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Sample records for necator

  1. Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Hasegawa, H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sakamaki, T.; Kooriyma, T.; Modrý, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 75 (2016), č. článku 75. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp * Hookworm * Morphology * Human infection * Necator gorillae * Necator americanus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  2. Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Hasegawa, H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sakamaki, T.; Kooriyma, T.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 9 (2016), č. článku 75. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp * Necator gorillae * Necator americanus * hookworm * morphology * human infection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  3. Sporulation in Erysiphe necator: signals, differential gene expression and possible implications for disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant production of conidia is a driving factor for epidemics of grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator). Previous investigations revealed evidence for a signal that coordinates the onset of asexual reproduction. The genetic basis for this signal in powdery mildews had not ...

  4. Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pretreatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

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    Wei eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, through pretreatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical, and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB, a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pretreated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the presence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  5. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunsinger, G. B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, P. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, D. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  6. Epidermal response of rainbow trout to Ichthyobodo necator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kuhn, Jesper Andreas; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    2014-01-01

    Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) juveniles. The epidermal disturbances including hyperplasia and mucous cell exhaustion caused by parasitization are known, but no d...

  7. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome.

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    Cinzia Cantacessi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In order to elucidate fundamental molecular biological aspects of this hookworm, the transcriptome of the adult stage of Necator americanus was explored using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses.A total of 19,997 contigs were assembled from the sequence data; 6,771 of these contigs had known orthologues in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and most of them encoded proteins with WD40 repeats (10.6%, proteinase inhibitors (7.8% or calcium-binding EF-hand proteins (6.7%. Bioinformatic analyses inferred that the C. elegans homologues are involved mainly in biological pathways linked to ribosome biogenesis (70%, oxidative phosphorylation (63% and/or proteases (60%; most of these molecules were predicted to be involved in more than one biological pathway. Comparative analyses of the transcriptomes of N. americanus and the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. For instance, proteinase inhibitors were inferred to be highly represented in the former species, whereas SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 proteins ( = SCP/TAPS or Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were predominant in the latter. In N. americanus, essential molecules were predicted using a combination of orthology mapping and functional data available for C. elegans. Further analyses allowed the prioritization of 18 predicted drug targets which did not have homologues in the human host. These candidate targets were inferred to be linked to mitochondrial (e.g., processing proteins or amino acid metabolism (e.g., asparagine t-RNA synthetase.This study has provided detailed insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of N. americanus and examines similarities and differences between this species and A. caninum. Future efforts should focus on comparative transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the other predominant human

  8. The initial metabolic conversion of levulinic acid in Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Matt; Yu, Jian

    2011-09-20

    Levulinic acid or 4-ketovaleric acid is a potential renewable substrate for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. In this work, the initial reactions of LA metabolism by Cupriavidus necator were examined in vitro. The organic acid was converted by membrane-bound crude enzymes obtained from the cells pre-grown on LA, while no LA activity was detected from cells pre-grown on acetic acid. Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA were two major intermediates in the initial reactions of LA conversion. A mass balance on propionyl-CoA accounts for 84 mol% of LA added in vitro. It explains an interesting phenomenon that 3-hydroxbutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two major monomers of the biopolyester formed from LA, instead of 4-hydroxvalerate that has the similar chemical structure of LA as the precursor. A Monod model was used to describe the kinetics of LA utilization as a sole carbon source or a co-substrate of glucose and fructose. The μ(max) and K(m) of LA alone were 0.26 h⁻¹ and 0.01 g/L, respectively. The content and composition of PHA are also dependent on the culture conditions such as carbon to nitrogen ratio. The in vitro observation is supported by the high utilization rate of LA and the high molar percentage of 3HB and 3HV in the PHA derived from LA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species

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    Brewer Marin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, was introduced into Europe more than 160 years ago and is now distributed everywhere that grapes are grown. To understand the invasion history of this pathogen we investigated the evolutionary relationships between introduced populations of Europe, Australia and the western United States (US and populations in the eastern US, where E. necator is thought to be native. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that populations of E. necator in the eastern US are structured based on geography and Vitis host species. Results We sequenced three nuclear gene regions covering 1803 nucleotides from 146 isolates of E. necator collected from the eastern US, Europe, Australia, and the western US. Phylogeographic analyses show that the two genetic groups in Europe represent two separate introductions and that the genetic groups may be derived from eastern US ancestors. Populations from the western US and Europe share haplotypes, suggesting that the western US population was introduced from Europe. Populations in Australia are derived from European populations. Haplotype richness and nucleotide diversity were significantly greater in the eastern US populations than in the introduced populations. Populations within the eastern US are geographically differentiated; however, no structure was detected with respect to host habitat (i.e., wild or cultivated. Populations from muscadine grapes, V. rotundifolia, are genetically distinct from populations from other Vitis host species, yet no differentiation was detected among populations from other Vitis species. Conclusions Multilocus sequencing analysis of the grape powdery mildew fungus is consistent with the hypothesis that populations in Europe, Australia and the western US are derived from two separate introductions and their ancestors were likely from native populations in the eastern US. The invasion history of E. necator follows a pattern

  10. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  11. The complete multipartite genome sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a versatile pollutant degrader.

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    Athanasios Lykidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium able to grow on a variety of aromatic and chloroaromatic compounds as its sole carbon and energy source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Its genome consists of four replicons (two chromosomes and two plasmids containing a total of 6631 protein coding genes. Comparative analysis identified 1910 core genes common to the four genomes compared (C. necator JMP134, C. necator H16, C. metallidurans CH34, R. solanacearum GMI1000. Although secondary chromosomes found in the Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia lineages are all derived from plasmids, analyses of the plasmid partition proteins located on those chromosomes indicate that different plasmids gave rise to the secondary chromosomes in each lineage. The C. necator JMP134 genome contains 300 genes putatively involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds and encodes most of the central ring-cleavage pathways. This strain also shows additional metabolic capabilities towards alicyclic compounds and the potential for catabolism of almost all proteinogenic amino acids. This remarkable catabolic potential seems to be sustained by a high degree of genetic redundancy, most probably enabling this catabolically versatile bacterium with different levels of metabolic responses and alternative regulation necessary to cope with a challenging environment. From the comparison of Cupriavidus genomes, it is possible to state that a broad metabolic capability is a general trait for Cupriavidus genus, however certain specialization towards a nutritional niche (xenobiotics degradation, chemolithoautotrophy or symbiotic nitrogen fixation seems to be shaped mostly by the acquisition of "specialized" plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The availability of the complete genome sequence for C. necator JMP134 provides the groundwork for further elucidation of the mechanisms and regulation of chloroaromatic compound biodegradation.

  12. Quantitative Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Produced by Cupriavidus necator H16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Obruča, S.; Šiler, Martin; Sedláček, P.; Benešová, P.; Kučera, D.; Márová, I.; Ježek, Jan; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2016), 1808:1-7 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * Cupriavidus necator H16 * polyhydroxyalkanoates Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  13. Increasing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yields from Cupriavidus necator by using filtered digestate liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passanha, Pearl; Esteves, Sandra R; Kedia, Gopal; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-11-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using digestate liquor as culture media is a novel application to extend the existing uses of digestates. In this study, two micro-filtered digestates (0.22 μm) were evaluated as a source of complex culture media for the production of PHA by Cupriavidus necator as compared to a conventional media. Culture media using a mixture of micro-filtered liquors from food waste and from wheat feed digesters showed a maximum PHA accumulation of 12.29 g/l PHA, with 90% cell dry weight and a yield of 0.48 g PHA/g VFA consumed, the highest reported to date for C. necator studies. From the analysis of the starting and residual media, it was concluded that ammonia, potassium, magnesium, sulfate and phosphate provided in the digestate liquors were vital for the initial growth of C. necator whereas copper, iron and nickel may have played a significant role in PHA accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

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    Balakrishnan Kunasundari

    Full Text Available Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.

  15. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power.

  16. Novel approach for productivity enhancement of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Nathalie

    2013-01-25

    In the global context of increased concerns for our environment, the use of bioplastics as a replacement for existing petroleum-based polymers is an important challenge. Indeed, bioplastics hardly meet economical and technical constraints. One, of the most promising among currently studied bioplastics, is the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). To circumvent the economical issue for this particular biopolymer one solution can be the enhancement of the overall productivity by the improvement of the nutritional medium of the microorganism producing the biopolymer. Thus, several nutrition media, supplemented or not with sodium glutamate, were tested for the growth and the PHA production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 strain. The most efficient for the biomass and the PHA production improvement were found to be the Luria broth (LB) and the Bonnarme's media, both supplemented with 10 g/L sodium glutamate. Hence the overall productivity was 33 times enhanced comparing to traditional cultivation methods. These results open a new route for the PHA production by C. necator which appears to be more suitable on a rich, or enriched, medium with no limiting factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY-HYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB IN CUPRIAVIDUS NECATOR

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    Sergio Leon De Rooy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purification and characterization of biodegradable plastic namely Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB in Cupriavidus necator have been carried out. C. necator was grown on a Ramsay medium with fixed substrate conditions and optimized for time. Stepwise purification of PHB was carried out, by using hydrogen peroxide and chloroform. The effect of temperature, time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the purification were also evaluated. The extracted PHB was studied with XRD, FTIR and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR to determine its structure and purity. Yield and crystallinity were also studied with HPLC and XRD, respectively. The results of the research showed that higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide gave better yields, whereas higher temperatures and longer lysis times led to different results. Higher crystallinity was observed when purification temperatures were elevated, but higher hydrogen peroxide concentration and longer extraction time gave varying crystallinity. The highest yield ca 66.10 % DCW was reached by purification using H2O2 20 %, at 100 oC for 2 h. The results of   TGA analysis indicated that the purity of the PHB obtained was about 75 % and by using DSC, it was found that the PHB showed good thermal properties.   Keywords:  PHB, recovery, hydrogen peroxide, characterization

  18. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  19. From organic pollutants to bioplastics: insights into the bioremediation of aromatic compounds by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Nathalie; Yada, Bopha; Lefebvre, Rodrigue

    2015-01-25

    Organic pollution by aromatic compounds is of increasing concern to our environment. Therefore, the transformation of aromatic pollutants into valuable aliphatic and biodegradable bioplastics was studied. Since benzoic acid was found to be the key compound for such bioremediation processes, its transformation, and metabolic pathways of digestion, by Cupriavidus necator were specifically analysed. It was found that the degradation of aromatic compounds follows the 2,3-dioxygenase pathway in this strain and that the batch transformations of benzoic acid with either fresh or adapted cells were limited to an initial concentration of 2.5 g/L of pollutant. The repeated fed-batch with partial withdrawal process, however, showed a 17.5-fold improvement, thus allowing the transformation of a total of 43.7 g/L in 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hookworm infections among migrant workers in Malaysia: Molecular identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Douadi, Benacer; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Wilson, John-James; Behnke, Jerzy M; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-09-01

    Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant

  1. High cell density strategy for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production by Cupriavidus necator

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    J. L. Ienczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a carbon and intracellular storage source for different microorganisms and its production can achieve high productivities by means of high cell density cultures. The aim of this study was to propose a high cell density strategy for P(3HB production by Cupriavidus necator. The exponential growth phase demands an accurate control of the oxygen transfer system in the bioreactor, due to maximum specific growth rate (µXr, and, consequently, a maximum specific oxygen uptake rate (QO2, in addition to significant residual biomass (Xr growth in high cell density cultures. In this context, this work investigated the strategy for obtaining high cell density, with the inclusion of a linear growth phase for P(3HB production by C. necator in a fed-batch culture. The linear growth phase was included between the exponential growth phase and the P(3HB production phase as a strategy to reduce the specific growth rate (µXr and specific oxygen uptake rate (QO2, with constant residual biomass growth rate (d(V.Xr/dt = k = constant and linear increase of biomass. Three strategies of culture were performed. The results showed that a high residual biomass concentration (30 gXr.L-1 can be reached by the inclusion of the linear growth strategy and specific growth rates (µXr between 0.08 and 0.05 h-1, at the beginning of the production phase, are necessary to attain a high P(3HB productivity.

  2. Construction and use of a Cupriavidus necator H16 soluble hydrogenase promoter (PSH fusion to gfp (green fluorescent protein

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    Bat-Erdene Jugder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2. Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni–Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches. A PSH promoter-gfp fusion was successfully constructed and inducible GFP expression driven by the PSH promoter under de-repressing conditions in heterotrophic growth media was demonstrated in the recombinant C. necator H16 cells. Here we report the first successful fluorescent reporter system to study PSH promoter activity in C. necator H16. The fusion construct allowed for the design of a simple screening assay to evaluate PSH activity. Furthermore, the constructed reporter system can serve as a model to develop a rapid fluorescent based reporter for subsequent small-scale process optimisation experiments for SH expression.

  3. EXTRAÇÃO DE POLI(3-HIDROXIBUTIRATO, PRODUZIDO POR Cupriavidus necator, COM CARBONATO DE PROPILENO

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    Luci K. M. Quines

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of plastic waste has attracted worldwide attention. Amid the current context of increasing concern for the environment, biodegradable plastics have been widely studied as a replacement for synthetic plastics. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biopolymer stored as an intracellular energy and reserve source in many microorganisms. Because it is an intracellular product, P(3HB must be extracted from the cells at the end of the culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction time, heating temperature, first standing time (after filtration and extraction, second standing time (after P(3HB precipitation and solvent amount, during the process of extracting P(3HB from Cupriavidus necator DSM 545, using propylene carbonate as solvent. The extraction kinetic of P(3HB with propylene carbonate from thermally treated biomass was evaluated at different temperatures. The physical properties of the P(3HB obtained were also evaluated. In this case, P(3HB obtained at optimal conditions of recovery (98% and purity (99% was used. Results showed that temperature was the most important factor in these responses for the range of values studied (110-150 ºC.

  4. Acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production using Cupriavidus necator.

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    Azizi, Nahid; Najafpour, Ghasem; Younesi, Habibollah

    2017-08-01

    The brown seaweed Sargassum sp. was used as a feedstock to produce polyhydroxybutyarte (PHB) using Cupriavidus necator PTCC 1615. In order to release monomeric sugars, dilute acid hydrolysis of Sargassum sp. biomass was followed by enzymatic saccharification. In addition, the effect of different nitrogen sources was evaluated for PHB production. The fermentation of hydrolysate with the ammonium sulfate as selected nitrogen source resulted PHB yield of 0.54±0.01g/g reducing sugar. Then, NaCl was used as external stress factor which was added to the media. Addition of 8g/L NaCl had a positive impact on high PHB yield of 0.74±0.01g/g reducing sugar. Increasing trend of NaCl concentration to 16g/L was found to inhibit the production of PHB. Based on obtained results using 20g/L of reducing sugar, at desired condition the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations were 5.36±0.22 and 3.93±0.24g/L, respectively. The findings of this study reveal that Sargassum sp. is a promising feedstock for biopolymer production. The characteristics of produced PHB were analyzed by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry and 1 H NMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Furfural reduction mechanism of a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

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    Kang, ChulHee; Hayes, Robert; Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Webb, Brian N.; Li, Qunrui; Hooper, Travis; Nissen, Mark S.; Xun, Luying

    2012-01-01

    Summary FurX is a tetrameric Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134. The enzyme rapidly reduces furfural with NADH as the reducing power. For the first time among characterized ADHs, the high-resolution structures of all reaction steps were obtained in a time-resolved manner, thereby illustrating the complete catalytic events of NADH-dependent reduction of furfural and the dynamic Zn2+ coordination among Glu66, water, substrate and product. In the fully closed conformation of the NADH complex, the catalytic turnover proved faster than observed for the partially closed conformation due to an effective proton transfer network. The domain motion triggered by NAD(H) association/dissociation appeared to facilitate dynamic interchanges in Zn2+ coordination with substrate and product molecules, ultimately increasing the enzymatic turnover rate. NAD+ dissociation appeared to be a slow process, involving multiple steps in concert with a domain opening and reconfiguration of Glu66. This agrees with the report that the cofactor is not dissociated from FurX during ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural, in which ethanol reduces NAD+ to NADH that is subsequently used for furfural reduction. PMID:22081946

  6. Low frequency sonic waves assisted cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sivananth; Iyyaswami, Regupathi

    2017-08-15

    Low frequency sonic waves, less than 10kHz were introduced to assist cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator present within the crude broth. Process parameters including surfactant system variables and sonication parameters were studied for their effect on extraction efficiency. Introduction of low frequency sonic waves assists in the dissolution of microbial cell wall by the surfactant micelles and release of cellular content, polyhydroxyalkanoate granules released were encapsulated by the micelle core which was confirmed by crotonic acid assay. In addition, sonic waves resulted in the separation of homogeneous surfactant and broth mixture into two distinct phases, top aqueous phase and polyhydroxyalkanoate enriched bottom surfactant rich phase. Mixed surfactant systems showed higher extraction efficiency compared to that of individual Triton X-100 concentrations, owing to increase in the hydrophobicity of the micellar core and its interaction with polyhydroxyalkanoate. Addition of salts to the mixed surfactant system induces screening of charged surfactant head groups and reduces inter-micellar repulsion, presence of ammonium ions lead to electrostatic repulsion and weaker cation sodium enhances the formation of micellar network. Addition of polyethylene glycol 8000 resulted in increasing interaction with the surfactant tails of the micelle core there by reducing the purity of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoates from non-edible Calophyllum inophyllum oil using Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Senthamizhan, S G; Ponnusami, V; Sudalai, S

    2018-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable polymers found in the cellular masses of a wide range of bacterial species and the demand for PHA is steadily growing. In this work we have produced PHA from a low-cost substrate, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, using Cupriavidus necator. Effects of various process parameters such as Oil concentration, Nitrogen source and inoculum size on the production of PHA were studied using Response Surface Methodology. A quadratic equation was used in the model to fit the experimental data. It was found that the model could satisfactorily predict the PHA yield (R 2 =99.17%). Linear, quadratic and interaction terms used in the model were found to be statistically significant. Maximum PHA yield of 10.6gL -1 was obtained under the optimized conditions of oil concentration - 17.5%, inoculum concentration - 50mL/L and nitrogen content - 1.125gL -1 , respectively. The product obtained was characterized using FTIR and NMR to confirm that it was PHA. The results demonstrate that C. inophyllum oil, a non-edible oil, can be potentially used as a low-cost substrate for the production of PHA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of limonene on the heterotrophic growth and polyhydroxybutyrate production by Cupriavidus necator H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Lagunes, F; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    The inhibitory effect of limonene on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in Cupriavidus necator H16 was studied. Firstly, results demonstrate the feasibility of using orange juicing waste (OJW) as a substrate for PHB production. An intracellular PHB content of 81.4% (w/w) was attained for a total dry matter concentration of 9.58gL -1 , when the OJW medium was used. Later, a mineral medium designed to mimic the nutrient levels found in the complex medium derived from OJW was used to study the effect of limonene on the production of PHB. Results showed a drop in specific growth rate (μ) of more than 50% when the initial limonene concentration was 2% (v/v) compared to the limonene free medium. This work highlights the importance of a limonene recovery stage prior to fermentation, to maintain levels below 1% (v/v) in the medium, adding value to the OJW and enhancing the fermentation process productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of sodium accumulation on heterotrophic growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of sodium (Na(+)) concentration on the growth and PHB production by Cupriavidus necator. Both biomass growth and PHB production were inhibited by Na(+): biomass growth became zero at 8.9 g/L Na(+) concentration while PHB production was completely stopped at 10.5 g/L Na(+). A mathematical model for pure culture heterotrophic PHB production was set up to describe the Na(+) inhibition effect. The parameters related to Na(+) inhibition were estimated based on shake flask experiments. The accumulated Na(+) showed non-linear inhibition effect on biomass growth but linear inhibition effect on PHB production kinetics. Fed-batch experiments revealed that a high accumulation of Na(+) due to a prolonged growth phase, using NaOH for pH control, decreased the subsequent PHB production. The model was validated based on independent experimental data sets, showing a good agreement between experimental data and simulation results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accumulation of PHA granules in Cupriavidus necator as seen by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, Filip; Obruca, Stanislav; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Hrubanova, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Nebesarova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Many bacteria are capable of accumulating intracellular granules of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). In this work, we developed confocal microscopy analysis of bacterial cells to study changes in the diameters of cells as well as PHA granules during growth and PHA accumulation in the bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha). The cell envelope was stained by DiD(®) fluorescent probe and PHA granules by Nile Red. Signals from both probes were separated based on their spectral and fluorescence life-time properties. During growth and PHA accumulation, bacterial cells increased their length but the width of the cells remained constant. The volume fraction of PHA granules in cells increased during PHA accumulation, nevertheless, its value did not exceed 40 vol. % regardless of the PHA weight content. It seems that bacterial cultures lengthen the cells in order to control the PHA volume portion. However, since similar changes in cell length were also observed in a PHA non-accumulating mutant, it seems that there is no direct control mechanism, which regulates the prolongation of the cells with respect to PHA granules volume. It is more likely that PHA biosynthesis and the length of cells are influenced by the same external stimuli such as nutrient limitation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Global changes in the proteome of Cupriavidus necator H16 during poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis from various biodiesel by-product substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parveen K; Fu, Jilagamazhi; Spicer, Victor; Krokhin, Oleg V; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2016-12-01

    Synthesis of poly-[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 in batch cultures was evaluated using three biodiesel-derived by-products as the sole carbon sources: waste glycerol (REG-80, refined to 80 % purity with negligible free fatty acids); glycerol bottom (REG-GB, with up to 65 % glycerol and 35 % free fatty acids), and free fatty acids (REG-FFA, with up to 75 % FFA and no glycerol). All the three substrates supported growth and PHB production by C. necator, with polymer accumulation ranging from 9 to 84 % cell dry weight (cdw), depending on the carbon source. To help understand these differences, proteomic analysis indicated that although C. necator H16 was able to accumulate PHB during growth on all three biodiesel by-products, no changes in the levels of PHB synthesis enzymes were observed. However, significant changes in the levels of expression were observed for two Phasin proteins involved with PHB accumulation, and for a number of gene products in the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, the Glyoxylate Shunt, and the hydrogen (H2) synthesis pathways in C. necator cells cultured with different substrates. The glycerol transport protein (GlpF) was induced in REG-GB and REG-80 glycerol cultures only. Cupriavidus necator cells cultured with REG-GB and REG-FFA showed up-regulation of β-oxidation and Glyoxylate Shunt pathways proteins at 24 h pi, but H2 synthesis pathways enzymes were significantly down-regulated, compared with cells cultured with waste glycerol. Our data confirmed earlier observations of constitutive expression of PHB synthesis proteins, but further suggested that C. necator H16 cells growing on biodiesel-derived glycerol were under oxidative stress.

  12. The Complete Multipartite Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a Versatile Pollutant Degrader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Perez-Pantoja, Danilo; Ledger, Thomas; Mavromatis, Kostantinos; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hooper, Sean D.; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-02-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha JMP134) is a Gram-negative {beta}-proteobacterium able to degrade a variety of chloroaromatic compounds and chemically-related pollutants. It was originally isolated based on its ability to use 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a sole carbon and energy source [1]. In addition to 2,4-D, this strain can also grow on a variety of aromatic substrates, such as 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA), 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CB) [2], 2,4,6-trichlorophenol [3], and 4-fluorobenzoate [4]. The genes necessary for 2,4-D utilization have been identified. They are located in two clusters on plasmid pPJ4: tfd{sub I} and tfd{sub II} [5,6,7,8]. The sequence and analysis of plasmid pJP4 was reported and a congruent model for bacterial adaptation to chloroaromatic pollutants was proposed [9]. According to this model, catabolic gene clusters assemble in a modular manner into broad-host-range plasmid backbones by means of repeated chromosomal capture events. Cupriavidus and related Burkholderia genomes are typically multipartite, composed of two large replicons (chromosomes) accompanied by classical plasmids. Previous work with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 revealed a differential gene distribution with core functions preferentially encoded by the larger chromosome and secondary functions by the smaller [10]. It has been proposed that the secondary chromosomes in many bacteria originated from ancestral plasmids which, in turn, had been the recipient of genes transferred earlier from ancestral primary chromosomes [11]. The existence of multiple Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genomes provides the opportunity for comparative studies that will lead to a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms for the formation of multipartite genomes and the relation with biodegradation abilities.

  13. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  14. Tolerance to and Accumulation of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc by Cupriavidus necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Pereira Vicentin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preliminary results of in vitro experiments with multicontaminated soils and solid media indicated that nodulating diazotrophic bacteria of the genus Cupriavidus are promising for the remediation of contaminated environments due to their symbiosis with legumes and metal tolerance. Thus, strains of Cupriavidus spp. (LMG 19424T, UFLA 01-659, UFLA 01-663, and UFLA 02-71 were tested for their ability to tolerate and bioaccumulate cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn in Luria-Bertani broth. Changes in the growth pattern of Cupriavidus strains in the presence or absence of heavy metals were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and metal allocation by transmission electron microscopy, to clarify the mechanisms of bioremediation. Highest tolerance was detected for strain UFLA 01-659 (minimum inhibitory concentration of 5, 4.95, and 14.66 mmol L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively. Among the removal rates of the metals tested (9.0, 4.6, and 3.2 mg L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively, the bacterial activity was clearly highest for Cd. The efficiency of strain UFLA 01-659 in removing the heavy metals is associated with its high biomass production and/or higher contents of heavy metals adsorbed and absorbed in the biomass. In response to the presence of heavy metals in the liquid culture medium, the bacteria produced exopolysaccharides and small and aggregated cells. However, these responses varied according to the strains and heavy metals. Regarding allocation, all heavy metals were adsorbed on the cell wall and membrane, whereas complexation was observed intracellularly and only for Cu and Zn. These results indicate the possibility of using C. necator UFLA 01-659 for remediation in areas with very high Cd, Cu, and Zn contents.

  15. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  16. Probing the Kinetic Anabolism of Poly-Beta-Hydroxybutyrate in Cupriavidus necator H16 Using Single-Cell Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua Tao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB can be formed in large amounts in Cupriavidus necator and is important for the industrial production of biodegradable plastics. In this investigation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS was used to characterize dynamic changes in PHB content—as well as in the contents of other common biomolecule—in C. necator during batch growth at both the population and single-cell levels. PHB accumulation began in the early stages of bacterial growth, and the maximum PHB production rate occurred in the early and middle exponential phases. The active biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins occurred in the lag and early exponential phases, whereas the levels of these molecules decreased continuously during the remaining fermentation process until the minimum values were reached. The PHB content inside single cells was relatively homogenous in the middle stage of fermentation; during the late growth stage, the variation in PHB levels between cells increased. In addition, bacterial cells in various growth phases could be clearly discriminated when principle component analysis was performed on the spectral data. These results suggest that LTRS is a valuable single-cell analysis tool that can provide more comprehensive information about the physiological state of a growing microbial population.

  17. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l -1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mugambi, Robert Muriuki; Agola, Eric L.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Kinyua, Johnson; Shiraho, Esther Andia; Mkoji, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in ...

  19. Minimal Influence of [NiFe] Hydrogenase on Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation in H2-Oxidizing Cupriavidus necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids produced by H2-metabolizing bacteria are sometimes observed to be more D-depleted than those of photoautotrophic organisms, a trait that has been suggested as diagnostic for chemoautotrophic bacteria. The biochemical reasons for such a depletion are not known, but are often assumed to involve the strong D-depletion of H2. Here, we cultivated the bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha H16 under aerobic, H2-consuming, chemoautotrophic conditions and measured the isotopic compositions of its fatty acids. In parallel with the wild type, two mutants of this strain, each lacking one of two key hydrogenase enzymes, were also grown and measured. In all three strains, fractionations between fatty acids and water ranged from -173‰ to -235‰, and averaged -217‰, -196‰, and -226‰, respectively, for the wild type, SH- mutant, and MBH- mutant. There was a modest increase in δD as a result of loss of the soluble hydrogenase enzyme. Fractionation curves for all three strains were constructed by growing parallel cultures in waters with δDwater values of approximately -25‰, 520‰, and 1100‰. These curves indicate that at least 90% of the hydrogen in fatty acids is derived from water, not H2. Published details of the biochemistry of the soluble and membrane-bound hydrogenases confirm that these enzymes transfer electrons rather than intact hydride (H- ions, providing no direct mechanism to connect the isotopic composition of H2 to that of lipids. Multiple lines of evidence thus agree that in this organism, and presumably others like it, environmental H2 plays little or no direct role in controlling lipid δD values. The observed fractionations must instead result from isotope effects in the reduction of NAD(PH by reductases with flavin prosthetic groups, which transfer two electrons and acquire H+ (or D+ from solution. Parallels to NADPH reduction in photosynthesis may explain why D/H fractionations in C. necator

  20. Effective recovery of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymer from Cupriavidus necator using a novel and environmentally friendly solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tao; Cazeneuve, Stacy; Wen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lei; Wang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a significant advance in bioprocessing for a high-melting lipid polymer. A novel and environmental friendly solvent mixture, acetone/ethanol/propylene carbonate (A/E/P, 1:1:1 v/v/v) was identified for extracting poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a high-value biopolymer, from Cupriavidus necator. A set of solubility curves of PHB in various solvents was established. PHB recovery of 85% and purity of 92% were obtained from defatted dry biomass (DDB) using A/E/P. This solvent mixture is compatible with water, and from non-defatted wet biomass, PHB recovery of 83% and purity of 90% were achieved. Water and hexane were evaluated as anti-solvents to assist PHB precipitation, and hexane improved recovery of PHB from biomass to 92% and the purity to 93%. A scale-up extraction and separation reactor was designed, built and successfully tested. Properties of PHB recovered were not significantly affected by the extraction solvent and conditions, as shown by average molecular weight (1.4 × 10(6) ) and melting point (175.2°C) not being different from PHB extracted using chloroform. Therefore, this biorenewable solvent system was effective and versatile for extracting PHB biopolymers. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:678-685, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 from jatropha oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcha, Abeed Fatima Mohidin; Prasad, D M Reddy; Khan, Maksudur R; Abdullah, Hamidah

    2014-05-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer that can be synthesized through bacterial fermentation. In this study, Cupriavidus necator H16 is used to synthesize PHB by using Jatropha oil as its sole carbon source. Different variables mainly jatropha oil and urea concentrations, and agitation rate were investigated to determine the optimum condition for microbial fermentation in batch culture. Based on the results, the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations of 20.1 and 15.5 g/L, respectively, were obtained when 20 g/L of jatropha oil was used. Ethanol was used as external stress factor and the addition of 1.5 % ethanol at 38 h had a positive effect with a high PHB yield of 0.987 g PHB/g jatropha oil. The kinetic studies for cell growth rate and PHB production were conducted and the data were fitted with Logistic and Leudeking–Piret models. The rate constants were evaluated and the theoretical values were in accordance with the experimental data obtained

  2. Expression, purification, and characterization of the Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) antigen, a component of the bivalent human hookworm vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Christopher A; Curti, Elena; Jones, R Mark; Hudspeth, Elissa; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Center, Lori; Versteeg, Leroy; Pritchard, Sonya; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Yusibov, Vidadi; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over 400 million people living in the world's poorest developing nations are infected with hookworms, mostly of the genus Necator americanus. A bivalent human hookworm vaccine composed of the Necator americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) and the Necator americanus Aspartic Protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) is currently under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP). Both monovalent vaccines are currently in Phase 1 trials. Both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 antigens are expressed as recombinant proteins. While Na-GST-1 was found to express with high yields in Pichia pastoris, the level of expression of Na-APR-1 in this host was too low to be suitable for a manufacturing process. When the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana was evaluated as an expression system, acceptable levels of solubility, yield, and stability were attained. Observed expression levels of Na-APR-1 (M74) using this system are ∼300 mg/kg. Here we describe the achievements and obstacles encountered during process development as well as characterization and stability of the purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein and formulated vaccine. The expression, purification and analysis of purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein obtained from representative 5 kg reproducibility runs performed to qualify the Na-APR-1 (M74) production process is also presented. This process has been successfully transferred to a pilot plant and a 50 kg scale manufacturing campaign under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) has been performed. The 50 kg run has provided a sufficient amount of protein to support the ongoing hookworm vaccine development program of the Sabin PDP.

  3. Identification and utilization of a new Erysiphe necator isolate NAFU1 to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance in wild Chinese grapevine species using detached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Rong; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Yuan; Ding, Qin; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe necator. To integrate effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines, numerous disease resistance screens of diverse Vitis germplasm, including wild species, have been conducted to identify powdery mildew resistance, but the results have been inconsistent. Here, a new powdery mildew isolate that is infectious on grapevines, designated Erysiphe necator NAFU1 (En. NAFU1), was identified and characterized by phylogeny inferred from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of pathogen ribosomal DNA sequences. Three classical methods were compared for the maintenance of En. NAFU1, and the most convenient method was maintenance on detached leaves and propagation by contact with infected leaves. Furthermore, controlled inoculations of En. NAFU1 were performed using detached leaves from 57 wild Chinese grapevine accessions to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance based on trypan blue staining of leaf sections. The results were compared with previous natural epidemics in the field. Among the screened accessions inoculated with En. NAFU1, 22.8% were resistant, 33.3% were moderately resistant, and 43.9% were susceptible. None of the accessions assessed herein were immune from infection. These results support previous findings documenting the presence of race-specific resistance to E. necator in wild Chinese grapevine. The resistance of wild Chinese grapevine to En. NAFU1 could be due to programmed cell death. The present results suggest that En. NAFU1 isolate could be used for future large-scale screens of resistance to powdery mildew in diverse Vitis germplasms and investigations of the interaction between grapevines and pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O.; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Zúñiga, Gustavo E.; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera ‘Dzhandzhal Kara,’ respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. ‘Crimson Seedless.’ We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases. PMID:28553300

  5. Mineralization of PCBs by the genetically modified strain Cupriavidus necator JMS34 and its application for bioremediation of PCBs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Juan Matias; Acevedo, Francisca; Gonzalez, Myriam; Seeger, Michael [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Lab. de Microbiologia Molecular y Biotecnologia

    2010-07-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are classified as ''high-priority pollutants''. Diverse microorganisms are able to degrade PCBs. However, bacterial degradation of PCBs is generally incomplete, leading to the accumulation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs) as dead-end metabolites. To obtain a microorganism able to mineralize PCB congeners, the bph locus of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, which encodes one of the most effective PCB degradation pathways, was incorporated into the genome of the CBA-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134-X3. The bph genes were transferred into strain JMP134-X3, using the mini-Tn5 transposon system and biparental mating. The genetically modified derivative, C. necator strain JMS34, had only one chromosomal insertion of bph locus, which was stable under nonselective conditions. This modified bacterium was able to grow on biphenyl, 3-CBA and 4-CBA, and degraded 3,5-CBA in the presence of m-toluate. The strain JMS34 mineralized 3-CB, 4-CB, 2,4{sup '}-CB, and 3,5-CB, without accumulation of CBAs. Bioaugmentation of PCB-polluted soils with C. necator strain JMS34 and with the native B. xenovorans LB400 was monitored. It is noteworthy that strain JMS34 degraded, in 1 week, 99% of 3-CB and 4-CB and approximately 80% of 2,4{sup '}-CB in nonsterile soil, as well as in sterile soil. Additionally, the bacterial count of strain JMS34 increased by almost two orders of magnitude in PCB-polluted nonsterile soil. In contrast, the presence of native microflora reduced the degradation of these PCBs by strain LB400 from 73% (sterile soil) to approximately 50% (nonsterile soil). This study contributes to the development of improved biocatalysts for remediation of PCB-contaminated environments. (orig.)

  6. Biofilm vs. Planktonic Lifestyle: Consequences for Pesticide 2,4-D Metabolism by Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Lerch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of bacterial biofilms in natural environments may alter important functions, such as pollutant bioremediation by modifying both the degraders' physiology and/or interactions within the matrix. The present study focuses on the influence of biofilm formation on the metabolism of a pesticide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, by Cupriavidus necator JMP134. Pure cultures were established in a liquid medium with 2,4-D as a sole carbon source with or without sand grains for 10 days. Bacterial numbers and 2,4-D concentrations in solution were followed by spectrophotometry, the respiration rate by gas chromatography and the surface colonization by electron microscopy. In addition, isotopic techniques coupled with Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME profiling were used to determine possible metabolic changes. After only 3 days, approximately 80% of the cells were attached to the sand grains and microscopy images showed that the porous medium was totally clogged by the development of a biofilm. After 10 days, there was 25% less 2,4-D in the solution in samples with sand than in control samples. This difference was due to (1 a higher (+8% mineralization of 2,4-D by sessile bacteria and (2 a retention (15% of 2,4-D in the biofilm matrix. Besides, the amount of carbohydrates, presumably constituting the biofilm polysaccharides, increased by 63%. Compound-specific isotope analysis revealed that the FAME isotopic signature was less affected by the biofilm lifestyle than was the FAME composition. These results suggest that sessile bacteria differ more in their anabolism than in their catabolism compared to their planktonic counterparts. This study stresses the importance of considering interactions between microorganisms and their habitat when studying pollutant dynamics in porous media.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-SAA-2 from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Goud, Gaddam N.; Zhan, Bin; Ordonez, Katherine; Sedlacek, Meghan; Homma, Kohei; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Price, Merelyn K.; Ngamelue, Michelle N.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a surface-associated antigen from the major human hookworm N. americanus is presented. Human hookworms are among the most pathogenic soil-transmitted helminths. These parasitic nematodes have co-evolved with the host and are able to maintain a high worm burden for decades without killing the human host. However, it is possible to develop vaccines against laboratory-challenge hookworm infections using either irradiated third-state infective larvae (L3) or enzymes from the adult parasites. In an effort to control hookworm infection globally, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, a product-development partnership with the Sabin Vaccine Institute to develop new control tools including vaccines, has identified a battery of protein antigens, including surface-associated antigens (SAAs) from L3. SAA proteins are characterized by a 13 kDa conserved domain of unknown function. SAA proteins are found on the surface of infective L3 stages (and some adult stages) of different nematode parasites, suggesting that they may play important roles in these organisms. The atomic structures and function of SAA proteins remain undetermined and in an effort to remedy this situation recombinant Na-SAA-2 from the most prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Useful X-ray data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution from a crystal that belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 73.88, b = 35.58, c = 42.75 Å, β = 116.1°

  8. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Cupriavidus necator tolerantes a zinco, cádmio, cobre e chumbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de estirpes de Cupriavidus necator a zinco, cádmio, cobre e chumbo, além de determinar a eficiência simbiótica das estirpes mais tolerantes em associação a espécies leguminosas com potencial para revegetação. A tolerância foi testada em meio LB, suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15 mmol L-1 de ZnSO4.7H2O, CdSO4.8H2O, CuSO4.5H2O e PbCl2, respectivamente, em comparação ao controle sem adição de metal. Determinou-se a eficiência simbiótica das quatro estirpes de C. necator mais tolerantes aos metais avaliados (UFLA02-71, UFLA02-73, UFLA01-659 e UFLA01-663, as quais foram inoculadas nas espécies: Leucaena leucocephala, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia mangium, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, M. pudica, M. pigra e M. acutistipula. Em vasos com solos, avaliaram-se L. leucocephala, M. pudica e M. caesalpiniifolia e as estirpes UFLA01-659 e UFLA02-71, selecionadas na avaliação de eficiência simbiótica. A estirpe UFLA02-71 proporcionou incrementos de matéria seca da parte aérea de 870% em M. caesalpiniifolia, enquanto que UFLA01-659 proporcionou 885% em M. pudica e 924% em L. leucocephala. As estirpes UFLA01-659 e UFLA02-71, além da alta tolerância a metais pesados, apresentaram eficiência em fixar nitrogênio, em simbiose com essas leguminosas, em solos com rizóbios nativos capazes de nodulá-las, e devem ser avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial de utilização em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  9. Produção de poli(3-hidroxibutirato por Cupriavidus Necator em meio hidrolisado de amido de arroz com suplementação de óleo de soja em diferentes temperaturas Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus Necator in hydrolyzed rice starch medium with soybean oil supplementation at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biopolymer, completely biodegradable, which has similar properties to fuel-based polymers. However to make it economically competitive it is necessary the study of cheap sources of substrate. The influence of hydrolyzed rice starch supplemented with soybean oil at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40 °C was studied in the production of P(3HB by C. necator. The percentage of P(3HB produced in the cultures at 30, 35 °C was 30, 39% and 35, 43% without and with supplementation of oil, respectively. The culture at 40 °C showed no production phase due to a possible oxygen limitation. These results demonstrate that hydrolyzed rice starch supplemented with soybean oil increases the yield of P(3HB and temperature of 35 ºC is the most favorable for biopolymer production.

  10. Two crystal forms of a helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, Na-FAR-1, from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Griffiths, Kate; Roe, Andrew J.; Cooper, Alan; Smith, Brian O.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Corsico, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Na-FAR-1, a fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, was expressed in bacteria, purified and crystallized. Crystals grew in two different morphologies under the same conditions. Na-FAR-1 is an unusual α-helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein from Necator americanus, a blood-feeding intestinal parasitic nematode of humans. It belongs to the FAR protein family, which is unique to nematodes; no structural information is available to date for FAR proteins from parasites. Crystals were obtained with two different morphologies that corresponded to different space groups. Crystal form 1 exhibited space group P432 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 120.80 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution, whereas crystal form 2 exhibited space group F23 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 240.38 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. Crystal form 2 showed signs of significant twinning

  11. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula E. Brentlinger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre anemia severa e infección con Necator americanus en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en el estado de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el registro de ingresos del año 1999 de un hospital rural en Altamirano, Chiapas, se identificaron a las pacientes con diagnósticos de egreso de anemia (definida como hemoglobina<10mg/dl y/o parasitosis intestinal. También se revisó el registro de transfusiones para identificar a las mujeres mayores de 14 años de edad que recibieron sangre. La revisión de expedientes y el análisis de datos se llevó a cabo en el año 2000. Las comparaciones de las características de las pacientes se hicieron con la prueba t de Student (para variables continuas y la prueba ji2 (para variables categóricas. La significancia estadística se estableció con un valor de p< 0.01. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres en quienes se realizó examen coproscópico, 50% tuvieron N. americanus. La presencia de N. americanus no excluyó la presencia de otro factor de riesgo para anemia, por ejemplo embarazo o hemorragia. Los niveles de hemoglobina de las mujeres infectadas con N. americanus fueron significativamente más bajos (promedio 4.1 g/dl que los de las demás mujeres anémicas (promedio 7.0 gm/dl, y la prevalencia de N. americanus en mujeres anémicas fue más alta (50.0% que en la población atendida por el hospital (1.9%. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la prevalencia de infección con N. americanus no se considera alta en la población general mexicana, fue importante en las mujeres anémicas que se sometieron a coproscopía en nuestro estudio. Las mujeres anémicas ameritan coproscopía donde existe N. americanus, y pueden

  12. Cloud-point extraction of green-polymers from Cupriavidus necator lysate using thermoseparating-based aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yoong Kit; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Loh, Hwei-San; Ling, Tau Chuan; Ooi, Chien Wei; Show, Pau Loke

    2017-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a class of renewable and biodegradable green polymers, have gained attraction as a potential substitute for the conventional plastics due to the increasing concern towards environmental pollution as well as the rapidly depleting petroleum reserve. Nevertheless, the high cost of downstream processing of PHA has been a bottleneck for the wide adoption of PHAs. Among the options of PHAs recovery techniques, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) outshines the others by having the advantages of providing a mild environment for bioseparation, being green and non-toxic, the capability to handle a large operating volume and easily scaled-up. Utilizing unique properties of thermo-responsive polymer which has decreasing solubility in its aqueous solution as the temperature rises, cloud point extraction (CPE) is an ATPE technique that allows its phase-forming component to be recycled and reused. A thorough literature review has shown that this is the first time isolation and recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator H16 via CPE was reported. The optimum condition for PHAs extraction (recovery yield of 94.8% and purification factor of 1.42 fold) was achieved under the conditions of 20 wt/wt % ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with molecular weight of 3900 g/mol and 10 mM of sodium chloride addition at thermoseparating temperature of 60°C with crude feedstock limit of 37.5 wt/wt %. Recycling and reutilization of EOPO 3900 can be done at least twice with satisfying yield and PF. CPE has been demonstrated as an effective technique for the extraction of PHAs from microbial crude culture. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, 987696 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Loukas, Alex [Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037 (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4006 (Australia); Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0643 (United States); Hotez, Peter J. [Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037 (United States); Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, 987696 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  15. Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Robert Muriuki; Agola, Eric L; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Kinyua, Johnson; Shiraho, Esther Andia; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2015-11-06

    Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in faecal samples, is not effective due to its low sensitivity that is brought about mainly by non-random distribution of eggs in stool and day to day variation in egg output. It is tedious, cumbersome to perform and requires experience for correct diagnosis. LAMP-based tests are simple, relatively cheap, offer greater sensitivity, specificity than existing tests, have high throughput capability, and are ideal for use at the point of care. We have developed a LAMP diagnostic test for detection of hookworm infection in faecal samples. LAMP relies on auto cycling strand displacement DNA synthesis performed at isothermal temperature by Bst polymerase and a set of 4 specific primers. The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) region and designed using Primer Explorer version 4 Software. The ITS-2 region of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) was identified as a suitable target due to its low mutation rates and substantial differences between species. DNA was extracted directly from human faecal samples, followed by LAMP amplification at isothermal temperature of 63 °C for 1 h. Amplicons were visualized using gel electrophoresis and SYBR green dye. Both specificity and sensitivity of the assay were determined. The LAMP based technique developed was able to detect N. americanus DNA in faecal samples. The assay showed 100 % specificity and no cross-reaction was observed with other helminth parasites (S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura). The

  16. Valorization of waste glycerol for the production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by Cupriavidus necator and extraction in a sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of many industrial processes and huge amounts of it are generated in the form of waste, thereby necessitating a search for the method of its disposal. An interesting solution is the valorization of crude glycerol into value added product such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The feasibility of producing PHAs by Cupriavidus necator was evaluated using crude glycerol (WG). Various cultivation strategies were designed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by adding different organic acids as precursors at different concentrations levels. Batch cultivation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production showed accumulation of 6.76g/L biomass containing 4.84g/L copolymer on WG with a maximum 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 24.6mol%. PHAs extraction using a non-toxic and recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C temperature and 30min incubation. This is the first report on jatropha based glycerol valorization for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production coupled with extraction using non-toxic solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved fed-batch production of high-purity PHB (poly-3 hydroxy butyrate) by Cupriavidus necator (MTCC 1472) from sucrose-based cheap substrates under response surface-optimized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pinaki; Rangarajan, Vivek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out for Cupriavidus necator (MTCC 1472)-based improved production of poly-3 hydroxy butyrate (PHB) through induced nitrogen limiting fed-batch cultivation strategies. Initially Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology were implemented to optimize most influencing process parameters. With optimized process parameter values, continuous feeding strategies ware applied in a 5-l fermenter with table sugar concentration of 100 g/l, nitrogen concentration of 0.12 g/l for fed-batch fermentation with varying dilution rates of 0.02 and 0.046 1/h. To get enriched production of PHB, concentration of the sugar was further increased to 150 and 200 g/l in feeding. Maximum concentrations of PHB achieved were 22.35 and 23.07 g/l at those dilution rates when sugar concentration maintains at 200 g/l in feeding. At maximum concentration of PHB (23.07 g/l), productivity of 0.58 g/l h was achieved with maximum PHB accumulation efficiency up to 64% of the dry weight of biomass. High purity of PHB, close to medical grade was achieved after surfactant hypochlorite extraction method, and it was further confirmed by SEM, EDX, and XRD studies.

  18. POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) PRODUCTION BY Cupriavidus necator SUPPLEMENTED WITH MINIEMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Ienczak, J. L.; Quines, L. K.; Zanfonato, K.; Schmidell, W.; Aragão, G. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that the supplementation of vegetable oils, in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production, provides an increase in the process productivity, besides inducing lipase activity in the medium. The supplementation with miniemulsified oils could potentialize these results. In this work, the influence of supplementation of the medium with soybean oil, without treatment and miniemulsified, on polymerr production was evaluated. The best moment to supplement the medium and its influ...

  19. Potential novel bZIP-like gene for resistance to Erysiphe necator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... In this study, a novel bZIP-like gene was isolated from Chinese wild Vitis ... Results reveal that it was in lower lever in flower than in leaf, stem, tendril and fruit. .... First-strand cDNA was synthesized from 1 µg of DNase treated.

  20. Effects of bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) fungal diseases on wine aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  1. Quantification of the changes in potent wine odorants as induced by bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA). For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  2. Grapevine powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw. Burr. – a permanent issue concerning the health status of grapes cenosis in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakova Mariana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapes powdery mildew appeared permanently in the grapes growing regions of Bulgaria. The disease was reported in our country by Kostov in 1900. More than a century the powdery mildew disease has been causing less or greater yield losses depending on the climate. In the past when the vineyards were small and scattered, the disease was not an economic problem. Later, during the second half of the 20th century, the grapes growing areas consolidated and enlarged, and the concentration and intensification of production took place. The pathogen spread permanently to epidemic in the vineyards and the disease became destructive and economically important. During that period commercial varieties were grown susceptible to the causal agent of the powdery mildew, and organic fungicides were applied in the disease control system. Mistakes in the grapes growing technology are observed and the disease management strategies applied are not always scientifically proved. The statements that in Bulgaria there exist conditions suitable for the appearance and development of grapes powdery mildew only in the Black sea region are disproved. A new research is necessary to be done to answer the questions about: the sources of primary inoculum, the influence of the ecological conditions on the appearance and spread of the powdery mildew, and the timing for the disease control. In the survey the overwintering of the pathogen, the appearance of the first symptoms and the dynamics of the disease spread have been discussed. As for the ecological conditions in Bulgaria, it is considered that the fungus mainly survives as mycelia in the buds and on the shoots of the vines serving as a source of a permanent infection background. The studies carried through during 1994–2002 proved that the pathogen influenced by the ecological conditions could also form cleistothecia and they could be the source of the initial infection. The effect of the leaves removal around the clusters on the spread of the grapes powdery mildew and the field resistance of some varieties were studied. Critical stages of the disease appearance and spread are defined based on the research data. Management strategies are proposed including alternative approach practices.

  3. Quantification of the Changes in Potent Wine Odorants as Induced by Bunch Rot (Botrytis cinerea and Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lopez Pinar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA. For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  4. Evaluation of a decision support strategy for the control of powdery mildew, Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., in grapevine in the central region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Gómez, Héctor; Araya-Alman, Miguel; Pañitrur-De la Fuente, Carolina; Verdugo-Vásquez, Nicolás; Lolas, Mauricio; Acevedo-Opazo, César; Gary, Christian; Calonnec, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The primary strategy to control powdery mildew in Chilean vineyards involves periodic fungicide spraying, which may lead to many environmental and human health risks. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and economic feasibility of a novel decision support strategy (DSS) to limit the number of treatments against this pathogen. An experiment was conducted between the 2010 and 2013 seasons in two irrigated vine fields, one containing a cultivar of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and the other a cultivar of Chardonnay (CH). The results showed that the DSS effectively controlled powdery mildew in CS and CH vine fields, as evidenced by a disease severity lower than 3%, which was lower than that observed in untreated vines (approximately 10 and 40% for CS and CH respectively). The DS strategy required the application of only 2-3 fungicide treatments per season in key vine phenological stages, and the cost fluctuated between $US 322 and 415 ha -1 , which was 40-60% cheaper than the traditional strategy employed by vine growers. The decision support strategy evaluated in this trial allows a good control of powdery mildew for various types of epidemic with an early and late initiation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Footprint area analysis of binary imaged Cupriavidus necator cells to study PHB production at balanced, transient, and limited growth conditions in a cascade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlja, Denis; Koller, Martin; Novak, Mario; Braunegg, Gerhart; Horvat, Predrag

    2016-12-01

    Statistical distribution of cell and poly[3-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granule size and number of granules per cell are investigated for PHB production in a five-stage cascade (5CSTR). Electron microscopic pictures of cells from individual cascade stages (R1-R5) were converted to binary pictures to visualize footprint areas for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and non-PHA biomass. Results for each stage were correlated to the corresponding experimentally determined kinetics (specific growth rate μ and specific productivity π). Log-normal distribution describes PHA granule size dissimilarity, whereas for R1 and R4, gamma distribution best reflects the situation. R1, devoted to balanced biomass synthesis, predominately contains cells with rather small granules, whereas with increasing residence time τ, maximum and average granule sizes by trend increase, approaching an upper limit determined by the cell's geometry. Generally, an increase of intracellular PHA content and ratio of granule to cell area slow down along the cascade. Further, the number of granules per cell decreases with increasing τ. Data for μ and π obtained by binary picture analysis correlate well with the experimental results. The work describes long-term continuous PHA production under balanced, transient, and nutrient-deficient conditions, as well as their reflection on the granules size, granule number, and cell structure on the microscopic level.

  6. Pathogenia da anemia na Ancylostomose: III - modificações hematicas e organicas, provocadas pelas simples eliminação do Ancylostomo e do Necator, em individuos fortemente anemiados Pathogenesis of Anaemia in Hookworm Disease: III - hematic and organic modifications, induced by mere elimination of Anchylostoma and Necator, in individuals presenting intense anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos sob um ponto de vista hematologico, 10 casos puros de Ancylostomose, durante um largo tempo. Um dos doentes foi observado por mais de 2 annos, justificando esta larga observação a segurança que almejavamos alcançar de que a simples eliminação dos helminthos não trouxesse nenhuma modificação hematica, mesmo longiqua. O estudo hematologico constou de 200 exames rotineiros (determinação do numero de globulos, da taxa de Hb., do hematocrito, e, em muitos casos, da taxa dos reticulocytos e exame de esfregaços, praticados em todos os doentes, e de determinações da resistencia globular e outras pesquizas hematologicas praticadas em alguns delles. A grande parte do estudo constou de uma minuciosa (observação sanguinea e clinica dos casos, antes e após administração de vermifugos, até uma completa eliminação dos parasitos intestinaes. Procurou-se averiguar tambem, por meio da administração de diversas dietas, a influencia sobre o quadro hematico da dita eliminação combinada ao effeito de differentes factores nutritivos contidos nestas dietas. Procuramos verificar os phenomenos regenerativos com a administração de ferro, e tambem tivemos opportunidade de observar a marcha da anemia, e assim confirmar resultados que já publicamos. Os resultados mostraram a importancia da absorpção dos medicamentos vermicidas empregados, e por isso focalizamos varios factos similares, procurando relacional-os com aquelle aqui verificado. Discutimos a seguir o methodo therapeutico á luz dos resultados apresentados, e nos referimos á importancia destes na elucidação correcta de pathogenia da doença.We studied, from the hematological viewpoint, 10 straightforward cases of anchylostomiasis for a long time. One of tha patients was under observation for more than 2 years, this ample observation being justified by the reliability at which we aimed that the mere elimination of helminthes conveys no hematic modification, not even a remote one. The hematological study consisted of 200 routine examinations (determination of the number of red cells, of Hb. rate, hematokrit, and in many a case of the rate of reticulocytosis and examination of slides, practised on all our patients, and of determinations of globular resistance and other hematological investigations practised in some of our cases. The greater part of our study consisted in a careful observation of the blood and of the clinical symptoms of our cases, prior to and after the administration of vermifuges until complete elimination of the intestinal parasites. By means of various diets we also sought to verify the influence on the hematic aspect of the said elimination combined with the effect of different nutritive factors contained in these diets. We endeavoured to verify the regenerative phenomena after iron adminisration and we also had the opportunity of observing the course of the anemia and of confirming thus the results already published. The results showed the importance of the absorption of the vermicidal medicaments employed and therefore we focalized several similar facts endeavouring to connect them with the fact here verified. We then discussed the therapeutical method in the light of the results presented, and we referred to the importance of same for the correct elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease.

  7. Genetic modification of European winegrapes with genes from an American wild relative confers resistance to the major diseases powdery and downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete, downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). These pathogens, endemic to North America, were introduced into Europe in t...

  8. hookworm species distribution around asendabo town jimma zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DigLab

    acknowledged cause of anemia as a result of intestinal blood loss. The aim of this study was to ... KEY WORDS: Hookworm species, anemia, helminth, Asendabo, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... nematode parasites Necator americanus and Ancylostoma.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23.9%), Ascaris lumbricoides. (23.2%) and Necator americanus (23.2%) were the most prevalent parasites in the population. Concomitant infections involving 1-4 parasite species were recorded. Most of the observed parasites were potentially.

  10. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem; Paillier, Alexis; Rasul, Shahid; Karan, Ram; Grö tzinger, Stefan Wolfgang; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall

  11. Influence of bacteria on degradation of bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinková, M.; Boturová, K.

    2017-10-01

    The degradation rate of bioplastic in soil is closely related to the diversity of soil microbiota. To investigate the effect of soil bacterial on biodegradation, 4 bacterial strains of soil - Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Kocuria rosea, Cupriavidus necator and Bacillus cereus, were used to accelerate the decomposition of bioplastics manufactured from Polylactid acid (PLA) by direct action during 250 days. The best results were obtained with bacterial strains Cupriavidus necator and Pseudomonas chlororaphis that were isolated of lagoons with anthropogenic sediments.

  12. USING TURKISH OF NECATİ BEY NECATÎ BEY’İN TÜRKÇESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerif Ali BOZKAPLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Necatî who have studies with old Anatolian Turkish, is known and gets attention as a man who speaks and uses Turkish very perfectly. It should be mentioned that idioms, proverbs, reduplications, mottos etc. Which are main stones of Turkish are take parts in poetry of Necatî. In addition to these Poet Necatî applies some structures spoken languages into literal language.Therefore, it is possible to see some archaic words aren’t used anymore in actual Turkish in Necatî’s poetry.In conclusion Necatî connects yesterday of Turkish and today of Turkish by using some features of history of Turkish. Eski Anadolu Türkçesi ile eser vermiş olan Necatî, Türkçeyi gayet iyi konuşan ve kullanan biri olarak dikkat çekmektedir. Türkçenin anlatım vasıtalarından olan deyimler, atasözleri, ikilemeler, kalıp sözler, özlü sözler, vb. gibi yapı taşlarının Necatî ‘nin şiirinde hayli yer bulduğunu belirtmek gerekir. Bunlara ilaveten Şair Necatî, konuşma dilinin bazı kalıplarını da şiir diline dahil etmiştir.Öte yandan bugünkü Türkçede kullanımdan düşmüş bazı arkaik sözlere Necatî’nin şiirinde rastlamak mümkündür.Görüldüğü üzere Necatî geçmişin bazı unsurlarını kullanarak Türkçenin geçmişi ile o günü dolayısıyla da bugünün arasında bağ kurmuştur.

  13. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in central african republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  14. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal (April-June 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    basic laboratory equipment and techniques acquired at the AMS, demonstrated that Puerto Rican anemia was due to the hookworm, Necator americanus.* In...Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi; Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru ; Naval Medical Research...2006 131 Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Netherland Antilles, Antigua, Belize, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru (air, water

  15. Gene clusters involved in isethionate degradation by terrestrial and marine bacteria.

    KAUST Repository

    Weinitschke, Sonja; Sharma, Pia I; Stingl, Ulrich; Cook, Alasdair M; Smits, Theo H M

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) is dissimilated by diverse bacteria. Growth of Cupriavidus necator H16 with isethionate was observed, as was inducible membrane-bound isethionate dehydrogenase (IseJ) and inducible transcription of the genes predicted to encode IseJ and a transporter (IseU). Biodiversity in isethionate transport genes was observed and investigated by transcription experiments.

  16. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  17. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 26 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : co-infection * faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  18. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in Central African Republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, D.; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  19. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely

  20. file 7

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemotherapy using effective drugs and constitute major public health and deworming campaigns targeted at high risk ... They are classified among the therapies in school children have produced neglected tropical ... anthelminthic drug is the main stay of including hookworm (Necator americanus, programmes aimed at the ...

  1. Organisational Problems in Planning Educational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    Papers submitted to a meeting of economists, educators, and government officials discuss the organizational implications of the link between education and economic growth. Following an introduction by Henning Friis, the authors and titles of the papers are (1) Necat Erder, "Some Administrative Problems in Educational Planning," (2) Raymond…

  2. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  3. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obruča, S.; Sedláček, P.; Mravec, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Nebesářová, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kučera, D.; Benešová, P.; Hrubanová, Kamila; Milerová, M.; Márová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 39, OCT (2017), s. 68-80 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) * PHB * cupriavidus necator * hyperosmotic conditions * plasmolysis * stress conditions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; CE - Biochemistry (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering; Electrical and electronic engineering (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  4. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová‑Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, D.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Co-infection * Faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * Malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  5. Metabarcoding analysis of strongylid nematode diversity in two sympatric primate species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pafčo, B.; Čížková, Dagmar; Kreisinger, Jakub; Hasegawa, H.; Vallo, Peter; Shutt, K.; Todd, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 5933. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : western lowland gorillas * oesophagostomum-bifurcum nematoda * internal transcribed spacer * necator-americanus * gut microbiome * gastrointestinal parasites * epidemiologic implications * ancylostoma-duodenale * nonhuman-primates * small ruminants Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Genome sequencing reveals metabolic and cellular interdependence in an amoeba-kinetoplastid symbiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanifuji, G.; Cenci, U.; Moog, D.; Dean, S.; Nakayama, T.; David, Vojtěch; Fiala, Ivan; Curtis, B.A.; Sibbald, S. J.; Onodera, N. T.; Colp, M.; Flegontov, Pavel; Johnson-MacKinnon, J.; McPhee, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Kelly, S.; Gull, K.; Lukeš, Julius; Archibald, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, SEP 15 (2017), č. článku 11688. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S; GA MŠk LL1601 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : trypanosoma-brucei reveals * hidden markov model * neoparamoeba-pemaquidensis * gill disease * phylogenetic analyses * ichthyobodo-necator * gene prediction * host control * evolution * proteomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Strategies for RUN1 Deployment Using RUN2 and REN2 to Manage Grapevine Powdery Mildew Informed by Studies of Race Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Kocsis, Marianna; Riaz, Summaira; Zhang, Wei; Gadoury, David M; Walker, M Andrew; Dry, Ian B; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2015-08-01

    The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat gene, "resistance to Uncinula necator 1" (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic V. vinifera cultivars. However, sporulating powdery mildew colonies and cleistothecia of the heterothallic pathogen have been found on introgression lines containing the RUN1 locus growing in New York (NY). Two E. necator isolates collected from RUN1 vines were designated NY1-131 and NY1-137 and were used in this study to inform a strategy for durable RUN1 deployment. In order to achieve this, fitness parameters of NY1-131 and NY1-137 were quantified relative to powdery mildew isolates collected from V. rotundifolia and V. vinifera on vines containing alleles of the powdery mildew resistance genes RUN1, RUN2, or REN2. The results clearly demonstrate the race specificity of RUN1, RUN2, and REN2 resistance alleles, all of which exhibit programmed cell death (PCD)-mediated resistance. The NY1 isolates investigated were found to have an intermediate virulence on RUN1 vines, although this may be allele specific, while the Musc4 isolate collected from V. rotundifolia was virulent on all RUN1 vines. Another powdery mildew resistance locus, RUN2, was previously mapped in different V. rotundifolia genotypes, and two alleles (RUN2.1 and RUN2.2) were identified. The RUN2.1 allele was found to provide PCD-mediated resistance to both an NY1 isolate and Musc4. Importantly, REN2 vines were resistant to the NY1 isolates and RUN1REN2 vines combining both genes displayed additional resistance. Based on these results, RUN1-mediated resistance in grapevine may be enhanced by pyramiding with RUN2.1 or REN2; however, naturally occurring isolates in North America display some virulence on vines with these resistance genes. The characterization of additional resistance sources is needed to identify

  8. Waste cooking oil as substrate for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate: Turning waste into a value-added product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Improper disposal of domestic wastes, such as waste cooking oil (WCO, contributes to the deterioration of the environment and may lead to health problems. In this study, we evaluated the potential of plant-based WCO as a carbon source for the commercial biosynthesis of the bio-plastics, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate. The consumption of WCO for this purpose would mitigate their pollution of the environment at the same time.Methodology and Results: WCO collected from several cafeterias in USM was tested as the carbon source for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA production. A selection of suitable nitrogen source was first conducted in order to obtain an acceptable number of dry cell weight (DCW and PHA content. Urea was found to be a suitable nitrogen source for the two bacterial strains used in our study, Cupriavidus necator H16 and its transformed mutant, C. necator PHB¯4 harboring the PHA synthase gene of Aeromonas caviae (PHB¯4/pBBREE32d13. With WCO as the sole carbon source, C. necator H16 yielded a relatively good dry cell weight (DCW=25.4 g/L, with 71 wt% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HBcontent. In comparison, the DCW obtained with fresh cooking oil (FCO was 24.8 g/L. The production of poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx] from WCO by the transformant C. necator PHB¯4 was comparable, yielding a DCW of 22.3 g/L and P(3HB-co-3HHx content of 85 wt%. Lipase activities for both bacterial strains reached a maximum after 72 h of cultivation when time profile was conducted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of WCO as a carbon source in the biosynthesis of the bioplastic, PHA, turns a polluting domestic waste into a value-added biodegradable product. This renewable source material can thus be exploited for the low cost production of PHA.

  9. EFECTO DEL ALBENDAZOL Y LA VITAMINA A PERIÓDICOS SOBRE HELMINTOS INTESTINALES Y ANEMIA EN NIÑOS DEL URABÁ ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Correa-Botero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Problema: En Colombia no hay informes sobre efectos en humanos del tratamiento periódico antihelmíntico-vitamina A. Objetivo: Evaluar efectos de albendazol/pamoato de pirantel-vitamina A trimestrales sobre Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus y sobre niveles séricos de retinol y hemoglobina, en niños del Urabá antioqueño. Metodología: Estudio clínico, aleatorio, con grupos paralelos, cerrado, intervenidos y evaluados cada 3-4 meses por 4 veces, seguidos 12 meses. Inte...

  10. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Salem Al Rowaihi

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS.

  11. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem; Paillier, Alexis; Rasul, Shahid; Karan, Ram; Grötzinger, Stefan Wolfgang; Eppinger, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:29698424

  12. Metabolic engineering to expand the substrate spectrum of Pseudomonas putida toward sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Schmauder, Lukas; Hobmeier, Karina; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2017-08-01

    Sucrose is an important disaccharide used as a substrate in many industrial applications. It is a major component of molasses, a cheap by-product of the sugar industry. Unfortunately, not all industrially relevant organisms, among them Pseudomonas putida, are capable of metabolizing sucrose. We chose a metabolic engineering approach to circumvent this blockage and equip P. putida with the activities necessary to consume sucrose. Therefore, we constructed a pair of broad-host range mini-transposons (pSST - sucrose splitting transposon), carrying either cscA, encoding an invertase able to split sucrose into glucose and fructose, or additionally cscB, encoding a sucrose permease. Introduction of cscA was sufficient to convey sucrose consumption and the additional presence of cscB had no further effect, though the sucrose permease was built and localized to the membrane. Sucrose was split extracellularly by the activity of the invertase CscA leaking out of the cell. The transposons were also used to confer sucrose consumption to Cupriavidus necator. Interestingly, in this strain, CscB acted as a glucose transporter, such that C. necator also gained the ability to grow on glucose. Thus, the pSST transposons are functional tools to extend the substrate spectrum of Gram-negative bacterial strains toward sucrose. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A new biological recovery approach for PHA using mealworm, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Paramasivam; Han, Lizhu; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2016-12-10

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules. Comparison with chloroform extraction showed no signs of reduction in the molecular weight and dispersion of the PHA molecules. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the biologically recovered PHA granules retained their native spherical morphology. The PHA granules were subjected to a battery of tests to determine their purity and properties in comparison to the chloroform extracted PHA. This study has demonstrated the possibility of using mealworms as a biological agent to partially purify the PHA granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from renewable resources of agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Ugwu, Charles U

    2014-08-01

    This work describes potential opportunities for utilization of agro-industrial residues to produce green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Wheat straws were examined with good efficacy of carbon substrates using Cupriavidus necator. Production was examined in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) in the presence and absence of WS hydrolysis enzymes, and in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes. Results showed that production of PHB in SSF was more efficient in terms of viable cell count, cell dry weight, and PHB production and yield compared to those of SHF and glucose-control cultures. While glucose control experiment produced 4.6 g/L PHB; SSF produced 10.0 g/L compared to 7.1 g/L in SHF when utilizing enzymes during WS hydrolysis. Results showed that most of sugars produced during the hydrolysis were consumed in SHF (~98 %) compared to 89.2 % in SSF. Results also demonstrated that a combination of glucose and xylose can compensate for the excess carbon required for enhancing PHB production by C. necator. However, higher concentration of sugars at the beginning of fermentation in SHF can lead to cell inhibition and consequently catabolite repressions. Accordingly, results demonstrated that the gradual release of sugars in SSF enhanced PHB production. Moreover, the presence of sugars other than glucose and xylose can eliminate PHB degradation in medium of low carbon substrate concentrations in SSF.

  15. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nebesarova, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Hrubanova, Kamila; Milerova, Miluse; Marova, Ivana

    2017-10-25

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) intracellularly as a storage material. It has also been proposed that PHB accumulation improves bacterial stress resistance. Cupriavidus necator and its PHB non-accumulating mutant were employed to investigate the protective role of PHB under hypertonic conditions. The presence of PHB granules enhanced survival of the bacteria after exposure to hypertonic conditions. Surprisingly, when coping with such conditions, the bacteria did not utilize PHB to harvest carbon or energy, suggesting that, in the osmotic upshock of C. necator, the protective mechanism of PHB granules is not associated with their hydrolysis. The presence of PHB granules influenced the overall properties of the cells, since challenged PHB-free cells underwent massive plasmolysis accompanied by damage to the cell membrane and the leakage of cytoplasm content, while no such effects were observed in PHB containing bacteria. Moreover, PHB granules demonstrated "liquid-like" properties indicating that they can partially repair and stabilize cell membranes by plugging small gaps formed during plasmolysis. In addition, the level of dehydration and changes in intracellular pH in osmotically challenged cells were less pronounced for PHB-containing cultures, demonstrating the important role of PHB for bacterial survival under hyperosmotic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem

    2018-04-26

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  17. Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. (Ichthyobodonidae, Kinetoplastida), an euryhaline ectoparasite infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISAKSEN, TROND E.; KARLSBAKK, EGIL; WATANABE, KUNINORI; NYLUND, ARE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have previously revealed the existence of 2 Ichthyobodo species able to infect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Ichthyobodo necator sensu stricto (s.s.) is assumed to be a freshwater parasite, while a genetically distinct but undescribed species, Ichthyobodo sp. II sensu Todal et al. (2004) have been detected on Atlantic salmon in both fresh- and seawater. In the present study a morphological description of Ichthyobodo sp. II from the gills of salmon reared in fresh-, brackish- and seawater is presented, using both light- and electron microscopy. Comparative morphometry show that Ichthyobodo sp. II from both freshwater and seawater displays a different cell shape, and is significantly smaller than I. necator s.s. Also, ultrastructural characteristics distinguish these two species, notably differences in the attachment region and the presence of spine-like surface projections in Ichthyobodo sp. II. Based on both unique SSU rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we conclude that Ichthyobodo sp. II. represents a novel species for which we propose the name Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. PMID:21756424

  18. A dose-effect analysis of children's exposure to dental amalgam and neuropsychological function: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Daniel, David; Zhang, Annie; Tavares, Mary A; McKinlay, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) was a five-year randomized trial of 534 6- to 10-year-old children that compared the neuropsychological outcomes of those whose caries were restored using dental amalgam with the outcomes of those those whose caries were restored using mercury-free resin-based composite. The primary intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant differences between the treatment groups on the primary or secondary outcomes of the administered psychological tests: Full-Scale IQ score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, General Memory Index of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and Visual-Motor Composite of the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities. To determine whether treatment group assignment, a dichotomous measure of exposure, was sufficiently sensitive to detect associations between mercury exposure and these outcomes, the authors conducted analyses to evaluate the associations between the primary and secondary outcomes and two continuously distributed indexes of potential exposure, surface-years of amalgam and urinary mercury excretion. Neither index of mercury exposure was significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The authors found no evidence that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam was associated with any adverse neuropsychological effects over the five-year period after placement of amalgam restorations. Analyses of the outcomes of the NECAT study indicate that use of dental amalgam was not associated with an increase in children's risk of experiencing neuropsychological dysfunction.

  19. Biotechnological strategies to improve production of microbial poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate): a review of recent research work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, C; Castillo, T; García, A; Millán, M; Segura, D

    2014-07-01

    Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] is a polyester synthesized as a carbon and energy reserve material by a wide number of bacteria. This polymer is characterized by its thermo-plastic properties similar to plastics derived from petrochemical industry, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Furthermore, P(3HB) is an inert, biocompatible and biodegradable material which has been proposed for several uses in medical and biomedical areas. Currently, only few bacterial species such as Cupriavidus necator, Azohydromonas lata and recombinant Escherichia coli have been successfully used for P(3HB) production at industrial level. Nevertheless, in recent years, several fermentation strategies using other microbial models such as Azotobacter vinelandii, A. chroococcum, as well as some methane-utilizing species, have been developed in order to improve the P(3HB) production and also its mean molecular weight. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  1. Formation of palladium(0) nanoparticles at microbial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunge, Michael; Søbjerg, Lina S; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2010-01-01

    ) nanoparticles were still deposited on autoclaved cells of C. necator that had no hydrogenase activity, suggesting a hydrogenase-independent formation mechanism. The catalytic properties of Pd(0) and bioPd(0) were determined by the amount of hydrogen released in a reaction with hypophosphite. Generally, bioPd(0...... potential. Hitherto, bacteria with the property of dissimilatory metal reduction have been in focus, although the biochemical reactions linking enzymatic Pd(II) reduction and Pd(0) deposition have not yet been identified. In this study we investigated Pd(II) reduction with formate as the electron donor......) demonstrated a lower level of activity than the Pd(0) control, possibly due to the inaccessibility of the Pd(0) fraction embedded in the cell envelope. Our results demonstrate the suitability of bacterial cells for the recovery of Pd(0), and formation and immobilization of Pd(0) nanoparticles inside the cell...

  2. [Geohelminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in children from a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, India using a semi-nested PCR-RFLP tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Santosh; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Kattula, Deepthi; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Kang, Gagandeep; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    It is generally assumed that hookworm infections in humans are caused by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. However, previous studies have also reported the presence of the animal hookworm A. ceylanicum in human stools. We determined hookworm infections in children in a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, India, using a semi-nested PCR-RFLP approach. The results indicate that human species account for a majority of the hookworm infections (N. americanus 39/41 [95%]; A. duodenale 6/41 [15%]), whereas the animal hookworm A. ceylanicum only accounts for a minority of the infections (5%; 2/41). The results emphasize the need to consider zoonotic ancylostomiasis while developing strategies to control hookworm infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. SBRC-Nottingham: sustainable routes to platform chemicals from C1 waste gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Alan; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SBRC)-Nottingham (www.sbrc-nottingham.ac.uk) was one of the first three U.K. university-based SBRCs to be funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the recommendations made in the U.K.'s Synthetic Biology Roadmap. It was established in 2014 and builds on the pioneering work of the Clostridia Research Group (CRG) who have previously developed a range of gene tools for the modification of clostridial genomes. The SBRC is primarily focussed on the conversion of single carbon waste gases into platform chemicals with a particular emphasis on the use of the aerobic chassis Cupriavidus necator. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  6. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eNesler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB, against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  7. Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Retinoblastoma-Related Gene from Chinese Wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifeng; Gao, Min; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hui; Walter, Monika; Xu, Weirong; Bassett, Carole; Wang, Xiping

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, play important roles in cell differentiation, development, and mammalian cell death; however, little is known of their function in plants. In this study, a RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild grape, Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang clone "Baihe-35-1", and designated as VpRBR . The cDNA sequence of VpRBR was 3,030 bp and contained an open reading frame of 3,024 bp. Conceptual translation of this gene indicated a composition of 1,007 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 117.3 kDa. The predicted protein showed a retinoblastoma-associated protein domain A from amino acid residues 416 to 579, and domain B from residues 726 to 855. The result of expression analysis indicated that VpRBR was expressed in tissues, leaves, stem, tendrils, flower, and grape skin at different expression levels. Further quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) data indicated that VpRBR levels were higher in Erysiphe necator-treated "Baihe-35-1" and "Baihe-13-1", two resistant clones of Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata , than in E. necator-treated "Hunan-1", a susceptible clone of V. pseudoreticulata . Furthermore, the expression of VpRBR in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene (Eth) in grape leaves was also investigated. Taken together, these data indicate that VpRBR may contribute to some aspect of powdery mildew resistance in grape.

  8. Activity of oxantel pamoate monotherapy and combination chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and hookworms: revival of an old drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Keiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. METHODOLOGY: We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI = 2.53. Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively. A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15 was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be

  9. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; Perazzolli, Michele; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Elad, Yigal; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB), against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  11. Kontaminasi Telur Cacing pada Sayur dan Upaya Pencegahannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables

  12. intestinal nematodes of medical importance in Colombia: a solved problem? Nemátodos intestinales de importancia médica en Colombia: ¿un problema resuelto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Zuluaga Espinosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites, in general, constitute a great worldwide, public health problem. Of them, nematodes are among the most outstanding in Colombia. Because these parasites can enter into the organism either by ingestion or through the skin, faulty hygienic-sanitary habits facilitate their transmission and conservation. Among nematodosis the more frequent in Colombia are those caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm, hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis. When the burden of these parasites is considerably high and/or is accompanied by alterations in host defenses, complications can take place that seriously affect health. Presently it is known that pharmacological control of these nematodosis is effective and safe. Nevertheless, without selfcare, and maintenance of good hygienic-sanitary conditions, their eradication will not be feasible. This review of outstanding aspects of nematodosis, with emphasis on their biology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and some epidemiologic data, intends to update physicians as a basis for adequate management of this problem. Las enteroparasitosis, en general, constituyen un gran problema de salud pública en el mundo. De éstas, las nematodosis figuran entre las más destacadas en Colombia. Debido a que estos parásitos pueden ingresar al organismo por vía oral o por la piel, los hábitos higiénico-sanitarios deficientes, entre ellos el fecalismo, facilitan su transmisión y conservación. Entre las nematodosis más prevalentes en nuestro país tenemos aquéllas causadas por Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura (tricocéfalo, uncinarias (Necator americanus y Ancylostoma duodenale y Strongyloides stercoralis. Cuando la carga de dichos parásitos es considerablemente alta o se acompaña de alteraciones en las defensas del hospedero, se pueden producir complicaciones que comprometen seriamente

  13. Investigation of miscibility of p(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) and epoxidized natural rubber blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Faridah; Chan, Chin Han; Natarajan, Valliyappan David [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] produced by C. necator PHB{sup −}4 harboring phaC{sub cs} from crude palm kernel oil with 21 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% of epoxy content (ENR-25) were used to study the miscibility of the blends by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers used were purified and the blends were prepared by solution casting method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirm the purity and molecular structures of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25. FTIR spectra for different compositions of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25 blends show absorbance change of the absorbance bands but with no significant shifting of the absorbance bands as the P(3HB-co-3HHx) content decreases, which shows that there is no intermolecular interaction between the parent polymer blends. On top of that, there are two T{sub g}s present for the blends and both remain constant for different compositions which corresponds to the T{sub g}s of the parent polymers. This indicates that the blends are immiscible.

  14. The Molecular Level Characterization of Biodegradable Polymers Originated from Polyethylene Using Non-Oxygenated Polyethylene Wax as a Carbon Source for Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David; Adamus, Grazyna; Kwiecień, Iwona; Zięba, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; Green, Matthew; Kowalczuk, Marek; Radecka, Iza

    2017-08-28

    There is an increasing demand for bio-based polymers that are developed from recycled materials. The production of biodegradable polymers can include bio-technological (utilizing microorganisms or enzymes) or chemical synthesis procedures. This report demonstrates the corroboration of the molecular structure of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) obtained by the conversion of waste polyethylene (PE) via non-oxygenated PE wax (N-PEW) as an additional carbon source for a bacterial species. The N-PEW, obtained from a PE pyrolysis reaction, has been found to be a beneficial carbon source for PHA production with Cupriavidus necator H16. The production of the N-PEW is an alternative to oxidized polyethylene wax (O-PEW) (that has been used as a carbon source previously) as it is less time consuming to manufacture and offers fewer industrial applications. A range of molecular structural analytical techniques were performed on the PHAs obtained; which included nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Our study showed that the PHA formed from N-PEW contained 3-hydroxybutyrate (HB) with 11 mol% of 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) units.

  15. Taxonomy of the genus Cupriavidus: a tale of lost and found.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Peter; Coenye, Tom

    2004-11-01

    DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and an evaluation of phenotypic characteristics, DNA base ratios and 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that Wautersia eutropha (Davies 1969) Vaneechoutte et al. 2004, the type species of the genus Wautersia, is a later synonym of Cupriavidus necator Makkar and Casida 1987, the type species of the genus Cupriavidus. In conformity with Rules 15, 17, 23a and 37a(1) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, the genus name Cupriavidus has priority over the genus name Wautersia, and all other members of the genus Wautersia are reclassified into Cupriavidus as Cupriavidus basilensis comb. nov. (type strain LMG 18990(T)=DSM 11853(T)), Cupriavidus campinensis comb. nov. (type strain LMG 19282(T)=CCUG 44526(T)), Cupriavidus gilardii comb. nov. (type strain LMG 5886(T)=CCUG 38401(T)), Cupriavidus metallidurans comb. nov. (type strain LMG 1195(T)=DSM 2839(T)), Cupriavidus oxalaticus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2235(T)=CCUG 2086(T)=DSM 1105(T)), Cupriavidus pauculus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 3244(T)=CCUG 12507(T)), Cupriavidus respiraculi comb. nov. (type strain LMG 21510(T)=CCUG 46809(T)) and Cupriavidus taiwanensis comb. nov. (type strain LMG 19424(T)=CCUG 44338(T)).

  16. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of miscibility of p(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) and epoxidized natural rubber blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Faridah; Chan, Chin Han; Natarajan, Valliyappan David

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] produced by C. necator PHB − 4 harboring phaC cs from crude palm kernel oil with 21 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% of epoxy content (ENR-25) were used to study the miscibility of the blends by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers used were purified and the blends were prepared by solution casting method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirm the purity and molecular structures of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25. FTIR spectra for different compositions of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25 blends show absorbance change of the absorbance bands but with no significant shifting of the absorbance bands as the P(3HB-co-3HHx) content decreases, which shows that there is no intermolecular interaction between the parent polymer blends. On top of that, there are two T g s present for the blends and both remain constant for different compositions which corresponds to the T g s of the parent polymers. This indicates that the blends are immiscible

  18. Investigation of miscibility of p(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyhexanoate) and epoxidized natural rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Faridah; Chan, Chin Han; Natarajan, Valliyappan David

    2015-08-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] produced by C. necator PHB-4 harboring phaCcs from crude palm kernel oil with 21 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and epoxidized natural rubber with 25 mol% of epoxy content (ENR-25) were used to study the miscibility of the blends by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymers used were purified and the blends were prepared by solution casting method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirm the purity and molecular structures of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25. FTIR spectra for different compositions of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and ENR-25 blends show absorbance change of the absorbance bands but with no significant shifting of the absorbance bands as the P(3HB-co-3HHx) content decreases, which shows that there is no intermolecular interaction between the parent polymer blends. On top of that, there are two Tgs present for the blends and both remain constant for different compositions which corresponds to the Tgs of the parent polymers. This indicates that the blends are immiscible.

  19. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J McSorley

    Full Text Available We present immunological data from two clinical trials where the effect of experimental human hookworm (Necator americanus infection on the pathology of celiac disease was evaluated. We found that basal production of Interferon- (IFN-γ and Interleukin- (IL-17A from duodenal biopsy culture was suppressed in hookworm-infected participants compared to uninfected controls. Increased levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the circulation and mucosa are associated with active celiac disease. We show that this accumulation also occurs during a short-term (1 week oral gluten challenge, and that hookworm infection suppressed the increase of circulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during this challenge period. When duodenal biopsies from hookworm-infected participants were restimulated with the immunodominant gliadin peptide QE65, robust production of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A was detected, even prior to gluten challenge while participants were strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet. Intriguingly, IL-5 was produced only after hookworm infection in response to QE65. Thus we hypothesise that hookworm-induced TH2 and IL-10 cross-regulation of the TH1/TH17 inflammatory response may be responsible for the suppression of these responses during experimental hookworm infection.

  20. Identification of Inhibitors in Lignocellulosic Slurries and Determination of Their Effect on Hydrocarbon-Producing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic slurries, evaluate high-throughput screening strategies, and investigate the impact of inhibitors on potential hydrocarbon-producing microorganisms. Compounds present in slurries that could inhibit microbial growth were identified through a detailed analysis of saccharified slurries by applying a combination of approaches of high-performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS, LC-DAD-MS, and ICP-MS. Several high-throughput assays were then evaluated to generate toxicity profiles. Our results demonstrated that Bioscreen C was useful for analyzing bacterial toxicity but not for yeast. AlamarBlue reduction assay can be a useful high-throughput assay for both bacterial and yeast strains as long as medium components do not interfere with fluorescence measurements. In addition, this work identified two major inhibitors (furfural and ammonium acetate for three potential hydrocarbon-producing bacterial species that include Escherichia coli, Cupriavidus necator, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630, which are also the primary inhibitors for ethanologens. This study was strived to establish a pipeline to quantify inhibitory compounds in biomass slurries and high-throughput approaches to investigate the effect of inhibitors on microbial biocatalysts, which can be applied for various biomass slurries or hydrolyzates generated through different pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes or different microbial candidates.

  1. PENGOBATAN INFEKSI CACING USUS YANG DITULARKAN DENGAN PERANTARAAN TANAH (SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS, DENGAN PYRANTEL PAMOATE, DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerhajati S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of pyrantel pamoate in controlling soil transmitted helminthic infection has been studied in a sample of population on low socio-economic level, consisting of workers of the Madukismo Suger Estate and their families. Pyrantel pamoate proved to be more effective to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm than to Trichuris trichiura infection. The cure rates found were 90.2%, 57.5% and 3.7% for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura respectively, while in the hookworm infection the drug was more effective to Ancylostomiasis duodenale than to Necator americanus. The result of the study showed, that 6 months after treatment was still found a reduction of the prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection to 27.2% (from 74.4% to 47.2% and a reduction of the egg count from 6352 to 3348 per gram of stool. After one year the prevalence rate and the intensity of Ascaris infection reached almost the same level as that before treatment. As regards the hookworm infection, it seemed that the treatment was still effective after a period of one year. Prior to the treatment the prevalence rate was 36.3% and the egg count was J37 per gram of stool, while one year after treatment they were still reduced to 23.97c and 39 respectively.

  2. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  3. Sophorolipid biosurfactants: Possible uses as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz De Rienzo, Mayri A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dolman, Ben; Winterburn, James; Martin, Peter J

    2015-12-25

    Biosurfactants are amphipathic, surface-active molecules of microbial origin which accumulate at interfaces reducing interfacial tension and leading to the formation of aggregated micellular structures in solution. Some biosurfactants have been reported to have antimicrobial properties, the ability to prevent adhesion and to disrupt biofilm formation. We investigated antimicrobial properties and biofilm disruption using sophorolipids at different concentrations. Growth of Gram negative Cupriavidus necator ATCC 17699 and Gram positive Bacillus subtilis BBK006 were inhibited by sophorolipids at concentrations of 5% v/v with a bactericidal effect. Sophorolipids (5% v/v) were also able to disrupt biofilms formed by single and mixed cultures of B. subtilis BBK006 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 under static and flow conditions, as was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that sophorolipids may be promising compounds for use in biomedical application as adjuvants to other antimicrobial against some pathogens through inhibition of growth and/or biofilm disruption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection, anthropometrics, nutritional status, and physical work capacity in Colombian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W.M.; Dufour, D.L.; Staten, L.K.; Barac-Nieto, M.; Reina, J.C.; Spurr, G.B.

    1999-11-01

    This article tests the hypothesis that the presence of gastrointestinal parasites in Colombian boys is negatively associated with anthropometric characteristics, physical work capacity, blood hemoglobin (Hb) levels, and nutritional status. Anthropometric, Hb, &Vdot;O(2) max, and parasite load data were collected on 1,016 boys in Cali, Colombia. The boys were classified as lower socioeconomic class (SEC) from either urban or rural environments, and upper SEC from an urban environment. Sixty-three percent of the boys were infected with gastrointestinal parasites and, of the infected boys, 80-95% had light parasite loads. Parasites found included Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia spp., and Enterobius vermicularis. Infected boys had significantly lower weight, stature, weight-for-height (among 6-9-year-old boys), Hb levels, and &Vdot;O(2) max (ANCOVA, controlling for age and SEC). In terms of nutritional status, infected boys were 1.47 times more likely to be classified as iron deficient than noninfected boys (chi-square, P nutritional status of populations in regions endemic for parasitic infection should include testing for the presence of infection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:763-771, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  6. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  7. Preliminary neutron and X-ray crystallographic studies of equine cyanomethemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Fisher, S. Zoe; Seaver, Sean; Mustyakimov, Marat; Sukumar, Narayanasami; Langan, Paul; Mueser, Timothy C.; Hanson, B. Leif

    2010-01-01

    Equine cyanomethemoglobin has been crystallized and X-ray and neutron diffraction data have been measured. Joint X-ray–neutron refinement is under way; the structural results should help to elucidate the differences between the hemoglobin R and T states. Room-temperature and 100 K X-ray and room-temperature neutron diffraction data have been measured from equine cyanomethemoglobin to 1.7 Å resolution using a home source, to 1.6 Å resolution on NE-CAT at the Advanced Photon Source and to 2.0 Å resolution on the PCS at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, respectively. The cyanomethemoglobin is in the R state and preliminary room-temperature electron and neutron scattering density maps clearly show the protonation states of potential Bohr groups. Interestingly, a water molecule that is in the vicinity of the heme group and coordinated to the distal histidine appears to be expelled from this site in the low-temperature structure

  8. Effect of red clay on diesel bioremediation and soil bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Choi, Sungjong; Hong, Hyerim; Sung, Jung-Suk; Park, Woojun

    2014-08-01

    Red clay is a type of soil, the red color of which results from the presence of iron oxide. It is considered an eco-friendly material, with many industrial, cosmetic, and architectural uses. A patented method was applied to red clay in order to change its chemical composition and mineral bioavailability. The resulting product was designated processed red clay. This study evaluates the novel use of red clay and processed red clay as biostimulation agents in diesel-contaminated soils. Diesel biodegradation was enhanced in the presence of red clay and processed red clay by 4.9- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and the number of culturable bacterial cells was correlated with the amount of diesel biodegradation. The growth of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, and Cupriavidus necator was promoted by both types of red clays. Culture-independent community analysis determined via barcoded pyrosequencing indicated that Nocardioidaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Caulobacteraceae were enriched by diesel contamination. Bacterial strain isolation from naphthalene- and liquid paraffin-amended media was affiliated with enriched taxa based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity. We suggest that the biostimulating mechanism of red clay and processed red clay is able to support bacterial growth without apparent selection for specific bacterial species.

  9. Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.

  10. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  11. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  12. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  13. Cloning and Expression of the PHA Synthase Gene From a Locally Isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubalan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromobacterium sp. USM2, a locally isolated bacterium was found to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate, P(3HB-co-3HV copolymer with high 3HV monomer composition. The PHA synthase gene was cloned and expressed in Cupriavidus necator PHB¯4 to investigate the possibilities of incorporating other monomer. The recombinant successfully incorporated 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx monomer when fed with crude palm kernel oil (CPKO as the sole carbon source. Approximately 63 ± 2 wt% of P(3HB-co-3HHx copolymer with 4 mol% of 3HHx was synthesized from 5 g/L of oil after 48 h of cultivation. In addition, P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHx terpolymer with 9 mol% 3HV and 4 mol% 3HHx could be synthesized with a mixture of CPKO and sodium valerate. The presence of 3HV and 3HHx monomers in the copolymer and terpolymer was further confirmed with +H-NMR analysis. This locally isolated PHA synthase has demonstrated its ability to synthesize P(3HB-co-3HHx copolymer from a readily available and renewable carbon source; CPKO, without the addition of 3HHx precursors.

  14. Biorefinery production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate using waste office paper hydrolysate as feedstock for microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, Annamalai; Al-Battashi, Huda; Al-Bahry, Saif; Nallusamy, Sivakumar

    2018-01-10

    Waste paper, a major fraction of municipal solid waste, has a potential to serve as renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials due to rich in cellulose and abundant at low cost. This study evaluates the possibility of waste office paper (WOP) to serve as a potential feedstock for the biorefinery production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, the WOP was pretreated, enzymatically saccharified and the hydrolysate was used for PHB production. The hydrolysate mainly consists of glucose (22.70g/L) and xylose (1.78g/L) and the corresponding sugar yield was about 816mg/g. Ammonium sulphate and C/N ratio 20 were identified as most favorable for high yield of PHB. The batch fermentation of Cupriavidus necator using the pretreated WOP hydrolysate resulted in cell biomass, PHB production and PHB content of 7.74g/L, 4.45g/L and 57.52%, respectively. The volumetric productivity and yield achieved were 0.061g/L/h and 0.210g/g sugar, respectively. The results suggested that WOP could be a potential alternative feedstock for the biorefinery production of bioplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Malaria and helminthic co-infection among HIV-positive pregnant women: prevalence and effects of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J; Rucogoza, Aniceth T; Osuwat, Lawrence O; Munyazesa, Elizaphane; Mutimura, Eugene; Njunwa, Kato J; Zambezi, Kakoma J B; Grobusch, Martin P

    2012-12-01

    The impact of malaria on anemia and the interplay with helminths underline the importance of addressing the interactions between HIV/AIDS, malaria and intestinal helminth infections in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria-helminth dual infections among HIV positive pregnant mothers after 12 months of ART. A cross sectional study was conducted on intestinal helminths and malaria dual infections among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal health centers in Rwanda. Stool and malaria blood slide examinations were performed on 328 women residing in rural (n=166) and peri-urban locations (n=162). BMI, CD4 cell count, hemoglobin levels, type of ART and viral load of participants were assessed. Within the study group, 38% of individuals harbored helminths, 21% had malaria and 10% were infected with both. The most prevalent helminth species were Ascaris lumbricoides (20.7%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (1.2%). Helminth infections were characterized by low hemoglobin and CD4 counts. Subjects treated with a d4T, 3TC, NVP regimen had a reduced risk of T. trichiura infection (OR, 0.27; 95% CIs, 0.10-0.76; pHIV-positive pregnant women in Rwanda. The differential effect of ARTs on the risk of helminth infection is of interest and should be examined prospectively in larger patient groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  17. Direct Production of Propene from the Thermolysis of Poly(..beta..-hydroxybutyrate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi M.; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    To transform biomass components into hydrocarbon fuels it is clear that there are two main transformations that need to occur, i.e., deoxygenation and carbon chain extension. The potential routes for decreasing the oxygen content of biomass intermediates include dehydration, hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation. One route that is examined here is the conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) to alkenes that would be intermediates to hydrocarbon fuels.Thermal breakdown of PHA proceeds via an intermediate carboxylic acid, which can then be decarboxylated to an alkene. Oligomerization of alkenes by well-known commercial technologies would permit production of a range of hydrocarbon fuels from a carbohydrate derived intermediate. Moreover, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be produced in Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) and Alcaligenes eutrophus on a variety of carbon sources including glucose, fructose and glycerol with PHB accumulation reaching 75 percent of dry cell mass. We conducted thermal conversion of PHB and pure crotonic acid (CA), the intermediate carboxylic acid produced by thermal depolymerization of PHB, in a flow-through reactor. The results of initial experiments on the thermal conversion of CA showed that up to 75 mole percent yields of propene could be achieved by optimizing the residence time and temperature of the reactor. Further experiments are being investigated to optimize the reactor parameters and enhance propene yields via thermal conversion of PHB.

  18. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  19. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapua, Mwanahamisi I; Pafčo, Barbora; Burgunder, Jade; Profousová-Pšenková, Ilona; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Qablan, Moneeb A; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára J

    2017-04-26

    Although a high genetic diversity of Plasmodium spp. circulating in great apes has been revealed recently due to non-invasive methods enabling detection in faecal samples, little is known about the actual mechanisms underlying the presence of Plasmodium DNA in faeces. Great apes are commonly infected by strongylid nematodes, including hookworms, which cause intestinal bleeding. The impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium DNA in faeces was assessed in wild, western, lowland gorillas from Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and eastern chimpanzees from Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. Fifty-one faecal samples from 22 habituated gorillas and 74 samples from 15 habituated chimpanzees were analysed using Cytochrome-b PCR assay and coprological methods. Overall, 26.4% of the analysed samples were positive for both Plasmodium spp. and strongylids. However, the results showed no significant impact of intensity of infections of strongylids on detection of Plasmodium DNA in gorilla and chimpanzee faeces. Bleeding caused by strongylid nematode Necator spp. cannot explain the presence of Plasmodium DNA in ape faeces.

  20. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  1. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  2. Opening a Can of Worms: Leprosy Reactions and Complicit Soil-Transmitted Helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, Deanna A; Parajuli, Pawan; Kunwar, Chhatra B; Rana, Divya R S J B; Thapa, Ruby; Neupane, Kapil D; Nicholls, Peter; Adams, Linda B; Geluk, Annemieke; Shah, Mahesh; Napit, Indra B

    2017-09-01

    >94% of new annual leprosy cases are diagnosed in populations co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH). STH can profoundly dysregulate host immune responses towards Th2 bias, which can be restored over time after deworming. We hypothesize that STH co-infection is associated with leprosy reaction (denoted as simply "reaction" herein) occurrence within a co-endemic population. A cohort study was performed on a cohort of Nepalese leprosy patients across treatment and diagnostic classifications who were screened by routine fecal smear microscopy and multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss), Ancyclostoma duodenale (Ad) and Necator americanus (Na). Among 145 patients, 55% were positive for ≥1 STH (STH+): 34% Al+, 18% Ss+, 17% Ad+and 5% Na+. Significant inverse STH and reaction relationships were evidenced by the bulk of cases: 63% reaction-negative were STH+ of total cases (p=0.030) while 65% reaction-positive were STH- in new cases (96; p=0.023). Strikingly, the majority of STH+ were reaction-negative, even when considering each species: 59% Al+, 60% Ss+, 62% Ad+and 67% Na+of new leprosy cases. Absence of STH co-infection is associated with leprosy reaction at diagnosis within a co-endemic population. This is likely due to immune reconstitution effects after deworming or interruption of chronic STH-mediated immune dysregulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  4. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  5. Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Yared; Tefera, Mesfin; Mekonnen, Walelign; Abebe, Dawit; Woldekidan, Samuel; Abebe, Abiy; Belete, Yehualashet; Menberu, Temesgen; Belayneh, Bethelhem; Tesfaye, Berhanu; Nasir, Ibrahim; Yirsaw, Kidist; Basha, Hirut; Dawit, Asrat; Debella, Asfaw

    2015-06-18

    Embelia schimperi has been used for the treatment of intestinal parasites especially tapeworm infestations for centuries in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of scientific based evidences regarding the efficacy, safety and phytochemical analysis of this plant despite its frequent use as an anthelmintic. This study has therefore evaluated the efficacy and acute toxicity of E. schimperi thereby generating relevant preclinical information. The anthelmintic activities of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the isolated compound, embelin, were conducted using in vivo and in vitro models against the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana, and the hookworm, Necator americanus, respectively. LD50 of the crude hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Swiss albino mice following the OECD guidelines. Chemical characterization of the isolated embelin was conducted using UV-spectroscopy, HPLC and NMR. In the acute toxicity study no prominent signs of toxicity and mortality were recorded among the experimental animals at the highest administered dose. Hence the LD50 of the plant was found to be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In vivo cestocidal activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi showed 100% parasite clearance at 1000 mg/kg, while the diammonium salt of embelin showed 85.3% parasite clearance at 750 mg/kg. The in vitro anthelminthic activity study revealed that the LC50 value of the crude extract and albendazole were 228.7 and 51.33 μg/mL, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the diammonium salt of the isolated compound embelin had anthelmintic activity against hookworm larva in vitro and H. nana in vivo. Hence the findings of this study showed Embelia schimperi appears to possess some anthelmintic activity that may support the usage of these plants by local traditional healers to treat helminthic infestations.

  6. New transposon tools tailored for metabolic engineering of Gram-negative microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban eMartínez-García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena, but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5 vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin. After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the

  7. Simultaneous biodegradation of three mononitrophenol isomers by a tailor-made microbial consortium immobilized in sequential batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H; Zhang, J-J; Xu, Y; Chao, H-J; Zhou, N-Y

    2017-03-01

    The ortho-nitrophenol (ONP)-utilizing Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215, meta-nitrophenol (MNP)-utilizing Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and para-nitrophenol (PNP)-utilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 were assembled as a consortium to degrade three nitrophenol isomers in sequential batch reactors. Pilot test was conducted in flasks to demonstrate that a mixture of three mononitrophenols at 0·5 mol l -1 each could be mineralized by this microbial consortium within 84 h. Interestingly, neither ONP nor MNP was degraded until PNP was almost consumed by strain WBC-3. By immobilizing this consortium into polyurethane cubes, all three mononitrophenols were continuously degraded in lab-scale sequential reactors for six batch cycles over 18 days. Total concentrations of ONP, MMP and PNP that were degraded were 2·8, 1·5 and 2·3 mol l -1 during this time course respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that each member in the microbial consortium was relatively stable during the entire degradation process. This study provides a novel approach to treat polluted water, particularly with a mixture of co-existing isomers. Nitroaromatic compounds are readily spread in the environment and pose great potential toxicity concerns. Here, we report the simultaneous degradation of three isomers of mononitrophenol in a single system by employing a consortium of three bacteria, both in flasks and lab-scale sequential batch reactors. The results demonstrate that simultaneous biodegradation of three mononitrophenol isomers can be achieved by a tailor-made microbial consortium immobilized in sequential batch reactors, providing a pilot study for a novel approach for the bioremediation of mixed pollutants, especially isomers present in wastewater. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Biochemical Characterization and Vaccine Potential of a Heme-Binding Glutathione Transferase from the Adult Hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bin; Liu, Sen; Perally, Samirah; Xue, Jian; Fujiwara, Ricardo; Brophy, Peter; Xiao, Shuhua; Liu, Yueyuan; Feng, Jianjun; Williamson, Angela; Wang, Yan; Bueno, Lilian L.; Mendez, Susana; Goud, Gaddam; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Hawdon, John M.; Loukas, Alex; Jones, Karen; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection. PMID:16177370

  9. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Jill B.; Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P.; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2–8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines. PMID:28192438

  10. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A James Daveson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between hygiene and prevalence of autoimmune disease has been attributed in part to enteric helminth infection. A pilot study of experimental infection with the hookworm Necator americanus was undertaken among a group of otherwise healthy people with celiac disease to test the potential of the helminth to suppress the immunopathology induced by gluten. METHODS: In a 21-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we explored the effects of N. americanus infection in 20 healthy, helminth-naïve adults with celiac disease well controlled by diet. Staged cutaneous inoculations with 10 and 5 infective 3(rd stage hookworm larvae or placebo were performed at week-0 and -12 respectively. At week-20, a five day oral wheat challenge equivalent to 16 grams of gluten per day was undertaken. Primary outcomes included duodenal Marsh score and quantification of the immunodominant α-gliadin peptide (QE65-specific systemic interferon-γ-producing cells by ELISpot pre- and post-wheat challenge. RESULTS: Enteric colonisation with hookworm established in all 10 cases, resulting in transiently painful enteritis in 5. Chronic infection was asymptomatic, with no effect on hemoglobin levels. Although some duodenal eosinophilia was apparent, hookworm-infected mucosa retained a healthy appearance. In both groups, wheat challenge caused deterioration in both primary and several secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental N. americanus infection proved to be safe and enabled testing its effect on a range of measures of the human autoimmune response. Infection imposed no obvious benefit on pathology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00671138.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasite infections and self-medication in wild chimpanzees surviving in degraded forest fragments within an agricultural landscape mosaic in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R McLennan

    Full Text Available Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode. DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella. To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.. Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than

  12. Peptide-based subunit vaccine against hookworm infection.

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    Mariusz Skwarczynski

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect more people than HIV and malaria combined, predominantly in third world countries. Treatment of infection with chemotherapy can have limited efficacy and re-infections after treatment are common. Heavy infection often leads to debilitating diseases. All these factors suggest an urgent need for development of vaccine. In an attempt to develop a vaccine targeting the major human hookworm, Necator americanus, a B-cell peptide epitope was chosen from the apical enzyme in the hemoglobin digestion cascade, the aspartic protease Na-APR-1. The A(291Y alpha helical epitope is known to induce neutralizing antibodies that inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1, thus reducing the capacity for hookworms to digest hemoglobin and obtain nutrients. A(291Y was engineered such that it was flanked on both termini by a coil-promoting sequence to maintain native conformation, and subsequently incorporated into a Lipid Core Peptide (LCP self-adjuvanting system. While A(291Y alone or the chimeric epitope with or without Freund's adjuvants induced negligible IgG responses, the LCP construct incorporating the chimeric peptide induced a strong IgG response in mice. Antibodies produced were able to bind to and completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1. The results presented show that the new chimeric LCP construct can induce effective enzyme-neutralising antibodies in mice, without the help of any additional toxic adjuvants. This approach offers promise for the development of vaccines against helminth parasites of humans and their livestock and companion animals.

  13. A Bayesian approach to assessing the uncertainty in estimating bioconcentration factors in earthworms--the example of quinoxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, George; Merli, Annalisa; Reeves, Graham; Meregalli, Giovanna; Stenberg, Kristofer; Tanaka, Taku; Capri, Ettore

    2011-06-01

    Quinoxyfen is a fungicide of the phenoxyquinoline class used to control powdery mildew, Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr. Owing to its high persistence and strong sorption in soil, it could represent a risk for soil organisms if they are exposed at ecologically relevant concentrations. The objective of this paper is to predict the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of quinoxyfen in earthworms, selected as a representative soil organism, and to assess the uncertainty in the estimation of this parameter. Three fields in each of four vineyards in southern and northern Italy were sampled over two successive years. The measured BCFs varied over time, possibly owing to seasonal changes and the consequent changes in behaviour and ecology of earthworms. Quinoxyfen did not accumulate in soil, as the mean soil concentrations at the end of the 2 year monitoring period ranged from 9.16 to 16.0 µg kg⁻¹ dw for the Verona province and from 23.9 to 37.5 µg kg⁻¹ dw for the Taranto province, with up to eight applications per season. To assess the uncertainty of the BCF in earthworms, a probabilistic approach was used, firstly by building with weighted bootstrapping techniques a generic probabilistic density function (PDF) accounting for variability and incompleteness of knowledge. The generic PDF was then used to derive prior distribution functions, which, by application of Bayes' theorem, were updated with the new measurements and a posterior distribution was finally created. The study is a good example of probabilistic risk assessment. The means of mean and SD posterior estimates of log BCFworm (2.06, 0.91) are the 'best estimate values'. Further risk assessment of quinoxyfen and other phenoxyquinoline fungicides and realistic representative scenarios for modelling exercises required for future authorization and post-authorization requirements can now use this value as input. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jozef; Behnke, Jerzy M; Albonico, Marco; Ame, Shaali Makame; Angebault, Cécile; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Engels, Dirk; Guillard, Bertrand; Nguyen, Thi Viet Hoa; Kang, Gagandeep; Kattula, Deepthi; Kotze, Andrew C; McCarthy, James S; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Montresor, Antonio; Periago, Maria Victoria; Sumo, Laurentine; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Levecke, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol. Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2%) followed by hookworms (87.8%) and T. trichiura (46.6%). There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country), by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment). The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5%) and hookworms (94.8%) but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%), and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country), but not by sex or age. Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means) of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for this parasite. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087099.

  15. Hyperendemic H. pylori and tapeworm infections in a U.S.-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Victor M; Mena, Kristina D; Ortiz, Melchor; Karri, Sitrulasi; Variyam, Easwaran; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Snowden, Karen F; Flisser, Ana; Bristol, John R; Mayberry, Lillian F; Ortega, Ynes R; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Campos, Armando; Graham, David Y

    2010-01-01

    A higher incidence of infectious disease has been documented in U.S. regions bordering Mexico compared with non-border areas. We assessed the prevalence of important gastrointestinal infections in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, the largest binational community along the U.S.-Mexico border. Fecal specimens from a sample of the asymptomatic population representing all ages were tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and other intestinal parasitic pathogens using flotation, immunoassays, and/or polymerase chain reaction. We also measured indicators of microbiological contamination of drinking water, hands of food preparers, and kitchen surfaces. Overall, of the 386 participants, H. pylori was present in 38.2%, Taenia spp. in 3.3%, Giardia spp. in 2.7%, Cryptosporidium spp. in 1.9%, Entamoeba dispar in 1.3%, and Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus in 0.3% of the study subjects; Cyclospora spp. and Entamoeba histolytica were not found. H. pylori infection was associated with handwashing (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 1.8). Taenia spp. was found more often on the U.S. side (PR=8.6, 95% CI 2.3, 30.8). We did not find an association between these infections and the occurrence of total coliforms or fecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces. In addition, Escherichia coli was not found in any drinking water sample. The study results indicated that H. pylori and Taenia spp. infections may be highly prevalent along the U.S.-Mexico border. Additional research is necessary to adequately characterize the prevalence, as well as determine whether interventions that reduce these infections are warranted.

  16. Transcriptional expression of Stilbene synthase genes are regulated developmentally and differentially in response to powdery mildew in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ru; Ge, Hui; Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2012-12-01

    Stilbenic compounds are natural phytoalexins that have antimicrobial activities in plant defense against pathogens. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of stilbenic compounds. Grapevine genome contains a family of preliminarily annotated 35 STS genes, the regulation of each STS gene needs to be studied to define their roles. In this study, we selected eight STS genes, STS8, STS27/31, STS16/22, STS13/17/23, and applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to characterize their transcriptional expression profiles in leaf tissues upon infection by the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr. Their transcripts were also compared in young and old leaves as well as in the berry skin at five developmental stages in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and Vitis aestivalis 'Norton'. The results showed that transcripts of selected STS genes increased significantly in Cabernet Sauvignon leaves at 24 and 48 h post inoculation with PM spores and remained unchanged in Norton leaves in response to the PM infection. Transcripts of STS8, STS27/31 and STS13/17/23 were more abundant in the old leaves of Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon. STS genes showed lower expression levels in young leaves than in old leaves. Transcript levels of the eight STS genes increased drastically in the berry skin of Cabernet Sauvignon and Norton post véraison. In addition, the content of trans-resveratrol in the berry skin rapidly increased post véraison and reached the highest level at harvest. These assays demonstrated that individual STS genes are regulated differentially in response to PM infection and during development in the two grape varieties. The present study yields basic knowledge for further investigation of the regulation and function of each STS gene in grapevine and provides experimental evidences for the functional annotation of the STS gene family in the grapevine genome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  17. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Santosh George

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored.As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013-2015, a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100% was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8% and A. duodenale (8.4%. Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4% and A. ceylanicum (27.9% were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%.In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir.

  18. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  19. TIMPs of parasitic helminths - a large-scale analysis of high-throughput sequence datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Hofmann, Andreas; Pickering, Darren; Navarro, Severine; Mitreva, Makedonka; Loukas, Alex

    2013-05-30

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are a multifunctional family of proteins that orchestrate extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodelling and other cellular processes. In parasitic helminths, such as hookworms, TIMPs have been proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay, including invasion of and establishment in the vertebrate animal hosts. Currently, knowledge of helminth TIMPs is limited to a small number of studies on canine hookworms, whereas no information is available on the occurrence of TIMPs in other parasitic helminths causing neglected diseases. In the present study, we conducted a large-scale investigation of TIMP proteins of a range of neglected human parasites including the hookworm Necator americanus, the roundworm Ascaris suum, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as the schistosome blood flukes. This entailed mining available transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets for the presence of homologues of known TIMPs, predicting secondary structures of defined protein sequences, systematic phylogenetic analyses and assessment of differential expression of genes encoding putative TIMPs in the developmental stages of A. suum, N. americanus and Schistosoma haematobium which infect the mammalian hosts. A total of 15 protein sequences with high homology to known eukaryotic TIMPs were predicted from the complement of sequence data available for parasitic helminths and subjected to in-depth bioinformatic analyses. Supported by the availability of gene manipulation technologies such as RNA interference and/or transgenesis, this work provides a basis for future functional explorations of helminth TIMPs and, in particular, of their role/s in fundamental biological pathways linked to long-term establishment in the vertebrate hosts, with a view towards the development of novel approaches for the control of neglected helminthiases.

  20. Biochemical characterization of ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by alcohol dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates, which consist of sugars and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Before yeast ferments sugars to ethanol, it reduces toxic furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol in a prolonged lag phase. Bioreduction of furfural may shorten the lag phase. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (FurX) at the expense of ethanol (Li et al. 2011). The mechanism of the ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by FurX and three homologous alcohol dehydrogenases was investigated. The reduction consisted of two individual reactions: ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+) to NADH and then NADH-dependent reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. The kinetic parameters of the coupled reaction and the individual reactions were determined for the four enzymes. The data indicated that limited NADH was released in the coupled reaction. The enzymes had high affinities for NADH (e.g., K ( d ) of 0.043 μM for the FurX-NADH complex) and relatively low affinities for NAD(+) (e.g., K ( d ) of 87 μM for FurX-NAD(+)). The kinetic data suggest that the four enzymes are efficient "furfural reductases" with either ethanol or NADH as the reducing power. The standard free energy change (ΔG°') for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural was determined to be -1.1 kJ mol(-1). The physiological benefit for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural is likely to replace toxic and recalcitrant furfural with less toxic and more biodegradable acetaldehyde.

  1. Expanding molecular diagnostics of helminthiasis: Piloting use of the GPLN platform for surveillance of soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in Ghana.

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    Lucas J Cunningham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to control and eradicate polio as a global health burden have been successful to the point where currently only three countries now report endemic polio, and the number of cases of polio continues to decrease. The success of the polio programme has been dependant on a well-developed network of laboratories termed the global polio laboratory network (GPLN. Here we explore collaborative opportunities with the GPLN to target two of the 18 diseases listed as a neglected tropical diseases (NTD namely soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH and Schistosomiasis (SCH. These were chosen based on prevalence and the use of faecal materials to identify both polio, STH and SCH. Our study screened 448 faecal samples from the Ghana GPLN using three triplex TaqMan assays to identify Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp, Trichuris trchiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. Our results found a combined helminth prevalence of 22%. The most common helminth infection was A. lumbricoides with a prevalence of 15% followed by N. americanus (5%, Ancylostoma spp. (2.5%, Schistosoma spp. (1.6% and S. stercoralis (1%. These results show that it is possible to identify alternative pathogens to polio in the samples collected by the GPLN platform and to introduce new diagnostic assays to their laboratories. The diagnostic methods employed were also able to identify S. stercoralis positive samples, which are difficult to identify using parasitological methods such as Kato-Katz. This study raises the possibility of collaboration with the GPLN for the surveillance of a wider range of diseases which would both benefit the efforts to control the NTDs and also increase the scope of the GPLN as a diagnostic platform.

  2. Whole genome amplification approach reveals novel polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases (PhaCs) from Japan Trench and Nankai Trough seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Choon Pin; Lau, Nyok-Sean; Deguchi, Shigeru; Toyofuku, Takashi; Taylor, Todd D; Sudesh, Kumar; Matsui, Minami

    2014-12-24

    Special features of the Japanese ocean include its ranges of latitude and depth. This study is the first to examine the diversity of Class I and II PHA synthases (PhaC) in DNA samples from pelagic seawater taken from the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough from a range of depths from 24 m to 5373 m. PhaC is the key enzyme in microorganisms that determines the types of monomer units that are polymerized into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and thus affects the physicochemical properties of this thermoplastic polymer. Complete putative PhaC sequences were determined via genome walking, and the activities of newly discovered PhaCs were evaluated in a heterologous host. A total of 76 putative phaC PCR fragments were amplified from the whole genome amplified seawater DNA. Of these 55 clones contained conserved PhaC domains and were classified into 20 genetic groups depending on their sequence similarity. Eleven genetic groups have undisclosed PhaC activity based on their distinct phylogenetic lineages from known PHA producers. Three complete DNA coding sequences were determined by IAN-PCR, and one PhaC was able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in recombinant Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 (PHB-negative mutant). A new functional PhaC that has close identity to Marinobacter sp. was discovered in this study. Phylogenetic classification for all the phaC genes isolated from uncultured bacteria has revealed that seawater and other environmental resources harbor a great diversity of PhaCs with activities that have not yet been investigated. Functional evaluation of these in silico-based PhaCs via genome walking has provided new insights into the polymerizing ability of these enzymes.

  3. New Transposon Tools Tailored for Metabolic Engineering of Gram-Negative Microbial Cell Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Esteban; Aparicio, Tomás; Lorenzo, Víctor de; Nikel, Pablo I.

    2014-01-01

    Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5-vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s) into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic-resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin). After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5-vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the structural genes.

  4. Isolation of phyllosilicate-iron redox cycling microorganisms from an illite-smectite rich hydromorphic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate-Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O(2) as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O(2), each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with [Formula: see text] as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate-Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil.

  5. Isolation of Phyllosilicate–Iron Redox Cycling Microorganisms from an Illite–Smectite Rich Hydromorphic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate–Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite–smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate–Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate–Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate–Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

  6. The diversity and impact of hookworm infections in wildlife

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    Mauricio Seguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the alimentary system of mammals. Despite their high pathogenic potential, little is known about their diversity and impact in wildlife populations. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on hookworm infections of wildlife and analyzed 218 studies qualitative and quantitatively. At least 68 hookworm species have been described in 9 orders, 24 families, and 111 species of wild mammals. Black bears, red foxes, and bobcats harbored the highest diversity of hookworm species and Ancylostoma pluridentatum, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala and Necator americanus were the hookworm species with the highest host diversity index. Hookworm infections cause anemia, retarded growth, tissue damage, inflammation and significant mortality in several wildlife species. Anemia has been documented more commonly in canids, felids and otariids, and retarded growth only in otariids. Population- level mortality has been documented through controlled studies only in canines and eared seals although sporadic mortality has been noticed in felines, bears and elephants. The main driver of hookworm pathogenic effects was the hookworm biomass in a population, measured as prevalence, mean burden and hookworm size (length. Many studies recorded significant differences in prevalence and mean intensity among regions related to contrasts in local humidity, temperature, and host population density. These findings, plus the ability of hookworms to perpetuate in different host species, create a dynamic scenario where changes in climate and the domestic animal-human-wildlife interface will potentially affect the dynamics and consequences of hookworm infections in wildlife. Keywords: Ancylostoma, Hookworm, Uncinaria, Pathology, Epidemiology, Wildlife

  7. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

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    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  8. Contaminación por enteroparásitos en tres hortalizas frescas expendidas en el Mercado Municipal de Los Bloques de Maturín, Monagas, Venezuela

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    Genette Belloso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la contaminación por enteroparásitos en hortalizas que se consumen frescas, expendidas en el Mercado Municipal de Los Bloques de la ciudad de Maturín, Estado Monagas, Venezuela, se evaluaron 115 muestras de lechuga (40, perejil (40 y berro (35, procedentes de cinco puestos del mercado escogidos al azar. Las muestras se trasladaron en bolsas plásticas transparentes y estériles al Laboratorio de Microbiología ubicado en el Campus Los Guaritos de la Universidad de Oriente, Núcleo Monagas, se procesaron según la técnica de sedimentación - flotación de Faust modificada para este trabajo y se hicieron las observaciones microscópicas. El 53,04 % de las muestras presentaron contaminación, siendo el perejil la hortaliza más prevalente con 72,50 %. Los parásitos intestinales identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron Balantidium coli (62,50 % en el perejil; 71,42 % en el berro y 12,50 % en la lechuga y Necator americanus (12,50 % en el perejil. Se demostró la presencia de enteroparásitos en las muestras de lechuga, perejil y berro; y se concluye que la elevada frecuencia de contaminación encontrada en las hortalizas evaluadas representa un riesgo potencial para la salud de los consumidores. Se recomienda implementar buenas prácticas de manejo en toda la cadena de producción, distribución y preparación para garantizar un producto de calidad a los consumidores.

  9. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

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    Lynn Meurs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared.A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303 was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC, Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96% harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49% harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%, the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected.We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence

  10. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Lynn; Polderman, Anton M; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Brienen, Eric A T; Verweij, Jaco J; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H; Langenberg, Marijke C C; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared. A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303) was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC), Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96%) harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49%) harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%), the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected. We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence, there is a

  11. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in a peri-urban area. These results will contribute to more accurate epidemiological survey, refined treatment strategies on a public scale, and better health outcomes in endemic settings.

  12. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

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    Jill B Brelsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus, so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  13. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

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    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  14. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

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    Aprilianto E Wiria

    Full Text Available Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects.We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections.From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L, insulin (pmol/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance.424 (66% participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03 and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05. In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01. This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07.STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  15. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

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    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  16. New Transposon Tools Tailored for Metabolic Engineering of Gram-Negative Microbial Cell Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Esteban; Aparicio, Tomás; Lorenzo, Víctor de; Nikel, Pablo I., E-mail: pablo.nikel@cnb.csic.es [Systems and Synthetic Biology Program, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-28

    Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5-vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s) into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic-resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin). After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5-vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the structural genes.

  17. The Risk of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders Following Acute Infection with Intestinal Parasites

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    Jason Blitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious gastroenteritis (IGE is caused by numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. A history of IGE has been shown in previous studies to increase the risk of developing chronic gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic conditions. As bacteria and viruses represent the majority of pathogen-specific causes of IGE, post-infectious studies have primarily focused on these organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between a history of parasite-associated IGE and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders in a military population.Methods: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnostic coding data for primary exposures and outcomes were obtained for a retrospective cohort study of active component military personnel from 1998 to 2013. Exposed subjects consisted of individuals with documented infection with one of ten parasitic pathogens. Unexposed subjects were matched to exposed subjects on demographic and operational deployment history parameters. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were estimated using logistic regression for several chronic disorders previously shown to be associated with a history of IGE.Results: A total of 896 subjects with a parasitic exposure were matched to 3681 unexposed subjects for multivariate regression analysis. Individuals infected with Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale, and Taenia spp. had higher aOR for development of several chronic gastrointestinal disorders when compared with unexposed subjects after controlling for various covariates.Conclusion: We found that parasite-associated enteric infection increases the risk of development of post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disorders in a military population. These results require confirmation in similar populations and in the

  18. Foliar nectar enhances plant-mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Porturas, Laura D; Taylor, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant-mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58-80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant-mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Expanding molecular diagnostics of helminthiasis: Piloting use of the GPLN platform for surveillance of soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Lucas J; Odoom, John; Pratt, Deborah; Boatemaa, Linda; Asante-Ntim, Nana; Attiku, Keren; Banahene, Bismarck; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Verweij, Jaco J; Molyneux, David; Stothard, Russell J; Adams, Emily R

    2018-01-01

    The efforts to control and eradicate polio as a global health burden have been successful to the point where currently only three countries now report endemic polio, and the number of cases of polio continues to decrease. The success of the polio programme has been dependant on a well-developed network of laboratories termed the global polio laboratory network (GPLN). Here we explore collaborative opportunities with the GPLN to target two of the 18 diseases listed as a neglected tropical diseases (NTD) namely soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and Schistosomiasis (SCH). These were chosen based on prevalence and the use of faecal materials to identify both polio, STH and SCH. Our study screened 448 faecal samples from the Ghana GPLN using three triplex TaqMan assays to identify Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp, Trichuris trchiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. Our results found a combined helminth prevalence of 22%. The most common helminth infection was A. lumbricoides with a prevalence of 15% followed by N. americanus (5%), Ancylostoma spp. (2.5%), Schistosoma spp. (1.6%) and S. stercoralis (1%). These results show that it is possible to identify alternative pathogens to polio in the samples collected by the GPLN platform and to introduce new diagnostic assays to their laboratories. The diagnostic methods employed were also able to identify S. stercoralis positive samples, which are difficult to identify using parasitological methods such as Kato-Katz. This study raises the possibility of collaboration with the GPLN for the surveillance of a wider range of diseases which would both benefit the efforts to control the NTDs and also increase the scope of the GPLN as a diagnostic platform.

  20. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can

  1. Ralstonia eutropha's Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(PHB) polymerase PhaC1 and PHB depolymerase PhaZa1 are phosphorylated in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngert, Janina R; Patterson, Cameron; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2018-04-20

    In this study, we screened PHB synthase PhaC1 and PHB depolymerase PhaZa1 of Ralstonia eutropha for the presence of phosphorylated residues during the PHB accumulation and PHB degradation phase. Thr373 of PHB synthase PhaC1 was phosphorylated in the stationary growth phase but was not modified in the exponential and PHB accumulation phases. Ser35 of PHB depolymerase PhaZa1 was identified in phosphorylated form both in the exponential and in the stationary growth phase. Additional phosphosites were identified for both proteins in sample-dependent forms. Site-directed mutagenesis of the codon for Thr373 and other phosphosites of PhaC1 revealed a strong negative impact on PHB synthase activity. Modification of Thr26 and Ser35 of PhaZa1 reduced the ability of R. eutropha to mobilize PHB in the stationary growth phase. Our results show that phosphorylation of PhaC1 and PhaZa1 can be important for modulation of the activities of PHB synthase and PHB depolymerase. Importance Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are important intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds in many prokaryotes. The accumulation of PHB or PHAs increases the fitness of cells during periods of starvation and other stress conditions. The simultaneous presence of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase (PhaC1) and PHB depolymerase (PhaZa1) on synthesized PHB granules in Ralstonia eutropha (alternative designation Cupriavidus necator ) has been previously shown in several laboratories. These findings imply that the activities of PHB synthase and PHB depolymerase should be regulated to avoid a futile cycle of simultaneous synthesis and degradation of PHB. Here, we addressed this question by identifying phosphorylation sites on PhaC1 and PhaZa1 and by site-directed mutagenesis of identified residues. Furthermore, we conducted in vitro and in vivo analysis of PHB synthase activity and PHB contents. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  3. Size control and catalytic activity of bio-supported palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søbjerg, Lina Sveidal; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels; Finster, Kai; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2011-07-01

    The development of nanoparticles has greatly improved the catalytic properties of metals due to the higher surface to volume ratio of smaller particles. The production of nanoparticles is most commonly based on abiotic processes, but in the search for alternative protocols, bacterial cells have been identified as excellent scaffolds of nanoparticle nucleation, and bacteria have been successfully employed to recover and regenerate platinum group metals from industrial waste. We report on the formation of bio-supported palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of two bacterial species with distinctly different surfaces: the gram positive Staphylococcus sciuri and the gram negative Cupriavidus necator. We investigated how the type of bacterium and the amount of biomass affected the size and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles formed. By increasing the biomass:Pd ratio, we could produce bio-supported Pd nanoparticles smaller than 10nm in diameter, whereas lower biomass:Pd ratios resulted in particles ranging from few to hundreds of nm. The bio-supported Pd nanoparticle catalytic properties were investigated towards the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction and hydrogenation reactions. Surprisingly, the smallest nanoparticles obtained at the highest biomass:Pd ratio showed no reactivity towards the test reactions. The lack of reactivity appears to be caused by thiol groups, which poison the catalyst by binding strongly to Pd. Different treatments intended to liberate particles from the biomass, such as burning or rinsing in acetone, did not re-establish their catalytic activity. Sulphur-free biomaterials should therefore be explored as more suitable scaffolds for Pd(0) nanoparticle formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Julia B; Benton, Joanne; Julé, Amélie M; Guérin, Phillipe J; Olliaro, Piero L; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Walker, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale) which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD) permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance. We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data. We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV. We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for the

  6. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia B Halder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO's policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance.We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data.We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV.We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for

  7. Contaminación por enteroparásitos en tres hortalizas frescas expendidas en el Mercado Municipal de Los Bloques de Maturín, Monagas, Venezuela

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    Magalys Rivas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la contaminación por enteroparásitos en hortalizas que se consumen frescas, expendidas en el Mercado Municipal de Los Bloques de la ciudad de Maturín, Estado Monagas, Venezuela, se evaluaron 115 muestras de lechuga (40, perejil (40 y berro (35, procedentes de cinco puestos del mercado escogidos al azar. Las muestras se trasladaron en bolsas plásticas transparentes y estériles al Laboratorio de Microbiología ubicado en el Campus Los Guaritos de la Universidad de Oriente, Núcleo Monagas, se procesaron según la técnica de sedimentación - flotación de Faust modificada para este trabajo y se hicieron las observaciones microscópicas. El 53,04 % de las muestras presentaron contaminación, siendo el perejil la hortaliza más prevalente con 72,50 %. Los parásitos intestinales identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron Balantidium coli (62,50 % en el perejil; 71,42 % en el berro y 12,50 % en la lechuga y Necator americanus (12,50 % en el perejil. Se demostró la presencia de enteroparásitos en las muestras de lechuga, perejil y berro; y se concluye que la elevada frecuencia de contaminación encontrada en las hortalizas evaluadas representa un riesgo potencial para la salud de los consumidores. Se recomienda implementar buenas prácticas de manejo en toda la cadena de producción, distribución y preparación para garantizar un producto de calidad a los consumidores.

  8. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Arxula adeninivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Mateusz; Riechen, Jan; Hähnel, Urs; Roick, Thomas; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard

    2017-12-01

    (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid can be used in industrial and health applications. The synthesis pathway comprises two enzymes, β-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase which convert cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-3-HB] which is released into the culture medium. In the present study we used the non-conventional yeast, Arxula adeninivorans, for the synthesis enantiopure (R)-3-HB. To establish optimal production, we investigated three different endogenous yeast thiolases (Akat1p, Akat2p, Akat4p) and three bacterial thiolases (atoBp, thlp, phaAp) in combination with an enantiospecific reductase (phaBp) from Cupriavidus necator H16 and endogenous yeast reductases (Atpk2p, Afox2p). We found that Arxula is able to release (R)-3-HB used an existing secretion system negating the need to engineer membrane transport. Overexpression of thl and phaB genes in organisms cultured in a shaking flask resulted in 4.84 g L -1 (R)-3-HB, at a rate of 0.023 g L -1  h -1 over 214 h. Fed-batch culturing with glucose as a carbon source did not improve the yield, but a similar level was reached with a shorter incubation period [3.78 g L -1 of (R)-3-HB at 89 h] and the rate of production was doubled to 0.043 g L -1  h -1 which is higher than any levels in yeast reported to date. The secreted (R)-3-HB was 99.9% pure. This is the first evidence of enantiopure (R)-3-HB synthesis using yeast as a production host and glucose as a carbon source.

  9. Fe-phyllosilicate redox cycling organisms from a redox transition zone in Hanford 300 Area sediments

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    Jason eBenzine

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms capable of reducing or oxidizing structural iron (Fe in Fe-bearing phyllosilicate minerals were enriched and isolated from a subsurface redox transition zone at the Hanford 300 Area site in eastern Washington, USA. Both conventional and in situ i-chip enrichment strategies were employed. One Fe(III-reducing Geobacter (G. bremensis strain R1, Deltaproteobacteria and six Fe(II phyllosilicate-oxidizing isolates from the Alphaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains 22, is5, and in8p8, Betaproteobacteria (Cupriavidus necator strain A5-1, Dechloromonas agitata strain is5, and Actinobacteria (Nocardioides sp. strain in31 were recovered. The G. bremensis isolate grew by oxidizing acetate with the oxidized form of NAu-2 smectite as the electron acceptor. The Fe(II-oxidizers grew by oxidation of chemically reduced smectite as the energy source with nitrate as the electron acceptor. The Bradyrhizobium isolates could also carry out aerobic oxidation of biotite. This is the first report of the recovery of a Fe(II-oxidizing Nocardioides, and to date only one other Fe(II-oxidizing Bradyrhizobium is known. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates were similar to ones found in clone libraries from Hanford 300 sediments and groundwater, suggesting that such organisms may be present and active in situ. Whole genome sequencing of the isolates is underway, the results of which will enable comparative genomic analysis of mechanisms of extracellular phyllosilicate Fe redox metabolism, and facilitate development of techniques to detect the presence and expression of genes associated with microbial phyllosilicate Fe redox cycling in sediments.

  10. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-08-01

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013-2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir.

  11. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

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    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  12. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides, 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis, 40.4% for D. fragilis, 35.1% for G. intestinalis, and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar. Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs. microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis. Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar. The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between

  13. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth intensity of infection in Timor-Leste, using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; Wardell, Rebecca; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-03-01

    No investigations have been undertaken of risk factors for intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in Timor-Leste. This study provides the first analysis of risk factors for intensity of STH infection, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR), examining a broad range of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors, among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. A baseline cross-sectional survey of 18 communities was undertaken as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with additional identically-collected data from six other communities. qPCR was used to assess STH infection from stool samples, and questionnaires administered to collect WASH, demographic, and socioeconomic data. Environmental information was obtained from open-access sources and linked to infection outcomes. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk factors for intensity of Necator americanus and Ascaris infection. 2152 participants provided stool and questionnaire information for this analysis. In adjusted models incorporating WASH, demographic and environmental variables, environmental variables were generally associated with infection intensity for both N. americanus and Ascaris spp. Precipitation (in centimetres) was associated with increased risk of moderate-intensity (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-19.3) and heavy-intensity (ARR 6.6; 95% CI 3.1-14.1) N. americanus infection, as was sandy-loam soil around households (moderate-intensity ARR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-4.3; heavy-intensity ARR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.5; compared to no infection). For Ascaris, alkaline soil around the household was associated with reduced risk of moderate-intensity infection (ARR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51), and heavy-intensity infection (ARR 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.25). Few WASH risk factors were significant. In this high-prevalence setting, strong risk associations with environmental factors indicate that anthelmintic

  14. Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov., a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) accumulating bacterium isolated from the Malaysian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hema; Shafie, Nur Asilla Hani; Sudesh, Kumar; Azizan, Mohamad Noor; Majid, Mohamad Isa Abdul; Amirul, Al-Ashraf Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413 T , was 98.5%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with validly published names. The RiboPrint patterns of the three strains also revealed that the strains were genetically related even though they displayed a clonal diversity. The major cellular fatty acids detected in these strains included C15:0 ISO 2OH/C16:1 ω7c, hexadecanoic (16:0) and cis-11-octadecenoic (C18:1 ω7c). Their G+C contents ranged from 68.0  to 68.6 mol%, and their major isoprenoid quinone was Ubiquinone Q-8. Of these three strains, only strain USMAHM13 (= DSM 25816 = KCTC 32390) was discovered to exhibit yellow pigmentation that is characteristic of the carotenoid family. Their assembled genomes also showed that the three strains were not identical in terms of their genome sizes that were 7.82, 7.95 and 8.70 Mb for strains USMAHM13, USMAA1020 and USMAA2-4, respectively, which are slightly larger than that of Cupriavidus necator H16 (7.42 Mb). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicated that the strains were genetically related and the genome pairs belong to the same species. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the three strains are considered to represent a novel species for which the name Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The

  15. Observaciones sobre helmintiasis humanas adquiridas del suelo en la República de Colombia

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    Ernesto Carroll Faust

    1965-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Los datos presentados en este informe se obtuvieron decomunidades poco privilegiadas no seleccionadas de Colombia, tres en el sistema tributario del Valle del Cauca (Medellín, Cali y Popayán, una en el Valle del Magdalena (Bogotá, y otra a nivel del mar en la costa norte (Cartagena. 2. Hay en estas zonas relativamente pocas especies de helmintos que son contraídos por contacto del hombre con el suelo, a saber:Ascaris lumbricoides, Tricburis tricbiura, uncinaria (lo más probablemente Necator americanus }, Strongyloides stercoralis e Hymenolepis nana. 3. La incidencia de estas infecciones es alta, como resultado de la continua oportunidad de exposición dentro y fuera de las viviendas, debido al saneamiento deplorablemente bajo; sin embargo, la cantidad de parásitos basada en los recuentos de huevos varía apreciablemente en dos de los grupos estudiados, Cali y Cartagena. 4. En el Barrio Siloé, Cali, en un período de 5 años, durante el cual se practicaron análisis trimestrales de la prevalencia de helmintos, no hubo evidencia significativa de algún descenso en los índices de Ascaris y Tricburis, aunque durante el mismo período en consideración se impartió instrucción en higiene personal a las madres en el programa de medicina preventiva. 5. Basándose en las observaciones de Cali, Medellín y Cartagena, hay poca posibilidad de que estas helmintiasis sean reducidas apreciablemente sin una campaña general  perseverante que abarque los aspectos sanitarios y de salud pública del problema, para suministrar a cada vivienda agua potable, disposición satisfactoria de excretas humanas y basura, y una cantidad adecuada de alimento bien balanceado, especialmente a los niños de corta edad. 6. Sin estos requerimientos, todo intento de controlar y reducir las helmintiasis, tal como la administración en masa de antihelmínticos modernos, puede inicialmente presentar aspectos favorables, pero a la larga no se evitarán los

  16. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

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    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  17. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  18. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, novel etiological agent for traveler's diarrhea-report of four Japanese patients who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahide; Ouji, Yukiteru; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Akamatsu, Naoaki; Yoh, Takaharu; Kaya, Daisuke; Nakatani, Toshiya; Kikuchi, Eiryo; Katanami, Yuichi; Satoh, Kimitoshi; Maki, Ryosuke; Miyazato, Yusuke; Oba, Yuichiro; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries. We recently encountered four cases of A . ceylanicum infection in Japanese individuals who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who stayed in a rainforest in Malaysia for 4 weeks, where he developed abdominal pain and diarrhea in the third week. Eleven adult worms (five males, six females) were expelled after treatment with pyrantel pamoate and identified as A . ceylanicum based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male who spent 2 years as an overseas cooperation volunteer for agriculture in Papua New Guinea. He did not note any symptoms at that time, though eggs were detected in feces samples at a medical check-up examination after returning. Although collection of adult worms was unsuccessful, DNA analysis of the eggs for cox1 and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 genes demonstrated that they were A . ceylanicum. Case 3 was a 47-year-old male who spent 1 month in a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic and began suffering from watery diarrhea from the third week. A total of nine adult worms (three males, six females) were collected by endoscopic procedures and following treatment with pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination and molecular analyses of the cox1 gene showed that they were A . ceylanicum. Case 4 was a 27-year-old male who

  19. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  20. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

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    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  1. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz; Gray, Darren J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Gomes, Santina J.; Traub, Rebecca; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%). Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and

  2. Efficacy of recommended drugs against soil transmitted helminths: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

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    Moser, Wendelin; Schindler, Christian; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-09-25

    Objective  To evaluate efficacies of anthelmintic drugs against soil transmitted helminths in terms of cure rates and egg reduction rates. Design  Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data Sources  PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and the World Health Organization library database from 1960 until 31 December 2016. Study selection  Randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of a single dose regimen of albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate against Ascaris lumbricoides , hookworm ( Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale ) and Trichuris trichiura. The primary outcomes included cure rates analysed by network meta-analysis with mixed logistic regression models and egg reduction rates with mixed linear models. Results  55 and 46 randomised controlled trials were included in the analysis of cure rates and egg reduction rates, respectively. All drugs were highly efficacious against A lumbricoides Albendazole showed the highest efficacy against hookworm infections with a cure rate of 79.5% (95% confidence interval 71.5% to 85.6%) and an egg reduction rate of 89.6% (81.9% to 97.3%). All drugs had low efficacy against T trichiura , with mebendazole showing the highest cure rate of 42.1% (25.9% to 60.2%) and egg reduction rate of 66.0% (54.6% to 77.3%). Estimates for the years 1995 and 2015 showed significant reductions in efficacy of albendazole against T trichiura : by 2015 the egg reduction rates fell from 72.6% (53.7% to 91.5%) to 43.4% (23.5% to 63.3%; P=0.049) and the cure rates fell from 38.6% (26.2% to 52.7%) to 16.4 (7.7% to 31.3%; P=0.027). Conclusions  All four currently recommended drugs show limitations in their efficacy profile. While only albendazole showed good efficacy against hookworm infection, all drugs had low efficacy against T trichiura The decrease in efficacy of albendazole against T trichiura over the past two decades is of concern

  3. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

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    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of the Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine in Brazilian and American adults.

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    David J Diemert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Necator americanus Glutathione-S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1 plays a role in the digestion of host hemoglobin by adult N. americanus hookworms. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-GST-1 is associated with significant protection from challenge infection. Recombinant Na-GST-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Alhydrogel according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. Two Phase 1 trials were conducted in 142 healthy adult volunteers in the United States and Brazil, first in hookworm-naïve individuals and then in residents of a N. americanus endemic area in Brazil. Volunteers received one of three doses of recombinant Na-GST-1 (10, 30, or 100 μg adjuvanted with Alhydrogel, adjuvanted with Alhydrogel and co-administered with an aqueous formulation of Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF, or the hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccinations were administered via intramuscular injection on days 0, 56, and 112. Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel was well tolerated in both hookworm-naïve and hookworm-exposed adults, with the most common adverse events being mild to moderate injection site pain and tenderness, and mild headache and nausea; no vaccine-related severe or serious adverse events were observed. Antigen-specific IgG antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent fashion, with increasing levels observed after each vaccination in both trials. The addition of GLA-AF to Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel did not result in significant increases in specific IgG responses. In both the US and Brazil studies, the predominant IgG subclass induced against Na-GST-1 was IgG1, with lesser amounts of IgG3. Vaccination of both hookworm-naïve and hookworm-exposed adults with recombinant Na-GST-1 was safe, well tolerated, and resulted in significant antigen-specific IgG responses. Based on these results, this vaccine will be advanced into clinical trials in children and eventual efficacy studies.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01261130 for the Brazil trial

  5. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

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    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  6. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

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    Kefie-Arrey Charles

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08. The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309. Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%, but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16. All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53% complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11% had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%, Trichuris trichiura (6.47%, Necator americanus (2.27%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%, and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%. No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus, 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus

  7. MAPEAMENTO TECNOLÓGICO DO PROCESSO DE OBTENÇÃO DO PHB ATRAVÉS DA ANÁLISE DE PEDIDOS DE PATENTES

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    Larissa Alves de Sousa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os polihidroxialcanoatos (PHAs são os únicos polímeros de origem microbiana totalmente biodegradável. Eles são sintetizados por diversos microrganismos, possuindo, após extração, propriedades semelhantes ao polipropileno. O polihidroxibutirato (PHB é o polímero mais comum da família dos PHAs e historicamente é o que tem sido mais estudado, ele é obtido a partir da bactéria Cupriavidus necator por fermentação da glicose em meio limitante de fonte de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Devido à importância econômica deste biopolímero, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as potencialidades, características e evolução das competências tecnológicas, traduzidas através de documentos de patentes, no que diz respeito à obtenção do PHB no período de 1979 a 2010. Para tanto, foram analisados banco de dados do Espacenet, do Derwent Innovations Index, do United States Patent and Trademark Office e do Instituto Nacional de Propriedades Industrial. Foram realizadas buscas em relação à evolução anual das patentes depositadas, a origem da tecnologia, os detentores da tecnologia e principais inventores. Os códigos de Classificação Internacional de Patentes de maior incidência no Espacenet e no INPI são das classes C12 (bioquímica e mutações de engenharia genética e C08L (composições de compostos orgânicos macromoleculares, respectivamente. Nas bases pesquisadas, as empresas depositaram mais documentos que as universidades e os centros de pesquisa, sendo os anos de 2006 e 2009 os de maior relevância. Dos países pesquisados, os Estados Unidos foi o que apresentou maior número de registros (34%. O Brasil ainda possui poucas patentes na área, sendo necessários mais incentivos que visem aumentar o cenário inovativo do país.

  8. Impact of sulfur on density of Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a central California vineyard.

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    Costello, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took place in a 32 ha vineyard in Fresno County, and all fungicide applications were made with commercial-scale equipment. In 1998 a 'high sulfur' treatment, a combination of wettable sulfur and sulfur dust, was compared to 'low sulfur,' in which demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides partially substituted for sulfur. In 1999 treatments were 'sulfur,' 'DMI,' 'sulfur pre-bloom' (here sulfur was applied prior to grape bloom, in late May, and then DMIs were applied until mid-season) and 'sulfur post-bloom' (the reverse of 'sulfur pre-bloom'). In each year, the T. pacificus population increase came after the end of fungicide applications, and results clearly show a relationship between sulfur use and T. pacificus density. In 1998, mean T. pacificus density was 2.7 times higher and mean G. occidentalis density 2.5 times higher in 'high sulfur' compared to 'low sulfur.' In 1999, the highest T. pacificus counts were in the 'sulfur' and 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatments, 4.8 times higher than 'sulfur post-bloom' and 2 times higher than 'DMIs.' Density of G. occidentalis was 2.3 times as high in 'sulfur' or 'sulfur pre-bloom' than 'DMIs.' The predator/prey ratio was not significantly different among treatments in 1998, but in 1999 it was highest in the 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatment. In 1999, density of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari

  9. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

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    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  10. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  11. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals.

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    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7% and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003, walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; p<0.001 and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19-7.15; p = 0.009 were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. CONCLUSION: This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats populations.

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

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    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  13. Thermophilic Coenzyme B12-Dependent Acyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Mutase from Kyrpidia tusciae DSM 2912 Preferentially Catalyzes Isomerization of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA and 2-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA.

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    Weichler, Maria-Teresa; Kurteva-Yaneva, Nadya; Przybylski, Denise; Schuster, Judith; Müller, Roland H; Harms, Hauke; Rohwerder, Thore

    2015-07-01

    The recent discovery of a coenzyme B12-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) mutase isomerizing 3-hydroxybutyryl- and 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA in the mesophilic bacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 (N. Yaneva, J. Schuster, F. Schäfer, V. Lede, D. Przybylski, T. Paproth, H. Harms, R. H. Müller, and T. Rohwerder, J Biol Chem 287:15502-15511, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.314690) could pave the way for a complete biosynthesis route to the building block chemical 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid from renewable carbon. However, the enzyme catalyzes only the conversion of the stereoisomer (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA at reasonable rates, which seriously hampers an efficient combination of mutase and well-established bacterial poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) overflow metabolism. Here, we characterize a new 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA mutase found in the thermophilic knallgas bacterium Kyrpidia tusciae DSM 2912. Reconstituted mutase subunits revealed highest activity at 55°C. Surprisingly, already at 30°C, isomerization of (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was about 7,000 times more efficient than with the mutase from strain L108. The most striking structural difference between the two mutases, likely determining stereospecificity, is a replacement of active-site residue Asp found in strain L108 at position 117 with Val in the enzyme from strain DSM 2912, resulting in a reversed polarity at this binding site. Overall sequence comparison indicates that both enzymes descended from different prokaryotic thermophilic methylmalonyl-CoA mutases. Concomitant expression of PHB enzymes delivering (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (beta-ketothiolase PhaA and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase PhaB from Cupriavidus necator) with the new mutase in Escherichia coli JM109 and BL21 strains incubated on gluconic acid at 37°C led to the production of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid at maximal titers of 0.7 mM. Measures to improve production in E. coli, such as coexpression of the chaperone MeaH and repression of

  14. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely assessed due to limitations of currently used diagnostic methods. Using multiplex real-time PCR, we evaluated hookworm species-specific prevalence, infection load and their contribution towards severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi. Methodology and Findings A. duodenale and N. americanus DNA loads were determined in 830 fecal samples of pre-school children participating in a case control study investigating severe anemia. Using multiplex real-time PCR, hookworm infections were found in 34.1% of the severely anemic cases and in 27.0% of the non-severely anemic controls (panemia (adjusted odds ratio: 2.49 (95%CI 1.16–5.33) and 9.04 (95%CI 2.52–32.47) respectively). Iron deficiency (assessed through bone marrow examination) was positively associated with intensity of A. duodenale infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.63 (95%CI 1.18–11.20); 16.98 (95%CI 3.88–74.35) and 44.91 (95%CI 5.23–385.77) for low, moderate and high load respectively). Conclusions/Significance This is the first report assessing the association of hookworm load and species differentiation with severe anemia and bone marrow iron deficiency. By revealing a much higher than expected prevalence of A. duodenale and its significant and load-dependent association with severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi, we demonstrated the need for quantitative and species-specific screening of hookworm infections. Multiplex real-time PCR is a powerful diagnostic tool for public health research to combat (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children living in resource poor settings. PMID:22514750

  15. Puffy Skin Disease Is an Emerging Transmissible Condition in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Irene; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; van Aerle, Ronny; Paley, Richard K; Peeler, Edmund J; Green, Matthew; Rimmer, Georgina S E; Savage, Jacqueline; Joiner, Claire L; Bayley, Amanda E; Mewett, Jason; Hulland, Jonathan; Feist, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    The transmission of puffy skin disease (PSD) to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum was tested in the laboratory by conducting co-habitation challenges with puffy skin (PS)-affected fish (Trojans) collected from the field. Two separate challenges were conducted using Trojans sourced from two different sites and diploid (first trial) or triploid (second trial) naïve fish. PSD-specific clinical signs were observed in both groups of naïve fish, with 66% of the fish sampled during the challenges showing signs of varying severity. The first clinical features of PSD were presented as white oval skin patches on one or both flanks 15-21 days post-challenge (dpc). The extent of the lesions ranged from 10 to 90% of the body surface, depending on the severity of the lesion. Both the severity and number of affected fish increased during the challenge. Macroscopically, oedema of the skin and multifocal petechial haemorrhaging were observed towards the end of the trials. Abnormal fish behaviour consisting of "flashing" and excessive mucous production was noted from 15 dpc onwards. Fish with severe PSD lesions also displayed inappetence and associated emaciation. Rodlet cells were observed in 41% of the fresh skin scrapes analysed from the second trial. Histologically epidermal oedema was observed in 31% of the naive fish showing gross pathology, with additional 12% displaying epidermal hyperplasia, mostly observed at the end of the challenge. Other concomitant features of the PSD lesions in challenged fish were epithelial erosion and sloughing, and occasionally mild or focal inflammation. No consistent pathology of internal organs was observed. The parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Ichthyobodo necator were observed in skin samples of a proportion of naïve challenged fish and in Trojans but not in control fish. The presence of these and other known fish pathogens in the skin of PSD-fish was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing analysis. In summary, we have

  16. Impact of helminth diagnostic test performance on estimation of risk factors and outcomes in HIV-positive adults.

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    Michael B Arndt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional methods using microscopy for the detection of helminth infections have limited sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays enhance detection of helminths, particularly low burden infections. However, differences in test performance may modify the ability to detect associations between helminth infection, risk factors, and sequelae. We compared these associations using microscopy and PCR. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within a randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 sites in Kenya. We performed microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the stool detection and quantification of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma species. We utilized regression to evaluate associations between potential risk factors or outcomes and infection as detected by either method. RESULTS: Of 153 HIV-positive adults surveyed, 55(36.0% and 20(13.1% were positive for one or more helminth species by PCR and microscopy, respectively (p<0.001. PCR-detected infections were associated with farming (Prevalence Ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.40, communal water source (PR 3.80, 95% CI: 1.01, 14.27, and no primary education (PR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.33, whereas microscopy-detected infections were not associated with any risk factors under investigation. Microscopy-detected infections were associated with significantly lower hematocrit and hemoglobin (means of -3.56% and -0.77 g/dl and a 48% higher risk of anemia (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88 compared to uninfected. Such associations were absent for PCR-detected infections unless infection intensity was considered, Infections diagnosed with either method were associated with increased risk of eosinophilia (PCR PR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; microscopy PR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.60. CONCLUSION: Newer diagnostic methods, including PCR, improve the detection of helminth infections. This heightened sensitivity may improve the

  17. [Isolation and characterization of petroleum catabolic broad-host-range plasmids from Shen-Fu wastewater irrigation zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fei; Wang, Ya-Fei; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Based on triparental mating, we isolated a total of eight broad host range (BHR) petroleum hydrocarbon catabolic plasmids from the soils, sediments, and wastewater samples in the Shen-Fu irrigation zone. The antibiotic resistance of the plasmids was tested, and then, the plasmids were transferred to Escherichia coli EC100. The plasmids carrying no antibiotic resistance were tagged by miniTn5 transposon consisting of antibiotic resistant genes. The PCR-based incompatibility test revealed that the pS3-2C and pS4-6G belonged to Inc P group, the pS3-2G, pW22-3G, and pA15-7G belonged to Inc N group, the pS7-2G was identified as Inc W plasmid, and the pA23-1G and pA10-1C were placed into Inc Q group. By adopting the reported PCR amplification methods of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading catabolic genes, the petroleum-degrading capability of these BHR plasmids were preliminarily analyzed. The plasmids pS3-2G, pS7-2G, pA23-1G, pW22-3G, and pA10-1C carried aromatic ring- hydroxylating dioxygenase gene phdA and toluene monooxygenase gene touA; the plasmid pA15-7G carried touA and toluene dioxygenase gene tod; the plasmid pS3-2C carried ben, phdA, and tod; whereas the pS4-6G only carried ben. The host range test showed that all the isolated plasmids except pS3-2C could be transferred and maintained stably in the representative strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Cupriavidus necator JMP228, and E. coli EC100 of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, respectively.

  18. An integrated study of human and animal infectious disease in the Lake Victoria crescent small-holder crop-livestock production system, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fèvre, Eric M; de Glanville, William A; Thomas, Lian F; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Kariuki, Samuel; Wamae, Claire N

    2017-06-30

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZD) are an understudied group that are a major cause of illness throughout the developing world. In general, little is known about the prevalence and burden of NZDs in affected communities, particularly in relation to other infectious diseases with which they are often co-endemic. We describe the design and descriptive epidemiological outputs from an integrated study of human and animal zoonotic and non-zoonotic disease in a rural farming community in western Kenya. This cross-sectional survey involved 2113 people, their cattle (n = 983) and pigs (n = 91). People and animals were tested for infection or exposure to a wide range of zoonotic and non-zoonotic pathogens. Prevalence estimates, with adjustment for the complex study design, were derived. Evidence for spatial clustering in exposure or infection was identified using the spatial scan statistic. There was a high prevalence of human parasitism in the community, particularly with hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) (36.3% (95% CI 32.8-39.9)), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (30.1% (95% CI 27.5-32.8)), and Plasmodium falciparum (29.4% (95% CI 26.8-32.0)). Human infection with Taenia spp. was also prevalent (19.7% (95% CI 16.7-22.7)), while exposure to other zoonotic pathogens was comparatively rarer (Brucella spp., 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-0.9); Coxiella burnetii, 2.2% (95% CI 1.5-2.9); Rift Valley fever, 0.5% (95% CI 0.2-0.8)). A low prevalence of exposure to Brucella spp. was observed in cattle (0.26% (95% CI 0-0.56). This was higher for Rift Valley fever virus (1.4% (95% CI 0.5-2.22)) and C. burnetii (10.0% (95% CI 7.7-12.2)). The prevalence of Taenia spp. cysticercosis was 53.5% (95% CI 48.7-58.3) in cattle and 17.2% (95% CI 9.1-25.3) in pigs. Mycobacterium bovis infection was found in 2.2% of cattle (95% CI 1.3-3.2), while the prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium spp. was 8.2% (95% CI 6.8-9.6) in people. Zoonotic infections in people and animals occur in

  19. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia solium, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Polman, Katja; Kanobana, Kirezi; van Lieshout, Lisette; Brienen, Eric; Praet, Nicolas; Kabwe, Constantin; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-01

    Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community-based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), T. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR=2 (95%CI=1.1-5), p=0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR=3.8 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR=3.2 (95%CI=1.1-7.8), p=0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americanus (OR=2.2 (95%CI=1.2-3.8), p<0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR=2.7 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.02). These findings show that co

  20. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico Prevalencia de la infestación endoparasitaria en niños y su relación con los esfuerzos para la prevención del cólera en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  1. Identification of two novel powdery mildew resistance loci, Ren6 and Ren7, from the wild Chinese grape species Vitis piasezkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Dániel; Riaz, Summaira; Dry, Ian B; Jermakow, Angelica; Tenscher, Alan C; Cantu, Dario; Oláh, Róbert; Walker, M Andrew

    2016-07-29

    Grapevine powdery mildew Erysiphe necator is a major fungal disease in all grape growing countries worldwide. Breeding for resistance to this disease is crucial to avoid extensive fungicide applications that are costly, labor intensive and may have detrimental effects on the environment. In the past decade, Chinese Vitis species have attracted attention from grape breeders because of their strong resistance to powdery mildew and their lack of negative fruit quality attributes that are often present in resistant North American species. In this study, we investigated powdery mildew resistance in multiple accessions of the Chinese species Vitis piasezkii that were collected during the 1980 Sino-American botanical expedition to the western Hubei province of China. A framework genetic map was developed using simple sequence repeat markers in 277 seedlings of an F1 mapping population arising from a cross of the powdery mildew susceptible Vitis vinifera selection F2-35 and a resistant accession of V. piasezkii DVIT2027. Quantitative trait locus analyses identified two major powdery mildew resistance loci on chromosome 9 (Ren6) and chromosome 19 (Ren7) explaining 74.8 % of the cumulative phenotypic variation. The quantitative trait locus analysis for each locus, in the absence of the other, explained 95.4 % phenotypic variation for Ren6, while Ren7 accounted for 71.9 % of the phenotypic variation. Screening of an additional 259 seedlings of the F1 population and 910 seedlings from four pseudo-backcross populations with SSR markers defined regions of 22 kb and 330 kb for Ren6 and Ren7 in the V. vinifera PN40024 (12X) genome sequence, respectively. Both R loci operate post-penetration through the induction of programmed cell death, but vary significantly in the speed of response and degree of resistance; Ren6 confers complete resistance whereas Ren7 confers partial resistance to the disease with reduced colony size. A comparison of the kinetics of induction of powdery

  2. Incidência de doenças e necessidade de controle em cultivo protegido de videira Incidence of diseases and needs of control in overhead covered grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo protegido de videira no Brasil tem-se expandido, em área, visando principalmente à diminuição de danos por adversidades climáticas sobre a produção e a maturação das uvas. Entretanto, não se dispõe de informações sobre o microclima e as necessidades de controle fitossanitário que são impostas por essa tecnologia, as quais constituem os objetivos deste trabalho. O experimento foi instalado no ciclo 2005-2006, em Flores da Cunha-RS, em um vinhedo de 'Moscato Giallo', conduzido em "Y", com cobertura plástica impermeável (160µm, em 12 fileiras com 35m, deixando-se 5 fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Em ambas áreas, avaliou-se o microclima quanto à presença de água livre (registro visual, temperatura (T, umidade relativa (UR do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA e velocidade do vento (VV próximos ao dossel vegetativo e aos cachos. Na área coberta, foram aplicados fungicidas quando necessário, enquanto na área descoberta foram realizadas aplicações por calendário. Durante a floração e a maturação, avaliaram-se a incidência e a severidade de míldio (Plasmopara viticola, oídio (Uncinula necator, podridão-cinzenta-da-uva (Botrytis cinerea, podridão-da-uva-madura (Glomerella cingulata e podridão ácida (leveduras imperfeitas e leveduras esporógenas. A cobertura plástica aumentou a temperatura diurna próxima ao dossel vegetativo, não influenciou na umidade relativa do ar, diminuiu a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e a velocidade do vento e restringiu drasticamente a água livre sobre as folhas e cachos. Nessas condições, na área coberta, realizaram-se apenas duas aplicações para o controle do oídio, enquanto na área descoberta foram realizadas 17 aplicações para o controle de doenças fúngicas. Não houve incidência de doenças na avaliação realizada na floração, nos dois sistemas de cultivo; contudo, no período de maturação, houve decréscimos significativos de incid

  3. Enfermedades y Geopolítica en Colombia

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    Hugo Armando Sotomayor Tribin

    1997-06-01

    social ha enfatizado que las soluciones para los problemas de salud de un grupo, un pueblo, no dependen de las decisiones impuestas desde fuera de ellos sino que ellas dependen de que las comunidades afectadas se apropien y desarrollen de los avances técnicos y médicos generados en su propio seno o fuera de él y participen activamente en la superación de sus problemas sociales y económicos.

    Para entender la historia de las enfermedades y su relación con la geopolítica en Colombia es necesario primero que todo ver cuál debió ser el panorama sanitario de las sociedades prehispánicas en lo que hoy es Colombia.

    De ellas se puede decir que no tuvieron altas densidades, ni fueron constituidas por familias numerosas, ni presentaron una natalidad desordenada; que aunque tuvieron expectativas de vida probablemente bajas conocieron y respetaron a los viejos; que eran compulsivamente aseados con su cuerpo y su vivienda; que no convivieron con animales intradomiciliarios; que por razones de densidad de población, tipo de economía y conceptos religiosos y mágicos cuidaron de las aguas y de los recursos alimenticios; que aprovecharon maravillosamente los enormes recursos alimenticios de las diversas regiones del territorio y que no sufrieron de hambre ni malnutrición proteico-calórica -como se colige de los datos etnohistóricos, arqueológicos y etnográficos- ni de carencias específicas de vitaminas -escorbuto, pelagra, beriberi, raquitismo-; que no padecieron de paludismo, uncinariasis por Necator americanusfiebre amarilla urbana, dengue, cólera, filariasis -diferente a laocasionada por la Mansonella ozzardi en las regiones más orientales de nuestra Amazonia-, que desconocieron el tifo exantemático y el murino, que no padecieron por las tenias saginata ni solium, que no tuvieron la plaga de los roedores de Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus y Mus musculus y sus pulgas, la Xenopsilla cheopis, que por no vivir con perros -muchas de las comunidades- no

  4. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la eficacia deChenopodium ambrosioidesL. var.anthelminticum(Ka´aré en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades de Marangatú (MA, Ñamandú (ÑA, El Pocito (PO, Tabay (TB y Takuapí (TA del Departamento Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. La muestra incluyó 148 personas que fueron agrupadas por sexo e intervalos etáreos. El tratamiento fitoterapéutico consistió en la administración de tintura de Ka´aré (maceración en alcohol etílico al 70%. El análisis coproparasitológico se realizó mediante examen directo y la técnica de enriquecimiento por flotación (Füllerbon previo y posterior al tratamiento con el Ka´aré. Los resultados indicaron altos porcentajes de individuos parasitados previo al tratamiento (PRET que fluctuaron entre 73.5% y 91.7%. Entre los protozoosEntamoeba colifue la especie más prevalente con porcentajes entre 18.4% y 37.5%.Hymenolepis nanaentre los cestodes presentó prevalencias entre 4.2% y 20.8%. Entre los nemátodosAncylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus(Ancylostomideos fue la más frecuente y su prevalencia fluctuó entre 55.1% y 83.3%.Trichuris trichiurasólo fue observado en ÑA y con una prevalencia muy baja (3.8%. El porcentaje de monoparasitismo fue mayor en ÑA (56.5%, el de biparasitismo en MA y TA (44.4%, mientras que el de poliparasitismo en TB (36.8%. En la evaluación postratamiento (POST la prevalencia total de parasitosis descendió respecto del pretratamiento (79.7% vs 68.9% (X2 Yates = 4.57; p E. coli(30.8%-0.0% y Ancylostomídeos (52.0%-11.5%. Así, en ÑA los Ancylostomídeos mostraron diferencias

  5. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  6. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Brigham, Christopher [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lu, Jingnan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Quimby, John Westlake [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gai, Claudia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Speth, Daan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Elliott, Sean [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Fei, John Qiang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bernardi, Amanda [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, Sophia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grunwald, Stephan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grousseau, Estelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maiti, Soumen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Liu, Chole [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide