HBcAb-negative, and 88 cases were identified as having potential HBV occult infections represented by HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive, irrespective of the status of the HBsAb. The frequency of clinically significant (> 2 times normal value) and persistent increase (> 2 consecutive tests) of aminotransferase levels was significantly higher in the group with a potential HBV occult infection compared to the HBcAb-negative group. In the multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for various potential confounding factors such as prophylactic anti-tuberculosis medication, methotrexate, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and the type of anti-TNF-alpha therapy, only potential HBV occult infection was a significant risk factor for abnormal liver function test (LFT). All rheumatic patients who plan to take anti-TNF-alpha treatment should undergo a test for HBV serology, including HBcAb, and have a close followup with an LFT test during therapy. Further prospective studies for hepatitis B viral load using HBV-polymerase chain reaction in patients who are HbcAb positive are needed to identify whether the abnormal LFT comes from the reactivation of occult HBV infection.

  10. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus enters CHSE-214 cells via macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levican, Jorge; Miranda-Cárdenas, Camila; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Aguayo, Francisco; Gaggero, Aldo; León, Oscar

    2017-06-08

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a non-enveloped virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family. IPNV produces an acute disease in salmon fingerlings, with high mortality rates and persistent infection in survivors. Although there are reports of IPNV binding to various cells, the viral receptor and entry pathways remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocytic pathway that allows for IPNV entry. We observed that IPNV stimulated fluid uptake and virus particles co-localysed with the uptake marker dextran in intracellular compartments, suggesting a role for macropinocytosis in viral entry. Consistent with this idea, viral infection was significantly reduced when the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 was inhibited with 5-(N-Ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA). Neither chlorpromazine nor filipin complex I affected IPNV infection. To examine the role of macropinocytosis regulators, additional inhibitors were tested. Inhibitors of the EGFR pathway and the effectors Pak1, Rac1 and PKC reduced viral infection. Together, our results indicate that IPNV is mainly internalized into CHSE-214 cells by macropinocytosis.

  11. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  12. An avascular necrosis in Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Uren, R.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis is frequently associated with sickle cell disease and other haemoglobinopathies. It is less commonly associated with Gaucher's disease. A case with multi-modality imaging is presented. A 33-year-old male patient presented with a 4-day history of severe right knee pain. He was a febrile with mild swelling of the right knee. A diagnosis of Gaucher's disease had been made by bone marrow biopsy on a clinical picture of hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopenia some years earlier. A radiograph of the knee demonstrated an Erlenmeyer flask deformity of the distal femur. A bone scan demonstrated reduced perfusion to the distal right femoral shaft and femoral condyles. Delayed images demonstrated decreased tracer uptake in the distal right femur extending to the right medial femoral condyle consistent with a vascular necrosis. An MRI of the thighs demonstrated lipid accumulation in the marrow space of both femora consistent with Gaucher's disease associated with changes of bone oedema in the metadiaphysis and epiphysis of the right femur. The patient was treated with supportive measures and made an uneventful recovery and is being commenced on enzyme replacement therapy (Algucerase)

  13. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  14. First evidence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenen, O L M; Schuetze, H; Cieslak, M

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2008, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands. The virus was isolated from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from a put-and-take fishery with angling ponds. IHNV is the causative agent of a serious fish disease...... that these 12 isolates clustered into two different monophyletic groups within the European IHNV genogroup E. One of these two groups indicates a virus-introduction event by a German trout import, whereas the second group indicates that IHNV was already (several years) in the Netherlands before its discovery...

  15. Targeting of regulated necrosis in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Poveda, Jonay; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Sanchez-Niño, María Dolores; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    The term acute tubular necrosis was thought to represent a misnomer derived from morphological studies of human necropsies and necrosis was thought to represent an unregulated passive form of cell death which was not amenable to therapeutic manipulation. Recent advances have improved our understanding of cell death in acute kidney injury. First, apoptosis results in cell loss, but does not trigger an inflammatory response. However, clumsy attempts at interfering with apoptosis (e.g. certain caspase inhibitors) may trigger necrosis and, thus, inflammation-mediated kidney injury. Second, and most revolutionary, the concept of regulated necrosis emerged. Several modalities of regulated necrosis were described, such as necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis and mitochondria permeability transition regulated necrosis. Similar to apoptosis, regulated necrosis is modulated by specific molecules that behave as therapeutic targets. Contrary to apoptosis, regulated necrosis may be extremely pro-inflammatory and, importantly for kidney transplantation, immunogenic. Furthermore, regulated necrosis may trigger synchronized necrosis, in which all cells within a given tubule die in a synchronized manner. We now review the different modalities of regulated necrosis, the evidence for a role in diverse forms of kidney injury and the new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioactive labelling with 125 I of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Ch, M.; Farias O, G.; Kuznar H, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between a cellular receptor and a ligand the photochemical crosslinking method has been widely used. This method has been utilized as an approach to determine the presence or absence of virus receptors in susceptible cells. Successful detection of crosslinks is achieved if one of the components, in the crosslinked product, has been radioactively labeled. The incorporation of a radioactive isotope, in the virus-receptor complex, enables the identification of the receptor. To undertake this study in the future, in this communication the radioactive labeling of virus particles is presented. The infectious necrosis pancreatic virus (IPN virus) was the chosen moiety to be in vitro labeled with 125 I using a direct method. Three oxidizing agents were used in the iodination procedure for comparison: an enzyme, lactoperoxidase and two chemical reagents, N-Chloro-benceno-sulfonamide (Iodo-Beads) and 1,3,4,6-Tetra chloro-3a,6a-diphenyl glycouril (Iodo-Gen). The results are analysed to select the method which guarantee the incorporation of 125 I in the viral capsid protein, while preserving its full infectivity. (author)

  17. First Record of Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus in Rainbow Trout Fry in Croatia

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    I. Vardić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the first diagnosis of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV in Croatia. The viral causative agent was detected in pooled organ samples from the imported rainbow trout fry on the fish farm. Reverse transcriptase - semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT- snPCR was applied directly on the infected tissue for rapid virus detection. After isolation on cell cultures, IHNV isolate was characterised on the basis of the 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (Mid-G sequence. Phylogenetic comparison to North American and European IHNV isolates revealed that this Croatian isolate belongs to the M genogroup, confirming the prediction of the M genogroup origin of European IHNV isolates. The introduction of the virus presents a threat of further spreading of the disease in Croatia, as the infected farm is in a direct contact with the open waters.

  18. Epidemiological investigation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in salt water net-pen reared Atlantic salmon in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Sophie; Ribble, Carl S.; Stephen, Craig; Anderson, Eric; Kurath, Gael; Kent, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiological study of infectious hematopoietic necrosis viral disease (IHN) in farmed Atlantic salmon in British Columbia was conducted to better understand the management of this disease. The study consisted of a descriptive retrospective investigation of 18 IHN outbreaks on farms between 1992 and 1996, and a prospective surveillance program for the viral disease, after an area management plan was implemented to reduce the viral load around farms and farm-to-farm spread of the virus.

  19. Nonreciprocal Pseudotyping: Murine Leukemia Virus Proteins Cannot Efficiently Package Spleen Necrosis Virus-Based Vector RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Certo, Jeanine L.; Shook, Betsy F.; Yin, Philip D.; Snider, John T.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    1998-01-01

    It has been documented that spleen necrosis virus (SNV) can package murine leukemia virus (MLV) RNA efficiently and propagate MLV vectors to the same titers as it propagates SNV-based vectors. Although the SNV packaging signal (E) and MLV packaging signal (Ψ) have little sequence homology, similar double-hairpin RNA structures were predicted and supported by experimental evidence. To test whether SNV RNA can be packaged by MLV proteins, we modified an SNV vector to be expressed in an MLV-base...

  20. Modeling Virus Coinfection to Inform Management of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Frank M; Allen, Linda J S; Bokil, Vrushali A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Feng, Zhilan; Garrett, Karen A; Gross, Louis J; Hamelin, Frédéric M; Jeger, Michael J; Manore, Carrie A; Power, Alison G; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Rúa, Megan A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-10-01

    Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus and a potyvirus, often Sugarcane mosaic virus. To better understand the dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we modeled the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil, and seed, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterization, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons. Resource-rich farmers with large holdings can achieve good control by combining clean seed and insect control. However, crop rotation is often required to effect full control. Resource-poor farmers with smaller holdings must rely on rotation and roguing, and achieve more limited control. For both types of farmer, unless management is synchronized over large areas, exogenous sources of infection can thwart control. As well as providing practical guidance, our modeling framework is potentially informative for other cropping systems in which coinfection has devastating effects. Our work also emphasizes how mathematical modeling can inform management of an emerging disease even when epidemiological information remains scanty. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .

  1. Neutralization-resistant variants of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus have altered virulence and tissue tropism

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    Kim, C.H.; Winton, J.R.; Leong, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdovirus that causes an acute disease in salmon and trout. In this study, a correlation between changes in tissue tropism and specific changes in the virus genome appeared to be made by examining four IHNV neutralization-resistant variants (RB-1, RB-2, RB-3, and RB-4) that had been selected with the glycoprotein (G)-specific monoclonal antibody RB/B5. These variants were compared with the parental strain (RB-76) for their virulence and pathogenicity in rainbow trout after waterborne challenge. Variants RB-2, RB-3, and RB-4 were only slightly attenuated and showed distributions of viral antigen in the livers and hematopoietic tissues of infected fish similar to those of the parental strain. Variant RB-1, however, was highly attenuated and the tissue distribution of viral antigen in RB-1-infected fish was markedly different, with more viral antigen in brain tissue. The sequences of the G genes of all four variants and RB-76 were determined. No significant changes were found for the slightly attenuated variants, but RB-1 G had two changes at amino acids 78 and 218 that dramatically altered its predicted secondary structure. These changes are thought to be responsible for the altered tissue tropism of the virus. Thus, IHNV G, like that of rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, plays an integral part in the pathogenesis of viral infection.

  2. HOW to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease from Elm Phloem Necrosis

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    Lester Paul Gibson; Arthur R. Hastings; Leon A. LeMadeliene

    1981-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) and elm phloem necrosis are the two most serious diseases of elm in the United States (Figs. 1 and 2). Most native species of elm are susceptible to both diseases. Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus, Ceratocystis u1mi (Buisman) C. Moreau, and is transmitted by two species of elm bark beetles-the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus...

  3. Varicella zoster virus acute retinal necrosis following eye contusion: case report

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    Kovařík Zdeněk

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute retinal necrosis is a sight-threatening disease caused by the group of herpesviruses. The aim of this paper is to report a case of acute retinal necrosis following ocular trauma in a patient initially treated with vaso-active drugs and corticosteroids for presumed ocular ischemic syndrome. Case presentation A 51-years-old otherwise healthy man, who suffered from sudden visual loss in the left eye following contusion, was commenced on vaso-active drugs and systemic corticosteroids for suspected ocular ischemic syndrome with extensive swelling of the optic disc and macular edema. Subsequently, vision in the initially uninvolved right eye decreased. Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous samples and retinal biopsy confirmed varicella zoster virus. Despite intensive treatment with intravenous antiviral medication, the patient became completely blind in both eyes. Conclusion Initial treatment of acute, unexplained visual decrease with systemic corticosteroids may lead to visual loss in patients with developing acute retinal necrosis. Ocular trauma could have induced and corticosteroid treatment promoted reactivation of a latent viral infection in our patient.

  4. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  5. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus causing clinical and subclinical infections in Atlantic salmon have different genetic fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mutoloki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV is the causative agent of IPN, an important disease of salmonids. IPNV infections result in either sub-clinical or overt disease and the basis of this difference is not well understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the VP2 gene of the virus associated with the different forms of clinical manifestation. Groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. reared in farms located in different IPN disease pressures were monitored from brood stock until grow-out over a 3 year period. Hatcheries A1 and B1 as well as cooperating seawater farms were located in a low disease risk area while hatcheries A2 and B2 as well as their cooperating seawater farms were in high IPN risk areas. Samples including eggs, milt, whole fry, kidney depending on the stage of production were collected during outbreaks or in apparently healthy populations where no outbreaks occurred. The virus was re-isolated in CHSE cells and the VP2 gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. During the freshwater stage, there were no disease outbreaks at hatcheries A1, A2 and B1 (except in one fish group that originated from hatchery B2, although IPNV was isolated from some of the fish groups at all 3 hatcheries. By contrast, all fish groups at hatchery B2 suffered IPN outbreaks. In seawater, only groups of fish originating from hatchery A1 had no IPN outbreaks albeit virus being isolated from the fish. On the other hand, fish originating from hatcheries A2, B1 and B2 experienced outbreaks in seawater. The VP2 amino acid fingerprint of the virus associated with subclinical infections from A1 and co-operating seawater sites was V64A137P217T221A247N252S281D282E319. By contrast, all virus isolates associated with clinical infections had the motif I64T137T217A221T247V252T281N282A319, where underlined amino acids represent the avirulent and highly virulent motif, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences showed 2

  6. Major histocompatibility complex loci are associated with susceptibility of Atlantic salmon to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristina M.; Winton, James R.; Schulze, Angela D.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Ming, Tobi J.

    2004-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most significant viral pathogens of salmonids and is a leading cause of death among cultured juvenile fish. Although several vaccine strategies have been developed, some of which are highly protective, the delivery systems are still too costly for general use by the aquaculture industry. More cost effective methods could come from the identification of genes associated with IHNV resistance for use in selective breeding. Further, identification of susceptibility genes may lead to an improved understanding of viral pathogenesis and may therefore aid in the development of preventive and therapeutic measures. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), involved in the primary recognition of foreign pathogens in the acquired immune response, are associated with resistance to a variety of diseases in vertebrate organisms. We conducted a preliminary analysis of MHC disease association in which an aquaculture strain of Atlantic salmon was challenged with IHNV at three different doses and individual fish were genotyped at three MHC loci using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), followed by sequencing of all differentiated alleles. Nine to fourteen alleles per exon-locus were resolved, and alleles potentially associated with resistance or susceptibility were identified. One allele (Sasa-B-04) from a potentially non-classical class I locus was highly associated with resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (p < 0.01). This information can be used to design crosses of specific haplotypes for family analysis of disease associations.

  7. Differential virulence mechanisms of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include host entry and virus replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Purcell, M.K.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Host specificity is a phenomenon exhibited by all viruses. For the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), differential specificity of virus strains from the U and M genogroups has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), M IHNV strains are consistently more prevalent and more virulent than U IHNV. The basis of the differential ability of these two IHNV genogroups to cause disease in rainbow trout was investigated in live infection challenges with representative U and M IHNV strains. When IHNV was delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the mortality caused by U IHNV increased, indicating that the low virulence of U IHNV is partly due to inefficiency in entering the trout host. Analyses of in vivo replication showed that U IHNV consistently had lower prevalence and lower viral load than M IHNV during the course of infection. In analyses of the host immune response, M IHNV-infected fish consistently had higher and longer expression of innate immune-related genes such as Mx-1. This suggests that the higher virulence of M IHNV is not due to suppression of the immune response in rainbow trout. Taken together, the results support a kinetics hypothesis wherein faster replication enables M IHNV to rapidly achieve a threshold level of virus necessary to override the strong host innate immune response. ?? 2009 SGM.

  8. An ultrastructural study of Olpidium brassicae and its transmission of tobacco necrosis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, J.H.M.

    1971-01-01

    This thesis concerns transmission of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) by zoospores of Olpidiumbrassicae. Electron microscopic observations were made on: a. the fungus, the virus, and the outer layers of seedling roots of two host species (part I); b. ultrastructural aspects of the

  9. Susceptibility of Koi and Yellow Perch to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by experimental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alexander D.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a novirhabdoviral pathogen that originated in western North America among anadromous Pacific salmonids. Severe disease epidemics in the late 1970s resulting from IHNV's invasion into farmed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in North America, Asia, and Europe emphasized IHNV's ability to adapt to new hosts under varying rearing conditions. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio (hereafter, “Koi”) are aquaculture-reared fish that are highly valued in sport fisheries and the ornamental fish trade, respectively, but it is unknown whether these fish species are vulnerable to IHNV infection. In this study, we exposed Yellow Perch, Koi, and steelhead (anadromous Rainbow Trout) to IHNV by intraperitoneal injection (106 PFU/fish) and by immersion (5.7×105 PFU/mL) for 7 h, and monitored fish for 28 d. The extended immersion exposure and high virus concentrations used in the challenges were to determine if the tested fish had any level of susceptibility. After experimental exposure, Yellow Perch and Koi experienced low mortality (35%). Virus was found in dead fish of all species tested and in surviving Yellow Perch by plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), with a higher prevalence in Yellow Perch than Koi. Infectious virus was also detected in Yellow Perch out to 5 d after bath challenge. These findings indicate that Yellow Perch and Koi are highly resistant to IHNV disease under the conditions tested, but Yellow Perch are susceptible to infection and may serve as possible virus carriers.

  10. mosaic virus disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . variabilis densities on the susceptible cultivar. Implications of these results for the control ofAfrican cassava mosaic virus disease are discussed. Key Words: Aleurotrachelus socialis, Trialeurodes variabilis, cowpea, maize, intercropping. yield.

  11. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The ... Ebola virus infection are made using the following diagnostic methods: antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ...

  12. Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Scott, Robert J.; Kerr, Benjamin; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-01

    Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day 3 post-infection, after which viral load was maintained or gradually dropped through day 7. Host innate immune response measured as stimulation of Mx-1 gene expression generally followed within host viral loads. Shedding also began very quickly and peaked within 2 days, defining a generally uniform early peak period of shedding from 1 to 4 days after exposure to virus. This was followed by a post-peak period where shedding declined, such that the majority of fish were no longer shedding by day 12 post-infection. Despite similar kinetics, the average shedding rate over the course of infection was significantly lower in mixed compared to single genotype infections, suggesting a competition effect, however, this did not significantly impact the total amount of virus shed. The data also indicated that the duration of shedding, rather than peak amount of virus shed, was correlated with fish mortality. Generally, the majority of virus produced during infection appeared to be shed into the environment rather than maintained in the host, although there was more retention of within host virus during the post-peak period. Viral virulence was correlated with shedding, such that the more virulent of the two genotypes shed more total virus. This fundamental understanding of IHNV

  13. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  14. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  15. Transcription from a spleen necrosis virus 5' long terminal repeat is suppressed in mouse cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Embretson, J E; Temin, H M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the block(s) to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) replication in mouse cells, we studied the expression of a dominant selectable marker, neo, or a gene whose product is easily assayed, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene, in SNV-derived and murine leukemia virus-derived vectors. Using transient (CAT) and stable (Neor phenotype) transfection assays, we showed that the SNV promoter was used in mouse cells only when the 3' SNV long terminal repeat (LTR) was absent. Infection ...

  16. Induction of resistance to tobacco necrosis virus in bean plants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four rhizosphere microorganisms (Bacillus globisporus, Candida glabrata, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces gibsonii) were isolated, identified, and tested for their capacity to protect Phaseolus vulgaris plants from tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) symptoms. Foliage treatment by the culture filtrate of each one of the ...

  17. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  18. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  20. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  1. Resistance and Protective Immunity in Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Exposed to M Type Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle; Purcell, Maureen K.; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Differential virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from the U and M phylogenetic subgroups is clearly evident in the Redfish Lake (RFL) strain of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. In these fish, experimental immersion challenges with U isolates cause extremely high mortality and M isolates cause low or no mortality. When survivors of M virus immersion challenges were exposed to a secondary challenge with virulent U type virus they experienced high mortality, indicating that the primary M challenge did not elicit protective immunity. Delivery of a moderate dose (2 × 104 plaque-forming units [PFU]/fish) of virus by intraperitoneal injection challenge did not overcome RFL sockeye salmon resistance to M type IHNV. Injection challenge with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU/fish) of M type virus caused 10% mortality, and in this case survivors did develop protective immunity against a secondary U type virus challenge. Thus, although it is possible for M type IHNV to elicit cross-protective immunity in this disease model, it does not develop after immersion challenge despite entry, transient replication of M virus to low levels, stimulation of innate immune genes, and development of neutralizing antibodies in some fish.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  3. Varicella zoster meningitis complicating combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Walters, Brennan; Fedorak, Richard N

    2013-06-07

    Opportunistic viral infections are a well-recognized complication of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cases of severe or atypical varicella zoster virus infection, both primary and latent reactivation, have been described in association with immunosuppression of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. However, central nervous system varicella zoster virus infections have been rarely described, and there are no previous reports of varicella zoster virus meningitis associated with anti-TNF therapy among the CD population. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old male with severe ileocecal-CD who developed a reactivation of dermatomal herpes zoster after treatment with prednisone and adalimumab. The reactivation presented as debilitating varicella zoster virus meningitis, which was not completely resolved despite aggressive antiviral therapy with prolonged intravenous acyclovir and subsequent oral valacyclovir. This is the first reported case of opportunistic central nervous system varicella zoster infection complicating anti-TNF therapy in the CD population. This paper also reviews the literature on varicella zoster virus infections of immunosuppressed IBD patients and the importance of vaccination prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy.

  4. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, D; Eissler, Y; Torres, P; Jorquera, E; Espinoza, J C; Kuznar, J

    2015-10-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that is endemic to salmon farming in Chile and causes great economic losses to the industry. Here we compared different diagnostic methods to detect IPNV in field samples, including 3 real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, cell culture isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genogroups prevailing in Chile, as well as their geographic distribution and virulence. The 3 qRT-PCR assays used primers that targeted regions of the VP2 and VP1 genes of the virus and were tested in 46 samples, presenting a fair agreement within their results. All samples were positive for at least 2 of the qRT-PCR assays, 29 were positive for cell culture, and 23 for IFAT, showing less sensitivity for these latter 2 methods. For the phylogenetic analysis, portions of 1180 and 523 bp of the VP2 region of segment A were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared with sequences from reference strains and from isolates reported by previous studies carried out in Chile. Most of the sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (European origin), and 5 were classified within genogroup 1 (American origin). Chilean isolates formed clusters within each of the genogroups found, evidencing a clear differentiation from the reference strains. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study completed for IPNV in Chile, covering isolates from sea- and freshwater salmon farms and showing a high prevalence of this virus in the country.

  5. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  6. Acute retinal necrosis results in low vision in a young patient with a history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Sanjeet K

    2017-05-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment. Clinical manifestations of this disease may include increased intraocular pressure, optic disc oedema, optic neuropathy and sheathed retinal arterioles. A complete work up is essential to rule out cytomegalovirus retinitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, herpes virus, syphilis, posterior uveitis and other conditions. Depending on the severity of the disease, the treatment options consist of anticoagulation therapy, cycloplegia, intravenous acyclovir, systemic steroids, prophylactic laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy with silicon oil for retinal detachment. An extensive history and clinical examination is crucial in making the correct diagnosis. Also, it is very important to be aware of low vision needs and refer the patients, if expressing any sort of functional issues with completing daily living skills, especially reading. In this article, we report one case of unilateral ARN 20 years after herpetic encephalitis. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  7. Diagnostic scope of computer tomography in hip disease - Paget's disease, femoral head necrosis, coxarthrosis, coxarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, G.; Lingg, G.; Reid, W.

    1982-01-01

    The value of computer tomography was investigated in Paget's disease of the hip, femoral head necrosis (adult avascular and osteoradionecrosis), coxarthrosis and coxarthritis (bacterial and rheumatoid). The greatest value of CT is in the diagnosis of adult avascular necrosis of the femoral head and is valuable for localising the necrotic area in the axial plane. This is of value in planning surgical treatment (displacement osteotomy or endoprosthesis). In Paget's disease, coxarthrosis and coxarthritis, CT provides only additional or more precise information. (orig.) [de

  8. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, María Cecilia; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Terebiznik, Mauricio R; Colombo, María Isabel; Delgui, Laura Ruth

    2018-03-14

    Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses. Here, we demonstrated that the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), a prototypical member of the Birnaviridae family, hijacks endosomal membranes of infected cells through the interaction of viral protein, VP3, with the phospholipids on the cytosolic leaflet of these compartments for replication. Employing a mutagenesis approach, we demonstrated that VP3 domain PATCH 2 (P2) mediates the association of VP3 with the endosomal membranes. To determine the role of VP3 P2 in the context of virus replication cycle, we used avian cells stably overexpressing VP3 P2 for IBDV infection. Importantly, the intra- and extra-cellular virus yields, as well as the intracellular levels of VP2 viral capsid protein, significantly diminished in VP3 P2 stably overexpressing cells. Altogether, our results indicate that the association of VP3 with endosomes has a relevant role in IBDV replication cycle. This report provides direct experimental evidence for membranous compartments such as endosomes being required by a dsRNA virus for its replication. The results also support the previously proposed role of birnaviruses as an evolutionary link between +ssRNA and dsRNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, also called Gumboro disease) is an acute, highly contagious immunosuppressive disease that affects

  9. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders

    . By a reverse genetics approach using the related novirrhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) as basis, four hybrid IHNV-VHSV variants were generated. These chimeric variants included substitution of the IHNV glyco(G) or nonstrutrual (Nv) protein with the corresponding G or Nv-protein from......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the economically most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. The virus was introduced to fresh water farms in the 1950ies from a reservoir of VHSV in the marine environment. Isolates from wild marine fish and fresh water farms...... are difficult to distinguish serologically but they show different virulence profiles: marine isolates typically cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout fry following experimental waterborne challenge, while freshwater isolates often kill the majority of the fish. Genetic analysis reveal that the change...

  10. Molecular differentiation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolates from farmed and wild salmonids in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, N M; McCarthy, L J; Swords, D; Henshilwood, K

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the genotypes and sub-groups of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) present in farmed and wild salmonid fish in Ireland. An 1100-bp portion of the VP2 region of segment A from each of 55 IPNV isolates collected over 2003-2007 was amplified by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the product directly sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of each isolate were aligned and compared with each other and with the corresponding sequences of a number of reference isolates. All the 55 sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (Sp serotype) and could be divided into two subgroups. Irish subgroup 1 consisted of isolates from farmed salmon originating from an Irish salmon broodstock. Irish subgroup 2 consisted of isolates from imported farmed stock and all reported clinical outbreaks of IPN were associated with isolates from subgroup 2. Isolates from wild fish were identical to some isolates from subgroup 2, and therefore are believed to have originated from infected farms. These results highlight the importance of import risk analysis for diseases not listed under current legislation.

  11. Analysis of the genome sequence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus HLJ-09 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhao, L L; Li, Y J; Tang, L J; Qiao, X Y; Jiang, Y P; Liu, M

    2016-02-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a highly contagious disease of juvenile salmonid fish. Six genome target fragments of the complete genome sequence of IHNV HLJ-09 were amplified by RT-PCR, and the 3'-terminal and 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA were amplified using the RACE method. The complete genome sequence of HLJ-09 comprises 11,132 nucleotides (nt) (Accession number JX649101) and is different from that of other IHNV strains published in GenBank. Homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis of six ORF sequences were carried out using HLJ-09 and other IHNV strains published in GenBank. From phylogenetic tree analysis, the N gene, M gene, and P gene had the closest genetic relationship to IHNV-PRT from Korea. Phylogenetic analysis for the full length of the G gene showed that the HLJ-09 strain exhibited very close homology to the ChYa07, RtNag96, RtUi02, and RtGu01 strains from Korea and Japan, indicating that the HLJ-09 strain belonged to the genotype JRt. Ultimately, the Chinese IHNV HLJ-09 strain may have originated in Korea and Japan.

  12. Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater and seawater environments at various temperatures. By these methods, we found no correlation between increased viral fitness and displacement in the field. These results suggest that other pressures likely exist in the field with important consequences for IHNV evolution.

  13. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  14. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  15. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Detección del virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa (IPNV) en sedimentos de agua dulce Detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in freshwater sediments

    OpenAIRE

    R Labraña; JC Espinoza; J Kuznar

    2008-01-01

    El virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa, virus IPN, es una preocupación constante para la industria de la salmonicultura. El agua es el vehículo más importante para la transmisión horizontal del virus, por lo tanto, los sedimentos próximos a las instalaciones de una piscicultura pueden convertirse en reservorios del virus. En este trabajo se presenta un método simple y práctico destinado a cuantificar virus en sedimentos de áreas en las cuales se cultivan salmones. El virus se extrae c...

  17. Real-time isothermal detection of Abalone herpes-like virus and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Wang, Jiang-Yong; Wei, Hong-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Abalone herpes-like virus (AbHV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) are two serious viruses that infect animal populations in aquaculture. Both viruses cause diseases associated with high mortality rates, resulting in dramatic economic losses in the aquaculture industry. There are currently no effective treatments for either of these two viral diseases. Thus, early, rapid, and accurate diagnosis plays a fundamental role in disease prevention and control in aquaculture. Traditional methods of diagnosis, such as virus culture, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are either time consuming or require sophisticated temperature control devices. In this study, one sets of specific primers and probes were designed for the real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification (qRPA) detection of AbHV and RGNNV separately. The sensitivity and specificity of detection were evaluated by comparison with detection by conventional PCR and quantitative PCR. The optimal reaction temperature and time for virus detection is 37°C for 20min. The detection limit is 100 copies per reaction, making this approach faster and more sensitive than qPCR in this study. In a field application, the detection percentage of qRPA was higher than that of qPCR for both AbHV and NNV. Additionally, good correlation was found between qRPA and qPCR detection (R 2 >0.8). The methods presented here can be used as alternatives to qPCR for quick and quantitative detection of pathogens infecting aquaculture species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  19. Parapoxvirus orf virus infection induces an increase in interleukin-8, tumour necrosis factor-α, and decorin in goat skin fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lingling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orf virus (ORFV is a prototype Parapoxvirus species in the Poxviridae family that causes serious zoonotic infectious disease. Goat skin fibroblast (GSF cells are the major host targets of ORFV. Interleukin 8 (IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are known to play a vital role in immune response during viral infections. However, the manner of variation over time of their level of expression in GSF cells remains unclear.

  20. Immune response to synthetic peptides representing antigenic sites on the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Huang, C.; LaPatra, S.; Winton, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Summary ― Monoclonal antibodies against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus have been used to react with recombinant expression products in immunoblots and to select neutralization-resistant mutants for sequence analysis. These strategies identified neutralizing and non-neutralizing antigenic sites on the viral glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides based upon the amino acid sequences of these antigenic sites were synthesized and were injected together with an adjuvant into rainbow trout. The constructs generally failed to stimulate neutralizing antibodies in the fish. These results indicate that we need to understand more about the ability of peptide antigens to stimulate fish immune systems.

  1. Increased levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor-I (P55) and decreased IgG1 reactivities in HIV-1 patients with cytomegalovirus disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Palle Høy; Dodt, K K; Meyer, C N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate potential associations between tumour necrosis factor (TNF), soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs), immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses and development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 patients. We enrolled HIV-1...

  2. Virulence of a chimeric recombinant infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus expressing the spring viraemia of carp virus glycoprotein in salmonid and cyprinid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Mérour, Emilie; Glenn, Jolene. A; Palmer, Alexander D.; Brémont, Michel; Kurath, Gael

    2018-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) are both rhabdoviruses of fish, listed as notifiable disease agents by the World Organization for Animal Health. Recombinant rhabdoviruses with heterologous gene substitutions have been engineered to study genetic determinants and assess the potential of these recombinant viruses for vaccine development. A recombinant IHNV (rIHNV), containing the full-length genome of a European IHNV strain, was modified by deleting the glycoprotein (G) gene and replacing it with a European SVCV G-gene to make the rIHNV-Gsvcv. The chimeric rIHNV-Gsvcv level of virulence in rainbow trout, common carp and koi was assessed, and its ability to induce a protective immune response in surviving koi against wild-type SVCV infection was tested. The rIHNV-Gsvcv infection of trout led to high mortality, ranging from 78% to 92.5%, after immersion. In contrast, no deaths occurred in juvenile common carp after infection with rIHNV-Gsvcv by either immersion or intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Similarly, koi infected with rIHNV-Gsvcv via IP injection had little to no mortality (≤9%). Koi that survived initial infection with a high dose of recombinant virus rIHNV-Gsvcv were protected against a virulent SVCV challenge resulting in a high relative per cent survival of 82.5%.

  3. Enhanced detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by pretreatment of cell monolayers with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To improve quantification of very low levels of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in samples of tissue, ovarian fluid, or natural water supplies, we tested the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the sensitivity and speed of the plaque assay system. We compared 4, 7, and 10% solutions of PEG of molecular weight 6,000, 8,000, or 20,000 applied at selected volumes and for various durations. When cell monolayers of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), and bluegill fry (BF2) were pretreated with 7% PEG-20,000, they produced 4-17-fold increases in plaque assay titers of IHNV. The plaque assay titers of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, chum salmon reovirus, and chinook salmon paramyxovirus were also enhanced by exposure of CHSE-214 cells to PEG, but the titers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and Oncorhynchus masou virus were not substantially changed. Plaques formed by IHNV on PEG-treated EPC cells incubated at 15°C had a larger mean diameter at 6 d than those on control cells at 8 d; this suggests the assay could be shortened by use of PEG. Pretreatment of EPC cell monolayers with PEG enabled detection of IHNV in some samples that appeared negative with untreated cells. For example, when ovarian fluid samples from chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were inoculated onto untreated monolayers of EPC cells, IHNV was detected in only 11 of 51 samples; 17 of the samples were positive when PEG-treated EPC cells were used.PDF

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Iranian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) based on the glycoprotein gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Amiri, Alireza Babaalian; Dada, Maryam; Kurath, Gael; Laktarashi, Bahram; Ghajari, Amrolah; Breyta, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae and genus Novirhabdoviridae, causes a highly lethal disease of salmon and trout. In Iran IHNV was first detected in 2001 on farms rearing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To evaluate the genetic relationships of IHNV from northern and western Iran, the sequences of a 651-nt region of the glycoprotein gene were determined for two Iranian isolates. These sequences were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates representing the five known genogroups of IHNV. Iranian isolates were most closely related to European isolates within the genogroup E rather than those of North American genogroups U, M and L, or the Asian genogroup J. It appears that Iranian IHNV was most likely introduced to Iran from a source in Europe by the movement of contaminated fish eggs.

  5. Universal reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Garver, Kyle A.; Hawley, Laura M.; Batts, William N.; Sprague, Laura; Sampson, Corie; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an acute pathogen of salmonid fishes in North America, Europe and Asia and is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Phylogenetic analysis has identified 5 major virus genogroups of IHNV worldwide, designated U, M, L, E and J; multiple subtypes also exist within those genogroups. Here, we report the development and validation of a universal IHNV reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-rPCR) assay targeting the IHNV nucleocapsid (N) gene. Properties of diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) were defined using laboratory-challenged steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and the new assay was compared to the OIE-accepted conventional PCR test and virus isolation in cell culture. The IHNV N gene RT-rPCR had 100% DSp and DSe and a higher estimated diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) than virus culture or conventional PCR. The RT-rPCR assay was highly repeatable within a laboratory and highly reproducible between laboratories. Field testing of the assay was conducted on a random sample of juvenile steelhead collected from a hatchery raceway experiencing an IHN epizootic. The RT-rPCR detected a greater number of positive samples than cell culture and there was 40% agreement between the 2 tests. Overall, the RT-rPCR assay was highly sensitive, specific, repeatable and reproducible and is suitable for use in a diagnostic setting.

  6. Geography and host species shape the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Allison; Breyta, Rachel; Bedford, Trevor; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that infects wild and cultured salmonids throughout the Pacific Coastal United States and Canada, from California to Alaska. Although infection of adult fish is usually asymptomatic, juvenile infections can result in high mortality events that impact salmon hatchery programs and commercial aquaculture. We used epidemiological case data and genetic sequence data from a 303 nt portion of the viral glycoprotein gene to study the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup IHNV in the Pacific Northwestern United States from 1971 to 2013. We identified 114 unique genotypes among 1,219 U genogroup IHNV isolates representing 619 virus detection events. We found evidence for two previously unidentified, broad subgroups within the U genogroup, which we designated ‘UC’ and ‘UP’. Epidemiologic records indicated that UP viruses were detected more frequently in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and in coastal waters of Washington and Oregon, whereas UC viruses were detected primarily in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, which is a large, complex watershed extending throughout much of interior Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. These findings were supported by phylogenetic analysis and by FST. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated that early UC viruses in the Columbia River Basin initially infected sockeye salmon but then emerged via host shifts into Chinook salmon and steelhead trout sometime during the 1980s. We postulate that the development of these subgroups within U genogroup was driven by selection pressure for viral adaptation to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout within the Columbia River Basin.

  7. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  8. Sugarcane mosaic virus: The causal agent of mosaic disease on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... necrosis are seen in sorghum plants that represent virus infection. Several distinct sorghum infecting viruses including Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize. Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV), Sorghum Mosaic Virus. (SrMV) and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) causes mosaic symptoms and red necrotic ...

  9. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  10. Allogeneic corneoscleral limbus tissue transplantation for treatment of the necrosis in porphyria eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT with ocular complications are rarely reported. To the best of our knowledge, no reports exist on allogeneic corneoscleral limbus tissue transplantation for treatment of these. Amniotic membrane grafting had been performed in their patient suffering from porphyria eye disease, but necrosis developed in the grafts. Nevertheless, in our patient, allogeneic corneoscleral limbus transplantation prevented necrosis from development at corneoscleral limbus. So we considered that the allogeneic corneoscleral limbus transplantation might be an option to repair the necrosis in porphyria eye disease with avoiding sunlight and using artificial tear drops.

  11. PKR Activation Favors Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Replication in Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A.A. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR is a Type I interferon (IFN stimulated gene that has important biological and immunological functions. In viral infections, in general, PKR inhibits or promotes viral replication, but PKR-IPNV interaction has not been previously studied. We investigated the involvement of PKR during infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV infection using a custom-made rabbit antiserum and the PKR inhibitor C16. Reactivity of the antiserum to PKR in CHSE-214 cells was confirmed after IFNα treatment giving an increased protein level. IPNV infection alone did not give increased PKR levels by Western blot, while pre-treatment with PKR inhibitor before IPNV infection gave decreased eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α phosphorylation. This suggests that PKR, despite not being upregulated, is involved in eIF2α phosphorylation during IPNV infection. PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells with compromised membranes in IPNV-permissive cell lines. These findings suggest that IPNV uses PKR activation to promote virus replication in infected cells.

  12. Early endocytosis pathways in SSN-1 cells infected by dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wangta; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Hong, Yi-Ren; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Wu, Yi-Min; Chao, Chia-Ben; Lin, Chan-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Many fish undergo betanodavirus infection. To study the infection process of dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV), native virus and virus-like particles (VLPs) were used to analyse the binding and internalization in SSN-1 cells. The binding of DGNNV and VLPs to SSN-1 cells was demonstrated using Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. As estimated by indirect ELISA, the DGNNV particles bound SSN-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner up to 8 x 10(4) particles per cell. The binding of VLPs was sensitive to neuraminidase and tunicamycin, suggesting that cell-surface sialic acid is involved in binding. The penetration of DGNNV into cells, which was monitored by electron microscopy, appeared to occur mainly via the spherical pit and membrane ruffling pathways. Occasionally, a spherical pit was engulfed by membrane ruffling so as to form a large figure-of-eight-shaped vesicle with an open connection. Our observations suggest that DGNNV utilizes both micro- and macropinocytosis pathways to enter SSN-1 cells.

  13. Varicella zoster meningitis complicating combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroid therapy in Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Walters, Brennan; Fedorak, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic viral infections are a well-recognized complication of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cases of severe or atypical varicella zoster virus infection, both primary and latent reactivation, have been described in association with immunosuppression of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. However, central nervous system varicella zoster virus infections have been rarely described, and there are no previous reports of varicella zoster virus meningitis associated with anti-TNF therapy among the CD population. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old male with severe ileocecal-CD who developed a reactivation of dermatomal herpes zoster after treatment with prednisone and adalimumab. The reactivation presented as debilitating varicella zoster virus meningitis, which was not completely resolved despite aggressive antiviral therapy with prolonged intravenous acyclovir and subsequent oral valacyclovir. This is the first reported case of opportunistic central nervous system varicella zoster infection complicating anti-TNF therapy in the CD population. This paper also reviews the literature on varicella zoster virus infections of immunosuppressed IBD patients and the importance of vaccination prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy. PMID:23745038

  14. Effects of disease severity and necrosis on pancreatic dysfunction after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Gokhan; Sarandöl, Emre; Kaya, Ekrem

    2013-11-28

    To evaluate the effects of disease severity and necrosis on organ dysfunctions in acute pancreatitis (AP). One hundred and nine patients treated as AP between March 2003 and September 2007 with at least 6 mo follow-up were included. Patients were classified according to severity of the disease, necrosis ratio and localization. Subjective clinical evaluation and fecal pancreatic elastase-I (FPE-I) were used for exocrine dysfunction evaluation, and oral glucose tolerance test was completed for endocrine dysfunction. The correlation of disease severity, necrosis ratio and localization with exocrine and endocrine dysfunction were investigated. There were 58 male and 51 female patients, and mean age was 56.5 ± 15.7. Of the patients, 35.8% had severe AP (SAP) and 27.5% had pancreatic necrosis. Exocrine dysfunction was identified in 13.7% of the patients [17.9% were in SAP, 11.4% were in mild AP (MAP)] and 34.7% of all of the patients had endocrine dysfunction (56.4% in SAP and 23.2% in MAP). In patients with SAP and necrotizing AP (NAP), FPE-Ilevels were lower than the others (P pancreatic head necrosis or near total necrosis, FPE-1 levels were lower than 200 μg/g stool. Forty percent of the patients who had undergone necrosectomy developed exocrine dysfunction. Endocrine dysfunction was more significant in patients with SAP and NAP (P pancreatic head necrosis and necrosectomy should be followed for pancreatic functions.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  16. Genotypes and phylogeographical relationships of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, G.O.; Bendorf, C.M.; Yun, S.C.; Kurath, G.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) contains 3 major genogroups in North America with discreet geographic ranges designated as upper (U), middle (M), and lower (L). A comprehensive genotyping of 237 IHNV isolates from hatchery and wild salmonids in California revealed 25 different sequence types (a to y) all in the L genogroup; specifically, the genogroup contained 14 sequence types that were unique to individual isolates as well as 11 sequence types representing 2 or more identical isolates. The most evident trend was the phylogenetic and geographical division of the L genogroup into 2 distinct subgroups designated as LI and LII. Isolates within Subgroup LI were primarily found within waterways linked to southern Oregon and northern California coastal rivers. Isolates in Subgroup LII were concentrated within inland valley watersheds that included the Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and their tributaries. The temporal and spatial patterns of virus occurrence suggested that infections among adult Chinook salmon in the hatchery or that spawn in the river are a major source of virus potentially infecting other migrating or resident salmonids in California. Serum neutralization results of the California isolates of IHNV corroborated a temporal trend of sequence divergence; specifically, 2 progressive shifts in which more recent virus isolates represent new serotypes. A comparison of the estimates of divergence rates for Subgroup LI (1 ?? ICT5 mutations per nucleotide site per year) indicated stasis similar to that observed in the U genogroup, while the Subgroup LII rate (1 ?? 10 3 mutations per nucleotide site per year) suggested a more active evolution similar to that of the M genogroup. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  17. Stability of Cucumber Necrosis Virus at the Quasi-6-Fold Axis Affects Zoospore Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael B; Kakani, Kishore; Rochon, D'Ann; Jiang, Wen; Voss, Neil R; Smith, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (K. Kakani, R. Reade, and D. Rochon, J Mol Biol 338:507-517, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.008). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (M. Li et al., J Virol 87:12166-12175, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01965-13) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N termini of the C subunit at the quasi-6-fold axes. To better understand how this buried residue might affect vector transmission, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of wild-type CNV in the native and swollen state and of the transmission-defective mutant, P73G, under native conditions. With the wild-type CNV, the swollen structure demonstrated the expected expansion of the capsid. However, the zinc binding region at the quasi-6-fold at the β-annulus axes remained intact. By comparison, the zinc binding region of the P73G mutant, even under native conditions, was markedly disordered, suggesting that the β-annulus had been disrupted and that this could destabilize the capsid. This was confirmed with pH and urea denaturation experiments in conjunction with electron microscopy analysis. We suggest that the P73G mutation affects the zinc binding and/or the β-annulus, making it more fragile under neutral/basic pH conditions. This, in turn, may affect zoospore transmission. IMPORTANCE Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a member of the genus Tombusvirus , is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus While a number of plant viruses are transmitted via insect vectors

  18. Viruses: Bystanders of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Titiksha; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial etiology of periodontal disease is an established fact today. However, despite advances in the field of pharmacology with advent of newer and better antibiotics prevalence of the disease could not be abated. Moreover, unpredictable remissions and indefinite pattern in a single host force us to go back to the exact etiology of the disease. Present is a short review highlighting the role and plausible mechanisms by which viruses can affect the development of periodontal disease. This broadens our concept and will help establish a better treatment protocol for periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linning Qu

    Full Text Available Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, a member of the genus Ampelovirus in the family Closteroviridae, infects different Prunus species and has a worldwide distribution. Yet the population structure and genetic diversity of the virus is still unclear. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene and coat protein (CP gene of PBNSPaV isolates from seven Prunus species grown in China revealed a highly divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population, sharing nucleotide similarities of 73.1-100% with HSP70h gene, and 83.9-98.6% with CP gene. Phylogenetic analysis of HSP70h and CP sequences revealed segregation of global PBNSPaV isolates into four phylo-groups (I-IV, of which two newly identified groups, II and IV, solely comprised Chinese isolates. Complete genome sequences of three PBNSPaV isolates, Pch-WH-1 and Pch-GS-3 from peaches, and Plm-WH-3 from a plum tree, were determined. The three isolates showed overall nucleotide identities of 90.0% (Pch-GS-3 and 96.4% (Pch-WH-1 with the type isolate PL186, and the lowest identity of 70.2-71.2% with isolate Nanjing. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report evidence of significant recombination in the HSP70h gene of PBNSPaV variant Pch2 by using five programs implemented in RDP3; in addition, five codon positions in its CP gene (3, 8, 44, 57, and 88 were identified that appeared to be under positive selection. Collectively, these results indicate a divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population. In addition, our findings provide a foundation for elucidating the epidemiological characteristics of virus population.

  20. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.G; Meyers, T.R.; Burton, T.O.; Kurath, G.

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This

  1. The Nucleocapsid Domain Is Responsible for the Ability of Spleen Necrosis Virus (SNV) Gag Polyprotein To Package both SNV and Murine Leukemia Virus RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Certo, Jeanine L.; Kabdulov, Timur O.; Paulson, Michelle L.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    1999-01-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vector RNA can be packaged and propagated by the proteins of spleen necrosis virus (SNV). We recently demonstrated that MLV proteins cannot support the replication of an SNV-based vector; RNA analysis revealed that MLV proteins cannot efficiently package SNV-based vector RNA. The domain in Gag responsible for the specificity of RNA packaging was identified using chimeric gag-pol expression constructs. A competitive packaging system was established by generati...

  2. Replication of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Different Cell Lines and in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvienko Natalija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV isolated in natural reservoirs in Ukraine are presented. The pathogenicity of isolates was investigated in vitro on cell cultures and in vivo on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, fingerlings. Experimental indications were that the Ukrainian IPNV isolates have affinity with reference European strains. During the reproduction of these isolates in cell cultures of FHM (fat head minnow, RTG-2 (rainbow trout gonads, and BF-2 (bluegill caudal peduncle, complicated degenerative changes were visible that finally led to the full destruction of cell monolayers. The experimental infection of rainbow trout fingerlings resulted in typical disease symptoms that were systemic. However, obvious evidence of viral infection was noted in single individuals only, and the majority of experimental fish died without visible disease symptoms. During the study of physicochemical properties, it was noted that Ukrainian isolates completely lost their infectivity with chloroform treatment and heating to 60°C. This proved that IPNV isolates are resistant to Ion concentrations in the range of pH 3.0 to 12.0.

  3. Avascular necrosis of bilateral femoral heads in a patient with Fabry's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Francis

    2012-07-13

    The underlying cause of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is often not apparent. We report the case of a 26 year old builder with a four month history of bilateral hip pain, and a diagnosis of bilateral femoral head avascular necrosis. Fabry\\'s disease was identified as the probable cause. Since 2001, enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry\\'s disease has become available, with a potential to influence the disease process, and this is of potential importance to clinicians treating AVN.

  4. [Experimental data on the remanence of the virus causing the infectious pancreatic necrosis in Salmonidae in water environment (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouy, A M

    1976-01-01

    To study the virus persistence in water environment, a purified suspension of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus was submitted to different conditions of conservation: temperature of 4 degrees C and 1.4 degrees C in a mineral water of mean mineralization, temperature of 4 degrees C in a river water with a higher minerlization, filtered or not, with or without mud and vegetation. The cyto-infectious power of the virus subsists at least during 300 days at + 4 degrees C and 60 days at + 14 degrees C in the less mineralized water (fig I). Comparatively the virus strength sinks more slowly at 4 degrees C in the more mineralized river water (figure 2). When filtered this same river water keeps its infectious power better than its untreated homologous (fig. 3). The sediment and vegetation suspended in river water catch the virus (fig. 4 and 5).

  5. Spontaneous and bilateral avascular necrosis of the navicula: Müller-Weiss disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Erdem; Ayanoğlu, Tacettin; Hatipoğlu, Yasin; Kanatlı, Ulunay

    2016-12-01

    Although, trauma, foot deformity (pesplanovalgus), systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and lupus, drugs (steroids, antineoplastic) and excessive alcohol consumption have all been accused in the etiology of avascular necrosis of the tarsal bones, spontaneous avascular necrosis of the navicular bone, especially in adults, is a rare entity. In this article, we report a 50-year-old female patient with bilateral, spontaneous avascular necrosis of the navicular bone and related severe talonavicular arthrosis. Clinical and radiological findings were concordant with Müller-Weiss disease, which is a rare disease with complex idiopathic foot condition of the adult tarsal navicular bone characterized by progressive navicular fragmentation and talonavicular joint destruction. The patient was successfully treated with two-staged bilateral talonavicular arthrodesis.

  6. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  7. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Azodo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.

  8. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  9. Comprehensive gene expression profiling following DNA vaccination of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Nichols, Krista M.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Wheeler, Paul; Hansen, John D.; Herwig, Russell P.; Park, Linda K.

    2006-01-01

    The DNA vaccine based on the glycoprotein gene of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus induces a non-specific anti-viral immune response and long-term specific immunity against IHNV. This study characterized gene expression responses associated with the early anti-viral response. Homozygous rainbow trout were injected intra-muscularly (I.M.) with vector DNA or the IHNV DNA vaccine. Gene expression in muscle tissue (I.M. site) was evaluated using a 16,008 feature salmon cDNA microarray. Eighty different genes were significantly modulated in the vector DNA group while 910 genes were modulated in the IHNV DNA vaccinate group relative to control group. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to examine expression of selected immune genes at the I.M. site and in other secondary tissues. In the localized response (I.M. site), the magnitudes of gene expression changes were much greater in the vaccinate group relative to the vector DNA group for the majority of genes analyzed. At secondary systemic sites (e.g. gill, kidney and spleen), type I IFN-related genes were up-regulated in only the IHNV DNA vaccinated group. The results presented here suggest that the IHNV DNA vaccine induces up-regulation of the type I IFN system across multiple tissues, which is the functional basis of early anti-viral immunity.

  10. Transport of Salicylic Acid in Tobacco Necrosis Virus-Infected Cucumber Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, W.; Buchala, A.; Metraux, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The transport of salicylic acid (SA) was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using 14C-labeled benzoic acid that was injected in the cotyledons at the time of inoculation. Primary inoculation with tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) on the cotyledons led to an induction of systemic resistance of the first primary leaf above the cotyledon against Colletotrichum lagenarium as early as 3 d after inoculation. [14C]SA was detected in the phloem or in the first leaf 2 d after TNV inoculation, whereas [14C]benzoic acid was not detected in the phloem during the first 3 d after TNV inoculation of the cotyledons, indicating phloem transport of [14C]SA from cotyledon. In leaf 1, the specific activity of [14C]SA decreased between 1.7 and 8.6 times compared with the cotyledons, indicating that, in addition to transport, leaf 1 also produced more SA. The amount of SA transported after TNV infection of the cotyledon was 9 to 160 times higher than in uninfected control plants. Thus, SA can be transported to leaf 1 before the development of systemic acquired resistance, and SA accumulation in leaf 1 results both from transport from the cotyledon and from synthesis in leaf 1. PMID:12226421

  11. Immunogenicity of synthetic peptides representing neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.; Landolt, M.; LaPatra, S.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Three peptides, P76, P226, and P268 representing 3 putative antigen~c determinants on the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), were synthesized and injected into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to assess their immunogen~city. Antisera extracted from the immunized trout were analyzed uslng an enzyme linked imrnunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies that could bind to the peptides or to intact virions of IHNV. The antisera were also tested for neutralizing activity against IHNV by a complement-mediated neutralization assay. In general, recognition of the peptides and IHNV was low and only a few antibody binding patterns were demonstrated. Antisera from fish injected with P76 constructs recognized the homologous peptide more than the heterologous peptides, whereas antisera from fish inoculated with either P226 or P268 constructs recognized P76 equally, or better, than the homologous peptide; however, there was a high degree of individual variation within each treatment group. Neutralization actlvlty was demonstrated by serum from a single flsh lnlected with one of the pept~des (P268) and from 7 of 10 positive control f~sh Infected with an attenuated strain of IHNV Possible explanations for the dichotomous immune responses are discussed. These results indicate we need to improve our overall understanding of the

  12. Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias; Moesgaard Iburg, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the E......Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat...... and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions. A PRV cohabitation challenge was performed with Atlantic salmon. At peak of PRV viremia the fish were challenged by immersion with an IHNV genogroup E isolate. Clinical signs and morbidity were monitored. Target organs were sampled at selected time...

  13. Renal disease, epidermal necrosis, and epithelial cell antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Deal, J E; Groves, R W; Harmer, A W; Welsh, K I; MacDonald, D M; Rigden, S P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between epithelial cell IgM, which has previously been associated with an increased incidence of loss of renal graft in children, with a novel cutaneous eruption and unexplained native renal disease. DESIGN--Observational study on children with epithelial cell antibody presenting with unexplained renal or skin disease. SETTING--General paediatric department and regional paediatric nephrology unit. PATIENTS--Six children (five girls, one boy), who present...

  14. Protection of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus four days after specific or semi-specific DNA vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaPatra, S.E.; Corbeil, S.; Jones, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    A DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was shown to provide significant protection as soon as 4 d after intramuscular vaccination in 2 g rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held at 15 degreesC. Nearly complete protection was also observed at late......-protection against IHNV challenge for a transient period of time, whereas a rabies virus DNA vaccine was not protective. This indication of distinct early and late protective mechanisms was not dependent on DNA vaccine doses from 0.1 to 2.5 mug....

  15. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aujeszky's disease virus, baby hamster kidney cells, cell culture, disposable bioreactor, virus titre. Abstract. A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of ...

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presents with an exacerbation of Crohn's ileocolitis. He received a diagnosis of Crohn's disease 8 years ago and has been treated on three previous occasions with prednisone. Because of a recurrent need for glucocorticoids, treatment with azathioprine (150 mg per day) was starte...

  17. Simultaneous demonstration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry by use of paired immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Ø.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which is the causative agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), are both highly pathogenic for rainbow trout fry. Several...

  18. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  19. Recommendations for the treatment of Crohn's disease with tumor necrosis factor antagonists: An expert consensus report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feagan, Brian G.; Lémann, Marc; Befrits, Ragnar; Connell, William; D'Haens, Geert; Ghosh, Subrata; Michetti, Pierre; Ochsenkühn, Thomas; Panaccione, Remo; Schreiber, Stefan; Silverberg, Mark; Sorrentino, Dario; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Vermeire, Severine; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Symptom relief is the traditional treatment goal in Crohn's disease (CD). New goals including mucosal healing and bowel preservation are now achievable with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. Infliximab and adalimumab are approved as second-line treatments for severe, active CD.

  20. Control of virus diseases in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Zambrano, José L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by viruses are found throughout the maize-growing regions of the world and can cause significant losses for producers. In this review, virus diseases of maize and the pathogens that cause them are discussed. Factors leading to the spread of disease and measures for disease control are reviewed, as is our current knowledge of the genetics of virus resistance in this important crop.

  1. A effective DNA vaccine against diverse genotype J infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus strains prevalent in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liming; Zhao, Jingzhuang; Liu, Miao; Kurath, Gael; Ren, Guangming; LaPatra, Scott E.; Yin, Jiasheng; Liu, Hongbai; Feng, Jian; Lu, Tongyan

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is the most important pathogen threatening the aquaculture of salmonid fish in China. In this study, a DNA vaccine, designated pIHNch-G, was constructed with the glycoprotein (G) gene of a Chinese IHNV isolate SD-12 (also called Sn1203) of genotype J. The minimal dose of vaccine required, the expression of the Mx-1 gene in the muscle (vaccine delivery site) and anterior kidney, and the titers of the neutralizing antibodies produced were used to evaluate the vaccine efficacy. To assess the potential utility of the vaccine in controlling IHNV throughout China, the cross protective efficacy of the vaccine was determined by challenging fish with a broad range of IHNV strains from different geographic locations in China. A single 100 ng dose of the vaccine conferred almost full protection to rainbow trout fry (3 g) against waterborne or intraperitoneal injection challenge with IHNV strain SD-12 as early as 4 days post-vaccination (d.p.v.), and significant protection was still observed at 180 d.p.v. Intragenogroup challenges showed that the DNA vaccine provided similar protection to the fish against all the Chinese IHNV isolates tested, suggesting that the vaccine can be widely used in China. Mx-1 gene expression was significantly upregulated in the muscle tissue (vaccine delivery site) and anterior kidney in the vaccinated rainbow trout at both 4 and 7 d.p.v. Similar levels of neutralizing antibodies were determined with each of the Chinese IHNV strains at 60 and 180 d.p.v. This DNA vaccine should play an important role in the control of IHN in China.

  2. Apoptosis and necrosis in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa G and BSC-40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskova, Jana; Knitlova, Jarmila; Honner, Richard; Melkova, Zora

    2011-09-01

    In most cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) infection is considered to cause a lytic cell death, an equivalent of necrosis. However, upon infection of the epithelial cell lines HeLa G and BSC-40 with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR), we have previously observed an increased activation of and activity attributable to caspases, a typical sign of apoptosis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the type of cell death in VACV-infected cells HeLa G and BSC-40. In a cell-based flow cytometric assay, we showed a specific activation of caspase-2 and 4 in HeLa G and BSC-40 cells infected with VACV, strain WR, while we did not find any effects of inhibitors of calpain and cathepsin D and E. The actual activity of the two caspases, but also of caspase-3, was then confirmed in lysates of infected HeLa G, but not in BSC-40 cells. Accordingly, poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage was found increased only in infected HeLa G cells. Consequently, we have determined morphological features of apoptosis and/or activity of the executioner caspase-3 in infected HeLa G cells in situ, while only a background apoptosis was observed in infected BSC-40 cells. Finally, vaccination strains Dryvax and Praha were found to induce apoptosis in both HeLa G and BSC-40 cells, as characterized morphologically and by PARP cleavage. These findings may be important for understanding the differences in VACV-host interactions and post-vaccination complications in different individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  4. Beethoven's renal disease based on his autopsy: a case of papillary necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A

    1993-06-01

    The autopsy report of Ludwig van Beethoven written by Dr Johann Wagner in 1827 reveals that he had renal calculi that had not been diagnosed during his lifetime, together with perirenal fibrosis. The most comprehensive interpretation of this autopsy finding is that the regular calcareous deposits in every one of his renal calices represented calcified necrotic papillae. Severe urinary obstruction or diabetes as possible causes of papillary necrosis were not present. Analgesic abuse because of headaches, back pain, and attacks of rheumatism or gout may be presumed on the basis of Beethoven's uncontrolled way of taking medication. Salicin, a commonly used analgesic substance of that time (dried and powdered willow bark), is able to cause papillary necrosis. Perirenal fibrosis may be due to chronic infection or drug intake. Beethoven's other well-known diseases are deafness caused by otosclerosis of the inner ear, relapsing attacks of diarrhea as the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and liver cirrhosis following viral hepatitis and chronic alcohol consumption. Liver cirrhosis also may cause papillary necrosis. In Beethoven's case, renal papillary necrosis was most probably the consequence of analgesic abuse together with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The autopsy report of Beethoven is the first case of papillary necrosis recorded in the literature.

  5. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  6. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  7. Cell Death and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death mechanisms have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and mice. Recent studies suggested that a complex crosstalk between autophagy/apoptosis, microbe sensing, and enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the epithelium could play a critical role in these diseases. In addition, necroptosis, a relatively novel programmed necrosis-like pathway associated with TNF receptor activation, seems to be also present in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease and in specific animal models for intestinal inflammation. This review attempts to cover new data related to cell death mechanisms and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. A case of aseptic vertebral necrosis in the context of metastatic lumbar disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panow, C. [Radiologie Florissant, Geneva (Switzerland); Valavanis, A. [Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-03-01

    Aseptic bone necrosis has many well recognized etiologies: caisson disease, corticosteroids, alcohol, Gaucher's disease and sickle cell anemia being a few of a long list. Little attention has been paid to metastatic disease as a possible cause and we were unable to find reference in the literature to this association. We present imaging features of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma involving the vertebral spine, which, in certain aspects, mimics other well-known entities of this region, such as Kuemmell's and Scheuermann's diseases. (orig.)

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 1 and immunity to hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie C; Lee, Nikki P; Zheng, Ning; Yang, Pai-Hao; Wong, Oscar G; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Hui, Chee-Kin; Luk, John M; Lau, George Ka-Kit

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the gene expression profile in a pair of HBV-infected twins. METHODS: The gene expression profile was compared in a pair of HBV-infected twins. RESULTS: The twins displayed different disease outcomes. One acquired natural immunity against HBV, whereas the other became a chronic HBV carrier. Eighty-eight and forty-six genes were found to be up- or down-regulated in their PBMCs, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 1 (TNF-αIP1) that expressed at a higher level in the HBV-immune twins was identified and four pairs of siblings with HBV immunity by RT-PCR. However, upon HBV core antigen stimulation, TNF-αIP1 was downregulated in PBMCs from subjects with immunity, whereas it was slightly upregulated in HBV carriers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a K+ channel tetramerization domain in TNF-αIP1 that shares a significant homology with some human, mouse, and C elegan proteins. CONCLUSION: TNF-αIP1 may play a role in the innate immunity against HBV. PMID:16437679

  10. Transcriptome analysis of rainbow trout infected with high and low virulence strains of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Marjara, Inderjit Singh; Batts, William; Kurath, Gael; Hansen, John D.

    2010-01-01

    There are three main genetic lineages or genogroups of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in N. America. Strains representing the M genogroup are more virulent in rainbow trout relative to the U genogroup. In this study, we used microarray analysis to evaluate potential mechanisms responsible for host-specific virulence in rainbow trout that were given intraperitoneal injections of buffer or a representative M or U type virus strain. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to assess viral load and gene expression of select immune genes. Viral load was significantly higher in trout infected with the M virus starting at 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and continuing until 72 h p.i. Microarray analysis of the 48 h time point revealed 153 up-regulated and 248 down-regulated features in response to M virus infection but only 62 up-regulated and 49 down-regulated features following U virus infection. Translation and transcription features were among the most frequent down-regulated features in response to M virus infection and may be associated with the host cell shutoff phenomenon. A greater host cell shutoff response by the M virus may facilitate subversion of the host cell transcriptional machinery and enhance viral replication, suggesting the M virus may be better optimized to manipulate the rainbow trout transcriptional and translational machinery. Anti-viral associated features were the most commonly up-regulated features. A common set of features were up-regulated in both the M and U infection groups, but were induced to a higher magnitude in the M infection group. Gene expression of the anti-viral genes Mx-1 and Vig-1 was correlated but not entirely dependent on viral load in the anterior kidney. Slower replication of the U virus may allow the host more time to induce protective anti-viral immune mechanisms.

  11. Insights into Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 functions: Interactions with Nicotiana benthamiana PsbO correlate with chloroplast vesiculation and veinal necrosis caused by TGB3 overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein is involved in viral movement. AltMV TGB3 subcellular localization was previously shown to be distinct from that of Potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, and a chloroplast binding domain identified; veinal necrosis and chloroplast vesiculati...

  12. Renal papillary necrosis in patients with sickle cell disease: How to recognize this 'forgotten' diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderickx, Michaël M E L; Brits, Tim; De Baets, Karen; Seghers, Mattias; Maes, Philip; Trouet, Dominique; De Wachter, Stefan; De Win, Gunter

    2017-06-01

    Renal papillary necrosis is not commonly seen in daily practice, but can have severe consequences when it is not diagnosed in time. It is known to be associated with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies; however a wide range of etiologies are possible, and it is therefore not the first diagnosis clinicians consider in patients with sickle cell disease who present with hematuria. A literature search was performed to summarize the current knowledge about renal papillary necrosis associated with sickle cell disease. These findings are illustrated with a case of a 9-year old girl with sickle cell disease who was referred with painless gross hematuria. Typical radiologic signs for renal papillary necrosis are necrotic cavities that fill with contrast, small collections of contrast peripheral to the calyces in the papillary region (ball-on-tee sign), calcification of the papillary defect, filling defects, hydronephrosis, blunted papillary tip, clefts in the renal medulla filled with contrast, hyperattenuated medullary calcifications, non-enhanced lesions surrounded by rings of excreted contrast, and clubbed calyces. This study focuses on the pathophysiology of renal papillary necrosis associated with sickle cell disease, the possible symptoms, as well as the diagnostic steps, with a special interest in particular presentation on old (retrograde pyelography) and new (computed tomography) gold standard in radiologic imaging, and the management for this pathology. This study aims to remind clinicians of this "forgotten" diagnosis and what signs to look for in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease who present with hematuria. In pediatric cases radiation protection is important, therefore knowing what radiologic signs can be found on retrograde pyelography can lead to early identification of this pathology without having to proceed to computed tomography. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns.

  14. [Hemorrhagic necrosis of the mesenteric lymph nodes in adult celiac disease. Physiopathologic interpretation of 1 case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, A; Ciurana, A J; Greth, I; Eliaou, J F; Pages, A

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 35 year old woman dead of cachexia in the course of a refractory adult coeliac disease. The autopsy revealed multiple lymphadenopathies exclusively found in the small intestinal mesentery; all these lymph nodes were destroyed by an extensive haemorrhagic necrosis. There was neither lymphoma nor cavitation. These original findings are interpreted as the consequence of a localized intravascular coagulation, and probably a step towards cavitation or atrophy.

  15. Shoot necrosis caused by Phoma incompta, a new disease of olive in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario IVIC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reddish-brown lesions on young shoots, withering of leaves, cankers on older shoots and shoot necrosis were observed on some olive trees in southern Croatia. The fungus Phoma incompta was identifed as the causal agent of the disease. Pathogenicity of P. incompta isolates was confrmed by inoculating young olive plants in a greenhouse; these plants developed symptoms similar to those observed in the field.

  16. Brown fat necrosis in the setting of congenital heart disease and prostaglandin E1 use: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raboi, C.A.; Smith, W.

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of a child with D-transposition of the great arteries treated with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) who subsequently developed extensive brown fat necrosis. To the best of our knowledge, no previous association among congenital heart disease, PGE1, and brown fat necrosis has been reported

  17. Interaction between Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein and plant catalase induces a specific necrosis in association with proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Katsunori; Shimura, Hanako; Takeshita, Minoru; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) can induce a specific necrosis on Arabidopsis through the interaction between the CMV 2b protein and host catalase, in which the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be involved. We previously reported that the CMV 2b protein, the viral RNA silencing suppressor, interacted with the H 2 O 2 scavenger catalase (CAT3), leading to necrosis on CMV-inoculated Arabidopsis leaves. We here confirmed that CMV could more abundantly accumulate in the CAT3-knockout mutant (cat3), and that CAT3 makes host plants a little more tolerant to CMV. We also found that the necrosis severity is not simply explained by a high level of H 2 O 2 given by the lack of CAT3, because the recombinant CMV, CMV-N, induced much milder necrosis in cat3 than in the wild type, suggesting some specific mechanism for the necrosis induction. To further characterize the 2b-inducing necrosis in relation to its binding to CAT3, we conducted the agroinfiltration experiments to overexpress CAT3 and 2b in N. benthamiana leaves. The accumulation levels of CAT3 were higher when co-expressed with the CMV-N 2b (N2b) than with CMV-Y 2b (Y2b). We infer that N2b made a more stable complex with CAT3 than Y2b did, and the longevity of the 2b-CAT3 complex seemed to be important to induce necrosis. By immunoprecipitation (IP) with an anti-ubiquitin antibody followed by the detection with anti-CAT3 antibodies, we detected a higher molecular-weight smear and several breakdown products of CAT3 among the IP-proteins. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment could actually increase the accumulation levels of CAT3. This study suggests that the host proteasome pathway is, at least partially, responsible for the degradation of CAT3, which is manifested in CMV-infected tissues.

  18. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Faigenbaum, Or; Smirnov, Margarita; Fellig, Yakov; Inbal, Adi; Kotler, Moshe

    2015-05-15

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a member of the Betanodavirus genus that causes fatal diseases in over 40 species of fish worldwide. Mortality among NNV-infected fish larvae is almost 100%. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the susceptibility of fish larvae to NNV, we exposed zebrafish larvae to NNV by bath immersion at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days postfertilization (dpf). Here, we demonstrate that developing zebrafish embryos are resistant to NNV at 2 dpf due to the protection afforded by the egg chorion and, to a lesser extent, by the perivitelline fluid. The zebrafish larvae succumbed to NNV infection during a narrow time window around the 4th dpf, while 6- and 8-day-old larvae were much less sensitive, with mortalities of 24% and 28%, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Targeting TEAD/YAP-transcription-dependent necrosis, TRIAD, ameliorates Huntington's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ying; Chen, Xigui; Xu, Min; Fujita, Kyota; Motoki, Kazumi; Sasabe, Toshikazu; Homma, Hidenori; Murata, Miho; Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Tamura, Takuya; Kaye, Julia; Finkbeiner, Steven; Blandino, Giovanni; Sudol, Marius; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases is not fully understood. Here we report that mutant huntingtin (Htt), a causative gene product of Huntington’s diseases (HD) selectively induces a new form of necrotic cell death, in which endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enlarges and cell body asymmetrically balloons and finally ruptures. Pharmacological and genetic analyses revealed that the necrotic cell death is distinct from the RIP1/3 pathway-dependent necroptosis, but mediated by a functional deficiency of TEAD/YAP-dependent transcription. In addition, we revealed that a cell cycle regulator, Plk1, switches the balance between TEAD/YAP-dependent necrosis and p73/YAP-dependent apoptosis by shifting the interaction partner of YAP from TEAD to p73 through YAP phosphorylation at Thr77. In vivo ER imaging with two-photon microscopy detects similar ER enlargement, and viral vector-mediated delivery of YAP as well as chemical inhibitors of the Hippo pathway such as S1P recover the ER instability and necrosis in HD model mice. Intriguingly S1P completely stops the decline of motor function of HD model mice even after the onset of symptom. Collectively, we suggest approaches targeting the signalling pathway of TEAD/YAP-transcription-dependent necrosis (TRIAD) could lead to a therapeutic development against HD.

  4. Interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in chronic Chagas disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R H T; Azevedo, E de A N; Diniz, G T N; Cavalcanti, M da G A de M; de Oliveira, W; de Morais, C N L; Gomes, Y de M

    2015-07-01

    In Chagas disease, chronically infected individuals may be asymptomatic or may present cardiac or digestive complications, and it is well known that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Different patterns of cytokine levels have been previously described in different clinical forms of this disease, but contradictory results are reported. Our aim was to evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with asymptomatic and cardiac Chagas disease. The serum interleukin-10 levels in patients with cardiomyopathy were higher than those in asymptomatic patients, mainly in those without heart enlargement. Although no significant difference was observed in serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels among the patients, we found that cardiac patients also present high levels of this cytokine, largely those with heart dilatation. Therefore, these cytokines play an important role in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Follow-up investigations of these and other cytokines in patients with chronic Chagas disease need to be conducted to improve the understanding of the immunopathology of this disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Age- and weight-dependent susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to isolates of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) of varying virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, S.M.; Fichtner, D.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2003-01-01

    The virulence of 5 European and 1 North American isolate of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was compared by infecting female sibling rainbow trout ('lsle of Man' strain) of different weights and ages (2, 20 and 50 g). The fish were exposed to 104 TCID50 IHNV per ml of water...... recognising the viral G protein. The results showed that IHNV isolates of high or low virulence persisted in rainbow trout of all ages/weights for 28 d, with the exception of fish over 15 g in the eel IHNV (DF [diagnostic fish] 13/98)-infected groups from which the virus could not be reisolated on Day 28......-13/95 viruses caused mortality in fish independent of their weight or age. The isolates FR-32/87 and I-4008 were virulent in fish up to a weight of 20 g and caused no mortality in larger fish. In the IHNV HAG- and DF 13/98 (eel)-infected rainbow trout, no signs of disease were observed in fish...

  6. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  7. Quantitative expression profiling of immune response genes in rainbow trout following infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infection or DNA vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Herwig, Russell P.; Winton, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well-studied virus of salmonid fishes. A highly efficacious DNA vaccine has been developed against this virus and studies have demonstrated that this vaccine induces both an early and transient non-specific anti-viral phase as well as long-term specific protection. The mechanisms of the early anti-viral phase are not known, but previous studies noted changes in Mx gene expression, suggesting a role for type I interferon. This study used quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR methodology to compare expression changes over time of a number of cytokine or cytokine-related genes in the spleen of rainbow trout following injection with poly I:C, live IHNV, the IHNV DNA vaccine or a control plasmid encoding the non-antigenic luciferase gene. The target genes included Mx-1, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus induced gene 8 (Vig-8), TNF-α1, TNF-α2, IL-1β1, IL-8, TGF-β1 and Hsp70. Poly I:C stimulation induced several genes but the strongest and significant response was observed in the Mx-1 and Vig-8 genes. The live IHN virus induced a significant response in all genes examined except TGF-β1. The control plasmid construct and the IHNV DNA vaccine marginally induced a number of genes, but the main difference between these two groups was a statistically significant induction of the Mx-1 and Vig-8 genes by the IHNV vaccine only. The gene expression profiles elicited by the live virus and the IHNV DNA vaccine differed in a number of aspects but this study confirms the clear role for a type I interferon-like response in early anti-viral defence.

  8. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  9. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  10. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Lei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  11. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  12. Does this patient have Ebola virus disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Tattevin , Pierre; Durante-Mangoni , Emanuele; Massaquoi , Moses

    2014-01-01

    International audience; (beginning of the introduction) Ebola virus is one of the most virulent human pathogens. Since 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has caused more than 20 outbreaks in Africa, with case fatality rates of 30%-90%, in the absence of any approved treatment or vaccination [1].

  13. Tumour necrosis factor gene complex polymorphisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Charlotte E; Hill, Maureen C; Tobin, Martin; Neale, Natalie; Connolly, Martin J; Parker, Stuart G; Wardlaw, Andrew J

    2007-02-01

    We aimed to examine the role of tumour necrosis factor gene complex polymorphisms in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that individuals possessing polymorphic variants associated with higher tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion would be more susceptible to and/or have more severe disease. Patients with COPD and population controls underwent detailed clinical phenotyping. Genotyping for the tumour necrosis factor-308 and the lymphotoxin alpha NcoI (LTalpha polymorphisms was carried out by 'blinded' laboratory staff. Three hundred and sixty one individuals (220 cases and 141 controls) were recruited. We showed an association between the LTalphaNcol polymorphism and forced vital capacity (FVC) in a population of older adults with and without COPD. The LTalphaNcol*2 allele was associated with poorer lung function, under a codominant model, with a fall in FVC (expressed as a percentage of its predicted value) of 3.7% for each copy of the LTalphaNcol*2 allele possessed (for FVC, regression coefficient (95% CI)=-3.73(-7.01 to -0.44), P=0.026; for FEV(1) regression coefficient=-3.56(-7.80 to 0.70), P=0.101. However, there was no difference in genotype distribution between the case and control populations. This study adds weight to the suggestion that the TNF gene complex is involved in physiological alterations (FVC) that may affect the development and severity of COPD. The absence of a significant association between the TNF gene-complex polymorphisms in this study does not rule out a modest effect of these polymorphisms on the risk of COPD, as much larger studies are needed to detect modest gene effects on binary disease endpoints.

  14. Update on anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Siddharth; Pardi, Darrell S

    2014-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) agents, including infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol, are effective medications for the management of moderate to severe Crohn disease (CD). They are effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission, inducing mucosal healing, improving quality of life, and reducing the risk of hospitalization and surgery in adult and pediatric patients with CD. Future research into comparative effectiveness of different agents, as well as better understanding of predictors of response, is warranted to allow optimization of therapeutic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Secretion imbalance between tumour necrosis factor and its inhibitor in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, M; Hiwatashi, N; Liu, Z; Toyota, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α and TNF-β are soluble ligands binding to TNF receptors with similar activities; soluble TNF receptors neutralise TNF activity by acting as inhibitors. Little is known about the cytokine/soluble receptor role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 
Aims—To test the hypothesis that an imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitors plays a role in gut inflammation in patients with IBD. 
Methods—The secretion of TNF-α, TNF-β, and...

  16. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to maize lethal necrosis disease in tropical maize germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Manje; Das, Biswanath; Makumbi, Dan; Babu, Raman; Semagn, Kassa; Mahuku, George; Olsen, Michael S; Bright, Jumbo M; Beyene, Yoseph; Prasanna, Boddupalli M

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association analysis in tropical and subtropical maize germplasm revealed that MLND resistance is influenced by multiple genomic regions with small to medium effects. The maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) caused by synergistic interaction of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus, and has emerged as a serious threat to maize production in eastern Africa since 2011. Our objective was to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to MLND by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection. We used two association mapping (AM) panels comprising a total of 615 diverse tropical/subtropical maize inbred lines. All the lines were evaluated against MLND under artificial inoculation. Both the panels were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. Phenotypic variation for MLND resistance was significant and heritability was moderately high in both the panels. Few promising lines with high resistance to MLND were identified to be used as potential donors. GWAS revealed 24 SNPs that were significantly associated (P < 3 × 10(-5)) with MLND resistance. These SNPs are located within or adjacent to 20 putative candidate genes that are associated with plant disease resistance. Ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction with five-fold cross-validation revealed higher prediction accuracy for IMAS-AM panel (0.56) over DTMA-AM (0.36) panel. The prediction accuracy for both within and across panels is promising; inclusion of MLND resistance associated SNPs into the prediction model further improved the accuracy. Overall, the study revealed that resistance to MLND is controlled by multiple loci with small to medium effects and the SNPs identified by GWAS can be used as potential candidates in MLND resistance breeding program.

  17. Virus Pathogenity of Newcastle Disease in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the highly infectious diseases in poultry industry. Newcastle disease causes high morbidity and mortality in birds, then it causes significant loss for poultry industry. This disease is caused by Avian paramyxovirus-1, included in the genus of Avulavirus and family of Paramyxoviridae. This virus has six prior proteins and two non structural proteins that evolving its genom. Those proteins are Nucleocapsid protein (N, Phosphoprotein (P, Matrix protein (M, Fusion protein (F, Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN and Large polymerase protein (L and two non structural proteins iVe and W protein which are produced during the transcriptation process of P gen on editing process. Each of the protein has a specific role that responsible for the virulence of the virus. The previous result showed that HN and F proteins have significant contribution in the virulence and spreading of ND virus in the hosts. Virulence of ND virus primarily is determined by the cleavage site of F protein, but the recent research showed that the cleavage site motiv of F0 protein is not the only factor to determine the virulence of ND virus. Besides F protein, other proteins also contribute patern to the virulence of ND virus. ND virus can infect more than 200 species of birds, but the severity level of the disease varies depending on the host and strain of ND virus. Chicken has the highest pathogenicity index compared to other birds. Generally, the immunity system in chicken against infection of ND virus is similar to the immunity system of other birds. Cell mediated and humoral immunity responses play an important role in overcome ND virus.

  18. Experimental infection with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzym Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the determination of the susceptibility of Polish farmed redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum to experimental infection with haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV. A bath challenge model was tested at two temperature ranges: 13-15°C and 20-22°C. After 7 d, the first clinical signs and mortality were observed in fish kept at these temperatures. Significantly more mortality cases were reported in the redfin perch population, reaching a maximum of 24% compared with 12% in the rainbow trout group at 20-22°C. EHNV was reisolated from redfin perch and rainbow trout tissue in cell culture and the infection was confirmed by a molecular method and histopathology during the duration of the experiment. This study revealed that fish from Polish farms can be susceptible to EHNV even at lower temperatures.

  19. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  20. Identification of an internal RNA element essential for replication and translational enhancement of tobacco necrosis virus A(C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Pu

    Full Text Available Different regulatory elements function are involved in plant virus gene expression and replication by long-distance RNA-RNA interactions. A cap-independent functional element of the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV - like translational enhancer (BTE is present in Tobacco necrosis virus A (TNV-A, a Necrovirus member in the Tombusviridae family. In this paper, an RNA stretch flanking the 5' proximal end of the TNV-A(C coat protein (CP gene was shown to be essential for viral replication in Chenopodium amaranticolor plants and tobacco cells. This internal sequence functioned in transient expression of β-glucuronidase (GUS when present at either the 5' or 3' sides of the GUS open reading frame. Serial deletion analyses revealed that nine nucleotides from nt 2609 to 2617 (-3 to +6 of the CP initiation site within TNV-A(C RNA are indispensable for viral replication in whole plants and tobacco cells. Fusion of this RNA element in mRNAs translated in tobacco cells resulted in a remarkable enhancement of luciferase expression from in vitro synthesised chimaeric RNAs or DNA expression vectors. Interestingly, the element also exhibited increased translational activity when fused downstream of the reporter genes, although the efficiency was lower than with upstream fusions. These results provide evidence that an internal RNA element in the genomic (g RNA of TNV-A(C, ranging approximately from nt 2543 to 2617, plays a bifunctional role in viral replication and translation enhancement during infection, and that this element may use novel strategies differing from those previously reported for other viruses.

  1. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of viruses on airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Johnston

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There is strong epidemiological evidence that respiratory viral infections are associated with 80–85% of asthma exacerbations in children. There is less evidence in adults, but the available data suggest viruses are associated with around two-thirds to three-quarters of exacerbations in adults. These associations include severe exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. The most common viruses detected in these studies were rhinoviruses, accounting for two-thirds of viruses detected. Asthmatics have increased susceptibility to respiratory virus infection and have recently been shown to have profoundly defective interferon-beta responses to virus infection, resulting in increased virus replication. Atypical bacterial infections are also associated with chronic asthma and asthma exacerbations and a recent study indicates antibiotic therapy active against atypical bacteria is effective in treatment of exacerbations. Recent data also indicates asthmatics are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggesting they may also have impaired antibacterial immunity. Research is urgently required to determine whether augmenting anti-infective immunity is beneficial in the treatment/prevention of asthma exacerbations. More recent data also implicates viruses in the majority of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies are also required investigating anti-infective host defence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Use of the tumor necrosis factor-blockers for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alan B R; Gupta, Milli; Freeman, Hugh J

    2012-09-21

    The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy for inflammatory bowel disease represents the most important advance in the care of these patients since the publication of the National Co-operative Crohn's disease study thirty years ago. The recommendations of numerous consensus groups worldwide are now supported by a wealth of clinical trials and several meta-analyses. In general, it is suggested that tumor necrosis factor-α blockers (TNFBs) are indicated (1) for persons with moderately-severe Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (UC) who have failed two or more causes of glucocorticosteroids and an acceptably long cause (8 wk to 12 wk) of an immune modulator such as azathioprine or methotrexate; (2) non-responsive perianal disease; and (3) severe UC not responding to a 3-d to 5-d course of steroids. Once TNFBs have been introduced and the patient is responsive, therapy given by the IV and SC rate must be continued. It remains open to definitive evidence if concomitant immune modulators are required with TNFB maintenance therapy, and when or if TNFB may be weaned and discontinued. The supportive evidence from a single study on the role of early versus later introduction of TNFB in the course of a patient's illness needs to be confirmed. The risk/benefit profile of TNFB appears to be acceptable as long as the patient is immunized and tested for tuberculosis and viral hepatitis before the initiation of TNFB, and as long as the long-term adverse effects on the development of lymphoma and other tumors do not prone to be problematic. Because the rates of benefits to TNFB are modest from a population perspective and the cost of therapy is very high, the ultimate application of use of TNFBs will likely be established by cost/benefit studies.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Paris mosaic necrosis virus, a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genomic sequence of a novel potyvirus was determined from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Its genomic RNA consists of 9,660 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3’-terminal poly (A) tail, containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein. The virus shares 52.1-69.7%...

  5. Tumor necrosis factor α functions in an autocrine manner in the induction of human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Kinter, A.; Justement, J.S.; Kehrl, J.H.; Bressler, P.; Stanley, S.; Fauci, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is an immunoregulatory cytokine capable of inducing viral expression in cells chronically infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), such as the promonocytic line U1 and the T-lymphocytic line ACH-2. In the present study, the authors demonstrate an autocrine mechanism of TNF-α-mediated HIV induction. Stimulation of U1 and ACH-2 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) resulted in the induction of TNF-α mRNA and the secretion of TNF-α. Of note is the fact that anti-TNF-α antibodies significantly suppressed the expression of HIV in PMA-stimulated U1 and ACH-2 cells. Furthermore, anti-TNF-α antibodies also suppressed both the constitutive and inducible levels of viral expression in the chronically infected promonocytic clone U33.3. This study illustrates the interrelationship between the regulation of HIV expression and normal immunoregulatory mechanisms in that virus expression, both constitutive and induced, can be modulated by an autocrine pathway involving TNF-α, a cytokine involved in the complex network of regulation of the normal human immune response

  6. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine...

  7. Comparison of genome size and synthesis of structural proteins of Hirame Rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, and viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toyohiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Winton, James R.; Kimura, Takahisa

    1991-01-01

    Genomic RNA was extracted from purified virions of hirame rhabdovirus (HRV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The full-length RNA was analyzed using formaldehyde agarose gel electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide staining. Compared with an internal RNA size standard, all three viral genomic RNAs appeared to have identical relative mobilities and were estimated to be approximately 10.7 kilobases in length or about 3.7 megadaltons in molecular mass. Structural protein synthesis of HRV, IHNV, and VHSV was studied using cell cultures treated with actinomycin D. At 2 h intervals, proteins were labeled with 35S-methionine, extracted, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The five structural proteins of each of the three viruses appeared in the following order : nucleoprotein (N), matrix protein 1 (M1), matrix protein 2 (M2), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L) reflecting both the approximate relative abundance of each protein within infected cells and the gene order within the viral genome.

  8. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Jensen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis.

  9. Treatment of sickle cell disease's hip necrosis by core decompression: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisi-Mukaza, M; Manicom, O; Alexis, C; Bashoun, K; Donkerwolcke, M; Burny, F

    2009-11-01

    The young age of patients, total arthroplasties complications risks, and implant costs justify evaluation of the results of core decompression in the treatment of sickle-cell disease avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). In sickle-cell disease necrosis, core decompression offers good relief from pain and delays the use of total arthroplasty in comparison to a conservatively treated control group by a simple non-weight bearing protocol. From 1994 to 2008, among 215 drepanocytic adults, 42 patients (22 genotype SS, 20 genotype SC; 15 men, 27 women) presented symptomatic ONFH. We report the data from a prospective study of two patients' groups: a non-operated group (16 patients aged 36.5+/-6.5 years, 23 hips) and an operated group (26 patients aged 30.3+/-2.8 years, 42 hips). The results were considered on the basis of change in clinical status according to the numeric evaluation of pain scale, the functional score of Merle d'Aubigné-Postel (MAP), the radiological progression of lesions, and the time delay to total arthroplasty. Twenty-three hips were conservatively treated by discharge (a pair of canes). After a follow-up period of 13.4+/-0.5 years, no pain improvement was noted (p=0.76), and MAP score was unchanged (p=0.27). Out of 23 hips managed by discharge, 9 stage IV hips (degenerative arthritis, 39.1%) underwent arthroplasty after an average delay of 2.6+/-2.4 years. Forty-two hips were treated by core decompression. The duration of follow-up was 11.3+/-1.8 years. Postoperatively, pain reduction and MAP score improvement were significant in 39 out of 42 hips (93%, ptechnique of core decompression remains a valid option place in the treatment sickle-cell disease avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). It may be especially recommended in under-equipped regions where drepanocytosis and its osteo-articular complications are frequent. Level III case-control therapeutic study. 2009 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) treatment in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice and to establish a coho...

  11. DENGUE VIRUS VIRULENCE AND DISEASES SEVERITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommalikit, Olarn; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus is the causative agent of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild acute febrile illness to classical dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). DHF and DSS are the potentially fatal forms of dengue virus infection, which has become an intractable public health problem in many countries. The pathogeneses of DHF/ DSS are not clearly understood. One hypothesis concerning virus virulence and the immune enhancement hypothesis has been debated. Although dengue disease severity has been associated with evidence of genetic differences in dengue strains, virus virulence has been difficult to measure because of the lack of in vivo and in vitro models of the disease.

  12. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  14. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Shirin Zahra; Amini, Shahram; Khalilian, Amir; Barekatain, Majid; Mafi, Morvarid; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Rafei, Ehsan

    2014-09-01

    Despite the outbreak in dental science, oral and dental complications in Alzheimer are of the unsolved problems. It is assumed that tumor necrosis factor-α, which is a key factor in Alzheimer, has a relation with periodontal complications in patients with Alzheimer disease. The present study evaluated the effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in Alzheimer disease. This case-control study was performed on 80 patients with Alzheimer disease seeking medical care at Nour Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Eighty patients with Alzheimer disease between 40 and 70 years old attended this study. Forty had chronic periodontitis (case group), and 40 patients had healthy periodontium (control group). Blood sample was taken, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α were measured by means of an ELISA Reader device. Independent T-Test was used to analyze data, and P patients with Alzheimer and periodontitis was approximately three folds higher than the patients only with Alzheimer, and this difference was statistically significant (P patient with Alzheimer and chronic periodontitis and patients with Alzheimer disease and healthy periodontium. Tumor necrosis factor-α level in serum may act as a diagnostic marker of periodontal disease in patients with Alzheimer disease.

  15. Treatment for avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan; Agreda-Pérez, Luis H

    2016-08-09

    Avascular necrosis of bone is a frequent and severe complication of sickle cell disease and its treatment is not standardised. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. To determine the impact of any surgical procedure compared with other surgical interventions or non-surgical procedures, on avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease in terms of efficacy and safety. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional trials were sought from the reference lists of papers identified by the search strategy.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 27 May 2016. Randomized clinical trials comparing specific therapies for avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease. Each author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Since only one trial was identified, meta-analysis was not possible. One trial (46 participants) was eligible for inclusion. After randomization eight participants were withdrawn, mainly because they declined to participate in the trial. Data were analysed for 38 participants at the end of the trial. After a mean follow up of three years, hip core decompression and physical therapy did not show clinical improvement when compared with physical therapy alone using the score from the original trial (an improvement of 18.1 points for those treated with intervention therapy versus an improvement of 15.7 points with control therapy). There was no significant statistical difference between groups regarding major complications (hip pain, risk ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.56 to 1.60; vaso-occlusive crises, risk ratio 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.80; very low quality of evidence); and acute chest syndrome, risk

  16. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  17. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gluud, Lise L

    2013-12-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications. We assessed the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha on postoperative complications in patients with Crohn's disease undergoing abdominal surgery. Studies were identified through electronic and manual searches. Observational studies on patients with Crohn's disease undergoing laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery were included. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents were administered within 3 months before surgery. The primary outcome was anastomotic complications including overt dehiscence, intra-abdominal abscess, and enteric fistulas. Fourteen studies on 679 patients in the intervention (anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha) group and 2363 controls were included. Random-effects meta-analysis found no difference in anastomotic complications between the 2 groups (7.6% versus 8.2%; risk ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.48). There was clear heterogeneity between studies. In subgroup analyses, the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha increased anastomotic complications in trials with a lower risk of bias, but not in the studies with a higher bias risk (risk ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.03-2.60 and risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.60). In the overall analysis and in studies with a lower bias risk, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents increased the risk of nonanastomotic surgical complications, major medical complications, and minor medical complications. Limitations of observations studies. In studies with a low risk of bias, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents increased the risk of anastomotic complications. Inadequate bias control may lead to an underestimated risk of anastomotic complications.

  18. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  19. Transcriptomic profiles of striped snakehead fish cells (SSN-1) infected with red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) with an emphasis on apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Yi, Lizhu; Feng, Shuangshuang; Liu, Xiaodan; Asim, Muhammad; Zhou, Yongcan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Sanjie; Tu, Jiagang; Lin, Li

    2017-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease, has caused mass mortality of cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide, resulting in enormous economic losses in the aquaculture industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of NNV are still poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus) cells (SSN-1) infected with red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) were investigated using deep RNA sequencing technique. From 254,955,234 raw reads, a total of 253,338,544 clean reads were obtained and they were assembled into 93,372 unigenes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from RGNNV-infected or mock-infected SSN-1 cells, including 1184 up-regulated and 1456 down-regulated genes at 3 h (h) post of infection (poi), and 1138 up-regulated and 2073 down-regulated genes at 24 h poi, respectively. These DEGs were involved in many pathways related to viral pathogenesis, including retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors pathway, apoptosis pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequent analysis focusing on the apoptosis pathway showed that the expression of Endonuclease G (EndoG) was up-regulated upon RGNNV infection at both 3 and 24 h poi. Therefore, EndoG gene was cloned and its function was further characterized. The results showed that over-expression of EndoG could also induce cellular apoptosis in SSN-1 cells, indicating that RGNNV infection might induce apoptosis of SSN-1 cells via EndoG-associated mitochondrial pathway. These results will shed a new light on the pathogenesis of NNV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The nucleocapsid domain is responsible for the ability of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) Gag polyprotein to package both SNV and murine leukemia virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, J L; Kabdulov, T O; Paulson, M L; Anderson, J A; Hu, W S

    1999-11-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vector RNA can be packaged and propagated by the proteins of spleen necrosis virus (SNV). We recently demonstrated that MLV proteins cannot support the replication of an SNV-based vector; RNA analysis revealed that MLV proteins cannot efficiently package SNV-based vector RNA. The domain in Gag responsible for the specificity of RNA packaging was identified using chimeric gag-pol expression constructs. A competitive packaging system was established by generating a cell line that expresses one viral vector RNA containing the MLV packaging signal (Psi) and another viral vector RNA containing the SNV packaging signal (E). The chimeric gag-pol expression constructs were introduced into the cells, and vector titers as well as the efficiency of RNA packaging were examined. Our data confirm that Gag is solely responsible for the selection of viral RNAs. Furthermore, the nucleocapsid (NC) domain in the SNV Gag is responsible for its ability to interact with both SNV E and MLV Psi. Replacement of the SNV NC with the MLV NC generated a chimeric Gag that could not package SNV RNA but retained its ability to package MLV RNA. A construct expressing SNV gag-MLV pol supported the replication of both MLV and SNV vectors, indicating that the gag and pol gene products from two different viruses can functionally cooperate to perform one cycle of retroviral replication. Viral titer data indicated that SNV cis-acting elements are not ideal substrates for MLV pol gene products since infectious viruses were generated at a lower efficiency. These results indicate that the nonreciprocal recognition between SNV and MLV extends beyond the Gag-RNA interaction and also includes interactions between Pol and other cis-acting elements.

  1. Genetic diversity of the coat protein of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) isolates and its structural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I E; Félix, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins.

  2. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub, E-mail: hyounlim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiryun, E-mail: jilyoon@naver.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Eun-Young, E-mail: sey22@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Moon, E-mail: moonlit51@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Vaira, Anna Maria, E-mail: a.vaira@ivv.cnr.it [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino 10135 (Italy); Bae, Hanhong, E-mail: hanhongbae@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Geongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chan-Yong, E-mail: sunbispirit@gmail.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Ho, E-mail: chlee1219@hanmail.net [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seokyoung University, Seoul 136-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Gi, E-mail: hgkim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Mark, E-mail: marksroh@gmail.com [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Laboratory of Floriculture and Plant Physiology, School of Bio-Resource Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hammond, John, E-mail: john.hammond@ars.usda.gov [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP{sub SP}) with that from AltMV-Po (CP{sub Po}) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP{sub Po} [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP{sub SP} but not CP{sub Po} interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP{sub SP} than CP{sub Po} in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein.

  3. A Pregnant Patient With Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Pineda, Denis; Lamin, Manjo; Leung, Anders; Corbett, Cindi; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-12-01

    Limited data suggest Ebola virus disease during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. A 34-year-old woman, gravida 4 para 3, at 36 weeks of gestation was admitted to an Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone with Ebola virus disease confirmed by laboratory testing of maternal blood for Ebola RNA. She complained of headache, cough, and arthralgia for 7 days but was afebrile. Eleven days later, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed; the following day, maternal blood was negative for Ebola viral RNA. Labor was induced and resulted in the vaginal delivery of a stillborn fetus. The mother recovered. Her vaginal secretions (on the day of induction), a placenta fragment, umbilical cord, and neonatal buccal swabs were positive for Ebola RNA. No exposed health care workers were infected. This case illustrates that pregnant women can survive infection with Ebola virus disease and be cared for and delivered without infection of their health care workers.

  4. Evaluation of a Subunit Vaccine to Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) Virus, 1984 FY Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1985-07-01

    A prototype subunit vaccine to IHN virus is being developed by recombinant DNA techniques. The techniques involve the isolation and characterization of the glycoprotein gene, which encodes the viral protein responsible for inducing a protective immune response in fish. The viral glycoprotein gene has been cloned and a restriction map of the cloned gene has been prepared. Preliminary DNA sequence analysis of the cloned gene has been initiated so that manipulation of the gene for maximum expression in appropriate plasmid vectors is possible. A recombinant plasmid containing the viral gene inserted in the proper orientation adjacent to a very strong lambda promoter and ribosome binding site has been constructed. Evaluation of this recombinant plasmid for gene expression is being conducted. Immunization trials with purified viral glycoprotein indicate that fish are protected against lethal doses of IHNV after immersion and intraperitoneal methods of immunization. In addition, cross protection immunization trials indicate that Type 2 and Type 1 IHN virus produce glycoproteins that are cross-protective.

  5. Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes ("host-microbe ecosystem"). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes-viruses in particular-with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.

  6. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  7. Induction of Autoantibodies and Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Psoriasis Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oter-López, B; Llamas-Velasco, M; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Dauden, E

    2017-06-01

    The induction of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and the onset of autoimmune diseases have been reported after treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, though controversy persists. To determine the frequency of onset of autoimmune diseases and of the appearance of autoantibodies in psoriasis patients administered TNF inhibitors (adalimumab and etanercept) subcutaneously and to correlate this with the effectiveness of treatment, adverse effects, and the order of use of TNF inhibitors. We also tried to identify any factors that might predict the appearance of ANA and autimmune diseases. We performed a retrospective study of a cohort of 121 patients monitored over an 11-year period. ANA were measured at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months; positive results were followed up by study of antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies were also studied at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients with a baseline assay of ANA and ENA at least one more assay during the first year were included in the study, and these antibodies were measured annually thereafter. Psoriasis area severity index was calculated and adverse effects were recorded at each visit. A significant increase in ANA positivity was observed during treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis with adalimumab and etanercept, but this was not associated with the onset of autoimmune diseases. No correlation was observed with treatment efficacy, the order of use of TNF inhibitors, or the appearance of adverse effects. No predictive factors for the appearance of ANA were identified, except for the body mass index. We recommend ANA measurement and screening for autoimmune diseases prior to treatment with TNF inhibitors, but not routine serial measurements of ANA during follow-up except in patients with signs or symptoms suggestive of autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Ioannis; Zavos, Christos; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Mastorakos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2015-12-21

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has significantly improved since the introduction of biological agents, such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab. The Food and Drug Administration has classified these factors in category B, which means that they do not demonstrate a fetal risk. However, during pregnancy fetuses are exposed to high anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels that are measurable in their plasma after birth. Since antibodies can transfer through the placenta at the end of the second and during the third trimesters, it is important to know the safety profile of these drugs, particularly for the fetus, and whether maintaining relapse of the disease compensates for the potential risks of fetal exposure. The limited data available for the anti-TNF drugs to date have not demonstrated any significant adverse outcomes in the pregnant women who continued their therapy from conception to the first trimester of gestation. However, data suggest that anti-TNFs should be discontinued during the third trimester, as they may affect the immunological system of the newborn baby. Each decision should be individualized, based on the distinct characteristics of the patient and her disease. Considering all the above, there is a need for more clinical studies regarding the effect of anti-TNF therapeutic agents on pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Demyelinizing Neurological Disease after Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruè

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Demyelinizing neurological disease is a rare complication after treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNFα antagonists. We report on a case of multiple sclerosis after TNFα antagonist treatment and discuss its differential diagnosis. Methods: This is an observational case study. Results: A 48-year-old male was referred to Ophthalmology in January 2015 for an absolute scotoma in the superior quadrant of the visual field in his right eye. Visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left. Fundus examination was unremarkable bilaterally. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed a normal macular retina structure. Visual field examination revealed a superior hemianopsia in the right eye. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed findings compatible with optic neuritis. The visual evoked potentials confirmed the presence of optic neuritis. The patient had been under therapy with adalimumab since January 2014, for Crohn’s disease. Suspension of adalimumab was recommended, and it was substituted with tapered deltacortene, from 1 mg/kg/day. After 1 month, the scotoma was resolved completely. Conclusions: TNFα antagonists can provide benefit to patients with inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, they can also be associated with severe adverse effects. Therefore, adequate attention should be paid to neurological abnormalities in patients treated with TNFα antagonists.

  10. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  11. Association of tumor necrosis factor-α and -β gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Meghaiseeb ES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebtissam Saleh Al-Meghaiseeb,1 Abdulrahman A Al-Robayan,1 Mulfi Mubarak Al-Otaibi,1 Misbahul Arfin,2 Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari2 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Research Centre, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract in which immune dysregulation caused by genetic and/or environmental factors plays an important role. The aim of this case–­control study was to evaluate the association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α (308 and -β (+252 polymorphisms with susceptibility of IBD. A total of 379 Saudi subjects including 179 IBD patients (ulcerative colitis (UC =84 and Crohn’s disease (CD =95 and 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. TNF-a and TNF-b genes were amplified using an amplification refractory mutation systems polymerase chain reaction methodology to detect TNF-α (–308 and -β (+252 polymorphisms. The frequency of the GA genotype of TNF-α (–308G/A was higher, and the frequencies of the GG and AA genotypes were significantly lower in IBD patients compared with those in controls, indicating that genotype GA-positive individuals are susceptible to IBD and that the GG and AA genotypes exert a protective effect. The frequency of allele A of TNF-α (–308G/A was significantly higher and that of allele G was lower in IBD patients compared with those in controls, indicating an association of allele A with IBD risk in Saudi patients. On stratification of IBD patients into UC and CD, an almost similar pattern was noticed in both the groups. The results of TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms showed a significant increase in the frequency of the GG genotype in IBD patients, suggesting a positive association of GG genotype with IBD risk. On stratification of IBD patients into UC and CD, the genotype GG of TNF-β was associated with susceptibility risk to UC but not CD. The

  12. Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, R.B.; McAllister, P.E.; Edwards, G.H.; Santi, N.; Evensen, O.; Vakharia, V.N.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Various attempts to develop a vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) have not yielded consistent results. Thus, at present, no commercial vaccine is available that can be used with confidence to immunize fry of salmon and trout. We generated a cDNA clone of the large genome segment A of an IPNV Sp strain and expressed all structural protein genes in insect cells and larvae using a baculovirus expression system. Green fluorescent protein was also co-expressed as a reporter molecule. High yields of IPNV proteins were obtained and the structural proteins self assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs). We tested the immunogenicity of the putative VLP antigen in immersion vaccine experiments (two concentrations) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, and by intraperitoneal immunisation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts using an oil adjuvant formulation. Rainbow trout were challenged by immersion using either the Sp or the VR-299 strain of IPNV two or three weeks post-vaccination, while Atlantic salmon were bath challenged with Sp strain after two months, after parr-smolt transformation. In the rainbow trout fry challenged two weeks post-immunization, cumulative mortality rates three weeks post challenge were 14 % in the fry that had received the highest dose versus 8 % in the control groups. No indication of protection was seen in repeated trials using a lower dose of antigen and challenge three weeks post-immunisation. The cumulative mortality rate of intraperitoneally immunised Atlantic salmon post-smolts four weeks post challenge was lower (56 %) than in the control fish (77 %), showing a dose-response pattern.

  13. Relationship of viruses and viroids with apricot “viruela” disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel RUBIO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 34 apricot orchards in south-eastern Spain planted with the Spanish cultivar ‘Búlida’ and showing “viruela” symptoms were studied for 2 years. Leaf and fruit samples from four trees in each orchard, either with or without “viruela” symptoms, were collected and analysed by multiplex RT-PCR for the detection of American plum line pattern virus (APLPV, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Apricot latent virus (ApLV, Plum bark necrosis and stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, Plum pox virus (PPV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV, and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV. In addition, molecular hybridization assays were performed for the detection of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd. All fruits showing “viruela” symptoms were infected with ACLSV and HSVd, suggesting that these pathogens may be responsible for “viruela” disease. Other viruses including PNRSV, PBNSPaV, ApLV, PDV, ApMV and PPV, were detected to a lesser degree. Detection of ACLSV and HSVd in samples without symptoms could be explained by the influence of environmental conditions and/or the physiological stage of fruits on the expression of symptoms.

  14. An isolate and sequence database of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Schuetze, H.; Kurath, G.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of fish diseases, the amount of relevant information available is enormous. Internet-based databases are an excellent tool for keeping track of the available knowledge in the field. Fishpathogens.eu was launched in June 2009 with the aim of collecting, storing and sorting data on fish...... Laboratory for Fish Diseases and collaborators. It is available at http://www.fishpathogens.eu/ihnv....

  15. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  16. Neuroinflammation and tumor necrosis factor signaling in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E McAlpine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiona E McAlpine, Malú G TanseyAbstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nearly one in two individuals over 90 years of age. Its neuropathological hallmarks are accumulation of extraneuronal plaques of amyloid-beta (Aβ, the presence of neurofibrillary tangles formed by aberrantly hyperphosphorylated tau, progressive synaptic loss, and neurodegeneration which eventually results in decline of memory and cognitive faculties. Although the etiology of sporadic AD in humans is unknown, mutations in amyloid precursor protein or components of its processing machinery (β-secretase and γ-secretase result in overproduction of Aβ1–40 and 1–42 peptides and are sufficient to cause disease. In this review, we highlight the experimental and clinical evidence that suggests a close association between neuroinflammation and AD pathogenesis. Overproduction of inflammatory mediators in the brain occurs when microglia, which are often found in close physical association with amyloid plaques in AD brains, become chronically activated. It has been proposed that elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, may inhibit phagocytosis of Aβ in AD brains thereby hindering efficient plaque removal by resident microglia. In support of this idea, the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, a potent trigger of inflammation that elicits production of TNF and many other cytokines, can accelerate the appearance and severity of AD pathology in several animal models of AD. We review the evidence implicating TNF signaling in AD pathology and discuss how TNF-dependent processes may contribute to cognitive dysfunction and accelerated progression of AD. We conclude by reviewing the observations that provide compelling rationale to investigate the extent to which new therapeutic approaches that selectively target the TNF pathway modify progression of neuropathology in pre-clinical models

  17. Relationship between apoptosis and the BH2 domain sequence of the VP5 peptide of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ortega S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the level of apoptosis induced by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV is related to the amino acid sequence of the BH2 domain of the VP5 protein and the level of infectivity. Materials and methods. Three IPNV strains were used, the VP2 protein gene was amplified for genotyping and the VP5 sequence was also obtained. The infectivity of the strains was calculated using the viral titer obtained at 12, 24, 36 and 45 hpi in CHSE-214 cells. The percentage of apoptosis in infected cells was visualized by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry (caspase 3 detection. Results. The V70/06 and V33/98 strains corresponded to genotype Sp, while V112/06 to VR-299; the amino acid analysis of the V70/06 strain allows its classification as middle virulent strain and V33/98 and V112/06 strains as low virulent ones; infection with the V112/06 strain produced a lower viral titer (p0.05. Conclusions. The results showed that the differences in the BH2 sequence of the VP5 protein, infectivity and the VP2 sequence are not associated with the modulation of apoptosis.

  18. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use in evaluating the efficacy of different vaccines used in aquaculture.

  19. Effects of vedolizumab induction therapy for patients with Crohn's disease in whom tumor necrosis factor antagonist treatment failed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sands, Bruce E.; Feagan, Brian G.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Sandborn, William J.; Sy, Richmond; D'Haens, Geert; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Xu, Jing; Rosario, Maria; Fox, Irving; Parikh, Asit; Milch, Catherine; Hanauer, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new treatments for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in whom previous therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has failed. We performed a placebo-controlled, phase 3, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vedolizumab, an antibody

  20. Anti tumour necrosis factor as risk factor for free perforations in Crohn's disease? A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, E. J.; Griffioen, G. H. M. J.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; Ubbink, D. T.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Although the occurrence of intestinal perforation in Crohns disease (CD) is rare, clinical observation has led to the question whether anti tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment is a risk factor for free perforation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relation between

  1. Efficacy and safety of retreatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody (infliximab) to maintain remission in Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgeerts, P.; D'Haens, G.; Targan, S.; Vasiliauskas, E.; Hanauer, S. B.; Present, D. H.; Mayer, L.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Braakman, T.; DeWoody, K. L.; Schaible, T. F.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Infliximab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody, rapidly reduces signs and symptoms of active Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated infusions of infliximab would effectively and safely maintain the remitting benefit. The efficacy, safety,

  2. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J C G; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A; Gibb, Diana M; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-α and oral inflammation in patients with Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Susanne; Reichert, Stefan; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Reichert, Yvonne; Gläser, Christiane; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Stein, Jamal M

    2014-10-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease often accompanied by periodontal symptoms. Based on its function in immune response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and its genetic variants have been discussed as risk indicators in inflammatory processes. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of TNF-α polymorphisms on periodontal parameters and inflammatory lesions of oral mucosa as a characteristic of CD. A total of 142 patients with CD were included in the study. Oral soft tissue alterations and periodontal parameters were assessed. Genotypes, alleles, and haplotypes of TNF-α polymorphisms (rs1800629, cDNA-308G > A; and rs361525, cDNA-238G > A) were determined by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). Patients with CD who exhibit more severe oral soft tissue alterations were significantly more often A allele carriers of rs361525 than G allele carriers (14.2% versus 2.2%; P risk indicator for oral soft tissue alterations in patients with CD. No genotype-dependent influence of rs1800629 was observed. The TNF-α A allele of rs361525 represents a significant risk indicator for oral soft tissue alterations in patients with CD.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of MHC class I genes in rainbow trout infected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Eric D.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Wheeler , Paul A.; Hansen, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are important mediators of cell-mediated immunity in vertebrates. MHC class IA molecules are important for host anti-viral immunity as they present intracellular antigens and regulate natural killer cell (NK) activity. MHC class Ib molecules on the other hand are less understood and have demonstrated diverse immune and non-immune functions in mammals. Rainbow trout possess a single classical MHC IA locus (Onmy-UBA) that is believed to function similar to that of mammalian MHC class Ia. Numerous MHC class Ib genes with undetermined functions have also been described in trout. Here we utilize quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques to survey the levels of basal and inducible transcription for selected trout MHC class Ib genes, sIgM and sentinels of IFN induction in response to viral infection. Basal transcription of all the class Ib genes examined in this study was lower than Onmy-UBA in naïve fish. UBA, along with all of the non-classical genes were induced in fish infected with virus but not in control fish. Our results support a non-classical designation for the majority of the class IB genes surveyed in this study based upon expression levels while also indicating that they may play an important role in anti-viral immunity in trout.

  5. Systemic effects of zoledronic acid in children with traumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Briody, Julie; McQuade, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intravenous bisphosphonate therapy is associated with preservation of femoral head sphericity and congruence in 77% of children with traumatic avascular necrosis. The aim was to describe the systemic effects of intravenous zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone and mineral metabolism in otherwise...... normal children and adolescents with femoral head AVN. Material and methods: 37 children (age 10.8+/-2.76 years) diagnosed with avascular necrosis AVN (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE), N=20 or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), N=17) were treated with at least 12 months of ZA. Bone mineral...

  6. Effects of MS-8209, an Amphotericin B Derivative, on Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Synthesis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Clayette, Pascal; Martin, Marc; Beringue, Vincent; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Adjou, Karim T.; Seman, Michel; Dormont, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Amphotericin B derivatives, such as MS-8209, have been evaluated as a therapeutic approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We show that MS-8209, like amphotericin B, increases tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression and TNF-α production and consequently HIV replication in human macrophages. These effects confirm the pharmacological risk associated with the administration of amphotericin B or its derivatives to HIV-infected patients.

  7. Effects of MS-8209, an amphotericin B derivative, on tumor necrosis factor alpha synthesis and human immunodeficiency virus replication in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayette, P; Martin, M; Beringue, V; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N; Adjou, K T; Seman, M; Dormont, D

    2000-02-01

    Amphotericin B derivatives, such as MS-8209, have been evaluated as a therapeutic approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We show that MS-8209, like amphotericin B, increases tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression and TNF-alpha production and consequently HIV replication in human macrophages. These effects confirm the pharmacological risk associated with the administration of amphotericin B or its derivatives to HIV-infected patients.

  8. Characterization of the anemia of inflammatory disease in cats with abscesses, pyothorax, or fat necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenjann, Mareike; Weingart, Christiane; Arndt, Gisela; Kohn, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anemia of inflammatory disease (AID) in cats with naturally-occurring inflammatory diseases, such as abscesses (n = 12), pyothorax (n = 6), and fat necrosis (n = 3). Exclusion criteria were positive FeLV/FIV tests, neoplasia, nephro-, hepato- or endocrinopathies, and blood loss anemia. CBC, clinical biochemistry, measurements of serum erythropoietin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, acute phase proteins, erythrocytic osmotic fragility (OF), and Coombs' tests were performed. A decrease in hematocrit of 1-28% (median, 10%) occurred within 3-16 days (median, 8 days). The anemia was mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 8), or severe (n = 2). In most cases it was normocytic normochromic, non-regenerative (n = 18), or mildly regenerative (n = 3). Sixteen cats had leukocytosis and 5 mild hyperbilirubinemia. The Coombs' test results were negative for 8 cats and positive for 1 cat. OF was increased in 2 out of 14 cats. Hypoalbuminemia (n = 18) and hyperglobulinemia (n = 16) resulted in a lowered albumin/globulin-ratio in 19 cats. Iron and TIBC were low in 2/19 and 6 /19 cats, respectively. The ferritin concentrations were normal in 7 cats and increased in 12 cats. The acute phase proteins alpha1-acid-glycoprotein and haptoglobin were increased in 14/14 and 13/14 cats, respectively. Erythropoietin was normal (n = 4), mildly increased (n = 7) or severely increased (1). Two cats were euthanized due to their underlying disease, 3 cats needed blood transfusions. AID in cats is usually mild to moderate, non-regenerative, and normocytic normochromic. It can be clinically relevant causing severe and transfusion-dependent anemia. AID seems to be multifactorial with evidence of iron sequestration, decreased RBC survival, and insufficient erythropoietin production and bone marrow response. Specific and supportive therapy, including transfusions, can reverse these processes.

  9. Bone marrow necrosis and fat embolism syndrome: a dreadful complication of hemoglobin sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targueta, Eduardo Pelegrineti; Hirano, André Carramenha de Góes; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Martines, João Augusto Dos Santos; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease encompasses a wide range of genotypic presentation with particular clinical features. The entity affects millions of people, particularly those whose ancestors came from sub-Saharan Africa and other countries in the Western Hemisphere, Saudi Arabia, and India. Currently, the high frequency of S and C genes reflects natural selection through the protection of heterozygotes against severe malaria, the high frequency of consanguineous marriages, improvement of some public health policies and the nutritional standards in the poorer countries where newborns are now living long enough to present for diagnosis and management. Although there is a high burden of the disease, in many countries, the new-born sickle cell screening test is being performed and is rendering an early diagnosis; however, it is still difficult for sickle cell patients to find proper treatment and adequate follow-up. Moreover, in many countries, patients are neither aware of their diagnosis nor the care they should receive to prevent complications; also, they do not receive adequate genetic counseling. Hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is the most frequent double sickle cell heterozygosis found in Brazil. The clinical course tends to be more benign with fewer hospitalizations compared with double homozygotic SS patients. However, HbSC patients may present severe complications with a fatal outcome. We report the case of a 36-year-old man who presented to the emergency care facility with symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of sickling crisis. The outcome was unfavorable and death occurred just hours after admission. The autopsy revealed a generalized vaso-occlusive crisis by sickled red cells, bone marrow necrosis, and fat embolism syndrome.

  10. Plasmid mediated tetracycline resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Han

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important problems in public health, veterinary medicine and aquaculture. Importantly, plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from shrimp can potentially be transferred through transposition, conjugation and plasmid uptake to different bacterial species in aquaculture systems. In this study, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance pattern in V. parahaemolyticus strains associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND from penaeid shrimp and identified AHPND strains from Mexico showed a high level of resistance to tetracycline (≥5 μg/mL and have the tetB gene coding tetracycline resistance. In particular, the tetB gene was carried in a single copy plasmid (named as pTetB-VA1 comprising 5162-bp with 40% G + C content from the strain (13-511/A1. The plasmid pTetB-VA1 consists of 9 ORFs encoding tetracycline resistant and repressor proteins, transcriptional regulatory proteins and transposases and showed a 99% sequence identity to other tet gene plasmids (pIS04_68 and pAQU2.

  11. CT evaluation of chronic hip joint diseases: avascular necrosis vs. osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Suh, Jin Seok; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the hip was done on 37 patients those who have been suffered from chronic hip joint pain. There were 18 patients of avascular necrosis of hip (AVN), 67% of whom were affected bilaterally, 15 patients of degenerative arthritis (DA), 33% bilaterally; one patient of tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and traumatic arthritis respectively. Comparison of the staging by means of the CT and plain film showed good correlation between the two methods. The CT findings of the AVN and OA were also compared; crescent sign or fissure, loss of congruity, and loss or change of normal asterisk sign were more commonly seen in AVN. Acetabular change especially associated cystic appearance, osteophytes formation and joint narrowing were more frequent in OA. CT showed primary and secondary change of AVN and OA more clearly without confusion than plain film. We think that CT can be helpful in evaluation and understanding of each disease process and differentiation of the two lesions in difficult cases.

  12. Hepatitis C virus liver disease in women infected with contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is carried out by detection of antibodies to the virus (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA)) with confirmation by identification of HCV RNA genome in serum (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). We describe the histological features on liver biopsy in 88 women with chronic HCV infection (serum positive on ELISA, RIBA and PCR) acquired from virus contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. For the majority of these patients the time interval from virus infection to presentation was between 17 and 18 years. We separately assessed necroinflammatory disease activity and architectural features on liver biopsy and applied a scoring system which permitted semi-quantitative documentation of abnormal features. Only three women showed liver biopsies within normal limits (+\\/-focal steatosis). The remaining 85 cases showed a predominantly mild or moderate degree of disease activity with interface hepatitis (56.8% of cases), spotty necrosis, apoptosis and focal inflammation (88.6% of cases) and portal inflammation (90.9% of cases). Confluent necrosis was an uncommon finding (2.3% of cases). Assessment of architectural features showed normal appearance in 35.2% of biopsies. The predominant architectural abnormality noted was portal tract fibrosis. Ten per cent of cases, however, showed significant fibrous band and\\/or nodule formation.

  13. Diagnosis of Coronary Heart Diseases Using Gene Expression Profiling; Stable Coronary Artery Disease, Cardiac Ischemia with and without Myocardial Necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Kazmi

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in Europe, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. With the recent advances in genomic tools and technologies there is potential to predict and diagnose heart disease using molecular data from analysis of blood cells. We analyzed gene expression data from blood samples taken from normal people (n = 21, non-significant coronary artery disease (n = 93, patients with unstable angina (n = 16, stable coronary artery disease (n = 14 and myocardial infarction (MI; n = 207. We used a feature selection approach to identify a set of gene expression variables which successfully differentiate different cardiovascular diseases. The initial features were discovered by fitting a linear model for each probe set across all arrays of normal individuals and patients with myocardial infarction. Three different feature optimisation algorithms were devised which identified two discriminating sets of genes, one using MI and normal controls (total genes = 6 and another one using MI and unstable angina patients (total genes = 7. In all our classification approaches we used a non-parametric k-nearest neighbour (KNN classification method (k = 3. The results proved the diagnostic robustness of the final feature sets in discriminating patients with myocardial infarction from healthy controls. Interestingly it also showed efficacy in discriminating myocardial infarction patients from patients with clinical symptoms of cardiac ischemia but no myocardial necrosis or stable coronary artery disease, despite the influence of batch effects and different microarray gene chips and platforms.

  14. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Kyu Choi

    Full Text Available The nonvirion (NV protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP, a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the (32EGDL(35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the (32EGDL(35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.. While treatment with poly I∶C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I∶C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of (32EGDL(35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  15. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  16. Suspected de novo Hepatitis B in a Patient Receiving Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 45-year-old female patient who developed acute hepatic disorder during anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. She was diagnosed as colonic CD and placed on infliximab (IFX. She was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen at the initiation of IFX therapy, but developed acute hepatitis after the 30th administration of IFX 4 years and 1 month after the first administration. She was suspected to have had occult hepatitis B virus infection before IFX therapy, and de novo hepatitis B was considered the most likely diagnosis. Hepatitis subsided after discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy and initiation of treatment with entecavir. She started to receive adalimumab to prevent relapse of CD. She has continued maintenance therapy with entecavir and adalimumab and has since been asymptomatic. As de novo hepatitis B may be fatal, virological testing for hepatitis B is essential for patients who are being considered for treatment that may weaken the immune system.

  17. Application and development of a TaqMan real-time PCR for detecting infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus in Siniperca chuatsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Fu, Xiaozhe; Liu, Lihui; Liang, Hongru; Guo, Huizhi; Yin, Shuwen; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Ningqiu

    2017-06-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is one of the major epidemiological agents that had caused great economic loss in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi). In this study, a specific TaqMan real-time PCR was developed using a pair of primers and a TaqMan probe specific to the ORF007 gene of ISKNV to rapidly detect ISKNV copies in Chinese perch samples. This assay was optimized to produce linearity from 8.75 × 10 8 to 8.75 × 10 1 copies in standard curve with an efficiency of 98% and a R 2 value of 0.9999. Moreover, the minimum detection limit of this assay was 10,000 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR method. The coefficients of variation of intra- and inter-assay repeatability were less than 2.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The viral distribution in different tissues of diseased Chinese perch was evaluated by TaqMan real-time PCR method and the highest level of viral copies was detected in spleen. Among the 76 diseased Chinese perch clinical samples, 35 and 29 were positive samples based on the TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods, respectively, indicating that the TaqMan real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR. Therefore, the TaqMan real-time PCR should be a useful tool for the early surveillance and quantitation of ISKNV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Care of the child with Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carl O; Uyeki, Timothy M; Christian, Michael D; King, Mary A; Braner, Dana A V; Kanter, Robert K; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    To provide clinicians with practical considerations for care of children with Ebola virus disease in resource-rich settings. Review of the published medical literature, World Health Organization and government documents, and expert opinion. There are limited data regarding Ebola virus disease in children; however, reported case-fatality proportions in children are high. Ebola virus may affect immune regulation and endothelial function differently in children than adults. Considerations for care of children with Ebola virus disease are presented. Ebola virus disease is a severe multisystem disease with high mortality in children and adults. Hospitals and clinicians must prepare to provide care for patients with Ebola virus disease before such patients present for care, with particular attention to rigorous infection control to limit secondary cases. Although there is no proven specific treatment for Ebola virus disease, meticulous supportive care offers patients the best chance of survival.

  19. The evolution of Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałas, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents general information regarding descriptive epidemiology of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Some observations have shown the decrease in case fatality ratio after several generations of patient-to-patient passage. An increase in the frequency of EVD outbreaks across decades was also noticed. The knowledge about the past outbreaks may provide crucial information about the evolution of EVD epidemic, which may be useful for future preventions.

  20. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and

  1. An overview of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanali, Ayten; Karagoz, Gul

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. Ebola virus (EBOV) is transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids of a person who contracted or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or bush meat. EVD has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection or further spreading of the virus. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. Its treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Clinicians should consider the possibility of EVD in persons with travel or exposure history with the incubation period presenting constitutional symptoms in order to promptly identify diseased patients, and prevent further spreading of the disease.

  2. In vivo fitness correlates with host-specific virulence of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Wargo, A.R.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between virulence and overall within-host fitness of the fish rhabdovirus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was empirically investigated in vivo for two virus isolates belonging to different IHNV genogroups that exhibit opposing host-specific virulence. U group isolates are more virulent in sockeye salmon and M group isolates are more virulent in rainbow trout. In both single and mixed infections in the two fish hosts, the more virulent IHNV type exhibited higher prevalence and higher viral load than the less virulent type. Thus, a positive correlation was observed between higher in vivo fitness and higher host-specific virulence in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout. Comparisons of mean viral loads in single and mixed infections revealed no evidence for limitation due to competition effects between U and M viruses in either rainbow trout or sockeye salmon co-infections.

  3. Development of rapid and highly sensitive detection of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus in leguminous crops using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siwon; Kim, Heejung; Lee, Jin-Young; Rho, Jae-Young

    2017-11-01

    Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is a plant pathogenic virus that can infect leguminous crops such as kidney beans, sunn hemp, red beans, and mung beans. BCMNV has not been reported in Korea and is classified as a quarantine plant virus. Currently, the standard diagnostic method for diagnosis of BCMNV is reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR system. However a more rapid monitoring system is needed to enable the testing of more samples. The use of highly efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for its detection has not yet been reported, and development of LAMP for detecting BCMNV in this study. In addition, confirmation of LAMP amplification can be achieved using restriction enzyme Mse I (T/TAA). The developed technique could be used for more rapid, specific and sensitive monitoring of BCMNV in leguminous crops than conventional nested RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A nuclear localization signal in the matrix of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) does not allow efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells with SNV-derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Marie-Christine; Caruso, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    A major limitation in gene therapy for vectors derived from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) is that they only deliver genes into dividing cells. In this study, a careful comparison of spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-derived vectors with MLV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 retroviral vectors indicated that SNV vectors can deliver genes 4-fold more efficiently than MLV vectors into aphidicolin-arrested cells, although at a 25-fold lower efficiency than HIV-1-derived vectors. Furthermore, the addition of a NLS in the SNV matrix (MA) that mimics the one located in HIV-1 MA did not increase the ability of SNV vectors to transfer genes into arrested cells. Also, we found that the RD114 envelope was able to pseudotype SNV viral particles in a very efficient manner.

  5. Does the simultaneous tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, tumor necrosis factor promoter gene polymorphism represent a higher risk for alcoholic liver disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Martins, Alexandra; Almeida, Rosário; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gonçalves, Maria S; Camilo, Maria E; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2009-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). TNF-alpha exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors (TNFR); the polymorphism of TNFRII T587G has been associated with increased TNF apoptotic response and its presence may increase the risk to develop liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the TNF-alpha G238A promoter and TNFRII polymorphisms, individually or simultaneously, in ALD. TNF-alpha G238A and TNFRII T587G polymorphisms were studied in 103 unrelated patients with ALD (biopsy confirmed or clinical evidence) and in 76 heavy drinkers without liver disease (NLD). Single nucleotide polymorphism gene was detected by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms method. All patients had, at least, a 5 year history of alcohol consumption greater than 80 g/day. TNF-alpha G238A allele frequency was similar in both groups. TNFRII T587G allele frequency was slightly higher in the ALD group than in the NLD group (21 vs. 18%, P=NS). TNF-alpha G238A and TNFRII T587G were simultaneously present in six ALD patients and in none of NLD patients (P=0.04). Although individually there was no association between TNFRII T587G or TNF-alpha G238A polymorphisms and ALD, this study suggests that the presence of both polymorphisms may enhance the susceptibility for ALD. TNF-alpha G238A may increase TNF-alpha production, which when associated with TNFRII T587G, can further exacerbate TNF-alpha response leading to a greater risk of ALD.

  6. Oral DNA vaccines based on CS-TPP nanoparticles and alginate microparticles confer high protection against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection in trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Sohrab; Soltani, Mehdi; Behdani, Mahdi; Evensen, Øystein; Alirahimi, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Ellahe

    2017-09-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a contagious viral disease causing remarkable mortalities in different fish species. Despite the availability of commercial vaccines against IPN, the disease still constitutes one of the main threats to the aquaculture industry worldwide. In this study, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene of IPNV and evaluated its ability to induce protective immunity in rainbow trout fry (3 g) at doses of 10 and 25 μg/fish and boosting with the same doses two weeks later through the oral route using chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles and alginate microparticles incorporated into fish feed. The distribution of the administered vaccines in different organs and transcription of VP2 gene were confirmed by RT-PCR assay at day 30 post boost-vaccination. Transcript levels of IFN-1, Mx-1, IgM, IgT and CD4 genes was dependent on vaccine dose and was significantly up-regulated in head kidney of all orally vaccinated fish groups compared to controls (pcDNA3.1). Cumulative mortalities post-challenge with virulent isolate of the virus were lower in the vaccinated fish and a relative percentage survival (RPS) of 59% and 82% were obtained for the 10 and 25 μg/fish pcDNA3.1-VP2 groups, respectively. Vaccination with the same amount of pcDNA3.1-VP2 encapsulated with CS-TPP nanoparticles resulted in RPS of 47 %and 70%, respectively. Detectable anti-IPNV antibodies were shown until 90 days postvaccination. The orally administrated vaccines significantly decreased VP4 transcripts thus contributing to reducing viral load in surviving fish on day 45 post-challenge. In conclusion, these results show good to high protection post-vaccination alongside with significant up-regulation of key immune genes and detectable levels of circulating antibodies after oral administration of the DNA vaccine formulated in CS-TPP nanoparticles and alginate microparticles in fish feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Diverticulitis and Crohn's disease have distinct but overlapping tumor necrosis superfamily 15 haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Tara M; Choi, Christine S; Berg, Arthur S; Harris, Leonard; Coble, Joel; Koltun, Walter A

    2017-06-15

    Diverticulitis (DD) and Crohn's disease (CD) have overlapping features including bowel structuring, inflammation, and infection. Tumor necrosis superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) is an immunoregulatory, anti-angiogenic gene. CD has been previously associated with a haplotype of five TNFSF15 single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles: rs3810936 (G allele), rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7848647 (G), and rs7869487 (A). We aimed to determine the TNFSF15 risk haplotype for DD versus controls with a subgroup analysis of youthful DD patients (aged ≤55 y) versus older controls (aged ≥55 y). A total of 148 diverticulitis patients (90 aged ≤55 y) and 200 controls (87 aged ≥55 y) were genotyped using our custom-designed Illumina Veracode microarray chip. Genotypes from rs3810936, rs6478108, rs6478109, rs7848647, rs7869487 and two additional TNFSF15 single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs3810936 and rs11554257, were analyzed. PHASE version 2.1, R with HaploStats and the Broad Institute's Haploview program were used for statistics and imputed haplotype frequency. Permutation corrected for multiple comparisons. The CD GAGGA haplotype was significantly associated with diverticulitis (P = 0.03) in the all DD versus all controls comparison. A second haplotype, rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7869487 (A), and rs4263839 (G), was also associated with DD in this cohort (P = 0.025). A third haplotype rs6478108 (A), rs6478109 (G), rs7848647 (G) and rs7869487 (A), rs4263839 (G) was demonstrated in the DD 55 comparison (P = 0.045). Distinct but overlapping TNFSF15 haplotypes were demonstrated in diverticulitis patients versus healthy controls when compared with the known Crohn's risk haplotype suggesting similar but distinct genetic predispositions. This study strengthens the role for a genetic predisposition to diverticulitis that involves the TNFSF15 gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis with special reference to caisson disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, P.J.; Walder, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as 'hot spots' on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation established during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease. (author)

  9. Scintigraphy versus radiography in the early diagnosis of experimental bone necrosis, with special reference to caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1980-05-01

    The early diagnosis of caisson disease of bone is hindered by the long delay which must elapse before an abnormality becomes apparent on a radiograph. The possible use of bone scintigraphy for this purpose was investigated. Necrosis of the bone and marrow was produced in rabbits by glass microspheres to simulate persistent gas-bubble emboli and then serial radiographs and scintigrams using 99mTc-diphosphonate were obtained. Regions of necrosis could be detected as "hot-spots" on the scintigrams as early as three weeks after the causative insult, which was many weeks before any abnormality could be detected on the radiographs. Histological examination of excised femora suggested that the scintigraphic abnormality might depend on the new bone formation during a reactive or repair process. It is suggested that scintigraphy may have clinical value in caisson disease.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  11. Macrophage Activation and the Tumor Necrosis Factor Cascade in Hepatitis C Disease Progression Among HIV-Infected Women Participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Audrey L; Martin, Jonathan W; Evans, Charlesnika T; Peters, Marion; Kessaye, Seble G; Nowicki, Marek; Kuniholm, Mark; Golub, Elizabeth; Augenbraun, Michael; Desai, Seema N

    2017-12-01

    HIV/hepatitis C-coinfected persons experience more rapid liver disease progression than hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected persons, even in the setting of potent antiretroviral therapy. We sought to articulate the role of macrophage activation and inflammation in liver disease progression by measuring serial soluble markers in HIV/HCV-coinfected women. We compared markers measured during retrospectively defined periods of rapid liver disease progression to periods where little or no liver disease progression occurred. Liver disease progression was defined by liver biopsy, liver-related death or the serum markers AST-to-platelet ratio index and FIB-4. Soluble CD14, sCD163, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II, interleukin-6, and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL 2) were measured at 3 time points over 5 years. One hundred six time intervals were included in the analysis: including 31 from liver disease progressors and 75 from nonprogressors. LPS, sCD14, interleukin-6, and CCL2 levels did not differ in slope or quantity over time between rapid liver disease progressors and nonprogressors. TNFRII and sCD163 were significantly higher in liver disease progressors at (P = 0.002 and liver fibrosis outcome in unadjusted models, with similar values when adjusted for HIV RNA and CD4 count. In women with HIV/HCV coinfection, higher sCD163 levels, a marker of macrophage activation, and TNFRII levels, implying activation of the TNF-α system, were associated with liver disease progression. Our results provide an addition to the growing body of evidence regarding the relationship between macrophage activation, inflammation, and liver disease progression in HIV/HCV coinfection.

  12. Liver safety of non-tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatic patients with past hepatitis B virus infection: an observational, controlled, long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalopoulos, Ioannis; Fanouriakis, Antonis; Kougkas, Nikolaos; Flouri, Irini; Sourvinos, George; Bertsias, George; Repa, Argyro; Avgoustidis, Nestor; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2018-01-01

    The risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation with non-tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (non-TNFi) biologic agents in patients with rheumatic diseases and past HBV infection has not been definively elucidated. We assessed the comparative safety of non-TNFi and TNFi biologic agents in such patients in real-life clinical settings. We carried out a retrospective cohort study from the Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital of Heraklion. Patients who received abatacept (ABA), tocilizumab (TCZ) or rituximab (RTX) during the period 2003-2016 and were HbsAg(-), anti-HBc(+), anti-HBs(±) at baseline, were monitored for HBV reactivation. Patients treated with TNFi agents during the same period were used as a control group. 101 cases of non-TNFi (39 ABA, 32 RTX and 30 TCZ) and 111 cases of TNFi treatment were identified. In non-TNFi, 76 cases (75.2%) were anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(+) and 25 (24.8%) were anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(-), as compared to 82 (73.9%) and 29 (26.1%) in TNFi-treated, respectively. After a median (IQR) observation of 24.0 (34.7) months, two cases (2.0%) of HBV reactivation were identified in the non-TNFi group; one with ABA, successfully treated with entecavir, and one fatal case with RTX and prior exposure to cyclophosphamide. No reactivation was observed in the TNFi group (p=0.226 vs. non-TNFi). Αnti-HBs titres were significantly reduced compared to baseline in the non-TNFi group [median (IQR) 203.9 (954.7) mIU/ml before treatment versus 144.9 (962.9) mIU/ml after treatment, p=0.03]. Two cases of HBV reactivation highlight the risk for this complication in patients with past HBV infection under biologic therapy.

  13. Ebola virus disease: Essential clinical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafallah, Mahmoud Tawfik; Aboshady, Omar Ali; Moawed, Shaban Ahmed; Ramadan, Menna Said

    2017-01-01

    Since its initial outbreak in 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has affected thousands of people, causing severe illness with high mortality rates. In the absence of a vaccine or effective specific treatment, as well as the lack of early diagnostic and detective methods, the EVD outbreak has generated a significant worldwide health concern. Insufficient health-care system resources, deficient infection control measures, and the shortage of appropriate personal protective equipment acted as amplifiers of the outbreak extension, especially in poorly resourced and unprepared communities. Operating on the frontlines, health-care workers must be familiar, not only with the identification of the disease, but also with the ability to protect themselves and initiate the appropriate response. This review seeks to provide essential information required to identify and manage the disease, with an emphasis on pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar using the following keywords: “Ebola, Ebola virus disease, Hemorrhagic Fever, Outbreak.” We included all types of publications. To augment our study, we searched the reference lists of identified reviews. PMID:28791241

  14. Impact of Stopping Tumor Necrosis Factor-inhibitors on Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Burden of Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiti Moghadam, Marjan; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Kneepkens, Eva L.; Klaasen, Ruth; Stolk, Jan N.; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Vreugdenhil, Simone A.; van Woerkom, Jan M.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Yvonne P.M.; Landewé, Robert B.M.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Jansen, Tim L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of stopping tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of physical and mental health status, health utility, pain, disability and fatigue in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: In the pragmatic

  15. Impact of Stopping Tumor Necrosis Factor-inhibitors on Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Burden of Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiti Moghadam, Marjan; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; Kneepkens, Eva L.; Klaasen, Ruth; Stolk, Jan N.; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Vreugdenhil, Simone A.; van Woerkom, Jan M.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Yvonne P. M.; Landewé, Robert B. M.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.; Jansen, Tim L.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of stopping tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of physical and mental health status, health utility, pain, disability and fatigue in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the pragmatic 12-month POET trial,

  16. Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor as markers of disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E. E.; van der Poll, T.; Mevissen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFRs) were measured before and after antimony therapy in 25 Sudanese patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Both sTNFR types I and II were significantly elevated in patients with VL compared with healthy controls from

  17. [From gene to disease; tumor necrosis factor receptor and a syndrome of familial periodic fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2001-01-01

    Familial Hibernian fever (FHF) is a rare hereditary syndrome that causes periodic attacks of fever and inflammation. It is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. The gene involved in FHF encodes for a receptor for tumour necrosis factor (TNFR1). These mutations are thought to result in impaired

  18. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 family in immune homeostasis and inflammatory cancer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y Y; Yao, Y M; Sheng, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Within the immune system homeostasis is maintained by a myriad of mechanisms that include the regulation of immune cell activation and programmed cell death. The breakdown of immune homeostasis may lead to fatal inflammatory diseases. We set out to identify genes of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) family that has a functional role in the process of immune homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8), which functions as an oncogenic molecule, is also associated with enhanced cell survival and inhibition of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) governs immune homeostasis in both the innate and adaptive immune system and prevents hyper-responsiveness by negatively regulating signaling via T cell receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). There also exist two highly homologous but uncharacterized proteins, TIPE1 and TIPE3. This review is an attempt to provide a summary of TNFAIP8 family associated with immune homeostasis and inflammatory cancer diseases.

  19. Severe outbreak of disease in the southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) associated with border disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge Ramon; Rosell, Rosa; Vidal, Enric; Hurtado, Ana; Juste, Ramon; Pumarola, Marti; Lavin, Santiago

    2007-02-25

    An outbreak of a previously unreported disease affecting southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the central Pyrenees (NE Spain) was recorded in 2001 and 2002. There was a marked temporal distribution, most animals being found between February and June. After the outbreak, the population was found to have decreased by about 42%, most probably due to the disease. We examined 20 affected chamois. Clinical manifestations included depression, weakness and movement difficulties in all cases. Three chamois presented abnormal behaviour, with absence of flight reaction, and 16 showed different degrees of alopecia with skin hyperpigmentation. At necropsy cachexia was observed in all animals, four chamois had abscesses in different parts of the body, four had pneumonia, one had an extensive subcutaneous infection on the head and neck and one had severe orchitis. Microscopic lesions were found in the brain, mainly edema, gliosis, espongiosis, cariorrexis and neuronal multifocal necrosis. A perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was present in three of them. Skin lesions included marked follicular atrophy, mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular hyperkeratosis, and hypermelanosis. In 13 chamois there were haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, and in three individuals kidney "cloissone" was observed. Intraeritrocitic parasites were detected either by direct observation or PCR in 8 of 17 chamois. A pestivirus was isolated and detected by RT-PCR from 12 of 13 affected chamois and antigenic characterized as border disease virus by monoclonal antibodies. This is the first time a border disease virus has been associated with an outbreak of a high-mortality disease in a wild species.

  20. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) treatment in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice and to establish a cohort...... response rates were found. Heavy smoking was associated with non-response, whereas young age at treatment initiation was associated with a beneficial response among patients with CD. Thus, the results obtained in this cohort recruited from clinical practice were similar to those previously obtained...

  1. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) treatment in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice and to establish a cohort...... response rates were found. Heavy smoking was associated with non-response, whereas young age at treatment initiation was associated with a beneficial response among patients with CD. Thus, the results obtained in this cohort recruited from clinical practice were similar to those previously obtained...

  2. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease.

  3. T-705 (Favipiravir) suppresses tumor necrosis factor α production in response to influenza virus infection: A beneficial feature of T-705 as an anti-influenza drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Kamiyama, T; Daikoku, T; Takahashi, K; Nomura, N; Kurokawa, M; Shiraki, K

    Influenza virus infection induces the production of various cytokines, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of infection. Among the cytokines induced by influenza, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production has been correlated with the severity of lung lesions. We investigated the effects of T-705 (Favipiravir, 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) on cytokine production due to influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo, compared with oseltamivir or GS 4071, an active form of oseltamivir. TNF-α production in mouse macrophage-derived P388D1 cells infected with the influenza virus was lower following treatment with T-705 at concentrations of 0.3 to 100 µg/ml than treatment with GS 4071 at the same concentrations. The effect of treatment with T-705 on the cytokine production induced by the influenza virus infection was investigated in mouse influenza virus infection model. At 48 h post-infection (p.i.) T-705 significantly suppressed the viral load in the lungs and TNF-α production in the airways of infected mice even when viral loads were high. Furthermore, T-705 suppressed only TNF-α production from the early phase of infection. In this study, T-705 showed the antiviral activity of reducing pulmonary viral load compared with oseltamivir, thereby suppressing the TNF-α production. This feature of T-705 is benefit against severe influenza infection.

  4. Global phylogenetic analysis of contemporary aleutian mink disease viruses (AMDVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hagberg, E. E.; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease has major economic consequences on the mink farming industry worldwide, as it causes a disease that affects both the fur quality and the health and welfare of the mink. The virus causing this disease is a single-stranded DNA virus of the genus Amdoparvovirus belonging to the...

  5. Individual medicine in inflammatory bowel disease: monitoring bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Ainsworth, Mark; Steenholdt, Casper

    2009-01-01

    Antibody constructs targeting tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) have become important in the management of several chronic immunoinflammatory diseases. Four recombinant anti-TNF drugs are currently approved for clinical use in patients with various chronic inflammatory diseases, three of which...... are effective in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. These proteins can dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favourably to anti-TNF antibodies. For example, patients suffering from Crohn's disease do not benefit from...... for circulating levels of functional anti-TNF drugs and ADAs is therefore warranted so that treatment can be tailored to the individual patient (individual medicine or personal medicine) in order that effective and economical long-term therapy can be given with minimal risks to the patients....

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: clinical practice pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas W; Fedorak, Richard N

    2010-09-01

    In the last 10 years, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy has become a cornerstone in the management of autoimmune diseases. Clinical trial data have consistently found that infliximab, adalimumab, and recently certolizumab pegol offer therapeutic benefits to patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Recent understanding on how these monoclonal antibodies evoke changes at the physiological and molecular levels have provided insights into disease pathogenesis and helped to identify new targets for future drug therapy. With increased experience in the use of these anti-TNF-α antibodies the long-term safety data, use in pregnancy have become available. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding anti-TNF-α therapies for clinicians caring for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reaction of sweetpotato clones to virus disease and their yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) caused by dual infection of sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and sweetpotato featherly mottle virus (SPFMV) is a major constraint to sweetpotato production in Uganda, whose infestation often necessitates instituting control measures. Although among the available control ...

  8. genetics of resistance to groundnut rosette virus disease abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... Groundnut rosette virus disease is caused by synergyistic interaction of three viral agents, namely, groundnut rosette virus (GRV), its satelitte RNA (Sat RNA) and groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV). GRAV plays an important role in aiding aphid transmission, alongside the other two viral components.

  9. Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a simple detection method of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus in chrysanthemum and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Fukuta, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yuho; Hasegawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroko; Hotta, Makiko; Miyake, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    For a simple and rapid detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) from chrysanthemum and tomato, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. A primer set designed to the genome sequences of CSNV worked most efficiently at 63°C and could detect CSNV RNA within 12min by fluorescence monitoring using an isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence detection device. The result of a specificity test using seven other viruses and one viroid-infectable chrysanthemum or tomato showed that the assay could amplify CSNV specifically, and a sensitivity comparison showed that the RT-LAMP assay was as sensitive as the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The RT-LAMP assay using crude RNA, extracted simply, could detect CSNV. Overall, the RT-LAMP assay was found to be a simple, specific, convenient, and time-saving method for CSNV detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid de novo generation of defective interfering RNA by cucumber necrosis virus mutants that do not express the 20-kDa nonstructural protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, D M

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (moi) is required for the generation of defective interfering (DI) particles. High levels of DI RNAs are found associated with persistent infections initiated with laboratory cultures of cucumber necrosis virus (CNV). Two synthetic CNV transcripts that were derived through site-directed mutagenesis of a highly infectious CNV cDNA clone and that do not express the CNV 20-kDa nonstructural protein were found to generate high levels of symptom-attenuating DI RNAs de novo without serial high-moi passage in transcript-inoculated plants. Such de novo generation of DI RNAs did not occur in infections initiated with wild-type transcript until at least eight serial high-moi passages. The observation that a CNV nonstructural protein mutant rapidly generates DI RNA de novo may provide insight into mechanisms that underly DI particle formation in RNA viruses in general. Images PMID:1722320

  12. New RT-qPCR assay for viral nervous necrosis virus detection in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.): application and limits for hatcheries sanitary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelet, L; Dietrich, J; Rolland, J L

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and quantitative one step RT-qPCR method was developed to study Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) virus loads in sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) in hatcheries. After determining the limits of this new method, fin tissues were identified as an interesting new simple non-invasive sample source, which might be useful for screening D. labrax (L.) in hatcheries. We observed VNN virus strain V26 associated to D. labrax (L.) eggs and it's release in tank water during spawning suggesting both vertical transmission to the eggs and the possibility of horizontal transmission by contamination of tank water. VNN is widespread in water bodies and has the ability to infect a large number of fish species, with this in mind, this PCR technique may be used for the surveillance of various fish farms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenge studies of European stocks of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Jensen, Ann Britt Bang

    2009-01-01

    A challenge model for comparison of the virulence of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) to European stock of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), was tested. The model investigated intraperitoneal (IP), bath and cohabitation routes at 10......, 15 and 20 C for 5–6 g fish and 15 C for 20 g perch. In the IP challenges of perch, significant mortality occurred at 15 C and 20 C. In challenge trials for rainbow trout, significant mortalities were observed in IP and bath challenges at 20 C. The mortality observed in IP-challenged 20 g perch...... indicate that EHNV does not pose a high risk for wild perch and trout populations in Europe by natural exposure. Mortality appears to be primarily a function of environmental factors, with temperature playing an important role, and not just the presence of the virus in the fish....

  14. Successful delivery of RRT in Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael J; Kraft, Colleen; Mehta, Aneesh K; Varkey, Jay B; Lyon, G Marshall; Crozier, Ian; Ströher, Ute; Ribner, Bruce S; Franch, Harold A

    2015-01-01

    AKI has been observed in cases of Ebola virus disease. We describe the protocol for the first known successful delivery of RRT with subsequent renal recovery in a patient with Ebola virus disease treated at Emory University Hospital, in Atlanta, Georgia. Providing RRT in Ebola virus disease is complex and requires meticulous attention to safety for the patient, healthcare workers, and the community. We specifically describe measures to decrease the risk of transmission of Ebola virus disease and report pilot data demonstrating no detectable Ebola virus genetic material in the spent RRT effluent waste. This article also proposes clinical practice guidelines for acute RRT in Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Blue Tongue Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupama

    thromboses and necrosis of infected tissues (Erasmus,. 1975) (Figure 1). In sheep, the onset of the disease is .... the skin to the local lymph nodes (Hemati et al., 2009), the sites of initial virus replication (MacLachlan, 2004). .... effects and provide protection against challenge with virulent virus of the same serotype. Animals ...

  16. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  17. Increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in asymptomatic/"indeterminate" and Chagas disease cardiomyopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cristina Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We compared plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels among asymptomatic/"indeterminate" Chagas disease patients (ASY and patients across the clinical spectrum of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM patients and normal controls (NC were included as controls. ASY Chagas disease patients had significantly higher plasma TNF-alpha levels than NC. TNF-alpha levels among severe CCC patients with significant left ventricular (LV dysfunction were similar to those of DCM patients, showing average 2-fold higher levels than CCC patients without LV dysfunction and ASY patients, and 8-fold higher levels than NC. In Chagas disease, chronic TNF-a production prior to heart failure may play a role in CCC progression.

  18. Early viral replication and induced or constitutive immunity in rainbow trout families with differential resistance to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; LaPatra, S.E.; Woodson, J.C.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess correlates of innate resistance in rainbow trout full-sibling families that differ in susceptibility to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). As part of a commercial breeding program, full-sibling families were challenged with IHNV by waterborne exposure at the 1 g size to determine susceptibility to IHNV. Progeny from select families (N = 7 families) that varied in susceptibility (ranging from 32 to 90% cumulative percent mortality (CPM)) were challenged again at the 10 g size by intra-peritoneal injection and overall mortality, early viral replication and immune responses were evaluated. Mortality challenges included 20–40 fish per family while viral replication and immune response studies included 6 fish per family at each time point (24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (hpi)). CPM at the 1 g size was significantly correlated with CPM at the 10 g size, indicating that inherent resistance was a stable trait irrespective of size. In the larger fish, viral load was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in the anterior kidney and was a significant predictor of family disease outcome at 48 hpi. Type I interferon (IFN) transcript levels were significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 48 and 72 hpi, while type II IFN gene expression was significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 24 and 48 hpi. Mean family type I but not type II IFN gene expression was weakly associated with susceptibility at 72 hpi. There was no association between mean family susceptibility and the constitutive expression of a range of innate immune genes (e.g. type I and II IFN pathway genes, cytokine and viral recognition receptor genes). The majority of survivors from the challenge had detectable serum neutralizing antibody titers but no trend was observed among families. This result suggests that even the most resistant families experienced sufficient levels of viral replication to trigger specific

  19. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or

  20. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2017-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Karen A.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  3. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  4. hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... INTRODUCTION. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an infectious viral disease characterized by a high case-fatality rate which may be as high as 90%.1,2 Ebola virus may be acquired during contact with blood or body fluids of an infected animal, commonly monkeys or fruit bats.2 Once human infection occurs ...

  5. Seroprevalence of Marek's Disease Virus antibody in some poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports a survey of Marek's disease virus (MDV) antibody done in 21 selected poultry flocks in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states of southwestern Nigeria. A total of 315 serum samples were examined using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Marek's disease virus antibody was present in ...

  6. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize Streak virus (MSV) disease is a major disease in many parts of Africa, and is the most important viral pathogen of maize in Kenya. A study was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the agronomic performance and maize streak virus (MSV) resistance of maize (Zea mays L.) three-way crosses developed in Kenya. Twenty ...

  7. Characterization by deep sequencing of divergent plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) isolates and development of a broad-spectrum PBNSPaV detection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Couture, Carole; Bergey, Bernard; Gentit, Pascal; Candresse, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV), the causal agent of plum bark necrosis stem pitting disease, belongs to the genus Ampelovirus in the family Closteroviridae. The complete genome sequence of PBNSPaV isolates from four Prunus sources was determined by pyrosequencing. All isolates showed the same genomic organization as the PBNSPaV reference isolate. The least divergent isolate, found in a peach tree from China, showed an overall 91.8% of nucleotide identity with the type isolate. Two closely related isolates, defining a second cluster of diversity, were found in two Japanese plum lines from France and showed only 82.8% identity with the type isolate. On the other hand, they were highly homologous with two recently described PBNSPaV divergent isolates from China. The fourth and most divergent isolate, from a Chinese peach, showed only 71.2% identity to other PBNSPaV isolates and was not detected by currently available PBNSPaV reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection assays. Complete sequencing of the divergent isolates allowed the development of a more broad-spectrum detection test targeting a conserved region in the P61 gene. Taken together, these results indicate a much broader diversity of PBNSPaV than previously thought and provide for a more robust detection of this still poorly characterized pathogen.

  8. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  9. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  10. Evaluation of radiolabelled annexin A5 for scintigraphic imaging of cell processes (necrosis/apoptosis) in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarda-Mantel, L.

    2007-03-01

    Annexin A5, a 35KDa protein, specifically binds with high affinity to phosphatidylserine (P.S.) which is actively redistributed to the external leaflet of plasmic membranes in apoptotic cells and activated platelets. Annexin A5 radiolabelled with 99m Tc( 99m Tc-ANX5) was developed by Strauss (stanford, Usa) to image apoptosis in vivo: tumours cells apoptosis induced by chemo-radiotherapy, ischemia/reperfusion lesions in animals and patients, graft rejection. Additionally, many in vitro data suggest that annexin A5 also stains necrosis (membrane disruption), which occurs in all types of cell death. This preclinical work aimed to evaluate the potential interest of 99m Tc-ANX5 imaging as a clinical tool in cardiovascular diseases. Four studies performed in rat models of myocardial infarction by coronary ligation and ischemia-reperfusion, and in rat models of subacute and acute (isoproterenol-induced) myocarditis show the ability of 99m Tc-ANX5 to detect in vivo cardio myocytes death by apoptosis and necrosis. Another study demonstrates that 99m Tc-ANX5 is highly accurate to evaluate in vivo the biological activity of parietal thrombus in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm. These results suggest that 99m Tc-ANX5 imaging could be used in patients for non invasive diagnosis, prognostic evaluation in acute myocarditis and in various thrombotic cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  11. Baseline disease is a more important predictor of intestinal necrosis than CT findings in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Toshihisa; Hara, Masahiko; Yunoki, Keiji; Urashima, Masaki; Harano, Masao; Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kouji; Shintani, Ayumi

    2016-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially fatal vascular emergency, and several computed tomographic (CT) findings have been introduced to determine the presence of intestinal ischemia or necrosis, although the most useful finding is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed data of 43 consecutive patients with AMI who were treated during the period from 2006 to 2015. Study patients included both superior mesenteric artery dissection (n = 29) and thrombosis (SMAT, n = 14). Epidemiological data, CT findings, and the primary end point defined as the composite of intestinal ischemia or necrosis based on surgical finding and in-hospital mortality were investigated. The classification and regression tree was used to assess determinants of the primary end point, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics was used to evaluate discriminating accuracy. In total, the primary end point occurred in 27.9% (0.0% in superior mesenteric artery dissection and 85.7% in SMAT). Classification and regression tree demonstrated that the baseline disease was the only and strong determinant of the primary outcome (P< .001), which was also confirmed by the highest area under the curve of 0.968 (95% confidence interval, 0.924-1.000). The baseline disease rather than CT findings is the most important determinant of the primary end point. In patients with AMI, SMAT should undergo exploratory surgery and subsequent surgical treatment without delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Purcell, Maureen K.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Chang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

  13. Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, M E J; Ghasemi, M; Ghiasi, M; Karsidani, S Haghighi; Bovo, G; Nazari, A; Adel, M; Arizza, V; Dhama, K

    2016-07-15

    The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, haematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at -80°C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25-30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10(-4) TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first official report of VNN disease from Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pathophysiological roles of microvascular alterations in pulmonary inflammatory diseases: possible implications of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and CXC chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Orihara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Kanami Orihara, Akio MatsudaDepartment of Allergy and Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchial asthma are common respiratory diseases that are caused by chronic infl ammation of the airways. Although these diseases are mediated by substantially distinct immunological reactions, especially in mild cases, they both show increased numbers of neutrophils, increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and poor responses to corticosteroids, particularly in patients with severe diseases. These immunological alterations may contribute strongly to airway structural changes, commonly referred to as airway remodeling. Microvascular alterations, a component of airway remodeling and caused by chronic inflammation, are observed and appear to be clinically involved in both diseases. It has been well established that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays important roles in the airway microvascular alterations in mild and moderate cases of both diseases, but any role that VEGF might play in severe cases of these diseases remains unclear. Here, we review recent research findings, including our own data, and discuss the possibility that TNF-α and its associated CXC chemokines play roles in microvascular alterations that are even more crucial than those of VEGF in patients with severe COPD or asthma.Keywords: TNF-α, CXC chemokines, corticosteroid, pulmonary microvessels, COPD, asthma

  15. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection. PMID:25561847

  16. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei (Boone, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  17. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P.; Castón, José R.; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particl...

  18. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  19. Modulation of genes related to the recruitment of immune cells in the digestive tract of trout experimentally infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or orally vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Natalia A; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Aquilino, Carolina; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    There are still many details of how intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved in teleost. Although leukocytes are present all along the digestive tract, most immunological studies have focused on the posterior segments and the importance of each gut segment in terms of immunity has barely been addressed. In the current work, we have studied the regulation of several immune genes along five segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract, comparing the effects observed in response to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection to those elicited by oral vaccination with a plasmid coding for viral VP2. We have focused on the regulation of several mucosal chemokines, chemokine receptors, the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the recruitment of IgM(+) cells and CD3(+) cells was evaluated along the different segments in response to IPNV by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results provide evidences that there is a differential regulation of these immune genes in response to both stimuli along the gut segments. Along with this chemokine and chemokine receptor induction, IPNV provoked a mobilization of IgM(+) and IgT(+) cells to the foregut and pyloric caeca region, and CD3(+) cells to the pyloric caeca and midgut/hindgut regions. Our results will contribute to a better understanding of how mucosal immunity is orchestrated in the different gut segments of teleost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maciel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During dengue virus (DV infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA, TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes.

  1. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis: a review of the disease in Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Varela Mejías

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A nivel global, la producción acuícola de camarón ha tenido de forma recurrente la presencia de diversas enfermedades infecciosas, las cuales han ocasionado grandes pérdidas económicas, afectando la estabilidad de la industria. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue realizar una actualización sobre los descubrimientos asociados a la necrosis aguda del hepatopáncreas (AHPND, que permitan el incremento del conocimiento entre los sectores productivos, investigativos y oficiales de la región latinoamericana. Se exponen aspectos de su origen, desde el primer reporte en China, hasta su aparición en años posteriores en Latinoamérica, su etiología, signología clínica, citopatología e impacto en los cultivos. La necrosis aguda del hepatopáncreas se caracteriza por presentar tres etapas de desarrollo, denominadas aguda, intermedia y terminal, las cuales son identificables durante el transcurso de la infección. A nivel histopatológico se pueden observar desprendimientos celulares en hepatopáncreas, edematización, túbulos necróticos e infiltraciones hemocíticas generalizadas. Se describen además las características del plásmido que le confiere patogenicidad, y las diferentes técnicas de diagnóstico, como la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, la tecnología LAMP y las sondas TaqMan. Se enfatiza en los esfuerzos por optimizar las técnicas de diagnóstico y control de la enfermedad, los cuales posiblemente requerirán de la aplicación de medidas integrales de manejo, buenas prácticas acuícolas y sistemas de bioseguridad eficaces en las fincas productivas dedicadas al cultivo de camarón.

  2. Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Olga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Köglberger, Hemma; Nowotny, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites was also recorded. The samples originated from all parts of Austria. The most prevalent virus was DWV, present in 91% of samples, followed by ABPV, SBV, and BQCV (68%, 49%, and 30%, respectively). CBPV was detected in 10% of colonies, while KBV was not present in any sample. In most samples, more than one virus was identified. The distribution pattern of ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, and SBV varied considerably in the different geographic regions investigated, while DWV was widespread in all Austrian federal states. In bees that showed dark coloring and disorientation, CBPV was always detected. Simultaneous infections of DWV and ABPV were most frequently observed in colonies suffering from weakness, depopulation, and sudden collapse. Bees obtained from apparently healthy colonies within the same apiaries showed a similar distribution pattern of viruses; however, the relative virus load was 10 to 126 times lower than in bees from diseased colonies. A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. PMID:16597939

  3. Correlation of transforming growth factor-β1 and tumour necrosis factor levels with left ventricular function in Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvo, Eduardo OV; Ferreira, Roberto R; Madeira, Fabiana S; Alves, Gabriel F; Chambela, Mayara C; Mendes, Veronica G; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique C; Waghabi, Mariana C; Saraiva, Roberto M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in Chagas disease pathophysiology and may correlate with left ventricular (LV) function. OBJECTIVES We determined whether TGF-β1 and TNF serum levels correlate with LV systolic and diastolic functions and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels in chronic Chagas disease. METHODS This cross-sectional study included 152 patients with Chagas disease (43% men; 57 ± 12 years old), classified as 53 patients with indeterminate form and 99 patients with cardiac form (stage A: 24, stage B: 25, stage C: 44, stage D: 6). TGF-β1, TNF, and BNP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Echocardiogram was used to determine left atrial and LV diameters, as well as LV ejection fraction and diastolic function. FINDINGS TGF-b1 serum levels were lower in stages B, C, and D, while TNF serum levels were higher in stages C and D of the cardiac form. TGF-β1 presented a weak correlation with LV diastolic function and LV ejection fraction. TNF presented a weak correlation with left atrial and LV diameters and LV ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS TNF is increased, while TGF-β1 is decreased in the cardiac form of chronic Chagas disease. TNF and TGF-β1 serum levels present a weak correlation with LV systolic and diastolic function in Chagas disease patients. PMID:29513876

  4. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from marine algae isolated from Qusier and Marsa-Alam Seashore (Red Sea), Egypt. ... and two filamentous fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum) and against the Newcastle sense Virus (NDV)-(Paramyxoviridae) which is responsible ...

  5. genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    improvement of yield and quality attributes. Cultivar Munyeera displayed the highest level of SPVD resistance followed by New Kawogo and Polyster as exhibited by relative area under disease progress curves following natural field infection and graft inoculation with SPVD causing viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus ...

  6. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  7. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  8. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  9. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not

  10. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  11. [Several features of Aujeszky disease virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinova, A; Motovski, A

    1976-01-01

    Clinical, virological, and morphological investigations were carried out on a total of 36 rabbits experimentally infected with five strains of the Aujeszky's disease virus. Those of the test animals that were infected with strain K did not die or died showing no clinical manifestations; those infected with strains K1. B, and TB showed nervous disturbances and died strongly scratching the site of injection. The animals infected with strain KB exhibited respiratory disturbances showing no death cases. Histopathologically, nonpurulent meningoencephalitis of the central nervous system was established in all animals. The rabbits infected with strain K (resistant to trypsin and temperature changes) and those infected with strain KB these lesions were more slightly expressed. The lungs of the affected animals showed interstitial intralobular phenomonia of a lympho-histiocytic type as a reactive necroses in the liver and spleen. In the case of K1, B, and TB infections no changes in the lungs and spleen were noticed, however, the liver was analogously affected. Results showed that those of those of the strains that were with lower virulence did not cause the clinical picture of scratching; such strains proved neurotropic and even strongly pheumotropic. It is concluded that the clinical and morphologic aspects observed in experimentally infected rabbits can be referred to in diagnosing the causative agent, differentiating strains that are slightly pathogenic from strains that are pathogenic.

  12. Inactivation of Aujeszky's disease virus in slurry at various temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette

    1991-01-01

    Survival of Aujeszky's disease virus in pig slurry was investigated during anaerobic storage at 5, 20, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55°C using 100-ml laboratory models simulating the conditions in slurry tanks during winter and summer seasons and during anaerobic digestion in batch reactors. The inactivation...... rate was found to increase with increasing temperature. Virus was inactivated at 5 and 20°C in 15 weeks and 2 weeks, respectively. At 35°C (mesophilic conditions) the virus was inactivated in 5 hours and at 55°C (thermophilic conditions) no virus could be detected after 10 minutes....

  13. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease-Causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Maintain an Antibacterial Type VI Secretion System with Versatile Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Kinch, Lisa N; Ray, Ann; Dalia, Ankur B; Cong, Qian; Nunan, Linda M; Camilli, Andrew; Grishin, Nick V; Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2017-07-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus , we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control. IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Survival of CD169+ Cells Promotes Immune Activation during Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Prashant V; Xu, Haifeng C; Maney, Sathish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169(+) cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169(+) cells during viral infections remain ...

  15. Serological survey of infectious bursal diseases virus antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Columba livia) and 30 from Nigerian laughing doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) were screened for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three (20%) samples from cattle ...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  17. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  18. Esofagitis necrotizante aguda: Una patología poco conocida Acute esophageal necrosis: An underdiagnosed disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Julián Gómez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis necrotizante aguda (ENA es una rara entidad cuya etiología es desconocida, siendo el mecanismo patogénico multifactorial, participando fundamentalmente el compromiso isquémico, la malnutrición y la obstrucción del tracto digestivo alto. Los hallazgos endoscópicos muestran una coloración negruzca de la mucosa esofágica con transición brusca a nivel de la unión esofagogástrica. El pronóstico depende de las enfermedades de base. Se revisan los casos de ENA, excluyendo los secundarios a caústicos, recogidos de forma retrospectiva durante los últimos 2 años. Se analizan los factores de riesgo, la presentación clínica, los hallazgos endoscópicos, la histología, el tratamiento y la evolución. En nuestro departamento, se han diagnosticado 7 casos de ENA en 6.003 gastroscopias realizadas en el periodo de estudio, representando así la ENA el 0,11% de la exploraciones.Acute esophageal necrosis is a rare disorder, and its etiology is unknown, the mechanism of damage being usually multifactorial and secondary to ischemic compromise, acute gastric outlet obstruction, and malnutrition. Endoscopic findings show circumferential black discoloration of the distal esophagus with proximal extension ending sharply at the gastroesophageal junction, which is the most common presentation. Prognosis depends on comorbid illnesses. In this study we analyze all cases reported in a retrospective analysis over a 2-year period to define risk factors, clinical presentation, endoscopic features, histological appearance, treatment and outcome. Our department has recorded 7 cases from 6,003 endoscopies performed in the last 2 years. The finding of a "black esophagus" represented 0.11% of cases.

  19. Rapid and sensitive detection of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection by aptamer-coat protein-aptamer sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Li, P; Ni, S; Yu, Y; Yang, M; Wei, S; Qin, Q

    2017-12-01

    Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is one of the most devastating pathogens in the aquaculture of the grouper, Epinephlus sp., worldwide. The early and rapid diagnosis of RGNNV is important for the prevention of RGNNV infection. In this study, an aptamer (A10)-based sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA) was developed for RGNNV diagnosis. This sandwich ELASA showed high specificity for the RGNNV coat protein (CP) and virions in virus-infected cells and tissues. At the optimized working concentration of 200 nM of aptamer, the ELASA could detect RGNNV in the lysates of as few as 4 × 10 3 RGNNV-infected GB cells. Incubation for 10 min was sufficient to produce accurate results. The sandwich ELASA was most stable at incubation temperatures of 4-25°C, but could still distinguish RGNNV-infected samples from the controls at 37°C. It could detect RGNNV infection in brain lysates diluted 1/10, with results consistent with those of reverse transcription PCR, although with 10% less sensitivity. The main equipment required includes dissection tools, a water bath, Pierce™ Streptavidin Coated Plates and a microplate reader. The sandwich ELASA has great potential utility for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of RGNNV in its early stages by fish farmers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection of fish cell lines: Preliminary analysis of gene expressions related to extracellular matrix remodeling and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Melina; Pérez, Valeria; Herrera, Laura; Stepke, Cristopher; Maldonado, Nicolas; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Yáñez, Alejandro; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenic infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high economic losses in fish farming. This virus can modulate several cellular processes during infection, but little is known about the infection mechanism. To investigate gene activation in response to IPNV, CHSE/F and SHK-1 cell line were infected with a cytopathic Sp field isolate of IPNV, and the expression profiles of proinflammatory, antiviral cytokine, and extracellular matrix markers were analyzed. IPNV induced the production of perlecan, fibulin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, 14-3-3β, interleukin-1β, Mx1, and interferon regulatory factors-1, -3, and -9. Interestingly, IPNV-mediated activity was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results, together with in silico analyses showing the presence of several regulatory consensus-target motifs, suggest that IPNV regulates gene expressions in fish through the activation of several key transcription factors. Collectively, these data indicate that IPNV is a viral regulator of expression for extracellular-matrix and immune markers, even during early infection. Finally, this is the first report in fish to find IPNV modulating the activation of interleukin-1β production primarily through the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of retroviral particles for the spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-based vector system and their use in transduction of various cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Zahida; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Pomerantz, Roger J

    2010-06-01

    Genetically engineered retroviruses are widely used for gene delivery into human cells. A number of investigators have studied spleen necrosis virus (SNV) as a vehicle for gene delivery. Vectors developed from SNV and its closely associated avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain A (REV-A) can be used for gene transfer into a variety of cells, including primary hematopoietic cells and human brain and post-mitotic neuronal cells that are difficult to transduce with other vector systems. SNV-based vector systems have the advantage of being quite safe, because wild-type SNV is unable to infect human cells and has less preference for integration into transcriptionally active sites or genes. However, the generation of retroviral vectors requires cotransfection of more than one plasmid into a packaging cell line, which is a tedious process. The development of stable packaging cell lines expressing envelope (Env) proteins and the structural proteins Gag-Pol will enhance mass production of retroviral vectors for future gene therapy experiments both in vitro and in vivo. This protocol describes the generation of retroviral particles for the SNV-based vector system. These particles can then be used for transduction of various cell types; as an example, a technique for transduction of post-mitotic neurons is also presented.

  2. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria | Dongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major diseases affecting cocoa production in West Africa, especially Ghana. The lack of any published article on the continued presence or absence of this viral disease has necessitated this investigation. Cocoa leaf samples from plants showing symptoms of leaf ...

  3. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, lymphocidal disease that has been a threat to poultry production in Nigeria and a major disease problem of poultry producing areas of the world. A serological detection of antibodies to the virus was conducted on 300 sera samples derived from local chickens slaughtered at Sheik ...

  4. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major diseases affecting cocoa production in. West Africa, especially Ghana. The lack of any published article on the continued presence or absence of this viral disease has necessitated this investigation. Cocoa leaf samples from plants showing.

  5. Travel to tropical areas: Zika virus disease

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.   Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.

  6. Analytical validation of a reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) for quantitative detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Purcell, Maureen; Pan, Guang; Wang, Jinjin; Kan, Shifu; Liu, Yin; Zheng, Xiaocong; SHi, Xiujie; He, Junqiang; Yu, Li; Hua, Qunyi; Lu, Tikang; Lan, Wensheng; Winton, James; Jin, Ningyi; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important pathogen of salmonid fishes. A validated universal reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that can quantify levels of IHNV in fish tissues has been previously reported. In the present study, we adapted the published set of IHNV primers and probe for use in a reverse-transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay for quantification of the virus in fish tissue samples. The RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR assays detected 13 phylogenetically diverse IHNV strains, but neither assay produced detectable amplification when RNA from other fish viruses was used. The RT-ddPCR assay had a limit of detection (LOD) equating to 2.2 plaque forming units (PFU)/μl while the LOD for the RT-qPCR was 0.2 PFU/μl. Good agreement (69.4–100%) between assays was observed when used to detect IHNV RNA in cell culture supernatant and tissues from IHNV infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Estimates of RNA copy number produced by the two assays were significantly correlated but the RT-qPCR consistently produced higher estimates than the RT-ddPCR. The analytical properties of the N gene RT-ddPCR test indicated that this method may be useful to assess IHNV RNA copy number for research and diagnostic purposes. Future work is needed to establish the within and between laboratory diagnostic performance of the RT-ddPCR assay.

  7. Increased Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Its Promoter Polymorphisms Correlate with Disease Progression and Higher Susceptibility towards Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, as abnormal immune responses have frequently been observed in vitiligo patients. Moreover, vitiligo patients show higher lesion levels of TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of TNF-α are involved in the regulation of its expression. The present study explores TNF-α promoter polymorphisms and correlates them with TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients and controls of Gujarat along with its effect on disease onset and progression. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of these polymorphisms in 977 vitiligo patients and 990 controls. TNF-α transcript and protein levels were measured by Real time PCR and ELISA respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies for the investigated polymorphisms were significantly associated with vitiligo patients. The study revealed significant increase in TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients compared to controls. In particular, haplotypes: AATCC, AACCT, AGTCT, GATCT, GATCC and AGCCT were found to increase the TNF-α levels in vitiligo patients. Analysis of TNF-α levels based on the gender and disease progression suggests that female patients and patients with active vitiligo had higher levels of TNF-α. Also, the TNF-α levels were high in patients with generalized vitiligo as compared to localized vitiligo. Age of onset analysis of the disease suggests that the haplotypes: AACAT, AACCT, AATCC and AATCT had a profound effect in the early onset of the disease. Moreover, the analysis suggests that female patients had an early onset of vitiligo. Overall, our results suggest that TNF-α promoter polymorphisms may be genetic risk factors for susceptibility and progression of the disease. The up-regulation of TNF-α transcript and protein levels in individuals with susceptible haplotypes advocates

  8. Prediction of antitumour necrosis factor clinical efficacy by real‐time visualisation of apoptosis in patients with Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brande, Jan M H; Koehler, Tamara C; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Bennink, Roelof J; te Velde, Anje A; Cate, Fibo J W ten; van Deventer, Sander J H; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Hommes, Daniël W

    2007-01-01

    Background The human anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antibody infliximab binds to the membrane TNF and subsequently induces apoptosis of activated lamina propria T lymphocytes in patients with Crohn's disease in vitro. Aim To test whether the ability of rapid anti‐TNF‐induced apoptosis in the gut predicts the efficacy of anti‐TNF treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods 99mTechnetium–annexin V single‐photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) was performed in 2 models of murine experimental colitis and in 14 patients with active Crohn's disease as assessed by the Crohńs Disease Activity Index (CDAI) to study the effect of anti‐TNF treatment on apoptosis in the intestine during active colitis. Disease activity was evaluated 2 weeks after infliximab infusion using the CDAI (definition response: drop of >100 points). Results Colonic uptake of 99mTc‐annexin V significantly increased in 2,4,6‐trinitrobenzene sulphonate‐induced colitis as well as in transfer colitis on administration of anti‐TNF antibodies compared with a control antibody as determined with dedicated animal pinhole SPECT. In addition, uptake of 99mTc–annexin V significantly increased in patients with active Crohn's disease responding to infliximab treatment. Colonic 99mTc–annexin V uptake ratio (mean (SEM)) increased from 0.24 (0.03) to 0.41(0.07) (p100 points at week 2) compared with 15.2% in non‐responding patients (p = 0.03). Analysis of the mucosal biopsy specimens identified lamina propria T cells as target cells undergoing apoptosis. Conclusions These in vivo observations support the notion that colonic uptake of 99mTc–annexin V correlates with clinical benefit of anti‐TNF treatment and might be predictive of therapeutic success. PMID:17082252

  9. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  10. Discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a prospective observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortlik, Martin; Duricova, Dana; Machkova, Nadezda; Hruba, Veronika; Lukas, Martin; Mitrova, Katarina; Romanko, Igor; Bina, Vladislav; Malickova, Karin; Kolar, Martin; Lukas, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in remission remains a controversial issue. The aims of our study were to assess the proportion of patients who relapse after cessation of biological treatment, and to identify potential risk factors of disease relapse. Consecutive IBD patients who discontinued anti-TNF therapy in steroid-free clinical and endoscopic remission were prospectively followed. Multiple logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to assess the predictors of disease relapse. Seventy-eight IBD patients (Crohn's disease, CD 61; ulcerative colitis, UC 17) were included and followed for a median of 30 months (range 7-47). A total of 32 (53%) CD patients and nine (53%) UC patients relapsed by the end of the follow-up with a median time to relapse of 8 months (range 1-25) in CD patients and 14 months (range 4-37) in UC patients, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of maintaining remission at 6, 12, and 24 months were 82%, 59%, and 51% in CD patients, and 77%, 77%, and 64% in UC patients, respectively. Survival of CD patients who were in deep remission (clinical and endoscopic healing; faecal calprotectin disease relapse. Approximately half of the IBD patients relapsed within 2 years after anti-TNF discontinuation. In CD patients, no difference between those who were or were not in deep remission was found. Colonic localization protected patients from relapse.

  11. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equipment - posters 6. Can Ebola be transmitted sexually? Sexual transmission of the Ebola virus, from males to females, ... and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...

  12. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  13. [Effect of tumour necrosis factor α blockade on bone metabolism in chronic inflammatory joint diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Del Rey, Francisco Javier; García Portales, Rosa; Haro Liger, Manuel; Rodríguez Andreu, José; Casals Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez González, Rita

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF treatments on bone mineral density (BMD), bone remodelling markers (BRM) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with chronic inflammatory joint diseases. A longitudinal prospective study was performed under clinical practice conditions on 31 patients diagnosed of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy and ankylosing spondylitis who had received treatment with anti-TNF alpha drugs for one year. BMD, OPG and RANKL soluble form (sRANKL) were studied at the onset and end of the study. During the study (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month), disease activity (SDAI, BASDAI and CRP), functional capacity (HAQ, BASFI), BRM and vitamin D were studied. BMD was not modified after one year of treatment. The patients who took corticosteroids had a mean bone mass loss of 3% in the lumbar spine (±1.6, P=.02). In regards to the BRM, did not experience significant changes over the course of the study. Disease activity, both SDAI (P=.002) and BASDAI (P=.002), decreased. OPG was maintained without changes during the year of treatment while both the sRANKL (0.28±0.22, P=.013) and sRANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased (0.04±0.03, P=.031). The patients being treated with anti-TNF did not present with a significant loss of DMO during the study (one year), at the same time experiencing an improvement in disease activity. This protection has been clearer in the responding patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  15. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a Subunit Vaccine to Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, July 31, 1988 to September 20, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1989-10-01

    A recombinant DNA vaccine to IHNV was prepared and tested in field trials at Clear Springs Trout Company's Box Canyon Hatchery in Buhl, Idaho this year in Phase III of the project. The vaccine under consideration in these field trials consisted of lysed bacteria that contained a plasmid which expressed an antigenic portion of the IHNV glycoprotein. In addition, laboratory trials with a bacterial expressed viral nucleoprotein indicated that this served as an immune adjuvant. Therefore, a decision was made to conduct these field trials on a vaccine containing both IHNV glycoprotein and IHNV nucleoprotein. Original plans to conduct the field trial at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery were canceled because a management decision was made by Dworshak Fish and Wildlife personnel to rear steelhead salmon eggs from IHNV positive parents at Kooskia National Fish Hatchery. This decision, which was made without prior notification to us, resulted in some discussion at the IHNV committee meeting convened by the Fish and Wildlife Service in Moscow, Idaho on April 27, 1989. At that time, the authors dismay at this decision was voiced and the prediction that an outbreak of IHNV would occur at Kooskia was made. In less than a week, a massive IHNV outbreak did occur at Kooskia and plans to run a field trial at this facility had to be discarded. An alternative site was found at the Box Canyon Hatchery site of Clear Springs Trout Company. Dr. Robert Busch, Director of Research and Development for Clear Springs Trout Company, offered the use of the site. In preparation for the site change they consulted Mary Buckman, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife statistician, and they obtained a sample of the IHN virus present at Box Canyon. The Box Canyon virus isolate was typed by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies by Dr. Sandra Ristow at Washington State University. There was insufficient time to examine the vaccine efficacy with the Box Canyon virus isolate in laboratory trials and

  17. Marek’s disease virus evolution in specific MHC haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The clinical nature of Marek’s disease has changed over the last five decades. The pathogenicity of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has evolved from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to the more severe strains labeled very virulent plus (vv+MDV) currently observed in today’s o...

  18. Perception and prevention practices against Ebola Virus Disease by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expanding bushmeat market in Africa contributes to the transmission of zoonotic disease which may lead to global pandemic. Example is Nigeria where the first outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), which originated from an imported case, was reported in July, 2014. Hence, the study tried to understand the ...

  19. genetics of resistance to groundnut rosette virus disease abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Groundnut Rosette Virus disease (GRD) has long been regarded a major limiting biotic constraint to groundnut production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease is caused by a complex of three viral components that interact in a synergistic fashion resulting into severe crop losses. A study was conducted to better ...

  20. Genetics of resistance to groundnut rosette virus disease. | Kayondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut Rosette Virus disease (GRD) has long been regarded a major limiting biotic constraint to groundnut production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease is caused by a complex of three viral components that interact in a synergistic fashion resulting into severe crop losses. A study was conducted to better ...

  1. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  2. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. The vaccine was developed from local isolates for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian cattle. All the vaccine inputs tested were sterile and the high mean titre levels of ...

  3. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using ..... gallisepticum. Avian diseases, 28 (4): 877-883. Sa'idu L, Tekdek LB & Abdu PA (2004). Prevalence of ND antibodies in domestic and semi domestic birds in Zaria, Nigeria.

  4. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the huma...

  5. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  6. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus among local chickens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major constraints to poultry in most developing countries. It is a highly contagious and fatal disease caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. In other to evaluate the evidence of ND among village chicken, an epidemiological survey was carried out between September and ...

  7. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  8. Penile necrosis due to calciphylaxis in a patient of end stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, T.; Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar A.

    2009-01-01

    A case of a 72-year-old diabetic, hypertensive male with end stage renal disease as a result of the underlying condition of calciphylaxis, presenting with gangrene of the glans penis is reported. In calciphylaxis, calcification of small and medium-sized arteries occurs, which may result in ischemia and gangrene. A computed tomography scan of the lower abdomen, pelvis and the upper thigh was performed, which showed diffuse and extensive calcification of the walls of the small and medium-sized arteries, with almost complete obliteration of the lumen of the small arteries. A 3-dimensional reconstruction of the penis using volume rendering technique, demonstrated the ulceration of the glans penis in an exquisite manner. The appearance is so peculiar that no histological confirmation is needed. A review of relevant literature related to the etiopathogenesis, radiological findings, treatment and prognosis is also discussed. (author)

  9. Genetic diversity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from Feather River and Lake Oroville, California, and virulence of selected isolates for Chinook salmon and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, C.M.; Kelley, G.O.; Yun, S.C.; Kurath, G.; Andree, K.B.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a significant pathogen of young salmonid fishes worldwide but particularly within the historical range of the Pacific Northwest and California. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River drainages of California, IHNV outbreaks in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha have been observed regularly at large production hatcheries, including Coleman National Fish Hatchery (established in 1941) and Feather River State Fish Hatchery (FRH; established in 1967), since facility operations began. Recent severe epidemics at the FRH in 1998 and 2000-2002 prompted investigations into the characteristics and potential sources of virus at this facility. Both phylogenetic analyses of a variable portion of the glycoprotein gene and serologic comparisons based on neutralization with three polyclonal rabbit sera were used to characterize 82 IHNV isolates from the Feather River watershed between 1969 and 2004. All isolates examined were in the L genogroup and belonged to one of three serologic groups typical of IHNV from California. The IHNV isolates from the Feather River area demonstrated a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 4.0%, and new isolates appeared to emerge from previous isolates rather than by the introduction of more diverse subgroups from exogenous sources. The earliest isolates examined from the watershed formed the subgroup LI, which disappeared coincidently with a temporal shift to new genetic and serologic types of the larger subgroup LII. Experimental challenges demonstrated no significant differences in the virulence for juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout O. mykiss from selected isolates representing the principal types of IHNV found historically and from recent epidemics at FRH. While most isolates were equally virulent for both host species, one isolate was found to be more virulent for Chinook salmon than for rainbow trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits the suppressive effect of regulatory T cells on the hepatitis B virus-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Jeroen N; Woltman, Andrea M; Biesta, Paula J; Kusters, Johannes G; Kuipers, Ernst J; Janssen, Harry L A; van der Molen, Renate G

    2007-09-01

    Chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak immune response to the virus. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are present in increased numbers in the peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients, and these Treg are capable of suppressing the HBV-specific immune response. The aim of this study was to abrogate Treg-mediated suppression of the HBV-specific immune response. Therefore, Treg and a Treg-depleted cell fraction were isolated from peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients. Subsequently, the suppressive effect of Treg on the response to HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and tetanus toxin was compared, and the effect of exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta), or neutralizing antibodies against interleukin-10 (IL-10) or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on Treg-mediated suppression was determined. The results show that Treg of chronic HBV patients had a more potent suppressive effect on the response to HBcAg compared with the response to tetanus toxin. Neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-beta or exogenous IL-1beta had no effect on Treg-mediated suppression of the anti-HBcAg response, whereas exogenous TNF-alpha partially abrogated Treg-mediated suppression. Preincubation of Treg with TNF-alpha demonstrated that TNF-alpha had a direct effect on the Treg. No difference was observed in the type II TNF receptor expression by Treg from chronic HBV patients and healthy controls. Treg-mediated suppression of the anti-HBV response can be reduced by exogenous TNF-alpha. Because chronic HBV patients are known to produce less TNF-alpha, these data implicate an important role for TNF-alpha in the impaired antiviral response in chronic HBV.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor shedding controls thresholds of innate immune activation that balance opposing TNF functions in infectious and inflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xanthoulea, Sofia; Pasparakis, Manolis; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2004-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a potent cytokine exerting critical functions in the activation and regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Due to its pleiotropic activities, the amplitude and duration of TNF function must be tightly regulated. One of the mechanisms that may have evolved ...... shedding as a mechanism setting up thresholds of cytokine function to balance resistance and susceptibility to disease. Assessment of p55TNFR shedding may thus be of prognostic value in infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases....

  12. Serum interleukin-18 and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 are associated with disease severity in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, C L; Mamoni, R L; Fagundes, G Z Z; Blotta, M H S L

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily that exhibits broad functional effects in innate and acquired immune responses and which has been found in high levels in several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Over-expression of IL-18 may promote early resolution of infection or could promote a detrimental exaggerated immune response. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of IL-18 and other inflammatory mediators [IL-12, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-RI), sTNF-RII, CXC chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10] at baseline and after anti-fungal therapy in serum from patients with juvenile (JF) and adult (AF) forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), as well as in healthy controls (C), and to assess their possible relationships to the severity of disease. IL-18 and sTNF-RII levels in patients with the JF of PCM were significantly higher than those in the AF and controls. In relation to sICAM-1, no difference was observed between JF and AF patients but both presented higher levels than controls. sTNF-RI levels were higher in patients with PCM than in controls, and significantly higher concentrations were detected in AF patients compared to JF patients. Moreover, IL-12 and chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 were also higher in patients than in controls. In JF patients IL-18 levels correlated significantly with sICAM-1 (r = 0·62, P < 0·0001), sTNF-RI (r = 0·63, P < 0·0001), sTNF-RII (r = 0·51, P = 0·02), as well as with clinical severity. The results suggest the value of serum IL-18 and sTNF-Rs levels as a parameter of PCM severity and may support a possible role for them in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:17302897

  13. Anti tumour necrosis factor as risk factor for free perforations in Crohn's disease? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshuis, E J; Griffioen, G H M J; Stokkers, P C F; Ubbink, D T; Bemelman, W A

    2012-05-01

    Although the occurrence of intestinal perforation in Crohn's disease (CD) is rare, clinical observation has led to the question whether anti tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment is a risk factor for free perforation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relation between anti-TNF treatment and occurrence of free perforation, defined as intestinal perforations leading to emergency surgery. In this case-control study, all emergency operation reports from the period 1999-2009 of patients diagnosed with CD were checked for the presence of free perforation. These cases were compared with a sixfold larger control group derived from our CD patient database. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, Montreal classification and surgical stage to ensure equal disease severity. Cases and controls were then compared regarding previous or current exposure to anti-TNF treatment. Thirteen patients underwent emergency surgery for spontaneous free perforation. Eight (62%) had been treated with anti-TNF within 5 months before the perforation. In the 78 matched controls, 29 (37%) had been or were still treated with anti-TNF. The odds for a free perforation adjusted for known confounders in two separate regression analyses were significantly higher in anti-TNF treated CD patients, albeit with a large confidence interval (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-16.0; and OR 23.0, 95% CI 2.2-238.5). This study showed a higher occurrence of free perforations in CD patients with anti-TNF therapy compared with those without anti-TNF therapy. Patients with CD and anti-TNF treatment showing acute abdominal pain must be suspected of this complication. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. Results In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the reco...

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.J.; Kim, L.M.; Ip, Hon S.; Afonso, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Protective and immunogenic effects of Escherichia coli-expressed infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) VP2-VP3 fusion protein in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadar, Maryam; Memari, Hamid Rajabi; Vakharia, Vikram N; Peyghan, Rahim; Shapouri, MasodReza Seifi Abad; Mohammadian, Takavar; Hasanzadeh, Reza; Ghasemi, Mohades

    2015-11-01

    Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) is a member of the family Birnaviridae which causes significant losses in the aquaculture industry. To develop a recombinant vaccine for IPNV, a cDNA construct of IPNV VP2-VP3 fusion gene was prepared and cloned into an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression vector (pET-26b) to obtain recombinant protein products. A study was conducted to determine the antibody responses and protective capacity of this recombinant vaccine expressing VP2-VP3 fusion protein. Subsequently, juvenile rainbow trout were inoculated by injecting purified recombinant IPNV VP2-VP3 proteins, followed by challenge with virulent IPNV in rainbow trout. Our results demonstrate that recombinant E. coli derived VP2-VP3 fusion protein induced a strong and significantly (P protein, combined with adjuvant, was much higher than any other groups of rainbow trout challenged with virulent IPNV. This result was confirmed by measuring the viral loads of IPNV in immunized rainbow trout which was drastically reduced, as analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. In summary, we demonstrate that E. coli-expressed IPNV VP2-VP3 injectable vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective against IPNV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  18. Timing of initiation of enzyme replacement therapy after diagnosis of type 1 Gaucher disease: effect on incidence of avascular necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pramod K; Deegan, Patrick; Vellodi, Ashok; Cole, J Alexander; Yeh, Michael; Weinreb, Neal J

    2009-01-01

    Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry were analysed to assess the relationship between enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase (ERT) and incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), and to determine whether the time interval between diagnosis and initiation of ERT influences the incidence rate of AVN. All patients with GD1 enrolled in the Gaucher Registry who received ERT and did not report AVN prior to starting therapy (n = 2700) were included. The incidence rate of AVN following initiation of ERT was determined. An incidence rate of AVN of 13·8 per 1000 person-years was observed in patients receiving ERT. Patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis had an incidence rate of 8·1 per 1000 person-years; patients who started ERT ≥2 years after diagnosis had an incidence rate of 16·6 per 1000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0·59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36–0·96, P = 0·0343]. Splenectomy was an independent risk factor for AVN (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·23, 95% CI 1·61–3·08, P < 0·0001). In conclusion, the risk of AVN was reduced among patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis, compared to initiating treatment ≥2 years after diagnosis. A higher risk of AVN was observed among patients who had previously undergone splenectomy. PMID:19732054

  19. Increased risk of avascular necrosis in patients with psoriatic disease: A nationwide population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Wang, I-Ting; Huang, Weng-Foung; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Shiu, Ming-Neng; Tsai, Tsen-Fang

    2017-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) and psoriasis have some pathogenic mechanisms and associated conditions in common. To examine the association between psoriasis and AVN. This study used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2004-2006 and identified 28,268 patients with psoriasis, who were then matched for age and sex with 113,072 controls without psoriasis from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for the analysis. The unadjusted risk of AVN was significantly higher for patients with psoriasis than for controls (hazard ratio [HR] 2.29) and remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors (adjusted HR 1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.62-2.38). The risk for AVN increased in relation to psoriasis severity and was higher for patients with psoriasis and arthritis than for patients without arthritis. The adjusted HRs were higher for male patients than for female patients and for patients younger than 30 years compared with older patients. We lacked information on daily tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The risk for AVN increased with the disease severity of psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone marrow necrosis and fat embolism: an autopsy report of a severe complication of hemoglobin SC disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Disease encompasses a group of disorders related with the hemoglobin S and other hemoglobin genotypes. The clinical manifestation and the severity of symptoms are dependent on the specific genotype. In this setting, homozygous genotype (HbSS presents an early onset of symptoms and a low expectancy of lifetime. However, the SC genotype (HbSC, which apparently shows a less severe clinical course, may exhibit the same complications of HbSS. These complications are usually manifested late in the course of life, when compared with the HbSS patients. It is noteworthy that HbSC may present a normal hematocrit, and therefore stays unknown until the first complication, that may be disastrous. The authors report a case of an African-Descendant woman, aging 65 years, with no previous diagnosis of anemia who sought medical attention because of a thoracic back pain followed by fever and altered mental status. The clinical picture deteriorated very fast with multiple organ failure and death. The autopsy findings concluded by generalized vaso-occlusive crisis, bone marrow necrosis and bone marrow and fat embolism, mainly to the lungs and kidney. The authors call attention for the knowledge of this severe life threatening complication, mainly in a country with a high Afro-Descendant population.

  1. Structural Basis for Treating Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)-associated Diseases with the Therapeutic Antibody Infliximab*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuaiyi; Dai, Jianxin; Hou, Sheng; Su, Lishu; Zhang, Dapeng; Guo, Huaizu; Hu, Shi; Wang, Hao; Rao, Zihe; Guo, Yajun; Lou, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs have been widely used for treating tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-related diseases for over 10 years. Although their action has been hypothesized to depend in part on their ability to bind precursor cell surface TNFα, the precise mechanism and the epitope bound on TNFα remain unclear. In the present work, we report the crystal structure of the infliximab Fab fragment in complex with TNFα at a resolution of 2.6 Å. The key features of the TNFα E-F loop region in this complex distinguish the interaction between infliximab and TNFα from other TNF-receptor structures, revealing the mechanism of TNFα inhibition by overlapping with the TNFα-receptor interface and indicating the crucial role of the E-F loop in the action of this therapeutic antibody. This structure also indicates the formation of an aggregated network for the activation of complement-dependent cytolysis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which result in development of granulomatous infections through TNFα blockage. These results provide the first experimental model for the interaction of TNFα with therapeutic antibodies and offer useful information for antibody optimization by understanding the precise molecular mechanism of TNFα inhibition. PMID:23504311

  2. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Trevor; Roy-Burman, Arup; Tuholske, Cascade; Busch, Michael P; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Coleman, Jayleen; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-08-01

    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.

  3. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaim, K.A.; Javed, F.; Askar, A.; Rasheed, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and inter dental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to identify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction. (author)

  4. Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. A spectrum of herpes virus-induced diseases determined by the immune state of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Y; Rochat, C; Herbort, C P

    1997-12-01

    Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), a new spectrum of diseases induced by viruses of the herpes family (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus), includes acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring in apparently immunocompetent patients and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) described in severely immuno-compromised patients. Signs of impaired cellular immunity were seen in 16% of ARN patients in a review of 216 reported cases, indicating that immune dysfunction is not only at the origin of PORN but might also be at the origin of ARN. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical findings in NHR patients with their immunologic parameters. Charts from patients with the diagnosis of ARN or PORN seen from 1990 to 1995 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and disease patterns were correlated with immunological parameters taking into account CD4 lymphocyte rate in AIDS patients and blood-lymphocyte subpopulation determination by flow cytometry, cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity testing and lymphocytic proliferation rate to seven antigens in HIV-negative patients. During the period considered, 11 patients and 7 patients fulfilled the criteria of ARN and PORN respectively. Immune dysfunctions were identified in most patients. Mild type of ARN and classical ARN were associated with discrete immune dysfunctions, ARN with features of PORN was seen in more immunodepressed patients and classical PORN was always seen in severely immunodepressed HIV patients. Our findings suggest that NHR is a continuous spectrum of diseases induced by herpes viruses, whose clinical expression depends on the immune state of the host going from mild or classical ARN at one end in patients with non-detectable or slight immune dysfunction to PORN in severely immunodepressed patients at the other end and with intermediary forms between these extremes.

  5. Specificity of DNA vaccines against the U and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; LaPatra, S.E.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes significant mortality in salmonid species. In North America IHNV has three major genogroups designated U, M, and L. Host-specificity of the M and U genogroups of IHNV has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges, with M isolates being more prevalent and more virulent in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and U isolates being more prevalent and highly virulent in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In this study, efficacy of DNA vaccines containing either M (pM) or U (pU) virus glycoprotein genes was investigated during intra- and cross-genogroup challenges in rainbow trout. In virus challenges at 7 days post-vaccination (early antiviral response), both pM and pU were highly protective against either M or U IHNV. In challenges at 28 days post-vaccination (specific antiviral response), both pM and pU were protective against M IHNV but the homologous pM vaccine was significantly more protective than pU in one of two experiments. At this stage both pM and pU induced comparably high protection against U IHNV challenge. Correlates of protection were also investigated by assessing the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Mx-1 and the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) following pM or pU DNA vaccination. Mx-1 gene expression, measured at 4 and 7 days post-vaccination as an indicator of the host innate immune response, was found to be significantly higher after pM than pU vaccination in some cases. Neutralizing antibody was produced in response to the two vaccines, but antibody titers did not show consistent correlation with protection. The results show that the rainbow trout innate and adaptive immune responses have some ability to distinguish between the U and M genogroup IHNV, but overall the pM and pU vaccines were protective against both homologous and cross-genogroup challenges.

  6. [Role of serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in malnutrition of male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-meng; Sun, Tie-ying; Liu, Xin-min

    2005-12-18

    To explore the function of serum leptin in COPD patients with malnutrition, and to investigate the relationship between leptin and TNF-alpha. A total of 81 subjects (47 COPD patients and 34 control subjects) participated in this study. The 47 COPD patients were divided into 2 groups: group COPD I (patients without malnutrition during stable disease, n=29), group COPDII (patients with malnutrition during stable disease, n=18). To eliminate the effect of sex differences, all the patients and controls were male. Body mass index (BMI), percent ideal body weight (IBWå), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), mid-upper arm muscle circumference(MAMC),serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) levels, serum prealbumin (PA), serum transferrin (TF), serum albumin(Alb),total lymphocytes count (TLC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), maximal inspiration pressure(MIP)and maximal expiration pressure(MEP)were measured in all participants. Leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. TNF-alpha levels were measured by ELISA. The between group difference and correlation of these parameters were analysed. (1) Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in group COPDII (4.07+/-3.42 microg/L) than in group COPD I (9.72+/-6.67 microg/L) and controls (8.21+/- 5.41 microg/L, PCOPD I (7.25+/- 2.08 ng/L). (3) There was no significant correlation between leptin and TNF-alpha in any group. Leptin was not involved in anorexia and weight loss of COPD patients. There was no significant correlation between TNF-alpha and leptin during the regulation of the energy balance in COPD patients.

  7. Systematic review with meta-analysis: malignancies with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C J M; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Ford, A C

    2014-03-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antibodies are efficacious in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These drugs carry the theoretical risk of malignancy, particularly lymphoma, but no systematic review and meta-analysis has examined this issue. To pool data from all available placebo-controlled studies to estimate risk of malignancy with anti-TNFα therapy in IBD. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched to November 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-TNFα therapy with placebo in adults with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were eligible. Data were pooled to obtain a relative risk (RR) of malignancy with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The search strategy identified 25,338 citations, of which 22 RCTs were eligible (11 infliximab, six adalimumab, four certolizumab and one golimumab) involving 7054 patients (4566 CD and 2488 UC). In total, there were 16 (0.39%) malignancies in 4135 IBD patients allocated to anti-TNFα, compared with 13 (0.45%) in 2919 patients randomised to placebo. There were no cases of lymphoma in the active treatment group, compared with three (0.1%) in the control group. The RR of malignancy for patients receiving anti-TNFα therapy compared with placebo was 0.77 (95% CI 0.37-1.59). When seven individuals with nonmelanoma skin cancer were excluded from the analysis, the RR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.40-2.02). Anti-TNFα therapy was not associated with an increased risk of malignancy in patients with IBD. However, no trials provided data for risk of malignancy beyond 1 year of treatment, meaning that an increased risk in the longer term cannot be excluded. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors versus combination intensive therapy with conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in established rheumatoid arthritis: TACIT non-inferiority randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David L; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Farewell, Vern; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Walker, David; Kelly, Clive; Birrell, Fraser; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Maddison, Peter; Heslin, Margaret; Patel, Anita; Kingsley, Gabrielle H

    2015-03-13

    To determine whether intensive combinations of synthetic disease modifying drugs can achieve similar clinical benefits at lower costs to high cost biologics such as tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis resistant to initial methotrexate and other synthetic disease modifying drugs. Open label pragmatic randomised multicentre two arm non-inferiority trial over 12 months. 24 rheumatology clinics in England. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were eligible for treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors according to current English guidance were randomised to either the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy or the combined disease modifying drug strategy. Biologic strategy: start tumour necrosis factor inhibitor; second biologic in six month for non-responders. Alternative strategy: start combination of disease modifying drugs; start tumour necrosis factor inhibitors after six months in non-responders. reduction in disability at 12 months measured with patient recorded heath assessment questionnaire (range 0.00-3.00) with a 0.22 non-inferiority margin for combination treatment versus the biologic strategy. quality of life, joint damage, disease activity, adverse events, and costs. Intention to treat analysis used multiple imputation methods for missing data. 432 patients were screened: 107 were randomised to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and 101 started taking; 107 were randomised to the combined drug strategy and 104 started taking the drugs. Initial assessments were similar; 16 patients were lost to follow-up (seven with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy, nine with the combined drug strategy); 42 discontinued the intervention but were followed-up (19 and 23, respectively). The primary outcome showed mean falls in scores on the health assessment questionnaire of -0.30 with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy and -0.45 with the alternative combined drug strategy. The difference between

  11. Genetic analysis of resistance to six virus diseases in a multiple virus-resistant maize inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Jose Luis; Jones, Mark W; Brenner, Eric; Francis, David M; Tomas, Adriana; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2014-04-01

    Novel and previously known resistance loci for six phylogenetically diverse viruses were tightly clustered on chromosomes 2, 3, 6 and 10 in the multiply virus-resistant maize inbred line, Oh1VI. Virus diseases in maize can cause severe yield reductions that threaten crop production and food supplies in some regions of the world. Genetic resistance to different viruses has been characterized in maize populations in diverse environments using different screening techniques, and resistance loci have been mapped to all maize chromosomes. The maize inbred line, Oh1VI, is resistant to at least ten viruses, including viruses in five different families. To determine the genes and inheritance mechanisms responsible for the multiple virus resistance in this line, F1 hybrids, F2 progeny and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross of Oh1VI and the virus-susceptible inbred line Oh28 were evaluated. Progeny were screened for their responses to Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Sugarcane mosaic virus, Wheat streak mosaic virus, Maize chlorotic dwarf virus, Maize fine streak virus, and Maize mosaic virus. Depending on the virus, dominant, recessive, or additive gene effects were responsible for the resistance observed in F1 plants. One to three gene models explained the observed segregation of resistance in the F2 generation for all six viruses. Composite interval mapping in the RIL population identified 17 resistance QTLs associated with the six viruses. Of these, 15 were clustered in specific regions of chr. 2, 3, 6, and 10. It is unknown whether these QTL clusters contain single or multiple virus resistance genes, but the coupling phase linkage of genes conferring resistance to multiple virus diseases in this population could facilitate breeding efforts to develop multi-virus resistant crops.

  12. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, A; Mamache, B; Tombari, W; Ghram, A

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity. Various highly sensitive molecular techniques have clarified the viral determinants of antigenicity and pathogenicity of the infectious bursal disease virus. However, these markers are not universally recognised and tend to be considered as evolutionary markers. Antigenic variants of the infectious bursal disease virus possess modified neutralising epitopes that allow them to evade the action of maternally-derived or vaccine-induced antibodies. Autogenous or multivalent vaccines are required to control antigenic variants in areas where classical and variant virus strains coexist. Pathotypic variants (very virulent viruses) remain antigenically related to classical viruses. The difficulty in controlling pathotypic variants is linked to the difficulty of eliciting an early immune response, because of the risk of the vaccine virus being neutralised by maternal antibodies. Mathematical calculation of the optimal vaccination time and the use of vaccines resistant to maternally-derived antibodies have improved the control of very virulent viruses. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  13. Necrosis of nose skin after varicella zoster infection : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Bart Jorrit; Visconti, Giuseppe; Grabietz, Patrice D.; Werker, Paul M. N.

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causal agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection is a common childhood disease, but elderly patients and those having a compromised immune system are also at risk. We present the case of progressive necrosis of the nose

  14. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  15. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsiani, S M; Graham, G C; Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Van Den Hurk, A F; Moore, F A J; Simmons, R J; Craig, S B

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have all been characterised by acute respiratory and neurological manifestations, with high levels of morbidity and mortality in the affected horses and humans. The modes of transmission of HeV remain largely unknown. Although fruit bats have been identified as natural hosts of the virus, direct bat-horse, bat-human or human-human transmission has not been reported. Human infection can occur via exposure to infectious urine, saliva or nasopharyngeal fluid from horses. The treatment options and efficacy are very limited and no vaccine exists. Reports on the outbreaks of HeV in Australia are collated in this review and the available data on the biology, transmission and detection of the pathogen are summarized and discussed.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  17. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero; Ángel Arturo López-González; Mª Victoria Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre; Luisa M. Capdevila-García; Jesús Terradillos-García; Encarna Aguilar-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database) and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7%) an...

  18. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

  19. Viruses in recreational water-borne disease outbreaks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R G; Jones, E L; Gerba, C P

    2009-12-01

    Viruses are believed to be a significant cause of recreationally associated water-borne disease. However, they have been difficult to document because of the wide variety of illnesses that they cause and the limitations in previous detection methods. Noroviruses are believed to be the single largest cause of outbreaks, which have been documented in the published literature 45% (n = 25), followed by adenovirus (24%), echovirus (18%), hepatitis A virus (7%) and coxsackieviruses (5%). Just under half of the outbreaks occurred in swimming pools (49%), while the second largest outbreak occurred in lakes or ponds (40%). The number of reported outbreaks associated with noroviruses has increased significantly in recent years probably because of better methods for virus detection. Inadequate disinfection was related to 69% (n = 18) of swimming pool outbreaks. A lack of required reporting and nonuniform water quality and chlorination/disinfection standards continues to contribute to water-borne recreational disease outbreaks.

  20. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging Predicts Therapeutic Outcomes of Patients With Crohn's Disease Treated With Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Stefania; Fraquelli, Mirella; Coletta, Marina; Branchi, Federica; Magarotto, Andrea; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Mazza, Stefano; Conte, Dario; Basilisco, Guido; Caprioli, Flavio

    2018-01-05

    Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a non-invasive technique developed to evaluate fibrosis. Measuring tissue strain by ultrasound elasticity imaging can reliably detect severe ileal fibrosis in patients with Crohn's disease [CD]. We have hypothesised that a more severe range of fibrosis might influence the therapeutic response to anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of ultrasound elasticity imaging to predict the therapeutic outcome for CD patients. Consecutive patients with ileal/ileocolonic CD, starting anti-TNF treatment, were enrolled for the study. These patients underwent bowel ultrasound and ultrasound elasticity imaging at baseline and at 14 and 52 weeks after anti-TNF treatment. Bowel wall stiffness was quantified by calculating the strain ratio between the mesenteric tissue and the bowel wall. Strain ratio ≥ 2 was used to identify severe ileal fibrosis. Transmural healing at 14 and 52 weeks was defined as bowel wall thickness ≤ 3 mm. Thirty patients with CD were enrolled. Five patients underwent surgery for bowel obstruction. The frequency of surgeries was significantly greater in patients with a strain ratio ≥ 2 at baseline [p = 0.003]. A significant reduction of the bowel thickness was observed after 14 and 52 weeks of anti-TNF treatment [p < 0.005]. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the strain ratio values at baseline and the thickness variations following anti-TNF therapy [p = 0.007]; 27% of patients achieved transmural healing at 14 weeks. The baseline strain ratio was significantly lower in patients with transmural healing [p < 0.05]. This study shows that ultrasound elasticity imaging predicts therapeutic outcomes for CD patients treated with anti-TNF. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Magnetic resonance enterography findings as predictors of clinical outcome following antitumor necrosis factor treatment in small bowel Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David J; Murphy, David J; Smyth, Anna E; McEvoy, Sinead H; Keegan, Denise; Byrne, Kathryn; Mulcahy, Hugh E; Cullen, Garret; Malone, Dermot E; Doherty, Glen A

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether specific magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) findings can predict outcome following commencement of antitumor necrosis factor (aTNF) in small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of patients with CD who commenced aTNF (infliximab or adalimumab) between 2007 and 2013. Patients who had an MRE within 6 months before commencing aTNF were included. The primary end-point was the need for CD-related surgery. The secondary end-points were time to surgery and time to treatment failure. The relationship between these end-points, clinical variables and specific MRE findings were studied. Four hundred and eighteen patients commenced aTNF for CD during the study period. Seventy-five patients had an MRE within 6 months before commencing aTNF (30 infliximab; 45 adalimumab). The median time from MRE to commencing aTNF was 43 days (IQR 19.5-87 days). Eighteen of 75 (24%) had surgery during a median follow-up of 16.7 months (IQR 9.0-30.1 months). Patients with small bowel stenosis (SBS) on MRE were at a significantly higher risk of requiring surgery: 12/18 (66.7%) versus 6/57 (10.5%) (P<0.001). Time to surgery was significantly shorter in patients with SBS on MRE (P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, SBS (P<0.0001, hazard ratio 26.45, 95% confidence interval 5.45-128.49) and presence of penetrating complications (P=0.003, hazard ratio 36.53, 95% confidence interval 3.40-393.19) were associated independently with time to surgery. SBS and penetrating complications on MRE are associated independently with a need for early surgery and treatment failure in patients commencing aTNF.

  3. Efficacy of restarting anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents after surgery in patients with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko Hiraoka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα antibodies for postoperative Crohn's disease (CD in patients who were treated with these agents prior to surgery is largely unknown. Methods: CD patients who underwent intestinal resection and received anti-TNFα agents after surgery were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of preoperative anti-TNFα treatment: anti-TNFα restart group or anti-TNFα naïve group. Endoscopic recurrence after surgery was examined according to the preoperative conditions, including administration of anti-TNFα agents before surgery. Results: Thirty-six patients received anti-TNFα antibody after surgery: 22 in the anti-TNFα restart group and 14 in the anti-TNFα naïve group. Endoscopic recurrence after surgery was more frequently observed in the anti-TNFα restart group than in the anti-TNFα naïve group (68% vs. 14%, P<0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant risk factors of endoscopic recurrence after surgery: anti-TNF restart group (odds ratio [OR], 28.10; 95% CI, 3.08–722.00, age at diagnosis <23 years (OR, 24.30; 95% CI, 1.67–1,312.00, serum albumin concentration at surgery <3.3 g/dL (OR, 34.10; 95% CI, 1.72–2,804.00, and presence of inflammation outside of the surgical site (OR, 21.40; 95% CI, 1.02–2,150.00. Treatment intensification for patients with endoscopic recurrence in the anti-TNFα restart group showed limited responses, with only 1 of 12 patients achieving endoscopic remission. Conclusions: The efficacy of restarting anti-TNFα antibody treatment after surgery was limited, and treatment intensification or a change to different classes of biologics should be considered for those patients.

  4. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha-loaded microspheres as a prospective novel treatment for Crohn's disease fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Keen Shawn; Patel, Rishni; Forbes, Alastair; Day, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been successful in treating perianal fistulae in Crohn's disease, but current modes of delivery are limited. Microspheres are currently being assessed as scaffolds for tissue engineering and drug delivery devices. The aim of this study was to produce anti-TNF-α antibody-encapsulated microspheres using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and to characterize their behavior. Anti-TNF-α antibody was encapsulated into the microspheres (100 mg infliximab/g poly[lactide-co-glycolide] w/w) using a novel technique combining a vibration encapsulator unit with a TIPS process, using either lyophilized particulate antibody or an aqueous solution of antibody. Microspheres were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline for collection of supernatant and assessment of degradation. The amount and biological activity of the encapsulated antibody released from the microspheres was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its ability to neutralize recombinant human (rh)TNF-α in vitro with a cytotoxicity assay. An in vitro wound scratch assay was used to assess the effect of released antibody on fibroblast migration. Ultrastructural characteristics of the different microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Highly porous microspheres released anti-TNF-α antibody under zero-order kinetics and inhibited the cytotoxic activity of rhTNF-α, producing a significant increase in cell viability compared with cells treated with rhTNF-α alone. This effect was most pronounced with microspheres fabricated by blending lyophilized particulate anti-TNF-α antibody into the polymer solution, which also significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Anti-TNF-α antibody encapsulated into highly porous microspheres was released in a controlled manner and exhibited biological activity against TNF-α. The technique used to produce TIPS microspheres is rapid and provides high encapsulation efficiency

  5. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  6. Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from live poultry markets and chickens from commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  7. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.

  8. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of FMD virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 among Nigerian cattle was determined using Complement Fixation (CF) and Serum Neutralization (SN) Tests in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The disease prevalence by CF and SN were 46.79% and 53.15% respectively. These figures were ...

  9. genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR TUBER YIELD, QUALITY, AND VIRUS DISEASE. COMPLEX TRAITS IN UGANDA SWEETPOTATO GERMPLASM. E. GASURA, A.B. MASHINGAIDZE1 and S.B. MUKASA. Department of Crop Science, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda. 1Department of Crop Science, ...

  10. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  11. Hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious viral infection that requires a high risk perception and practice of good hand hygiene by regular hand washing or use of hand sanitizers for infection control at all time. The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health Organization on the ...

  12. West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: The Africa Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe acute viral illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, myalgia, malaise, and severe headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea and, in some instances, bleeding. The 2014 West Africa outbreak is the largest in history, affecting ...

  13. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  14. Expression of VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain in Northeast of China, under control of the ats1A promoter from Rubisco small subunit genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, was introduced into the transfer deoxyribonucleic acid (T-DNA) region of plant transfer vector pCAMBIA1300 and transferred to ...

  15. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local species of birds was investigated in 4,655 sera sample using Agar Gel precipitation test (AGPT). The results showed that local chickens had the highest distribution with 446 (9.58%) followed by ducks 218 (4.68%), guinea fowl 131 ...

  16. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  17. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture,. Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria. (Received: 02:03:2016; Accepted: 04:07:16). Abstract. The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local ... administration of the vaccines resulting to.

  18. Social vulnerability and Ebola virus disease in rural Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Melvin L. Warren; Susan Charnley; Christie M. Stegall

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate...

  19. Detection of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in naturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...

  20. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... envelope glycoprotein, which comprises the initial and key step of infection. Infection can be inhibited by blockage of ... Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the genus Avibirnavirus of the family ..... Assessment of genetic, antigenic and pathotypic criteria for the characterization of IBDV strains.

  1. Impregnation and storage of Newcastle disease virus on to filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stored and subsequently detected by RT PCR. This method might be safely used for storage and transportation of NDV samples to the designated laboratories for molecular studies without the need for cooling. Keywords: Allantoic fluid, chicken embryo fibroblast, Newcastle diseases virus, polymerase chain reaction, RNA ...

  2. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    determined using Complement Fixation (CF) and Serum Neutralization (SN) Tests in 2000 cattle sera .... Table 1: Overall results of Foot and Mouth Disease distribution in the northern zones. Zones Location No. of animal No. animal No. of calf No. of adult Virus. States involved affected dead dead. Type. Adamawa. 136. 70.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis regulates quadriceps muscle atrophy and fiber-type alteration in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jun-Juan; Wang, Qing; Xie, Li Hua; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Sheng Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), weakness and muscle mass loss of the quadriceps muscle has been demonstrated to predict survival and mortality rates of patients. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), as a member of the TNF superfamily, has recently been identified as a key regulator of skeletal muscle wasting and metabolic dysfunction. So our aim was to study the role of TWEAK during quadriceps muscle atrophy and fiber-type transformat...

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by promoting trafficking of mononuclear leukocytes into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bimmi; Zhang, Bo; Purtha, Whitney E; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2008-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have shown essential protective roles for antiviral cytokines (e.g., alpha interferon [IFN-alpha] and IFN-gamma) against WNV in mice. However, studies using cell culture offer conflicting answers regarding whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has an anti-WNV function. To test the biological significance of TNF-alpha against WNV in vivo, experiments were performed with TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1)-deficient and TNF-alpha-depleted C57BL/6 mice. TNF-R1(-/-) mice had enhanced mortality and decreased survival time after WNV infection compared to congenic wild-type mice. Consistent with this, administration of a neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody also decreased survival after WNV infection. Relatively small differences in viral burdens in peripheral tissues of TNF-R1(-/-) mice were observed, and this occurrence correlated with a modest antiviral effect of TNF-alpha on primary macrophages but not dendritic cells. In contrast, the viral titers detected in the central nervous systems of TNF-R1(-/-) mice were significantly increased compared to those of wild-type mice, although TNF-alpha did not have a direct antiviral effect in primary neuron cultures. Whereas no defect in priming of adaptive B- and T-cell responses in TNF-R1(-/-) mice was observed, there were significant reductions in accumulations of CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the brain. Our data are most consistent with a model in which interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 protects against WNV infection by regulating migration of protective inflammatory cells into the brain during acute infection.

  5. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544 in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó. Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification

  6. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.......Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  7. Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone (Kienböck’s disease) secondary to scapholunate ligament tear as a consequence of trauma – a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulhawik, Dorota; Szałaj, Tomasz; Grabowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone (Kienböck’s disease), is a condition in which lunate bone, loses its blood supply, leading to necrosis of the bone. There is probably no single cause of Kienbock’s disease. Its origin may involve multiple factors, such as the blood supply (arteries), blood drainage (veins), and skeletal variations. Trauma, either isolated or repeated, may possibly be a factor in some cases. This case presented with multifactorial etiology. In the presented case, a patient with negative ulnar variant had injured her right wrist and presented at an orthopedic clinic due to nonspecific pain 6 months later. An arthro-MRI examination revealed necrosis of the lunate bone, scapholunate ligament tear and coexisting TFCC (triangular fibrocartilage complex) tear. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent progression of necrotic lesions and bone collapse. MRI examination seems to be the key diagnostic method in the early stage of the Kienböck’s disease with negative x-ray and CT images. Arthro-MRI examination also allows us to identify the underlying ligamentous injury. In cases of traumatic etiology, an additional CT test enables stating the final diagnosis

  8. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks Report to...Congressional Requesters May 2017 GAO-17-445 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office...Highlights of GAO-17-445, a report to congressional requesters. May 2017 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of

  9. Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), a New Threat of Cultured Rainbow Trout in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    Background: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a member of the virus family Birnaviridae, causes an acute, contagious disease with high mortality rate in a number of economically important fi sh species specially salmonids. During April 2009, one Rainbow trout farm, situated in Gilan...... and necropsy fi ndings suggested that IPNV might be present. The presence of virus was confi rmed by virology methods with cooperation of community reference laboratory of fi sh disease, Arhus,Denmark. Methods and Materials: Pools of viscera from each fi ve whole fry were homogenized, re-suspended in medium...

  10. Ebola virus disease - pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Piatek, Anna; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    On March 2014 the WHO notified the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, and infection quickly spread to another West African countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. Current outbreak is the largest in the history, since discovery of the virus in 1976. Imported cases and infection among healthcare workers in Europe and United States have elucidated necessity of better education of medical staff. Clinicians must be familiar with clinical picture of EVD, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, as rapid diagnosis and prompt introduction of supportive therapy can have a significant impact on the survival.

  11. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are positively associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eun-Sil; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-07-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may induce chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relation between inflammatory biomarkers and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, which has not yet been reported in Asian populations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 543 patients recruited from diabetic clinics for an ongoing, prospective study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease equation using plasma creatinine). The risk of chronic kidney disease increased in the highest quartiles of C-reactive protein (CRP) [multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.19-1.70] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (multivariate OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.63-12.11) compared to the lowest quartiles after adjustments for age, sex, zinc intake, and other putative risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Our results suggest that CRP and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A causal mechanism of this association should be evaluated in a followup study of Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. [Immune response of pigs to Aujeszky disease virus and swine influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarov, G; Khristov, S

    1978-01-01

    Explored was the possibility of simultaneous vaccination of pigs against the Aujeszky's disease virus and the swine influenza virus. Used were strain MK-25 against the former and strain 3sb against the latter. It was found that at the simultaneous subcutaneous or oral treatment with the two antigens equally effective immunity was built as in the case of vaccination with each one of them used alone. No antagonism was established between the two antigens during the time of immunity building in the body.

  14. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  15. OUTBREAK OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Tsankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.

  16. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.

  17. Necrosis of the tongue as first symptom of Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): unusual presentation of a rare disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; El Hachem, May; Callea, Francesco; Bracaglia, Claudia; Diociaiuti, Andrea; Pardeo, Manuela; Campana, Andrea; Insalaco, Antonella; Cortis, Elisabetta; Ugazio, Alberto G

    2013-04-01

    Polyarteritis or panarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing, focal segmental vasculitis that affects predominantly medium-sized arteries in many different organ systems. It is extremely rare in childhood. Involvement of the oral mucosa at diagnosis is uncommon in PAN. Here, we report a case of a pediatric patient with tongue necrosis.

  18. Brown fat necrosis in the setting of congenital heart disease and prostaglandin E1 use: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raboi, C.A.; Smith, W. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; 2

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of a child with D-transposition of the great arteries treated with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) who subsequently developed extensive brown fat necroisis. To the best of our knowledge, no previous association among congenital heart diseace, PGE1, and brwon fat necrosis has been reported.

  19. Molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus and sheeppox virus based on P32 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.A.Rashid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV and sheeppox virus (SPV have a considerable economic impact on the cattle and small ruminant industry. They are listed in group A of contagious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. This study addressed molecular characterisation of first LSDV outbreak and an endemic SPV in Kurdistan region of Iraq based on P32 gene. The results indicated that P32 gene can be successfully used for diagnosis of LSDV. The phylogenic and molecular analysis showed that there may be a new LSDV isolate circulating in Kurdistan which uniquely shared the same characteristic amino acid sequence with SPV and GPV, leucine at amino acid position 51 in P32 gene as well as few genetically distinct SPV causing pox disease in Kurdistan sheep. This study provided sequence information of P32 gene for several LSDV isolates, which positively affects the epidemiological study of Capripoxvirus

  20. Risk of Subsequent Infection Among Patients Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors and Other Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accortt, Neil A; Bonafede, Machaon M; Collier, David H; Iles, Jan; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    To describe the incidence of subsequent serious infections in patients who received systemic drug therapy after an initial serious infection. Patients with rheumatic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis) or psoriasis who experienced a serious infection between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 were identified in a claims database. Patients were required to be continuously enrolled in the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Research Database for 12 months prior to and at least 60 days after the date of discharge or the end of intravenous antibiotic therapy for the index serious infection. Subsequent serious infection incidence rates per 100 patient-years with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for up to 18 months post-index, starting 60 days post-index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment duration, and changes during followup. Among the 21,699 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the majority (84.3%) had RA. Patients who received tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy after their index infection had a lower rate of subsequent serious infections (18.1 per 100 patient-years for those treated with a TNF inhibitor alone and 17.3 per 100 patient-years for those treated with a TNF inhibitor plus a nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug [DMARD]) compared with those treated with a nonbiologic DMARD alone (21.4 per 100 patient-years). Etanercept, either alone (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) or in combination with a nonbiologic DMARD (adjusted HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.88), and infliximab (only in combination with a nonbiologic DMARD) (adjusted HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.95) were associated with a significantly lower risk of subsequent serious infections compared with a nonbiologic DMARD alone. We did not observe an increased risk of subsequent infection in patients who received TNF inhibitor

  1. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  2. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Zika and Spondweni Viruses: Historic Evidence of Misidentification, Misdiagnosis and Serious Clinical Disease Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    1 Zika and Spondweni viruses : Historic evidence of misidentification, misdiagnosis, and serious clinical disease manifestations Andrew D...serogroup (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) consists of two members: Zika 3 and Spondweni viruses . Both viruses have been historically misidentified...UNCLASSIFIED 3 Perspective 24 25 Viruses within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, are notorious for their serological 26 cross-reactivity

  4. The role of serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in malnutrition of male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-meng; Sun, Tie-ying; Liu, Xin-min

    2006-04-20

    Leptin is a protein mainly secreted by adipocytes, and the major function of leptin was its role in body weight regulation. It is suggested that increased levels of circulating leptin may contribute to anorexia in pathologic conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies have provided evidence for a link between leptin and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). This study aimed to explore the role of serum leptin in the malnutrition of COPD patients, and to observe the changes of serum leptin levels during acute exacerbation, also to investigate relationship between leptin and TNF-alpha. Seventy-two COPD patients and 34 control subjects participated in this study. Seventy-two COPD patients were divided into 3 groups: group COPD IA (patients without malnutrition during acute exacerbation, n = 25), group COPD IB (patients without malnutrition during stable disease, n = 29), group COPD II (patients with malnutrition during stable disease, n = 18). To eliminate the effect of sex differences, all patients and controls were male. Body mass index (BMI), percent ideal body weight (IBW%), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC), serum leptin and TNF-alpha levels, serum prealbumin (PA), serum transferrin (TF), serum albumin (Alb), total lymphocytes count (TLC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), maximal inspiration pressure (MIP) and maximal expiration pressure (MEP) were measured in all participants. Leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. TNF-alpha levels were measured by ELISA. The between group difference and correlation of these parameters were analyzed. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in group COPD II [(4.07 +/- 3.42) ng/ml] than in group COPD IB [(9.72 +/- 6.67) ng/ml] and controls [(8.21 +/- 5.41) ng/ml] (P leptin levels between group COPD IA [(10.82 +/- 6.40) ng/ml], group COPD IB [(9

  5. Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, J; Kanno, T; Tsuchiya, Y; Mitsubayashi, S; Seki, R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.

  6. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortmans, Jos C F M; Peeters, Ben P H; Koch, Guus

    2012-11-09

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and may cause devastating losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Its causative agent is Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1. Many countries maintain a stringent vaccination policy against ND, but there are indications that ND outbreaks can still occur despite intensive vaccination. It has been argued that this may be due to antigenic divergence between the vaccine strains and circulating field strains. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent genotype VII virus (NL/93) obtained from vaccinated poultry during an outbreak of ND in the Netherlands in 1992-1993. Using this strain, we investigated whether the identified genetic evolution of NDV is accompanied by antigenic evolution. In this study we show that a live vaccine that is antigenically adapted to match the genotype VII NL/93 outbreak strain does not provide increased protection compared to a classic genotype II live vaccine. When challenged with the NL/93 strain, chickens vaccinated with a classic vaccine were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality and virus shedding was significantly reduced, even with a supposedly suboptimal vaccine dose. These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  8. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  9. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  10. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  11. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  12. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control.

  13. Nuclear factor-kappa B family member RelB inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kiebala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND is likely neuroinflammatory in origin, believed to be triggered by inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to cytokines and HIV protein gene products such as the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat. Here we demonstrate increased messenger RNA for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB family member, transcription factor RelB, in the brain of doxycycline-induced Tat transgenic mice, and increased RelB synthesis in Tat-exposed microglial cells. Since genetic ablation of RelB in mice leads to multi-organ inflammation, we hypothesized that Tat-induced, newly synthesized RelB inhibits cytokine production by microglial cells, possibly through the formation of transcriptionally inactive RelB/RelA complexes. Indeed, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha production in monocytes isolated from RelB deficient mice was significantly higher than in monocytes isolated from RelB expressing controls. Moreover, RelB overexpression in microglial cells inhibited Tat-induced TNFalpha synthesis in a manner that involved transcriptional repression of the TNFalpha promoter, and increased phosphorylation of RelA at serine 276, a prerequisite for increased RelB/RelA protein interactions. The Rel-homology-domain within RelB was necessary for this interaction. Overexpression of RelA itself, in turn, significantly increased TNFalpha promoter activity, an effect that was completely blocked by RelB overexpression. We conclude that RelB regulates TNFalpha cytokine synthesis by competitive interference binding with RelA, which leads to downregulation of TNFalpha production. Moreover, because Tat activates both RelB and TNFalpha in microglia, and because Tat induces inflammatory TNFalpha synthesis via NF-kappaB, we posit that RelB serves as a cryoprotective, anti-inflammatory, counter-regulatory mechanism for pathogenic NF-kappaB activation. These findings identify a novel regulatory pathway for

  14. The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M

    2017-01-24

    For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.

  15. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  16. Microculture system for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Gratzek, J B; Kleven, S H; Scott, T A

    1974-05-01

    A microculture system utilizing cytopathic effect (CPE) and hemadsorption (HAd) end points was effective in determining the level of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies. The microculture system was of comparable sensitivity to the plaque reduction test for the detection of NDV antibodies. The standards by which the CPE and HAd microculture tests would be considered reproducible were defined. The results indicate that the CPE and HAd microculture tests are reproducible within one twofold dilution.

  17. Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T Eoin; von Saint André-von Arnim, Amélie

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians caring for patients infected with Ebola virus must be familiar not only with screening and infection control measures but also with management of severe disease. By integrating experience from several Ebola epidemics with best practices for managing critical illness, this report focuses on the clinical presentation and management of severely ill infants, children, and adults with Ebola virus disease. Fever, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia are the most common symptoms of the 2014 West African outbreak. Profound fluid losses from the gastrointestinal tract result in volume depletion, metabolic abnormalities (including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia), shock, and organ failure. Overt hemorrhage occurs infrequently. The case fatality rate in West Africa is at least 70%, and individuals with respiratory, neurological, or hemorrhagic symptoms have a higher risk of death. There is no proven antiviral agent to treat Ebola virus disease, although several experimental treatments may be considered. Even in the absence of antiviral therapies, intensive supportive care has the potential to markedly blunt the high case fatality rate reported to date. Optimal treatment requires conscientious correction of fluid and electrolyte losses. Additional management considerations include searching for coinfection or superinfection; treatment of shock (with intravenous fluids and vasoactive agents), acute kidney injury (with renal replacement therapy), and respiratory failure (with invasive mechanical ventilation); provision of nutrition support, pain and anxiety control, and psychosocial support; and the use of strategies to reduce complications of critical illness. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be appropriate in certain circumstances, but extracorporeal life support is not advised. Among other ethical issues, patients' medical needs must be carefully weighed against healthcare worker safety and infection control concerns. However, meticulous attention

  18. RNA Viruses that Cause Hemorrhagic, Encephalitic, and Febrile Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    commercial priority. Further, fund- - The views of the authors do not purport to reflect ing for studying many of these viruses is the position of the...tion of headache, meningismus, vertigo , mated 200,000 cases occurred with 598 re- confusion, hallucinations, and recrudes- ported deaths. Most cases...latter. Patients surviving this disease require several weeks for conva- Clinical Features lescence, and paroxysmal and orthostatic hypotension

  19. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56 ± 0.74 for ...

  20. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  1. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  2. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.

  3. Classification of infectious bursal disease virus into genogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Linda O; Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes infectious bursal disease (IBD), an immunosuppressive disease of poultry. The current classification scheme of IBDV is confusing because it is based on antigenic types (variant and classical) as well as pathotypes. Many of the amino acid changes differentiating these various classifications are found in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein VP2 (hvVP2), the major host protective antigen. Data from this study were used to propose a new classification scheme for IBDV based solely on genogroups identified from phylogenetic analysis of the hvVP2 of strains worldwide. Seven major genogroups were identified, some of which are geographically restricted and others that have global dispersion, such as genogroup 1. Genogroup 2 viruses are predominately distributed in North America, while genogroup 3 viruses are most often identified on other continents. Additionally, we have identified a population of genogroup 3 vvIBDV isolates that have an amino acid change from alanine to threonine at position 222 while maintaining other residues conserved in this genogroup (I242, I256 and I294). A222T is an important mutation because amino acid 222 is located in the first of four surface loops of hvVP2. A similar shift from proline to threonine at 222 is believed to play a role in the significant antigenic change of the genogroup 2 IBDV strains, suggesting that antigenic drift may be occurring in genogroup 3, possibly in response to antigenic pressure from vaccination.

  4. Characterization of skin blister fluids from children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo; Toma, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Hanae; Koizumi, Eiko; Shirahashi, Tetsujiro; Matsuda, Yusuke; Yachie, Akihiro

    2018-01-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T- or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Patients may present with severe skin manifestations, including hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) and hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruption, which are characterized by blister formation and necrotic ulceration. Skin biopsy specimens show inflammatory reactions comprising EBV-infected lymphocytes. However, blister fluids have not been fully assessed in patients with this disease. Blister fluids were collected from three patients with EBV-associated LPD: two with HMB and one with HV. Immunophenotyping of blister lymphocytes and measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in blister fluids were performed. The patients with HMB and HV exhibited markedly increased percentages of NK and γδ T cells, respectively, in both peripheral blood and blister fluids. These NK and γδ T cells strongly expressed the activation marker human leukocyte antigen-DR and were considered to be cellular targets of EBV infections. TNF-α was highly elevated in all blister fluids. Severe local skin reactions of EBV-associated LPD may be associated with infiltrating EBV-infected lymphocytes and a high TNF-α concentration in blister fluids. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the infectious bronchitis virus S1 gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Junfeng; Qi, Tianming; Zhao, Wen; Han, Zongxi; Yang, Xiaopu; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-04-25

    The recombinant LaSota strain expressing a chimeric IBV S1 gene (rLaSota-S1) was constructed with the S1 gene of the LX4 type IBV ck/CH/LDL/091022. The expression of the S1 protein was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. The rLaSota-S1 strain was slightly attenuated, and its growth dynamics were similar to that of the parental LaSota strain. Vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced NDV hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, and it protected chickens from challenge with virulent NDV. In addition, vaccination with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced IBV-specific IgG antibodies and cellular immunity; however, a single vaccination provided partial protection with reduced virus shedding. Better protection efficiency was observed after a booster vaccination, which resulted in higher antibody titers, significantly fewer disease symptoms, and reduced virus replication and shedding. Our results suggest that the rLaSota-S1 strain is a bivalent vaccine candidate against both NDV and IBV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Airway necrosis after salvage esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norimitsu; Hokamura, Nobukazu; Tachimori, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Salvage esophagectomy is the sole curative intent treatment for patients with persistent or recurrent locoregional disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal carcinoma. However, salvage esophagectomy is a very high-risk operation, and airway necrosis is a fatal complication. Between 1997 and 2007, 49 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. We retrospectively compared patients with and without airway necrosis, and investigated operative procedures related to airway necrosis. Airway necrosis occurred in five patients (10.2%), of four patients (80%) died during their hospitalization. Airway necrosis seemed to be closely related to operative procedures, such as resection of bronchial artery and cervical and subcarinal lymph node dissection. Bronchogastric fistula following necrosis of gastric conduit occured in 2 patients reconstructed through posterior mediastinal route. Airway necrosis is a highly lethal complication after salvage esophagectomy. It is important in salvage esophagectomy to take airway blood supply into consideration sufficiently and to reconstruct through retrosternal route to prevent bronchogastric fistula. (author)

  7. Infectious Bursal disease virus: ribonucleoprotein complexes of a double-stranded RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Daniel; Saugar, Irene; Rejas, María Teresa; Carrascosa, José L; Rodríguez, José F; Castón, José R

    2009-02-27

    Genome-binding proteins with scaffolding and/or regulatory functions are common in living organisms and include histones in eukaryotic cells, histone-like proteins in some double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, and the nucleocapsid proteins of single-stranded RNA viruses. dsRNA viruses nevertheless lack these ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and are characterized by sharing an icosahedral T=2 core involved in the metabolism and insulation of the dsRNA genome. The birnaviruses, with a bipartite dsRNA genome, constitute a well-established exception and have a single-shelled T=13 capsid only. Moreover, as in many negative single-stranded RNA viruses, the genomic dsRNA is bound to a nucleocapsid protein (VP3) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VPg). We used electron microscopy and functional analysis to characterize these RNP complexes of infectious bursal disease virus, the best characterized member of the Birnaviridae family. Mild disruption of viral particles revealed that VP3, the most abundant core protein, present at approximately 450 copies per virion, is found in filamentous material tightly associated with the dsRNA. We developed a method to purify RNP and VPg-dsRNA complexes. Analysis of these complexes showed that they are linear molecules containing a constant amount of protein. Sensitivity assays to nucleases indicated that VP3 renders the genomic dsRNA less accessible for RNase III without introducing genome compaction. Additionally, we found that these RNP complexes are functionally competent for RNA synthesis in a capsid-independent manner, in contrast to most dsRNA viruses.

  8. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjuan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD represents one of the deadliest diseases in the world, with a fatality rate of over 70% and absence of effective vaccine and treatment. Rapid and specific diagnosis of EVD is essential for isolation, treatment of patients, and prevention of outbreak spread. Although many assays for EVD diagnosis have been reported, there is still an urgent requirement for practical assays for use in resource-limited areas, like Africa. Here we summarize the progresses of EVD diagnostic techniques.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease - detecting alterations in the apparent diffusion coefficient in hips with avascular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, John D. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hernandez, Andrea; Pena, Andres; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruppert, Kai [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jawad, Abbas F. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith-Whitley, Kim [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Hematology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common morbidity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that leads to pain and joint immobility. However, the diagnosis is often uncertain or delayed. To examine the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted imaging to detect AVN in children with SCD. ADC values were calculated at the hips of normal children (n = 19) and children with SCD who were either asymptomatic with no known previous hip disease (n = 13) or presented for the first time with clinical symptoms of hip pathology (n = 12). ADC values were compared for differences among groups with and without AVN using non-parametric statistical methods. The ADC values were elevated in the hips of children with AVN (median ADC = 1.57 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.10]) and differed significantly in pairwise comparisons (all P < 0.05) from normal children (0.74 [0.46-0.98]), asymptomatic children with SCD (0.55 [0.25-0.85]), and SCD children who had symptoms referable to their hips but did not show findings of hip AVN on conventional MRI or radiographs (0.46 [0.18-0.72]). Children with sickle cell disease have elevated apparent diffusion coefficient values in their affected hips on initial diagnosis of avascular necrosis. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease - detecting alterations in the apparent diffusion coefficient in hips with avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, John D.; Hernandez, Andrea; Pena, Andres; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Jaramillo, Diego; Ruppert, Kai; Jawad, Abbas F.; Wells, Lawrence; Smith-Whitley, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common morbidity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that leads to pain and joint immobility. However, the diagnosis is often uncertain or delayed. To examine the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted imaging to detect AVN in children with SCD. ADC values were calculated at the hips of normal children (n = 19) and children with SCD who were either asymptomatic with no known previous hip disease (n = 13) or presented for the first time with clinical symptoms of hip pathology (n = 12). ADC values were compared for differences among groups with and without AVN using non-parametric statistical methods. The ADC values were elevated in the hips of children with AVN (median ADC = 1.57 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s [95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.10]) and differed significantly in pairwise comparisons (all P < 0.05) from normal children (0.74 [0.46-0.98]), asymptomatic children with SCD (0.55 [0.25-0.85]), and SCD children who had symptoms referable to their hips but did not show findings of hip AVN on conventional MRI or radiographs (0.46 [0.18-0.72]). Children with sickle cell disease have elevated apparent diffusion coefficient values in their affected hips on initial diagnosis of avascular necrosis. (orig.)

  11. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tim J. G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward. PMID:27413095

  12. Analysis of the dengue disease model with two virus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.

  13. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  14. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  15. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  16. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  17. Study of Ebola Virus Disease Survivors in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chughtai, Morad; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Pe Kolie, Jean; Camara, Hadja Fatou Sikhe; Ishfaq, Muhammad Fawad; N'Dour, Cheikh Tidane; Beavogui, Kezely

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding health consequences of Ebola virus disease among survivors. We surveyed 105 Ebola virus disease survivors postdischarge from an Ebola treatment unit in Guinea using a standard data collection form. Patients rated recovery as the percentage of improvement in functional status, where 0% represents "unable to perform" and 100% represents "able to perform at prior level." The mean ± standard deviation time interval between hospital discharge and administration of questionnaire was 103.5 ± 47.9 days in 105 survivors. Anorexia was reported by 103 patients, with varying severity levels: mild (n = 33), moderate (n = 65), or severe (n = 5). Reported pain according to site was chest (30.7%), joint (86.7%), muscle (26.7%), and back (45.7%), among others. Recovery in functional status was graded as mild (10%-30%) (n = 2 [1.9%]), moderate (40%-70%) (n = 52 [50.0%]), and excellent (80%-100%) (n = 50 [48.1%]). Severity of arthralgia (R(2) = 0.09; P = .008) was directly associated with lower recovery in functional status in multivariate analysis. Ebola virus disease survivors frequently reported anorexia and arthralgia. Severity of arthralgia was related to lower functional recovery. There may be a role for focused screening and intervention for symptoms identified in this study of survivors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  19. Airborne virus sampling: Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger “AGI-30”, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers’ physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. [b]Results.[/b] Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96% and the MD8 (100% were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%. Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23% was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01, indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log[sub]10[/sub] 50% egg infective dose (EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the AGI-30, 2.5 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log[sub]10[/sub] EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air

  20. Maternal Zika Virus Disease Severity, Virus Load, Prior Dengue Antibodies, and Their Relationship to Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Umme-Aiman; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Lopes; de Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho; Junior, Jose Paulo Pereira; de Araujo Zin, Andrea; Cherry, James; Gabaglia, Claudia Raja; Gaw, Stephanie L; Adachi, Kristina; Tsui, Irena; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Nogueira, Rita Ribeiro; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Brasil, Patricia

    2017-09-15

    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome is a newly identified condition resulting from infection during pregnancy. We analyzed outcome data from a mother-infant cohort in Rio de Janeiro in order to assess whether clinical severity of maternal ZIKV infection was associated with maternal virus load, prior dengue antibodies, or abnormal pregnancy/infant outcomes. A clinical severity assessment tool was developed based on duration of fever, severity of rash, multisystem involvement, and duration of symptoms during ZIKV infection. ZIKV-RNA load was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles in blood/ urine. Dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at baseline. Adverse outcomes were defined as fetal loss or a live infant with grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings. Regression models were used to study potential associations. 131 ZIKV-PCR positive pregnant women were scored for clinical disease severity, 6 (4.6%) had mild disease, 98 (74.8%) had moderate disease, and 27 (20.6%) severe manifestations of ZIKV infection. There were 58 (46.4%) abnormal outcomes with 9 fetal losses (7.2%) in 125 pregnancies. No associations were found between: disease severity and abnormal outcomes (P = .961; odds ratio [OR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.796-1.270); disease severity and viral load (P = .994); viral load and adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.922-1.135); or existence of prior dengue antibodies (88% subjects) with severity score, ZIKV-RNA load or adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.255-2.397). Congenital ZIKV syndrome does not appear to be associated with maternal disease severity, ZIKV-RNA load at time of infection or existence of prior dengue antibodies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2013-06-28

    ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased ... based testing at 12 months after planting revealed the presence of ACMV in all the accessions while ... Key words: Mosaic virus diseases, dry matter, starch yield, PCR, disease incidence.

  2. CDC Safety Training Course for Ebola Virus Disease Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Rupa; Sobel, Jeremy; Piper, Catherine; Gould, Deborah; Bhadelia, Nahid; Dott, Mary; Fiore, Anthony; Fischer, William A; Frawley, Mary Jo; Griffin, Patricia M; Hamilton, Douglas; Mahon, Barbara; Pillai, Satish K; Veltus, Emily F; Tauxe, Robert; Jhung, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Response to sudden epidemic infectious disease emergencies can demand intensive and specialized training, as demonstrated in 2014 when Ebola virus disease (EVD) rapidly spread throughout West Africa. The medical community quickly became overwhelmed because of limited staff, supplies, and Ebola treatment units (ETUs). Because a mechanism to rapidly increase trained healthcare workers was needed, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented an introductory EVD safety training course to prepare US healthcare workers to work in West Africa ETUs. The goal was to teach principles and practices of safely providing patient care and was delivered through lectures, small-group breakout sessions, and practical exercises. During September 2014-March 2015, a total of 570 participants were trained during 16 course sessions. This course quickly increased the number of clinicians who could provide care in West Africa ETUs, showing the feasibility of rapidly developing and implementing training in response to a public health emergency.

  3. Chikungunya virus: epidemiology, replication, disease mechanisms, and prospective intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laurie A.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a reemerging arbovirus, causes a crippling musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans characterized by fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, rash, and headache. CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes species of mosquitoes and is capable of an epidemic, urban transmission cycle with high rates of infection. Since 2004, CHIKV has spread to new areas, causing disease on a global scale, and the potential for CHIKV epidemics remains high. Although CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease and significant economic burden in affected areas, no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies are available. In this Review, we describe CHIKV epidemiology, replication cycle, pathogenesis and host immune responses, and prospects for effective vaccines and highlight important questions for future research. PMID:28248203

  4. Clinical and immunological effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine on bovine papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avki, Sirri; Turutoglu, Hulya; Simsek, Atilla; Unsal, Ayhan

    2004-03-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has antineoplastic and immunostimulatory properties, and it is currently being clinically tested in anticancer therapy. In order to analyze the immunostimulatory effects of NDV on bovine papillomatosis, we inoculated 14 cows subcutaneously with an attenuated vaccine containing the LaSota strain of NDV (LS-NDV). Four cows with papillomatosis served as controls. Serum samples were collected from each animal 1 h before and, 7 and 21 days after inoculation. In inoculated cows, on days 7 and 21 the mean antibody titers were log2 2.43 +/- 0.92 and log2 5.57 +/- 0.72 by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), and the mean levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were 5.80 +/- 4.19 and 5.39 +/- 2.66 ng/ml by WEHI-164 cytotoxicity assay. Significant differences between inoculated and control animals were evident for antibody titers on day 21 and clinical scores on day 60. A correlation was evident between the TNF-alpha activities and clinical scores on day 21. The clinical observations at day 60 showed that the papillomas in five cows were completely resolved (36%), one animal had no alterations on clinical appearance of the tumor (7%), and papillomas in eight cows were regressed (57%). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that inoculation of LS-NDV vaccine stimulates an antibody response and limited increase in TNF-alpha activity and may enhance clinical recovery in bovine papillomatosis.

  5. Ebola virus disease and social media: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Duke, Carmen Hope; Finch, Kathryn Cameron; Snook, Kassandra Renee; Tseng, Pei-Ling; Hernandez, Ana Cristina; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2016-12-01

    We systematically reviewed existing research pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyze social media. We searched 6 databases for research articles pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media. We extracted the data using a standardized form. We evaluated the quality of the included articles. Twelve articles were included in the main analysis: 7 from Twitter with 1 also including Weibo, 1 from Facebook, 3 from YouTube, and 1 from Instagram and Flickr. All the studies were cross-sectional. Eleven of the 12 articles studied ≥ 1of these 3 elements of social media and their relationships: themes or topics of social media contents, meta-data of social media posts (such as frequency of original posts and reposts, and impressions) and characteristics of the social media accounts that made these posts (such as whether they are individuals or institutions). One article studied how news videos influenced Twitter traffic. Twitter content analysis methods included text mining (n = 3) and manual coding (n = 1). Two studies involved mathematical modeling. All 3 YouTube studies and the Instagram/Flickr study used manual coding of videos and images, respectively. Published Ebola virus disease-related social media research focused on Twitter and YouTube. The utility of social media research to public health practitioners is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Samuel, A R

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. Countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. In the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of FMD epidemiology. These have largely been due to the application of the molecular biological techniques of polymerase chain-reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing. In the World Reference Laboratory for FMD (Pirbright, UK), a large sequence database has been built up. This database has been used to aid in the global tracing of virus movements. It has been possible to genetically group many FMDV's based on their geographic origin and this has led to their being referred to as topotypes. The implications of this are that inter-regional spread of viruses can often be easily recognised and any evolutionary changes which subsequently occur can be monitored. Using these techniques, for the first time, we have been able to unequivocally show the recent pandemic spread of a FMDV type O strain through the whole of Asia and into Africa and Europe. This type of surveillance will become increasingly important as further globalisation of markets occurs. An increased understanding of how FMDV strains move between geographic regions will play a pivotal role in the development of future disease control strategies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of Aujeszky's disease virus in tissues of infected pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Qvist, P; Meyling, A; Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of Aujeszky's disease virus antigen in tissue extracts and in nasal swabs. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is based on two different monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the gII glycoprotein of Aujeszky's disease virus. Viral antigen was detected in 81 of 93 tissue extracts prepared from virus-infected organs. Fifteen outbreaks of Aujeszky's disease were analyzed in this study, and they were all identified by the...

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-6: Potential Interorgan Inflammatory Mediators Contributing to Destructive Periodontal Disease in Obesity or Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Khosravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α or interleukin 6 (IL-6—both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease—in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF-α and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.

  9. Infection with Aleutian disease virus-like virus in a captive striped skunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Thomas, Kathy V; McCain, Stephanie L; Ramsay, Edward C; James, Evan W; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K; Reel, Danielle

    2008-03-01

    A 5-month-old captive female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was evaluated because of lethargy, signs of depression, azotemia, and erythema of the skin around the eyes. Antemortem diagnostic tests revealed renal disease but failed to identify an etiologic agent. A diagnosis of severe nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis was made on the basis of results of histologic examination of renal biopsy specimens. The skunk was administered isotonic fluids SC daily and later every other day because of the handling-related stress. Because of the skunk's deteriorating condition, it was euthanized after 24 days of supportive care. Aleutian disease was diagnosed on the basis of positive results of a PCR assay that targeted the DNA from Aleutian disease virus (ADV); positive results for ADV were also obtained by use of plasma counterimmunoelectrophoresis and an ELISA. Genetic sequencing of the 365-base pair PCR product revealed 90% sequence identity with mink ADV. In the skunk of this report, infection with a skunk-specific parvovirus resulted in clinical signs and pathologic changes similar to those associated with ADV infection in mink. For skunks with signs of renal failure, differential diagnoses should include parvovirus infection. In confirmed cases of infection with this ADV-like virus, appropriate quarantine and biosecurity measures should be in place to prevent spread to other susceptible animals within a zoological collection.

  10. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  11. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... on these studies did not agree. The objective of this study was to review data from present reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to come to conclusions for the use of anti-TNF-α in Crohn's disease patients in clinical practice. METHODS: Literature search using both electronic and manual searches was conducted...

  12. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn’s disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Per Olov Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... on these studies did not agree. The objective of this study was to review data from present reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to come to conclusions for the use of anti-TNF-α in Crohn's disease patients in clinical practice. METHODS: Literature search using both electronic and manual searches was conducted...

  13. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after...... on these studies did not agree. The objective of this study was to review data from present reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to come to conclusions for the use of anti-TNF-α in Crohn's disease patients in clinical practice. METHODS: Literature search using both electronic and manual searches was conducted...

  14. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn’s disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Per Olov Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after...... on these studies did not agree. The objective of this study was to review data from present reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to come to conclusions for the use of anti-TNF-α in Crohn's disease patients in clinical practice. METHODS: Literature search using both electronic and manual searches was conducted...

  15. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask | Arifin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the production of lentogenic Asplin F strain of Newcastle disease virus by using cell culture method was studied. Experiments were carried out in T-flasks to investigate the effects of serum concentration in the culture medium during virus replication phase and multiplicity of infection (MOI) on ND virus ...

  16. Control of plant virus diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: the possibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant viruses and virus diseases have been studied for more than 100 years and much attention has been given to their control. However, this has been difficult to achieve because of the lack of any effective means of curing virus-infected plants. Chemotherapy, thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture can be successful, but ...

  17. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  18. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) has a characteristic tropism in terms of primary, secondary, and persistent infection and vesicular lesion sites. The virus targets specific tissues for primary replication. From these tissues, the virus spreads via the blood stream to a few preferred secondary in...

  19. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  20. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Clinical Practice Guidelines: The use of tumour necrosis factor-alpha antagonist therapy in Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Daniel C; Bernstein, Charles N; Bitton, Alain; Croitoru, Ken; Fedorak, Richard N; Griffiths, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines regarding the use of infliximab in Crohn’s disease were previously published by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology in 2004. However, recent clinical findings and drug developments warrant a review and update of these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To review and update Canadian guidelines regarding the use of tumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody therapy in both luminal and fistulizing Crohn’s disease. METHODS: A consensus group of 25 voting participants developed a series of recommendation statements that addressed pertinent clinical questions and gaps in existing knowledge. An iterative voting and feedback process was used in advance of the consensus meeting in conjunction with a systematic literature review to refine the voting statements. These statements were brought to a formal consensus meeting held in Montreal, Quebec (March 2008), wherein each statement underwent discussion, reformulation, voting and subsequent revision until group consensus was obtained (at least 80% agreement). OUTCOME: The 47 voting statements addressed three themes: induction therapy, maintenance therapy and safety issues. As a result of the iterative process, 23 statements achieved consensus and were submitted for publication. CONCLUSION: In the past five years, tumour necrosis factor-alpha antagonist therapy has become a cornerstone in the management of moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease refractory to conventional treatment algorithms. The evidentiary base supporting the use of these drugs in Crohn’s disease is substantial and strengthened by results from long-term clinical and molecular studies. However, significant gaps in knowledge exist, particularly with regard to treatment failure. Confidence in the safety of these drugs is increasing, provided that therapy is administered in a clinical setting in which potential complications can be readily recognized and treated. PMID:19319383

  1. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year...

  2. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with Brincidofovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Dunning

    Full Text Available The nucleotide analogue brincidofovir was developed to prevent and treat infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses. Based on in vitro data suggesting an antiviral effect against Ebola virus, brincidofovir was included in the World Health Organisation list of agents that should be prioritised for clinical evaluation in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD during the West African epidemic.In this single-arm phase 2 trial conducted in Liberia, patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD (two months of age or older, enrolment bodyweight ≥50 kg received oral brincidofovir 200 mg as a loading dose on day 0, followed by 100 mg brincidofovir on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. Bodyweight-adjusted dosing was used for patients weighing <50 kg at enrolment. The primary outcome was survival at Day 14 after the first dose of brincidofovir. Four patients were enrolled between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2015. The trial was stopped following the decision by the manufacturer to terminate their program of development of brincidofovir for EVD. No Serious Adverse Reactions or Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions were identified. All enrolled subjects died of an illness consistent with EVD.Due to the small sample size it was not possible to determine the efficacy of brincidofovir for the treatment of EVD. The premature termination of the trial highlights the need to establish better practices for preclinical in-vitro and animal screening of therapeutics for potentially emerging epidemic infectious diseases prior to their use in patients.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000939962.

  3. Macroscopic and Microscopic Changes in Turkey Embryos Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD; Gumboro Disease) Virus

    OpenAIRE

    BEYTUT, Enver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of turkey embryos to the chicken isolate of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and to investigate the morphologic changes occured particularly in bursa of Fabricius (BF) and some visceral organs. In the study, 178 embryonated turkey eggs and 28th passage of the virus from chicken embryo were used. Doses of 0.1 ml from the viral suspension were inoculated into yolk sac (YS) and allantoic cavity (AC), respectively on 13th and 15...

  4. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  5. Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

    1983-01-01

    Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7.

  6. Novel surveillance methods for the control of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, C F; Youkee, D; Brown, C S

    2017-05-01

    The unprecedented scale of the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak was in a large part due to failings in surveillance: contacts of confirmed cases were not systematically identified, monitored and diagnosed early, and new cases appearing in previously unaffected communities were similarly not rapidly identified, diagnosed and isolated. Over the course of this epidemic, traditional surveillance methods were strengthened and novel methods introduced. The wealth of experience gained, and the systems introduced in West Africa, should be used in future EVD outbreaks, as well as for other communicable diseases in the region and beyond. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Role of Exosomal VP40 in Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleet, Michelle L; DeMarino, Catherine; Lepene, Benjamin; Aman, M Javad; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.

  8. Interaction of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus ORF119L with PINCH leads to dominant-negative inhibition of integrin-linked kinase and cardiovascular defects in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji-Min; He, Bai-Liang; Yang, Lu-Yun; Guo, Chang-Jun; Weng, Shao-Ping; Li, Shengwen Calvin; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the Megalocytivirus genus, Iridoviridae family, causing a severe systemic disease with high mortality in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) in China and Southeast Asia. At present, the pathogenesis of ISKNV infection is still not fully understood. Based on a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of ISKNV-encoded proteins, we found that ISKNV open reading frame 119L (ORF119L) is predicted to encode a three-ankyrin-repeat (3ANK)-domain-containing protein, which shows high similarity to the dominant negative form of integrin-linked kinase (ILK); i.e., viral ORF119L lacks the ILK kinase domain. Thus, we speculated that viral ORF119L might affect the host ILK complex. Here, we demonstrated that viral ORF119L directly interacts with particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein (PINCH) and affects the host ILK-PINCH interaction in vitro in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. In vivo ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos resulted in myocardial dysfunctions with disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disk. Importantly, ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish highly resembles the phenotype of endogenous ILK inhibition, either by overexpressing a dominant negative form of ILK or by injecting an ILK antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. Intriguingly, ISKNV-infected mandarin fish develop disorganized sarcomeric Z disks in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream effector of ILK, was remarkably decreased in ORF119L-overexpressing zebrafish embryos. With these results, we show that ISKNV ORF119L acts as a domain-negative inhibitor of the host ILK, providing a novel mechanism for the megalocytivirus pathogenesis. Our work is the first to show the role of a dominant negative inhibitor of the host ILK from ISKNV (an iridovirus). Mechanistically, the viral ORF119L directly binds to the host PINCH, attenuates the host PINCH-ILK interaction, and thus impairs ILK signaling. Intriguingly

  9. Lassa fever, Marburg and Ebola virus diseases and other exotic diseases: is there a risk to Canada?

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    There are seven exotic diseases of concern; three of these, the most unpredictable and least understood, are Lassa fever, Marburg virus disease and Ebola virus disease. In this article the epidemiologic aspects of these diseases are discussed, with particular emphasis on exportation from their indigenous areas in Africa and on the occurrence of secondary cases. Any of these conditions could be brought into Canada either by aeromedical evacuation or inadvertently. Between 1972 and 1978 there w...

  10. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents are increasi......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... are increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Taking into consideration the biologics' mechanism of action, fears have been expressed that they might increase the rate of post-operative complications. Results from 18 retrospective studies were conflicting, and meta-analyses based...... according to a pre-defined protocol. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were applied. RESULTS: Two systematic reviews and six meta-analyses were found. Meta-analyses that included a large number of patients and applied quality assessment showed...

  11. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Holck Draborg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  13. Patho-epidemiological study on Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus infection in commercial vaccinated layer farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Khorajiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to study the patho-epidemiological aspects of Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in commercial layer in and around Anand, Gujarat. As the outbreaks have reported in vaccinated flocks, it was felt necessary to study the disease with respect to its changing pathogenicity and relevant aspects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of patho-epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND by information collected from different layer farms suffering from the disease in relation to incidence pattern and mortality, duration of mortality, susceptible age, and loss due to production performance. Clinical signs were recorded based on observations. During postmortem, gross lesions were also recorded. For histopathological examination visceral organs according to lesions were collected in 10% formalin and processed slide stained by hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Cultivation of virus was done in embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF eggs of 9-11 days and isolation of virus was done for haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and to identify pathotype of virus by intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test to determine the virulence of virus. The Genotype-XIII NDV was confirmed by F gene sequence and whole genome sequence. Results: During the study mortality due to ND was recorded in 13 layer flocks in spite of routine vaccination, which usually contain Genotype-II strain of virus. The mortality was observed as high as above 50% with an average of 21.21%. The susceptible age for disease was found to be 6-14 weeks. The duration of mortality observed was 23 days. The disease resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, feed intake and drop in egg production. Majority of the outbreaks appeared during extremely hot months of April to June. Greenish diarrhoea was frequently seen in birds that survived early in infection. Mortality continued for 2

  14. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

     Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important.  In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein.  The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks.  Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses

  15. Resurgence of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea Linked to a Survivor With Virus Persistence in Seminal Fluid for More Than 500 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Boubacar; Sissoko, Daouda; Loman, Nicholas J.; Bah, Hadja Aïssatou; Bah, Hawa; Worrell, Mary Claire; Conde, lya Saidou; Sacko, Ramata; Mesfin, Samuel; Loua, Angelo; Kalonda, Jacques Katomba; Erondu, Ngozi A.; Dahl, Benjamin A.; Handrick, Susann; Goodfellow, Ian; Meredith, Luke W.; Cotten, Matthew; Jah, Umaru; Guetiya Wadoum, Raoul Emeric; Rollin, Pierre; Magassouba, N'Faly; Malvy, Denis; Anglaret, Xavier; Carroll, Miles W.; Aylward, Raymond Bruce; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Formenty, Pierre; Keïta, Sakoba; Günther, Stephan; Rambaut, Andrew; Duraffour, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    We report on an Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivor who showed Ebola virus in seminal fluid 531 days after onset of disease. The persisting virus was sexually transmitted in February 2016, about 470 days after onset of symptoms, and caused a new cluster of EVD in Guinea and Liberia. PMID:27585800

  16. Prognostic Analysis of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. However, factors affecting the survival of the disease remain unclear. Here, we investigated the prognostic factors of Ebola virus disease (EVD through various statistical models.Sixty three laboratory-confirmed EVD patients with relatively complete clinical profiles were included in the study. All the patients were recruited at Jui Government Hospital, Sierra Leone between October 1st, 2014 and January 18th, 2015. We first investigated whether a single clinical presentation would be correlated with the survival of EVD. Log-rank test demonstrated that patients with viral load higher than 10(6 copies/ml presented significantly shorter survival time than those whose viral load were lower than 10(6 copies/ml (P = 0.005. Also, using Pearson chi-square test, we identified that chest pain, coma, and viral load (>10(6 copies/ml were significantly associated with poor survival of EVD patients. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of multiple variables on the survival of EVD by Cox proportional hazards model. Interestingly, results revealed that patient's age, symptom of confusion, and viral load were the significantly associated with the survival of EVD cases (P = 0.017, P = 0.002, and P = 0.027, respectively.These results suggest that age, chest pain, coma, confusion and viral load are associated with the prognosis of EVD, in which viral load could be one of the most important factors for the survival of the disease.

  17. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  19. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  20. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  1. Diagnostic and Prognostic Particularities of the Implications of the Presence of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yero Ieremie Lia Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease can have significant effects by increasing the circulating levels of TNF-α, therefore its prevention and treatment is important in maintaining the overall health of the body. Objective: The aim of our research was to assess the differences in the salivary concentration of TNF-α between patients with periodontal disease and those free of the disease and to studz whether it can represent an indicator of the evolution of periodontal disease. We also aimed to assess the practical applicability of the method for the determination of this cytokine in the saliva. Materials and methods: Our study included two groups of subjects, the first group consisting in patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, while the control group included subjects free of periodontal disease. TNF-α concentration was determined with the ELISA test for human TNF-α and the results were expressed in pg/ mL. The data were statistically processed with GraphPad software and the statistical nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. Results: We observe nearly double values of the TNF-α salivary level in the group of patients suffering from periodontal disease compared to the subjects free of periodontal disease, which allows us to notice that saliva analysis is a useful and safely enough method for the diagnosis and follow-up in the development of periodontal disease. Conclusion: The salivary level of TNF-α in patients with periodontal disease is not only an indicator of periodontal disease progression, but also a reflection of the pathogen potential that periodontal disease may have on the overall health of the body.

  2. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  3. The AIDS dilemma: drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesberg, P; Rasnick, D

    1998-01-01

    Almost two decades of unprecedented efforts in research costing US taxpayers over $50 billion have failed to defeat Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and have failed to explain the chronology and epidemiology of AIDS in America and Europe. The failure to cure AIDS is so complete that the largest American AIDS foundation is even exploiting it for fundraising: 'Latest AIDS statistics-0,000,000 cured. Support a cure, support AMFAR.' The scientific basis of all these unsuccessful efforts has been the hypothesis that AIDS is caused by a sexually transmitted virus, termed Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and that this viral immunodeficiency manifests in 30 previously known microbial and non-microbial AIDS diseases. In order to develop a hypothesis that explains AIDS we have considered ten relevant facts that American and European AIDS patients have, and do not have, in common: (1) AIDS is not contagious. For example, not even one health care worker has contracted AIDS from over 800,000 AIDS patients in America and Europe. (2) AIDS is highly non-random with regard to sex (86% male); sexual persuasion (over 60% homosexual); and age (85% are 25-49 years old). (3) From its beginning in 1980, the AIDS epidemic progressed non-exponentially, just like lifestyle diseases. (4) The epidemic is fragmented into distinct subepidemics with exclusive AIDS-defining diseases. For example, only homosexual males have Kaposi's sarcoma. (5) Patients do not have any one of 30 AIDS-defining diseases, nor even immunodeficiency, in common. For example, Kaposi's sarcoma, dementia, and weight loss may occur without immunodeficiency. Thus, there is no AIDS-specific disease. (6) AIDS patients have antibody against HIV in common only by definition-not by natural coincidence. AIDS-defining diseases of HIV-free patients are called by their old names. (7) Recreational drug use is a common denominator for over 95% of all American and European AIDS patients, including male homosexuals. (8

  4. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha; Young, Alyssa; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-03-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  6. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya. In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to maize streak virus in maize populations of S4 families from the cross of one resistant MAL13 and one susceptible MAL9 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance was ...

  7. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  8. A systems view and lessons from the ongoing Ebola Virus disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the on-going (2014) Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa from a systems perspective; and draws out lessons for West Africa in general and Ghana in particular. Keywords: Ebola Virus Disease, West Africa , Ghana , Systems , Prevention and Control ...

  9. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....

  10. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  11. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  12. High prevalence of femoral head necrosis in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo disease): a national, observational, cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, Jessica; Maas, Mario; Janssen, Anneloes; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2013-01-01

    Sanfilippo disease, or Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), is a lysosomal storage disorder and a member of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). MPS III is clinically characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Skeletal disease is not felt to be an important clinical component in MPS III

  13. Serum Calprotectin Versus Acute-Phase Reactants in the Discrimination of Inflammatory Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciarte-Mundo, José; Victoria Hernández, Maria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Raquel Cabrera-Villalba, Sonia; Ramirez, Julio; Cuervo, Andrea; Pascal, Mariona; Yagüe, Jordi; Cañete, Juan D; Sanmarti, Raimon

    2016-07-01

    To compare the accuracy of serum calprotectin and acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) in stratifying disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), and to correlate calprotectin levels with TNFi trough serum levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 RA patients receiving adalimumab, etanercept (ETN), or infliximab (IFX); 56 psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and 40 healthy blood donors were included as controls. Associations between calprotectin, CRP, and ESR and composite articular indices (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints [DAS28], Simplified Disease Activity Index [SDAI], and Clinical Disease Activity Index) were analyzed by correlation and linear regression and the accuracy and discriminatory capacity of calprotectin by receiver operator characteristic curves (area under the curve [AUC]). Calprotectin levels correlated better with all composite activity indices than CRP and ESR (all r coefficients >0.70). Calprotectin levels were significantly lower in RA and PsA patients in clinical remission compared with those with low disease activity for all articular indices. In RA, ESR discriminated between remission and low disease activity only when using DAS28, and CRP only with SDAI. In RA patients in remission/low disease activity, calprotectin but not CRP or ESR distinguished between patients with no swollen joints and those with ≥1 swollen joint (1.74 μg/ml versus 3.04 μg/ml; P = 0.010). Using DAS28 ≥2.6 as the reference variable, calprotectin showed an AUC of 0.92; the best cutoff was ≥2.47 μg/ml with a likelihood ratio of 6.3 (95% confidence interval 2.5-15.8). Calprotectin serum levels inversely correlated with trough serum drug levels of ETN (ρ = -0.671, P acute-phase reactants, even in patients with low inflammatory activity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-02-24

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the recombinant rL-VSV-G triggered a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against VSV. After challenge, the wild-type (wt) VSV viral load in mouse organs was lower in rL-VSV-G group than that in rLaSota groups. wt VSV was not detected in the blood, liver, or kidneys of mice, whereas it was found in these tissues in control groups. The mice body weight had no significant change after challenge in the rL-VSV-G group. Additionally, suckling mice produced from female mice immunized with rL-VSV-G were partially protected from wt VSV challenge. These results demonstrated that rL-VSV-G may be a suitable candidate vaccine against vesicular stomatitis (VS).

  15. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  16. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  17. Recombination of strain O segments to HCpro-encoding sequence of strain N of Potato virus Y modulates necrosis induced in tobacco and in potatoes carrying resistance genes Ny or Nc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan-Ping; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitive resistance (HR) to strains O and C of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) is conferred by potato genes Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr), respectively; however, PVY N strains overcome these resistance genes. The viral helper component proteinases (HCpro, 456 amino acids) from PVY(N) and PVY(O) are distinguished by an eight-amino-acid signature sequence, causing HCpro to fold into alternative conformations. Substitution of only two residues (K269R and R270K) of the eight-amino-acid signature in PVY(N) HCpro was needed to convert the three-dimensional (3D) model of PVY(N) HCpro to a PVY(O) -like conformation and render PVY(N) avirulent in the presence of Ny(tbr), whereas four amino acid substitutions were necessary to change PVY(O) HCpro to a PVY(N) -like conformation. Hence, the HCpro conformation rather than other features ascribed to the sequence were essential for recognition by Ny(tbr). The 3D model of PVY(C) HCpro closely resembled PVY(O), but differed from PVY(N) HCpro. HCpro of all strains was structurally similar to β-catenin. Sixteen PVY(N) 605-based chimeras were inoculated to potato cv. Pentland Crown (Ny(tbr)), King Edward (Nc(tbr)) and Pentland Ivory (Ny(tbr)/Nc(tbr)). Eleven chimeras induced necrotic local lesions and caused no systemic infection, and thus differed from both parental viruses that infected King Edward systemically, and from PVY(N) 605 that infected Pentland Crown and Pentland Ivory systemically. These 11 chimeras triggered both Ny(tbr) and Nc(tbr) and, in addition, six induced veinal necrosis in tobacco. Further, specific amino acid residues were found to have an additive impact on necrosis. These results shed new light on the causes of PVY-related necrotic symptoms in potato. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Neurological Complications and Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billioux, Bridgette Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam. Additionally, it is now evident that in rare cases, survivors may experience relapses of EVD months after recovery, including the central nervous system (CNS). EVD can result in many clinical neurological manifestations, both acutely and after recovery. Research is ongoing to further clarify the nature of Ebola in the CNS.

  19. Defective interfering particles in monolayer-propagated Newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, J.M.; Simon, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serially passaged in chick embryo fibroblasts (M-NDV) gives rise to defective interfering (NDV-DI) particles, while NDV passaged in embryonated eggs (E-NDV) does not. Co-infection with these particles and infectious virions results in a 99 percent reduction in yield. Interference is not due to interferon or to prevention of absorption of infectious virions and is specific for NDV. The particles mediating interference sediment at the same velocity as infectious virions. The accumulation of NDV-DI particles in monolayers but not in eggs may be a consequence of the fact that M-NDV virions are larger and probably contain more RNA, or it may reflect differences in NDV replicative processes in eggs and monolayers, or both

  20. Planning and response to Ebola virus disease: An integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip W; Boulter, Kathleen C; Hewlett, Angela L; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Beam, Elizabeth J; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John-Martin J; Schwedhelm, Michelle M

    2015-05-01

    The care of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) requires the application of critical care medicine principles under conditions of stringent infection control precautions. The care of patients with EVD requires a number of elements in terms of physical layout, personal protective apparel, and other equipment. Provision of care is demanding in terms of depth of staff and training. The key to safely providing such care is a system that brings many valuable skills to the table, and allows communication between these individuals. We present our approach to leadership structure and function--a variation of incident command--in providing care to 3 patients with EVD. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of Ebola virus disease on wildlife conservation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence-based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end, there is an urgent need for sweeping census of reserves, national parks and wetlands. As well as the creation of a system involving reportage by sectors like the industries (extractive and construction) including persons and organisations involved with wildlife related activities. This documentation of die offs and unusual events to collaborating institutions, will help in monitoring trends which hitherto would have gone unnoticed. The importance of bats and primates in agriculture and public health via consumption of vermin insects and seed dispersal cannot be over-emphasized. There is the need for caution on the tendencies to destroy indicator species which could be silent pointers to emerging or re-emerging health and environmental issues. Wildlife resources are still reliably useful and caution is advised in the use of blanket destructive policies like fumigation of caves, indiscriminate culling and poisoned baits to destroy supposedly Ebola Disease Virus wildlife reservoirs. This paper highlights the immediate conservation problems and likely future implications of Ebola saga in Nigeria. It tries to identify the gaps in wildlife researches and makes recommendations for probable workable conservation strategies.

  2. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  3. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  4. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  5. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  6. Asymmetric dimethylarginine but not osteoprotegerin correlates with disease severity in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Trinitario; Genre, Fernanda; Lopez-Mejias, Raquel; Armesto, Susana; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Veronica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Corrales, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Lopez, Marcos A; Gonzalez-Vela, Maria C; Blanco, Ricardo; Hernández, Jose L; Llorca, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Patients with psoriasis, in particular those with severe disease, have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with the general population. The aim of the present study is to determine whether correlation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), two biomarkers associated with CV disease, and disease severity may exist in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We also aimed to establish if baseline serum levels of these two biomarkers could correlate with the degree of change in the clinical parameters of disease severity following the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in these patients. This was a prospective study on a series of consecutive non-diabetic patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who completed 6 months of therapy with anti-TNF-α-adalimumab. Patients with kidney disease, hypertension or body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) or more were excluded. Metabolic and clinical evaluation was performed immediately prior to the onset of treatment and at month 6. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. Unlike OPG, a significant positive correlation between ADMA and resistin serum levels was found at the onset of adalimumab and also after 6 months of biologic therapy. We also observed a positive correlation between the percent of body surface area affected (BSA) and ADMA levels obtained before the onset of adalimumab and a negative correlation between baseline ADMA levels and a 6-month BSA change compared with baseline results. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, ADMA levels correlate with clinical markers of disease severity. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Analysis of polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in inflammatory bowel disease: study from northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rama D; Manchanda, Parmeet K; Bid, Hemant K; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2007-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with inflammatory diseases, while GSTM1 and T1 enzymes catalyze detoxification of products of oxidative stress and hence reduce inflammation. Thus, both may play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of polymorphism of the TNF-alpha promoter at the -308 site, GSTM1 and GSTT1 in patients with IBD and healthy controls from northern India. Genotyping was performed in 114 patients with IBD (22 Crohn's disease [CD] and 92 ulcerative colitis [UC]) in TNF-alpha and 105 (20 CD and 85 UC) in GSTM1 and T1 and 164 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex PCR methods. Patients with IBD were comparable to healthy controls in relation to age and gender. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of TNF-alpha were comparable among patients with IBD and healthy controls. GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in UC than in healthy controls (52/85 vs 49/164; P GST genotypes further increases the risk, possibly due to gene-gene interaction. TNF-alpha is unlikely to be an important determinant of susceptibility to IBD in the Indian population.

  8. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents are increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Taking into consideration the biologics' mechanism of action, fears have been expressed that they might increase the rate of post-operative complications. Results from 18 retrospective studies were conflicting, and meta-analyses based on these studies did not agree. The objective of this study was to review data from present reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to come to conclusions for the use of anti-TNF-α in Crohn's disease patients in clinical practice. Literature search using both electronic and manual searches was conducted according to a pre-defined protocol. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were applied. Two systematic reviews and six meta-analyses were found. Meta-analyses that included a large number of patients and applied quality assessment showed an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after abdominal surgery.

  9. Patients with Crohn's disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy are at significant risk of inadequate response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ye, Byong Duk; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, You Sun; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Hyo-Jong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Moon, Won; Koo, Ja-Seol; Lee, Suck-Ho; Seo, Geom Seog; Park, Soo Jung; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jung, Sung-Ae; Hong, Sung Noh; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Eun Soo

    2014-05-01

    The effect of immunosuppressants on the efficacy of a variety of vaccines is a controversial issue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study we determined whether specific immunosuppressants impair the serological response to the standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in a large cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). This was a multi-center, prospective observational study of adult patients with CD at 15 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. The study population received one intramuscular injection of PPSV23. Anti-pneumococcal IgG antibody titers were measured by immunoassay prior to and 4weeks after vaccination. All vaccination-related adverse events and the effect of the vaccine on disease activity were also evaluated. The overall serological response rate was 67.5% (133/197). The serological response rate was significantly lower in patients on anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy (50.0% on anti-TNF alone; 58.0% on anti-TNF combined with an immunomodulator, IM) than patients on 5-aminosalicylate (78.4%; all P-values vs. 5-aminosalicylaterisk of an inadequate response to PPSV23. The pneumococcal vaccination strategy should be optimized for patients with CD on anti-TNF therapy. © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid profile of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drugs changes according to disease activity and predicts clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Rinaldi, Angela; Serafino, Lucia; Covelli, Michele; Scioscia, Crescenzio; Iannone, Florenzo; Lapadula, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) frequently show an atherogenic lipid profile, which has been linked with the inflammatory reaction. Inflammatory cytokines, and particularly tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), are implicated in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and RA, and also involved in the development of the impaired lipid profile detected in active RA. Although anti-TNF-α agents have been proven effective in controlling joint damage and systemic inflammation, controversy remains about the effect of these drugs on the lipid profile; therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of anti-TNF-α treatment, in combination with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and corticosteroid therapy, on the lipid profile of patients with active RA. Our data suggest that the combination anti-TNF-α/DMARDs/steroids do not significantly interfere with the lipid profile of RA patients. However, analysis of clinical response data showed that patients achieving low disease activity or remission seem to have a protective lipid profile, suggesting that better control of inflammation and disease activity can affect lipid metabolism. The available evidence indicates that high inflammation interferes with lipid metabolism, whereas good control of the chronic inflammatory state may positively influence the lipid profile and cardiovascular risk. Low cholesterol levels at baseline could predict a favorable outcome with anti-TNF-α treatment, but these data need to be confirmed by large prospective studies with long-term follow-up. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  14. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  15. Neonatal calf infection with respiratory syncytial virus: drawing parallels to the disease in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Randy E; McGill, Jodi L; Palmer, Mitchell V; Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Nonnecke, Brian J

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  16. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  17. Viraemia and Ebola virus secretion in survivors of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward; Hunt, Luke; Ross, J C Gareth; Nissen, Nina Marie; Curran, Tanya; Badhan, Anjna; Sutherland, Katherine A; Richards, Jade; Lee, James S; Allen, Samuel H; Laird, Steven; Blackman, Mandy; Collacott, Ian; Parker, Paul A; Walbridge, Andrew; Phillips, Rebecca; Sellu, Sia Jammie; Dama, Agnes; Sheriff, Alpha Karim; Zombo, Joseph; Ngegba, Doris; Wurie, Alieh H; Checchi, Francesco; Brooks, Timothy J

    2016-09-01

    In survivors of Ebola virus disease, clinical sequelae including uveitis, arthralgia, and fatigue are common and necessitate systematic follow-up. However, the infection risk to health-care providers is poorly defined. Here we report Ebola virus RT-PCR data for body site and fluid samples from a large cohort of Ebola virus survivors at clinic follow-up. In this cross-sectional cohort study, consecutive survivors of Ebola virus disease attending Kerry Town survivor clinic (Freetown, Sierra Leone), who had been discharged from the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit, were invited to participate. We collected and tested axillary, blood, conjunctival, forehead, mouth, rectal, semen, urine, and vaginal specimens for presence of Ebola virus using RT-PCR. We regarded samples to be positive for Ebola virus disease if the cycle threshold was 40 or lower. We collected demographic data from survivors of their age, sex, time since discharge from the treatment unit, and length of acute admission in the Ebola treatment unit using anonymised standard forms. Between April 2, and June 16, 2015, of 151 survivors of Ebola virus disease invited to participate, 112 (74%) provided consent. The median age of participants was 21·5 years (IQR 14-31·5) with 34 (30%) participants younger than 16 years. 50 (45%) of 112 participants were male. We tested a total of 555 specimens: 103 from the axilla, 93 from blood, 92 from conjunctiva, 54 from forehead, 105 from mouth, 17 from the rectum, one from semen, 69 from urine, and 21 from the vagina. The median time from Ebola treatment unit discharge to specimen collection was 142 days (IQR 127-159). 15 participants had a total of 74 swabs taken less than 100 days from discharge. The semen sample from one participant tested positive for Ebola virus at 114 days after discharge from the treatment unit; specimens taken from the axilla, blood, conjunctiva, forehead, mouth, rectum, and urine of the same participant tested negative. All specimens from the

  18. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier; Marcos, Miguel

    2016-01-28

    Alcohol consumption and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a synergic hepatotoxic effect, and the coexistence of these factors increases the risk of advanced liver disease. The main mechanisms of this effect are increased viral replication and altered immune response, although genetic predisposition may also play an important role. Traditionally, HCV prevalence has been considered to be higher (up to 50%) in alcoholic patients than in the general population. However, the presence of advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or intravenous drug use (IDU) may have confounded the results of previous studies, and the real prevalence of HCV infection in alcoholic patients without ALD or prior IDU has been shown to be lower. Due to the toxic combined effect of HCV and alcohol, patients with HCV infection should be screened for excessive ethanol intake. Patients starting treatment for HCV infection should be specifically advised to stop or reduce alcohol consumption because of its potential impact on treatment efficacy and adherence and may benefit from additional support during antiviral therapy. This recommendation might be extended to all currently recommended drugs for HCV treatment. Patients with alcohol dependence and HCV infection, can be treated with acamprosate, nalmefene, topiramate, and disulfiram, although baclofen is the only drug specifically tested for this purpose in patients with ALD and/or HCV infection.

  19. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bruce J; Davies, Nicholas W S; Cinque, Paola; Clifford, David B; Nath, Avindra

    2010-12-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV). PML usually occurs via reactivation of JCV when an immune system becomes compromised. A diagnosis of PML is normally made on the basis of distinguishing neurological features at presentation, characteristic brain MRI changes and the presence of JCV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. PML has a 3 month mortality rate of 20-50%, so prompt intervention is essential. Currently, reconstitution of the immune system affords the best prognosis for this condition. When PML is first suspected, and where possible, immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy should be suspended or reduced. If PML is associated with a protein therapy that has a long half-life the use of plasma exchange to accelerate the removal of the drug from the circulation may aid the restoration of immune system function. Rapid improvements in immune function, however, might lead to transient worsening of the disease. In this Review, we critically appraise the controversies surrounding JCV infection, and provide practical management guidelines for PML.

  20. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganga, Gaël D; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Berthet, Nicolas; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Kabange, Felix; Mbala Kingebeni, Placide; Mondonge, Vital; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques T; Bertherat, Eric; Briand, Sylvie; Cabore, Joseph; Epelboin, Alain; Formenty, Pierre; Kobinger, Gary; González-Angulo, Licé; Labouba, Ingrid; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Dye, Christopher; Leroy, Eric M

    2014-11-27

    The seventh reported outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the equatorial African country of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began on July 26, 2014, as another large EVD epidemic continued to spread in West Africa. Simultaneous reports of EVD in equatorial and West Africa raised the question of whether the two outbreaks were linked. We obtained data from patients in the DRC, using the standard World Health Organization clinical-investigation form for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Patients were classified as having suspected, probable, or confirmed EVD or a non-EVD illness. Blood samples were obtained for polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnosis, viral isolation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The outbreak began in Inkanamongo village in the vicinity of Boende town in Équateur province and has been confined to that province. A total of 69 suspected, probable, or confirmed cases were reported between July 26 and October 7, 2014, including 8 cases among health care workers, with 49 deaths. As of October 7, there have been approximately six generations of cases of EVD since the outbreak began. The reported weekly case incidence peaked in the weeks of August 17 and 24 and has since fallen sharply. Genome sequencing revealed Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) as the cause of this outbreak. A coding-complete genome sequence of EBOV that was isolated during this outbreak showed 99.2% identity with the most closely related variant from the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit in the DRC and 96.8% identity to EBOV variants that are currently circulating in West Africa. The current EVD outbreak in the DRC has clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that are similar to those of previous EVD outbreaks in equatorial Africa. The causal agent is a local EBOV variant, and this outbreak has a zoonotic origin different from that in the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. (Funded by the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville and others.).