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Sample records for naturally occurring radioactivity

  1. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  2. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  3. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  4. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    Organic extractants play a significant role in the selective removal of radioactive cations from waste streams. Although, literature on the selective removal of man-made radioactive material such as Americium (Am) is widespread, the selective removal of naturally occurring radioactive material such

  5. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  6. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  7. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  8. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  9. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  10. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  11. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.l.beddow@reading.ac.uk; Black, S. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Enterpris Ltd., Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Old Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by {sup 238}U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations ({<=}8.8 Bq/g) of {sup 238}U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels ({<=}11 Bq/g) of {sup 226}Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  13. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  14. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  15. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  16. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity.

  18. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  20. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  1. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-07-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in sludge samples from several Spanish water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla, Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla, Tarragona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Sludge samples from eleven potable water treatment plants (PWTP), three waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and an industrial water treatment plant (IWTP), located in different areas of Spain, mainly in Catalonia, were analyzed for their radiological content in order to determine whether they could be considered as industries affected by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In general, samples from the PWTPs showed higher activity values for the alpha and gamma emitting isotopes than the WWTPs and the IWTP. For example, samples from the area located in the north of Catalonia show values of {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U in the range of 84.4-792.1 Bq/kg, 3.3-26.8 Bq/kg and 63.8-585.9 Bq/kg, respectively. In general, for PWTP, the values obtained for the gamma emitter and alpha emitter isotopes showed that both the geology and the industrial activities correlate with the values measured. The magnitude of these results demonstrates the need to measure the radionuclide content of these samples before reaching a decision about their final disposal.

  3. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Tebes, C.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

  4. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  5. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with emphasis on NORM disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Regulation of radioactive material can occur at the Federal, State, and sometimes local level. In addition to regulations at the federal and state level, there are guidelines and standards that do not carry the weight of law, yet are often referenced. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorically regulates NORM at this time. However, many of the existing regulations and guidelines for licensed radioactive material can be applied by states and other regulatory agencies to NORM. The primary regulations covering radioactive materials and exposures were promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) or 1954, as amended. NRC licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear materials to protect public health and safety and the environment. NRC makes rules and sets standards for licensees and inspects the activities of licensees to insure that they do not violate safety rules. OSHA regulations for worker protection from exposures to radioactivity are contained in 29CFR1910.96. These standards are designed to protect workers from exposure to radiation in programs other than those regulated by OSHA. The Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act, with implementing regulations found in 40CFR192 were promulgated by the EPA for cleanup of uranium mill tailings. These standards are often used by states and other agencies in regulating cleanup of NORM. EPA is currently considering regulation of NORM on NRC and DOE facilities under 40CFR195.

  6. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  7. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004).

  8. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  9. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  10. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Gul, Rahmat; Ara, Tauseef; Hussain, Manzur

    2012-09-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in latrite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E(eff)) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications.

  11. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices.

  12. Travel Times of Water Derived from Three Naturally Occurring Cosmogenic Radioactive Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ate; Thaw, Melissa; Deinhart, Amanda; Bibby, Richard; Esser, Brad

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological travel times are studied on scales that span six orders of magnitude, from daily event water in stream flow to pre-Holocene groundwater in wells. Groundwater vulnerability to contamination, groundwater surface water interactions and catchment response are often focused on "modern" water that recharged after the introduction of anthropogenic tritium in precipitation in 1953. Shorter residence times are expected in smaller catchments, resulting in immediate vulnerability to contamination. We studied a small (4.6 km2) alpine (1660-2117 m) catchment in a Mediterranean climate (8 ˚ C, 1200 mm/yr) in the California Sierra Nevada to assess subsurface storage and investigate the response to the recent California drought. We analyzed a combination of three cosmogenic radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from 87 days (sulfur-35), 2.6 years (sodium-22) to 12.3 years (tritium) in precipitation and stream samples. Tritium samples (1 L) are analyzed by noble gas mass spectrometry after helium-3 accumulation. Samples for sulfur-35 and sodium-22 are collected by processing 20-1000 L of water through an anion and cation exchange column in-situ. Sulfur-35 is analyzed by liquid scintillation counting after chemical purification and precipitation. Sodium-22 is analyzed by gamma counting after eluting the cations into a 4L Marinelli beaker. Monthly collected precipitation samples show variability of deposition rate for tritium and sulfur-35. Sodium-22 levels in cumulative yearly precipitation samples are consistent with recent studies in the US and Japan. The observed variability of deposition rates complicates direct estimation of stream water age fractions. The level and variability of tritium in monthly stream samples indicate a mean residence time on the order of 10 years and only small contributions of younger water during high flow conditions. Estimates of subsurface storage are in agreement with estimates from geophysical studies. Detections of sodium-22

  13. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of internal dose assessment procedure for workers in industries using raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Yong Geon; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol; Chang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are 10 Bq·g-1 for 40K and 1 Bq·g-1 for the other natural radionuclides. The preliminary dose estimation is performed using annual limit on intake (ALI). The estimated doses are classified into 3 groups (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, and >0.3 mSv). Air sampling methods are determined based on the dose estimates. Detailed dose assessment is performed using air sampling and particulate characterization. The final dose results are classified into 4 different levels (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, 0.3-1 mSv, and >1 mSv). Proper radiation protection measures are suggested according to the dose level. The developed dose assessment procedure was applied for NORM industries in Korea, including coal combustion, phosphate processing, and monazite handing facilities. The developed procedure provides consistent dose assessment results and contributes to the establishment of optimization of radiological protection in NORM industries.

  15. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik, E-mail: khalik@salam.uitm.edu.my; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  16. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  17. Validation of a procedure for the analysis of (226)Ra in naturally occurring radioactive materials using a liquid scintillation counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Jung, Yoonhee; Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myung; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja

    2017-01-01

    An analytical procedure for detecting (226)Ra in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) was developed and validated with reference materials (zircon matrix, bauxite matrix, coal fly ash, and phosphogypsum) that represent typical NORMs. The (226)Ra was released from samples by a fusion method and was separated using sulfate-coprecipitation. Next, a (222)Rn-emanation technique was applied for the determination of (226)Ra. The counting efficiency was 238 ± 8% with glass vials. The recovery for the reference materials was 80 ± 11%. The linearity of the method was tested with different masses of zircon matrix reference materials. Using 15 types of real NORMs, including raw materials and by-products, this LSC method was compared with γ-spectrometry, which had already been validated for (226)Ra analysis. The correlation coefficient for the results from the LSC method and γ-spectrometry was 0.993 ± 0.058.

  18. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in the gas and oil industry : origin, transport and deposition of stable lead and 210Pb from Dutch gas reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The omnipresence of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NORs) within the Earth is well-known. Since long, radioactive decay of NORs has been recognised as the primary source of our internal planetary heat, and driving force of volcanism and the movement of plates forming the Earth's crust. Since

  19. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in the gas and oil industry : origin, transport and deposition of stable lead and 210Pb from Dutch gas reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The omnipresence of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NORs) within the Earth is well-known. Since long, radioactive decay of NORs has been recognised as the primary source of our internal planetary heat, and driving force of volcanism and the movement of plates forming the Earth's crust. Since NORs

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in the gas and oil industry : origin, transport and deposition of stable lead and 210Pb from Dutch gas reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The omnipresence of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NORs) within the Earth is well-known. Since long, radioactive decay of NORs has been recognised as the primary source of our internal planetary heat, and driving force of volcanism and the movement of plates forming the Earth's crust. Since NORs

  1. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactivity across the State of Kuwait using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoga, A. D.; Alazemi, N.; Shams, H.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    A study of natural radioactivity from 90 different soil samples from the state of Kuwait has been carried out to ascertain the NORM concentration values across the country. The calculated activity concentrations were determined from: (i) the decays of the 226Ra, 214Pb and 214Bi members of the 4n+2 decay chain headed by 238U and; (ii) the 228Ac, 212Pb and 208Tl members of the 4n chain headed by 232Th. The study also included evaluations for the 235U decay chain with the 186 keV doublet transition used together with the measured 4n+2 activity concentration values to determine the 235U/238U isotopic ratios for each sample. The values for the arithmetic mean activity concentrations for 90 separate locations across Kuwait as determined in the current work were 17.2, 14.1, and 368 Bq/kg, with standard deviations of 5.2, 3.7 and 90 Bq/kg for the 238U, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations respectively. Measured isotope ratios for 235U/238U give an arithmetic mean value for all of the samples of 0.045±0.003, consistent with that expected for natural uranium. These results indicate no evidence for a radiologically significant dispersion of additional depleted uranium across the entire State of Kuwait from the 1991 Gulf War.

  2. An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santawamaitre, T., E-mail: tods_education@hotmail.co [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H.; Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Matthews, M. [Centre for Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay chains as well as {sup 40}K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h{sup -1} and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}.

  3. An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santawamaitre, T.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Matthews, M.; Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H. A.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in 238U and 232Th decay chains as well as 40K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg -1, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h -1 and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 μSv yr -1.

  4. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  5. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, M; Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, (40)K, (226)Ra and (210)Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  6. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  7. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water.

  8. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  9. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  10. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  11. Radioactivity and radiological risk associated with effluent sediment containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in amang (tin tailings) processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Ismail; Mohsen, Nasirian; Abdullah, Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    The processing of amang, or tin tailings, for valuable minerals has been shown to technologically enhance NORM and this has stirred significant radiological safety and health concerns among Malaysia's regulatory authority. A growing radiological concern is now focused on the amang effluent containing NORM in recycling ponds, since these ponds may be reclaimed for future residential developments. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk associated with amang processing and the accumulated effluent in the recycling ponds. Twenty-six sediment samples from the recycling ponds of two amang plants in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia, were collected and analyzed. The maximum activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K recorded in sediments from these ponds were higher than Malaysia's and the world's natural highest. Correspondingly, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration indices, Ra(eq), and gamma radiation representative level index, I(gammar), were higher than the world's average. The enhancement of NORM in effluent sediments as a consequence of amang processing, and the use of a closed water management recycling system created Effective Dose Rates, E (nSv h(-1)), that signal potential environmental radiological risks in these ponds, should they be reclaimed for future land use.

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive elements, arsenic and other metals in drinking water from private wells; Naturligt radioaktiva aemnen, arsenik och andra metaller i dricksvatten fraan enskilda brunnar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Britt-Marie; Thunholm, Bo (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (SE)); Oestergren, Inger; Falk, Rolf; Mjoenes, Lars (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Approximately 50% of all drinking water is extracted from groundwater. For private supply of drinking water almost 100% emanates from groundwater. For approximately 1.2 of the 9 million Swedish citizens, private wells are the primary water source where 700 000 get their water from wells drilled in the bedrock. Radioactive elements and metals that occur naturally in the bedrock can be found in the well water. The radioactive elements include radon-222 (222Rn), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra) as well as polonium-210 (210Po) and lead-210 (210Pb), which are long-lived progeny of radon. In 2001 SGU and SSI initiated a collaboration to investigate the occurrence of radioactive elements and metals in water from private wells. Data sampling and analysis was completed in 2006. The aim of the project was to map the occurrence of radioactive elements in drinking water from private wells and to estimate their respective dose contribution. Another aim was to map metals and other elements in the water, to study temporal variations and possible co-variations between analysed elements. Sampling was conducted in a random fashion throughout the country. However, in regions where bedrock and soils are known to show enhanced concentrations of radioactive elements and arsenic the sampling density was increased. The analyses comprises: total beta activity, total alpha activity, radium-226, radon-222, uranium, aluminium, chloride, calcium, vanadium, chromium, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zink, arsenic, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, barium, lead, thorium, boron, sodium, manganese, potassium, silica, alkalinity, sulfate, fluoride, phosphate, nitrate, pH and electric conductivity. In a few cases chemistry analyses of polonium-210 and lead-210 have been done. It was observed that the south-western part of Sweden, with exception for granite areas in the county of Bohuslaen, has relatively low concentrations of natural radioactive elements in the drinking water. The occurrence of

  13. Naturally occurring radioactive elements, arsenic and other metals in drinking water from private wells; Naturligt radioaktiva aemnen, arsenik och andra metaller i dricksvatten fraan enskilda brunnar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Britt-Marie; Thunholm, Bo (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (SE)); Oestergren, Inger; Falk, Rolf; Mjoenes, Lars (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Approximately 50% of all drinking water is extracted from groundwater. For private supply of drinking water almost 100% emanates from groundwater. For approximately 1.2 of the 9 million Swedish citizens, private wells are the primary water source where 700 000 get their water from wells drilled in the bedrock. Radioactive elements and metals that occur naturally in the bedrock can be found in the well water. The radioactive elements include radon-222 (222Rn), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra) as well as polonium-210 (210Po) and lead-210 (210Pb), which are long-lived progeny of radon. In 2001 SGU and SSI initiated a collaboration to investigate the occurrence of radioactive elements and metals in water from private wells. Data sampling and analysis was completed in 2006. The aim of the project was to map the occurrence of radioactive elements in drinking water from private wells and to estimate their respective dose contribution. Another aim was to map metals and other elements in the water, to study temporal variations and possible co-variations between analysed elements. Sampling was conducted in a random fashion throughout the country. However, in regions where bedrock and soils are known to show enhanced concentrations of radioactive elements and arsenic the sampling density was increased. The analyses comprises: total beta activity, total alpha activity, radium-226, radon-222, uranium, aluminium, chloride, calcium, vanadium, chromium, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zink, arsenic, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, barium, lead, thorium, boron, sodium, manganese, potassium, silica, alkalinity, sulfate, fluoride, phosphate, nitrate, pH and electric conductivity. In a few cases chemistry analyses of polonium-210 and lead-210 have been done. It was observed that the south-western part of Sweden, with exception for granite areas in the county of Bohuslaen, has relatively low concentrations of natural radioactive elements in the drinking water. The occurrence of

  14. Determination of levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials in lagoon samples containing produced water from the Minagish oil field in the state of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, H. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the activity concentration (Ac) associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a radiological map of the ground materials from a produced wastewater lagoon located in the Minagish oil field in the south west of the State of Kuwait. This lagoon contains material from the discharge of produced water which is a by-product of oil production in the region. Samples of surface materials have been collected, prepared and placed into sealed, Marinelli beakers for a full gamma-ray spectrometric analysis using a high-resolution, low-background, high-purity germanium detection system. This short conference paper presents a summary of results for an initial selection of sixteen surface samples from the edges of the Minagish oil lagoon which have been analysed to obtain Ac values for members of the 226Ra (214Bi and 214Pb) and 232Th (228Ac, 212Pb and 208Tl) decay chains and for 40K. These are compared with other studies for the same geographical region.

  15. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities; La contaminacion radiactiva de origen natural (CRON) en las instalaciones de produccion y procesamiento de aceite y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera F, J. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Lima (Peru)

    1994-12-31

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It`s not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs.

  16. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  17. Handling of natural occurring radioactive deposits in the oil and gas industry in Norway, United Kingdom and the Netherlands; Haandtering av radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon i Norge, Storbritania og Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysebo, I.; Tufto, P

    1999-03-01

    Deposits containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in oil and gas production. Laws and regulations in thisarea is under preparation, and it is a wish for harmonization with the other oil and gas producing countries in the North Sea. The report gives an overview of amounts of waste and activity levels, decontamination methods and waste handling in Norway, Great Britain and the Netherlands.

  18. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  19. Gamma-Ray Measurements of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Sludge, Scale and Well Cores of the Oil Industry in Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ridha Hussain SUBBER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity of nuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was measured in soil by γ-ray spectrometry using a NaI (Li detector. A criterion was set in order to analyze sludge samples from oil fields and oil well-cores in southern Basrah, in the Iraq oil fields. More than 3 γ-ray energy peaks were used for the determination of 226Ra and 232Th activity concentrations to obtain results that are more accurate. Relationships between the measured radionuclides were discussed. Radionuclides 238U and 226Ra were found in disequilibrium with ratio of specific activities (238 U/226 Ra less than unity for most of the sludge and core samples. The content of radioactive elements in the sludge, scale and well core is found within the range of other petroleum countries in the region.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.93

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in ashes from a fuel-oil power plant in Cienfuegos, Cuba, and the associated radiation hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Bernal-Castillo, J; Morera-Gómez, Y; Guillen-Arruebarrena, A; Cartas-Aguila, H A; Acosta-Milián, R

    2014-03-01

    The radioactivity of NORM was measured in ashes collected from a fuel-oil power plant in Cienfuegos, Cuba, using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U activity concentrations reached 240, 77, 59, 70 and 15 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The potential radiological hazard of these residuals was assessed. The radium equivalent activities of the samples varied from 54 to 345 Bq kg(-1). The gamma index was calculated to be lower than that of the reference values, and the gamma absorbed dose rate was higher than the average reported for the earth's crust; however, the assessed annual effective dose was slightly lower than the annual effective dose limit for public, i.e. 1 mSv. Therefore, these bottom ashes were not dramatically enriched with radionuclides and may be used as an additive for building materials without restrictions from a radiological protection point of view.

  1. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  2. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  3. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, S; Ganchimeg, G

    2000-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials used in cities of Darkhan, Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet in Mongolia was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with HP-Ge-detector. The radium equivalent concentration and the gamma absorbed dose rate in air, were estimated as the external and internal hazard indices. The results indicate that these materials are not a major source of exposure.

  4. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...

  5. An overview on measurements of natural radioactivity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are always exposed during their lives to ionizing radiation arising outside and within the earth. The exposure to these radiation occurs from natural sources such as radioactive elements in rocks and soil, internal exposure form radioactive elements through water, food and air and cosmic rays entering from outer space to earth's atmosphere. About 87% of the radiation dose received by human beings is due to natural radiation, it is essential to assess the radiation doses in order to control possible health effects from such natural sources. In this regard, a number of articles have been appeared for Malaysia in international research journals, which have been reviewed and complied in this article. Most of these articles are about the measurement of activity concentrations of primordial (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclide's and gamma dose rate in environmental samples using HPGe and NaI (Tl survey meter.

  6. Naturally occurring radionuclides and Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferrara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides are used in Earth sciences for two fundamental purposes: age determination of rocks and minerals and studies of variation of the isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides. The methodologies that are in use today allow us to determine ages spanning from the Earth's age to the late Quaternary. The variations of isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides can be applied to problems of mantle evolution, magma genesis and characterization with respect to different geodynamic situations and can provide valuable information not obtainable by elemental geochemistry.

  7. Tetrahydroberberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-04-01

    Tetrahydroberberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimethoxy-5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the molecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72 (5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole -CH2···OCH3 and -OCH3···OCH3 interactions between neighboring molecules.

  8. Germanium detectors and natural radioactivity in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbini, Lucia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GeDet-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Potassium is a very important mineral for many physiological processes, like fluid balance, protein synthesis and signal transmission in nerves. Many aliments like raisins, bananas or chocolate contain potassium. Natural potassium contains 0.012% of the radioactive isotope Potassium 40. This isotope decays via β{sup +} decay into a metastable state of Argon 40, which reaches its ground state emitting a gamma of 1460 keV. A commercially produced Germanium detector has been used to measure the energy spectra of different selected food samples. It was calibrated with KCl and potassium contents were extracted. Results verify the high potassium content of commonly recommended food samples. However, the measurement quantitatively differ from the expectations in several cases. One of the most interesting results concerns chocolate bars with different percentages of cacao.

  9. Radiological Assessments and Enhanced Natural Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmaercke, H.; Paridaens, K

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of the environmental impact assessment models performed the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to apply new techniques for retrospective radon measurements and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques; and (5) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised.

  10. Natural radioactivity measurements in Pahang State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Sanusi, Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    This study was aimed at providing the baseline data of terrestrial gamma dose rates and natural radioactivity to assess the corresponding health risk in the ambient environment of the Pahang State. Terrestrial gamma radiation (TGR) from 640 locations was measured with the mean value found to be 176 ± 5 nGy h(-1). Ninety-eight soil samples were analysed using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe), and the mean concentrations of the radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 110 ± 3, 151 ± 5 and 542 ± 51 Bq kg(-1), respectively.(226)Ra and (232)Th concentrations were found to be three times the world average, while that of (40)K is quite higher than the world average value. The acid-intrusive geological formation has the highest mean concentrations for (226)Ra (215 ± 6 Bq kg(-1)), (232)Th (384 ± 12 Bq kg(-1)) and (40)K (1564 ± 153 Bq kg(-1)). The radium equivalent activities (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) for the various soil types were also calculated. Some of the soil types were found to have values exceeding the internationally recommended levels of 370 Bq kg(-1) and the unity value, respectively.

  11. Natural radioactivity of groundwater in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and Th232 and gross alpha and beta activities were analyzed in more than 100 samples of groundwater in Serbia. The highest gross alpha activity was recorded at 1.33 Bq/L (average 0.12 Bq/L, while the highest beta activity was 5.43 Bq/L (average 0.68 Bq/L. The potassium isotope 40K exhibited the highest active concentration (2.6 Bq/L and was the largest contributor to the gross natural beta activity. Among the analyzed samples, 28 were found to have elevated beta activity concentrations, of which five samples also measured elevated alpha activity. All the groundwater samples that exhibited elevated radioactivity were of the HCO3-Na type and were genetically associated with granitic rocks. Their TDS levels and CO2 gas concentrations were also elevated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  12. Measurement of natural and 137Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öksüz, I.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A.; Aksan, S.

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope 137Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the 40K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of 137Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  13. Naturally occurring esterification reactions with bryostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Giso; Manning, Thomas J; McLeod, Kristen; Phillips, Dennis; Groundwater, Paul; Noble, Lyn; Potter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Bryostatin structures share a commonality of a central bryophan ring, but each differs due to two groups (R(1) and R(2)) that are attached to the bryophan ring via ester bonds. This research examines the impact that conditions such as UV light, acidic and basic conditions can have on the bryostatin structure in the presence of octanoic acid and water. Mass spectrometry (MS) measurements suggest that bryostatin can easily rearrange into various structures under natural conditions by reacting with carboxylates that are ubiquitous in nature. A second set of measurements suggest bryostatin can be hydrolyzed by water, a reaction that has significant implications in both medicinal applications and extraction procedures.

  14. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam, (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  16. Dog models of naturally occurring cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Jennie L; McCarthy, Donna O; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2011-07-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models for natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has a vastly reduced genetic variation compared with humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five- to eight-fold faster than do humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the past decade, have developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here, we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.

  17. Structural studies of naturally occurring toxicogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. P.

    1977-10-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), saxitoxin, is a neurotoxin isolated from Alaska butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus), mussels (Mytilus californianus) and axenic cultures of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella. The structure of saxitoxin has been determined through the use of single crystal X-ray diffraction. It possesses a unique tricyclic arrangement of atoms containing two guanidinium moieties and also a hydrated ketone. The relative stereochemistry is presented as well as the absolute configuration. The chemical constitution of a tremorgenic metabolite, paxilline, isolated from extracts of the fungus Penicillium paxilli Bainier has been determined. Paxilline represents a previously unreported class of natural compounds formed by the combination of tryptophan and mevalonate subunits. The complete stereostructure of two other fungal metabolites, paspaline and paspalicine, closely related to paxilline but isolated from Claviceps paspali Stammes have also been determined and are presented. The stereochemistries of paxilline, paspaline and paspalicine are identical at corresponding chiral centers.

  18. Natural radioactive materials at the Arco Reactor Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singlevich, W; Healy, J W; Paas, H J; Carey, Z E

    1951-05-28

    At the request of the Division of Biology and Medicine of the AEC, the Biophysics Section of the Radiological Sciences Department at Hanford undertook the task of conducting a background survey for naturally occurring radioactive materials in the environs of the Arco Reactor Test Site in Central Idaho. This survey was part of an overall study which included meteorological measurements by the the Air Weather Service, Geological Studies by the USGS, and an ecological survey of plants and animals by members of the Idaho State College at Pocatello. In general, the measurements at Arco followed the pattern established for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site with some additional measurements made for natural isotopes not normally of concern at Hanford. A number of analysis included materials such as plutonium and I-131 which were carried out for the purpose of establishing analytical backgrounds for the procedures used. 20 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M

    1977-11-01

    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  20. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  1. Natural radiation and radioactivity in education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu [Kanazawa Univ., Takarazuka, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    To understand radiation and radioactivity, it is important to recall the history of their investigation. At first, the works made by Elster and Geitel with a leaf electroscope about 100 years age are introduced. Then the variations of environmental radiation level are shown by the results obtained with a large volume NaI(Tl) detector on my car travelling all over Japan and the data with a pocket dosimeter during my tours in Europe. Among environmental radioactivity, radon and tritium are specially remarked from the historical and educational points of view, with various methods for their measurements. (author)

  2. Naturally Occuring Brands: a New Perspective on Place Marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Wright-Isak

    2010-01-01

      Naturally Occurring Brands: A New Perspective on Place Marketing We suggest community types are "natural brands," because their differentiated imagery has meaning that influences consumer housing choices...

  3. assessment of terrestrial naturally occurring radioactive material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    of the human body. Human beings are ... radiation protection and measurements ... assessment and useful for regulatory bodies. ..... Turkey. Soil. 39. -. 643. Brazil. Soil. -. 50. 704. Pakistan. Soil. 38. 59. 570 .... 'The Pegmatites of Parts of Osun.

  4. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ilaria Guagliardi; Natalia Rovella; Carmine Apollaro; Andrea Bloise; Rosanna De Rosa; Fabio Scarciglia; Gabriele Buttafuoco

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  5. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; Rosa, Rosanna De; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  6. Natural radioactive materials. We need/we use them; Natuerliche radioaktive Stoffe. Wir (ge-)brauchen sie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Flesch [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Strahlenschutz; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); and others

    2017-04-01

    The articles in this edition present a small excerpt in the field of natural radioactive materials amongst others in the building industries, in the medical field or in scientific research. Due to the new radiation protection law, the natural occuring radioactive materials become more important to protect the general public.

  7. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  8. Spontaneous pion emission as a new natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, D. B.; Ivascu, M.; Ion-Mihai, R.

    1986-10-01

    In this paper the pionic nuclear radioactivity or spontaneous poin emission by a nucleus from its ground state is investigated. The Qπ-values as well as the statistical factors are calculated using the experimental masses tabulated by Wapstra and Audi. Then it was shown that the pionic radioactivity of the nuclear ground state is energetically possible via three-body channels for all nuclides with Z > 80. This new type of natural radioactivity is statistically favored especially for Z = 92 - 106 for which F π/F SF = 40 - 200 [ MeV] 2. Experimental detection of the neutral pion and also some possible emission mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.

  10. Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, S; Rajagopalan, M; Abraham, J P; Balakrishnan, D; Umadevi, A G

    2012-11-01

    Contribution of terrestrial radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and air constitutes a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population. Chellanam is in the suburbs of Cochin, with the Arabian Sea in the west and the Cochin backwaters in the east. Chellanam is situated at ∼25 km from the sites of these factories. The data obtained serve as a reference in documenting changes to the environmental radioactivity due to technical activities. Soil samples were collected from 30 locations of the study area. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in the samples were analysed using gamma spectrometry. The gamma dose rates were calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR (2000)]. The ambient radiation exposure rates measured in the area ranged from 74 to 195 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1). The significant radionuclides being (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, their activities were used to arrive at the absorbed gamma dose rate with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1) and the radium equivalent activity with a mean value of 162 Bq kg(-1). The radon progeny levels varied from 0.21 to 1.4 mWL with a mean value of 0.6 mWL. The thoron progeny varied from 0.34 to 2.9 mWL with a mean value of 0.85 mWL. The ratio between thoron and radon progenies varied from 1.4 to 2.3 with a mean of 1.6. The details of the study, analysis and results are discussed.

  11. The fate and behaviour of enhanced natural radioactivity with respect to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, B., E-mail: b.michalik@gig.eu [Laboratory of Radiometry, Central Mining Institute (GIG), Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Brown, J., E-mail: Justin.Brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Grini naeringspark 13, 1361 Osteras Norway (Norway); Krajewski, P., E-mail: krajewski@clor.waw.pl [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR), ul. Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa Poland (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    In contrast to the monitoring and prevention of occupational radiation risk caused by enhanced natural radioactivity, relatively little attention has been paid to the environmental impact associated with residues containing enhanced activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. Such materials are often deposited directly into the environment, a practice which is strictly forbidden in the management of other types of radioactive waste. In view of the new trends in radiation protection, the need to consider the occurrence of anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity as a particular unique case of environmental hazard is quite apparent. Residues containing high activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides differ from radioactive materials arising from the nuclear industry. In addition, the radiation risk is usually combined with the risk caused by other pollutants. As such and to date, there are no precise regulations regarding this matter and moreover, the non-nuclear industry is often not aware of potential environmental problems caused by natural radioactivity. This article discusses aspects of environmental radiation risks caused by anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity stored at unauthorised sites. Difficulties and inconclusiveness in the application of recommendations and models for radiation risk assessment are explored. General terms such as 'environmental effects' and the basic parameters necessary to carry out consistent and comparable Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) have been developed and defined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of environmental impact caused by residues containing high activity concentration of natural radionuclides Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of an effect of radiation on an ecosystem and novel method for its assessment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation protection regulation inconclusiveness in the aspects of enhanced natural radioactivity.

  12. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Andra organised an International Symposium on the use of Natural and Engineered Clay-based Barriers for the Containment of Radioactive Waste hold at the Congress Centre of Tours, France, in March 2005. The symposium provided an opportunity to take stock of the potential properties of the clay-based materials present in engineered or natural barriers in order to meet the containment specifications of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. It was intended for specialists working in the various disciplines involved with clays and clay based minerals, as well as scientists from agencies and organisations dealing with investigations on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The themes of the Symposium included geology, geochemistry, transfers of materials, alteration processes, geomechanics, as well as the recent developments regarding the characterisation of clays, as well as experiments in surface and underground laboratories. The symposium consisted of plenary sessions, parallel specialized sessions and poster sessions. (author)

  13. Spontaneous pion emission as a new natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, D.B.; Ivascu, M.; Ion-Mihai, R.

    1986-10-15

    In this paper the pionic nuclear radioactivity or spontaneous pion emission by a nucleus from its ground state is investigated. The Q/sub ..pi../-values as well as the statistical factors are calculated using the experimental masses tabulated by Wapstra and Audi. Then it was shown that the pionic radioactivity of the nuclear ground state is energetically possible via three-body channels for all nuclides with Z>80. This new type of natural radioactivity is statistically favored especially for Z = 92-106 for which F/sub ..pi..//F/sub S//sub F/ = 40-200 (MeV)/sup 2/. Experimental detection of the neutral pion and also some possible emission mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  15. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  16. Enhancement of natural radioactivity in fertilized soil of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim-Akhtar; Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M

    2012-09-01

    -2000 software. The measured activity concentration levels of (40)K were 662 ± 15, 615 ± 17, and 458 ± 20 Bq kg(-1), (226)Ra were 48 ± 6, 43 ± 5, and 26 ± 4 Bq kg(-1), and that of (232)Th were 39 ± 5, 37 ± 5, 35 ± 5 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil of the Sites 1, 2, and 3. Gamma dose rate 1 m above the soil surface was 55, 51, and 40 nGy h(-1) from Sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. External dose rates in the rooms constructed of the bricks made of the soil from Sites 1, 2, and 3 were 161, 149, and 114 nGyh(-1), respectively. Activity concentration values of (40)K and (226)Ra in the soil of Sites 1 and 2 were higher than that in the soil of Site 3. The relative rise of (40)K was 43 % and 34 % and that of (226)Ra was 85 % and 65 % respectively in these sites. Activity concentrations of (232)Th in all these sites were in the background range. Gamma dose rate 1 m above soil surface of Sites 1 and 2 was 40 % and 30 % respectively higher than that from the soil of Site 3. The rise in activity of (40)K and (226)Ra and gamma dose from the Site 1 was greater than that from the Site 2. The least activity and dose were observed from the Site 3. Gamma dose in the dwellings made of fertilized soil bricks of Site 1 and Site 2 were respectively calculated to be 41 % and 32 % higher than that in the abodes made of unfertilized soil bricks of Site 3. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (40)K were observed to be enhanced in the fertilized farmlands of the NIAB. Outdoor and indoor gamma dose as radiological hazard were found to be increasing with the continuous addition of PF in the understudy farmlands. It is recommended that naturally occurring radioactive metal should be removed during the process of manufacturing of the PF from the PR. PROSPECTIVE: The rise in radioactivity in the farmlands due to the addition of the PF can be a source of direct or indirect exposure to radiation that may enhance cancer risk of the

  17. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  18. Natural analogue studies for the safety case development of radioactive waste disposal in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Min-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The natural analogue study is an analogy approach to investigate natural occurrences of materials, conditions and processes that are similar to those known or predicted to occur in some part of a radioactive waste disposal system. Countries considering the disposal of radioactive waste have been working on their domestic natural analogue studies for developing the safety case and improving the disposal safety. Natural analogue study can effectively be applied to the understanding of a long-term behavior of the post-closure repository, the provision of quantitative data required for the safety assessment models, and the supplementary safety indicator to prove the safety of deep geological disposal. Therefore the natural analogue studies play an important role in the safety case which requires a multiple lines of evidence including the safety assessment for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. In this study, current status of foreign natural analogue studies was investigated by summarizing their results related with repository materials, radionuclide migration and retardation. Main results, issues, and their applicability of the foreign natural analogue studies were also analyzed. The results of natural analogue studies in Korea were categorized and summarized according to the studies on the uranium ore bodies, rocks, groundwater, and archeological artifacts. Although so many studies on the natural analogue have been carried out during last several decades in Korea, their results have not been actively applied to the safety assessment and safety case development for radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, applicable methods of natural analogues were summarized and a methodology for improving their applicability was examined. Additionally, in order to improve the application of these results from natural analogue studies, build-up of a natural analogue information database was in progress and its status will be presented. (authors)

  19. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, M A; El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Milky, S; Bahsoun, F; Abumurad, K M

    2008-08-01

    Using gamma-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (214)Bi, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (40)K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. gamma-spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2+/-0.4 to 60.8+/-2.2 Bq kg(-1) and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8+/-1.0 to 74.3+/-9.2 Bq kg(-1). The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2+/-3.0 and 76.3+/-3.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2+/-1.0 and 31.7+/-1.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 27.5+/-1.3 Bq kg(-1). Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average (222)Rn concentration ranged between 291+/-69 and 1774+/-339 Bq m(-3) among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704+/-139 Bq m(-3). For gravel, the range was found to be from 52+/-9 to 3077+/-370 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 608+/-85 Bq m(-3). Aerial and mass exhalation rates of (222)Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44+/-7 and 2226+/-267 mBq m(-2)h(-1), and between 0.40+/-0.07 and 20.0+/-0.3 mBq kg(-1)h(-1), respectively.

  20. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228Th}, and {sup 228}Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 228}Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  1. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L. [Bologna Univ., Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and Dipt. di Fisica, Ravenna (Italy); Albertazzi, A. [Italian Ceramic Center, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using {gamma}-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the {sup 222}Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The {sup 222}Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  2. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  3. Simulation of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the central detector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinying; Wen, Liangjian; Li, Weidong; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Chunxu; Zhang, Yumei; Lin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe the fundamental properties of neutrino oscillation. The JUNO central detector is a spherical liquid scintillator detector with 20 kton fiducial mass. It is required to achieve a $3\\%/\\sqrt{E(MeV)}$ energy resolution with very low radioactive background, which is a big challenge to the detector design. In order to ensure the detector performance can meet the physics requirements, reliable detector simulation is necessary to provide useful information for detector design. A simulation study of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector has been performed to guide the detector design and set requirements to the radiopurity of detector materials.

  4. Radioactive mineral occurences of Colorado and bibliography. [2500 citations in bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Moore, J.L.; Collins, D.B.; Hornbaker, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    This two-part report provides an essentially complete listing of radioactive occurrences in Colorado, with a comprehensive bibliography and bibliographic cross-indexes. Part 1 lists approximately 3000 known radioactive occurrences with their locations and brief accounts of the geology, mineralogy, radioactivity, host rock, production data, and source of data for each. The occurrences are classified by host rock and plotted on U.S. Geological Survey 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ topographic quadrangle maps with a special 1 : 100,000-scale base map for the Uravan mineral belt. Part 2 contains the bibliography of approximately 2500 citations on radioactive mineral occurrences in the state, with cross-indexes by county, host rock, and the special categories of ''Front Range,'' ''Colorado Plateau,'' and ''thorium.'' The term ''occurrence'' as used in this report is defined as any site where the concentration of uranium or thorium is at least 0.01% or where the range of radioactivity is greater than twice the background radioactivity. All citations and occurrence data are stored on computer diskettes for easy retrieval, correction, and updating.

  5. The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

  6. Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J A

    2012-02-01

    The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 μSv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82.

  7. Activity measurements of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-6, Postcode 077125, Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania)], E-mail: aluca@ifin.nipne.ro; Margineanu, R.; Sahagia, M.; Waetjen, A.C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-6, Postcode 077125, Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry; it can be used in agriculture and to make building materials. Phosphogypsum is radioactive due to the presence of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) and its environmental impact is a major concern of the public authorities. The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory from IFIN-HH participated at the IAEA-CU-2007-06-CCRI(II)-S5 Supplementary Comparison for the Determination of TENORM in phosphogypsum. The measurement procedures and the discussion of results and problems encountered are presented.

  8. Activity measurements of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, A; Margineanu, R; Sahagia, M; Wätjen, A C

    2009-05-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry; it can be used in agriculture and to make building materials. Phosphogypsum is radioactive due to the presence of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) and its environmental impact is a major concern of the public authorities. The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory from IFIN-HH participated at the IAEA-CU-2007-06-CCRI(II)-S5 Supplementary Comparison for the Determination of TENORM in phosphogypsum. The measurement procedures and the discussion of results and problems encountered are presented.

  9. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    -receptors on antigen-presenting cells and thereby regulate T-cell activity. Knowledge of the influence of NAbs against cytokines on immune homeostasis is likely to have wide-ranging implications both in understanding pathogenesis and in treatment of many immunoinflammatory disorders, including a number of autoimmune......The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  10. Naturally occurring pentaoxygenated, hexaoxygenated and dimeric xanthones: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peres

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This review gives information on the chemical study of 71 pentaoxygenated, 11 hexaoxygenated and 9 dimeric and more complex xanthones naturally occurring in 7 families, 29 genus and 62 species of higher plants, and 11 described as fern and fungal metabolites. The value of these groups of substances in the connection with the pharmacological activity and the therapeutic use of some species is shown. The structural formulas of 23 isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are given.

  11. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alina-Mihaela Badescu; Alexandra Saftoiu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that at such frequencies the scattering is negligible compared to absorptions. The effect of trapped water in different forms is also evaluated.

  12. Interaction of Siglec-4 with naturally occurring and synthetic glycoconjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Koliwer-Brandl, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to provide insights into the structure-function relationship of Siglec-4 binding naturally occurring sialic acids as well as synthetic sialic acid derivatives. Structural information of the Siglec binding site and its interactions with glycoconjugates were obtained from homology modeling of the sialic acid binding domain and molecular docking calculations with several sialosides. Furthermore, the interaction of chemically synthesized sialic acid derivatives with ...

  13. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materials range from 2.6 to 93.2, 1.3 to 172.8 and 6.3 to 997 Bq/kg, respectively with higher activity concentrations in pozzolan and lower in gypsum. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (excluding some materials from Songwe deposits in Mbeya region are comparative with the worldwide average concentrations of these radionuclides in soil. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the cements are 46, 28 and 228 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated values of radiological indices are below 60% of the upper recommended values for building materials. The average annual effective dose to an occupant from use of these materials equals to 0.45 mSv. Average activity concentrations of the mentioned radionuclides in Tanzania cements are in the middle of the variability interval of the national averages.

  14. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Vegge

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  15. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  16. Monitoring of increased natural occuring radiation exposure; Arbeitsplatzueberwachung bei erhoehter natuerlicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, Andreas [ALTRAC Radon-Messtechnik, Berlin (Germany); Leissring, Nick [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The radiation exposure due to natural occurring sources is a special challenge for the health and safety protection at workplaces. The monitoring of the radon exposure of employees in mines, radon-spa and in water works is regulated by prescription of radiation protection. The relevant compounds of the radiation exposure are the inhalation of radon and radon daughter products; terrestrial irradiation; ingestion of radioactive contaminated materials and the inhalation of contaminated dust. The monitoring of the radiation workers is realized essentially by measurements by radiation safety officer of the performing company, by an external engineering firm as well as by control measurements of experts of local authorities. The experiences in the practice have shown that in the field of operational radiation protection only a combination of personal- and operational dosimetry is suitable to avoid health hazards by work in fields with increased natural occurring radiation exposures.

  17. Naturally occurring Trichogramma species in olive farms in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMATMOHAMEDHEGAZI; ANNETTEHERZ; SHERIFHASSAN; ESSAMAGAMY; WEDADKHAFAGI; SANIASHWEIL; AHMEDZAITUN; SAFAAMOSTAFA; MOHAMEDHAFEZ; AHMEDEL-SHAZLY; SOMAIAEL-SAID; LAMIAABO-ABDALA; NOHAKHAMIS; SAMIAEL-KEMNY

    2005-01-01

    A survey of two-year studies (2001-2003) was carried out in two olive groves sited at two representative olive growing areas, namely Paradise Park (arid area) and Burg E1-Arab farm (semi-arid area) to monitor the frequency of endemic Trichogramma species on olive moth (Prays oleae) and jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis). The suspended host bait traps were found to be a more practical and effective tool for collecting Trichogramma wasps than the attached ones. Four naturally occurring Trichogramma species were collected for the first time in Egypt from the olive groves, where releases have never been conducted. T.bourarachae was collected exclusively from Burg El-Arab farm. It seems that this wasp species adapts well to the semi-arid area. Three species, namely T. cordubensis, T. nr.pretiosum and T. cacociae were isolated from Paradise Park farm. All of these wasps were also bred from naturally parasitized host eggs during favorable and even at unfavorable temperature conditions of June-August. However, these endemic species did not occur naturally in sufficient numbers to keep the pest populations from reaching damaging levels.The excessive usage of insecticides and the oophagous predators (e.g., ants and lacewing larvae) are some factors that affect the performance of Trichogramma wasps in olive farms.The presence of warm weather wasp strains suggests the existence of well-adapted wasp species or swains which may be appropriate candidates for the control of target pests in olive groves. Additional study is required to determine the best “habitat-specific” species/strains of Trichogramma for augmentative release of naturally occurring wasps and to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs. Efforts should be made to conserve these endemic species from oophagous predators, hot weather and insecticides.The olive and jasmine moth-larvae and pupae found under tree canopies were bred and emerged parasitoids were listed.

  18. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobeissi, M.A.; El Samad, O.; Zahraman, K. [Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Milky, S.; Bahsoun, F. [Department of Physics, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (I), Hadeth, Beirut (Lebanon); Abumurad, K.M. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)], E-mail: abumurad@yu.edu.jo

    2008-08-15

    Using {gamma}-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi and {sup 40}K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. {gamma}-Spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2 {+-} 0.4 to 60.8 {+-} 2.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8 {+-} 1.0 to 74.3 {+-} 9.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2 {+-} 3.0 and 76.3 {+-} 3.0 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2 {+-} 1.0 and 31.7 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1} with an average of 27.5 {+-} 1.3 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged between 291 {+-} 69 and 1774 {+-} 339 Bq m{sup -3} among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704 {+-} 139 Bq m{sup -3}. For gravel, the range was found to be from 52 {+-} 9 to 3077 {+-} 370 Bq m{sup -3} with an average value of 608 {+-} 85 Bq m{sup -3}. Aerial and mass exhalation rates of {sup 222}Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44 {+-} 7 and 2226 {+-} 267 mBq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, and between 0.40 {+-} 0.07 and 20.0 {+-} 0.3 mBq kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively.

  19. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137

  20. Environmental Assessment of Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Hazama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts and hazards due to the unstoppable hot mud flow by the East Java ‘LUSI’ Mud Volcano are increasing since its unexpected eruption on May 29, 2006. Analysis should be undertaken, not only to examine its impact on human health and the environment, but also to explore the potential benefits of the mud flow. One may be able to tap the mud flow as a material source for brick and cement. Recently there has been great concern about the health risks associated with exposure to natural radioactivity present in soil and building materials all over the world. In this context, measurements for natural radioactive isotopes such as 238U and 232Th series, and 40K in mud samples were carried out using the HPGe (High-Purity Germanium detector to determine the re-usability of the mud. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations were found to be 13±1, 15±1 and 111±3 Bq/kg (1 Bq = 1 sec-1, respectively, and the corresponding activity index was found to be 0.16±0.02. These values were compared with previous data and our measured accuracy was improved by a factor of nine at the maximum. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and annual effective dose equivalent were also evaluated and all were found to be within acceptable limits.

  1. Natural radioactivity in imported ceramic tiles used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija M. Janković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tiles are one of the commonly used decorative building materials. Body of ceramic tiles is a mixture of different raw materials including clays, quartz materials and feldspat, and may be glazed or left unglazed. Due to the presence of zircon in the glaze, ceramic tiles can show natural radioactivity concentration significantly higher than the average values for building materials. This study presents a summary of results obtained by a survey which was consisted of measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in imported ceramic tile samples used in Serbia using a gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. Based on the obtained concentrations, gamma index, radium equivalent activity, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials.

  2. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  3. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Luisa [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: lballest@upvnet.upv.es; Zarza, Isidoro [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: iszarpe@upvnet.upv.es; Ortiz, Josefina [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jortiz@iqn.upv.es; Serradell, Vicente [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: vserradell@iqn.upv.es

    2008-10-15

    Raw zirconium sand is one of the substances (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) which is widely used in the ceramic industry. This sand contains varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: mostly U-238 but also Th-232 and U-235, together with their daughters, and therefore may need to be regulated by Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This paper describes the method used to perform the radiological study on a zircon sand milling plant and presents the results obtained. Internal and external doses were evaluated using radioactivity readings from sand, airborne dust, intermediate materials and end products. The results on total effective dose show the need for this type of industry to be carefully controlled, since values near to 1 mSv were obtained.

  4. Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Kelmer, Efrat; Cohen, Adar; Codner, Carolina; Segev, Gilad; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-05-01

    To investigate hemostatic analyte abnormalities and their association with mortality in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Thirty client-owned dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. None. Citrated and EDTA blood samples were collected at presentation and at 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postpresentation (PP). Hemostatic tests performed included platelet count, prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times (PT and aPTT, respectively), antithrombin activity (ATA), total protein C activity (tPCA), fibrinogen, and D-dimer concentrations. The overall survival rate was 60% (18/30 dogs). Older age, higher heart rate and rectal temperature at presentation, and time from onset of clinical signs to presentation were significantly associated with mortality. Hemostatic analytes at presentation were not associated with mortality. Prolonged PT and aPTT at 12-24 hours PP, lower tPCA at 12 hours PP, and hypofibrinogenemia at 24 hours PP were significantly (P ATA were common at all time points, but were not associated with mortality. The frequency of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) increased in nonsurvivors throughout hospitalization, but the development of DIC was not associated with mortality. The number of abnormal coagulation disturbances during the first 24 hours was significantly higher in nonsurvivors (P = 0.04). Hemostatic derangements are common in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. Alterations in PT, aPTT, tPCA, and fibrinogen concentrations appear to be associated with the outcome at 12-24 hours PP, exemplifying the need for serial measurement of multiple laboratory hemostatic tests during hospitalization, even when within reference interval on presentation. The development of DIC, as defined in this cohort, was not associated with mortality; however, nonsurvivors had significantly more coagulation abnormalities during the first 24 hours PP. © Veterinary Emergency and

  5. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Genetic and molecular dissection of naturally occurring variations in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Masahiro [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The progress for structural analysis of the rice genome has allowed us to embark on the sequencing of the whole rice genome. Resources - genetic markers, sequence data, and genomic clones - derived from many efforts will be used for the functional analysis of rice genes in the next decade. Although artificially induced variations, such as mutants, have been used mainly for genetic and physiological studies in rice and other plant species, the development of DNA markers has made possible access to naturally occurring allelic variations underlying complex traits. Such analysis is often referred to as quantitative traits locus (QTL) analysis. Many QTLs have been mapped for many complex traits in rice. During the analyses of several quantitative traits by the DNA marker-assisted strategy, two questions about QTL analysis have been raised: 1) Does a QTL represent a single Mendelian locus or a cluster of multiple loci? 2) Is it possible to precisely map a QTL and identify QTLs at the molecular level using map-based or other strategies? To answer these questions, a series of analyses on heading date, including the identification of putative QTLs, characterization and fine mapping of QTLs using nearly isogenic lines (NILs), and identification of genes at QTLs for heading date by the map-based strategy has been performed. In addition, several primary permanent mapping populations and secondary genetic resources, such as chromosomal segmental substitution lines, have been developed to facilitate the genetic analysis of naturally occurring allelic variation. (M. Suetake)

  7. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    , especially within regions involved in reward, is involved in naturally occurring neglect and that MaD1 mice are a useful model for understanding the basis of naturally occurring neglect.

  8. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  9. Natural radioactivity of coal and fly ash at the Nikola Tesla B TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić Dragica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian thermal power plants (TPPs produce siliceous fly ash from lignite in the quantity of approximately 6 million tons per year. The potential market for the use of fly ash is operational, but for the time being, only used by cement producers. Fly ash radioactivity could be one of the major points of concern when larger use of fly ash is planned, particularly in the Serbian construction industry. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted regularly for decades. This paper presents the results of a ten-year fly ash radioactivity measurements at the Nikola Tesla B TPP located in Obrenovac. In addition, the paper compares the natural radionuclides coal content data combusted by the Nikola Tesla B TPP boilers coming from the Kolubara Basin and ash created during coal combustion. Fly ash created in the Nikola Tesla TPPs boilers is characterised by the increased concentration of the natural radionuclides content compared to coal. This is the so-called technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (Technologically Enhanced Occurring Radioactive Material - TENORM of industrial waste, whereas the average specific activities: 232Th in coal amount to 25.2 Bq/kg, and in fly ash and coal 84.2 Bq/kg and 238U 38.3 Bq/kg, respectively. Following the obtained natural radionuclides content results it may be concluded that the Nikola Tesla B TPP ash may be disposed into the environment. Ash may be used also in the construction industry (civil engineering. In building construction applications, ash share as the additive to other building materials depends from its physical and chemical characteristics, as well as from the radionuclides activity: 266Ra, 232Th and 40K. Unlike the thermal power plants regularly (once a year testing the specific natural radionuclides activity in the combusted coal and boiler fly ash, Electric Power Industry of Serbia has not performed large-scale investigations of the natural radionuclides content in coal within the Kolubara

  10. Natural radioactivity in soil in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, S A; Hussain, S

    2010-08-01

    The measurements of natural radioactivity and the assessment of radiological hazards in the soil samples of Baluchistan province of Pakistan have been carried out using HPGe detector. The soil gas radon activities in these areas have also been measured using lucas cell technique. The measured activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found in the range of 15-27, 20-37 and 328-648 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range of 35-59 nGy h(-1) and 0.17-0.29 mSv, respectively. Radon activity in the soil gas was found in the range of 357-2476 Bq m(-3).

  11. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  12. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazard assessment of Egyptian oil ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hesham; Sadeek, Sadeek; Mahmoud, Abu Rehab; Diab, Hanan; Zaky, Doaa

    2016-08-01

    Oil fly and boiler ash samples were collected from the four major Egyptian power plants in order to determine their natural radioactivity. Secular equilibrium between (238)U and (232)Th and their decay products is significantly disturbed in oil ash samples. The (226)Ra/(238)U ratios were between 440 and 1993 with an average value of 801, indicating that the concentrations of daughters (226)Ra were very high compared to the parent (238)U in the oil ash samples. While, the average ratios for (210)Pb/(226)Ra in most samples were 1.19 ± 0.05, indicating a secular equilibrium in the (226)Ra-(210)Pb sub series. The natural radioactivity due to (238)U and (232)Th was found to be negligible. While the activity concentrations of (226)Ra ranged from 3205 to 12,320 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 9284 Bq kg(-1), (210)Pb ranged from 5960 to 13,930 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 11,513 Bq kg(-1). The results are compared with the reported data from other countries. The average value of radium equivalent activity was 9308 ± 2729 Bq kg(-1), while the external and internal hazard indexes were found to be 25 ± 7 and 50 ± 15, respectively. All the studied radiological parameters were higher than the recommended limit by the IAEA in all ash samples.

  13. Multifaceted ability of naturally occurring polyphenols against metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingyu; Bennett, Lunawati L; Zhou, Shufeng

    2016-04-01

    Although cancer metastases are known to be the main cause of cancer-related deaths, truly effective antimetastatic therapeutics remain scarce in clinical practice. Naturally occurring polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diets. Many of them possess chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against various types of cancer. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathways that mediate cancer development and progression have led to an increase of interest in preclinical investigations on the mechanisms underlying anticancer activity of polyphenols. In particular, an increasing number of preclinical studies using cultured cells and animal models have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on tumour cell invasion and metastasis, thereby highlighting the potential of polyphenols against metastatic cancer. This review specifically addresses growing evidence of the capability of polyphenols to impair the invasion and migration of tumour cells through a diverse set of mechanisms, including downregulation of expression of matrix metalloproteinases, modulation of regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, interference with Met signalling, inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B mediated transcription, and so on. Given that metastasis occurs through a multistep process in which each step is regulated by a complex network of signalling pathways, the multi-function and multi-target characteristics of polyphenols render those promising candidates for effective adjuvant therapy against metastatic cancer.

  14. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  15. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m(-3). The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality.

  16. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, C.L.; Artur, A.C. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guedes, S. [Departamento de Cronologia e Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda No. 777, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martinelli, C.D. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. Such data were used to estimate Ra{sub eq}, H{sub ex} and I{sub {gamma}}, which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra{sub eq} and H{sub ex} in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces {approx}10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m{sup 2}/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (={sup 226}Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  17. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  18. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howbert, J Jeffry; Patterson, Edward E; Stead, S Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-70 Hz), and high-gamma (70-180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  19. Preparation of metagenomic libraries from naturally occurring marine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Sergei A; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are now well recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical cycling that fuels the Earth, and their viruses (phages) are known to be abundant and important in microbial mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and modulating microbial metabolic output. Investigation of environmental phages has been frustrated by an inability to culture the vast majority of naturally occurring diversity coupled with the lack of robust, quantitative, culture-independent methods for studying this uncultured majority. However, for double-stranded DNA phages, a quantitative viral metagenomic sample-to-sequence workflow now exists. Here, we review these advances with special emphasis on the technical details of preparing DNA sequencing libraries for metagenomic sequencing from environmentally relevant low-input DNA samples. Library preparation steps broadly involve manipulating the sample DNA by fragmentation, end repair and adaptor ligation, size fractionation, and amplification. One critical area of future research and development is parallel advances for alternate nucleic acid types such as single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses that are also abundant in nature. Combinations of recent advances in fragmentation (e.g., acoustic shearing and tagmentation), ligation reactions (adaptor-to-template ratio reference table availability), size fractionation (non-gel-sizing), and amplification (linear amplification for deep sequencing and linker amplification protocols) enhance our ability to generate quantitatively representative metagenomic datasets from low-input DNA samples. Such datasets are already providing new insights into the role of viruses in marine systems and will continue to do so as new environments are explored and synergies and paradigms emerge from large-scale comparative analyses.

  20. Natural Chlorinated Auxins Labeled with Radioactive Chloride in Immature Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1975-01-01

    Immature seeds were harvested from 15 species grown in perlite/vermiculite containing 36Cl-, but with very low levels of cold Cl-. Autoradiograms of one- and two-dimensional thin layer chromatograms of butanol extracts of lyophilized seeds indicated several radioactive compounds besides the 36Cl......- in many species. In pea the radioactivity cochromatographed with 4-(or 6-)chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid and its methyl ester; in other species radioactivity was found near these chlorinated indolyl-acetic acid markers....

  1. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  2. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  3. Conformational Flexibility Differentiates Naturally Occurring Bet v 1 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Ahammer, Linda; Kamenik, Anna S; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-06-03

    The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. Using NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the initial proteolytic cleavage sites in two naturally occurring Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a) and Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), are conformationally flexible. Inaccessible cleavage sites in helices and strands are highly flexible on the microsecond-millisecond time scale, whereas those located in loops display faster nanosecond-microsecond flexibility. The data consistently show that Bet v 1.0102 is more flexible and conformationally heterogeneous than Bet v 1.0101. Moreover, NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements reveal that the backbone amides in Bet v 1.0102 are significantly more solvent exposed, in agreement with this isoform's higher susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. The differential conformational flexibility of Bet v 1 isoforms, along with the transient exposure of inaccessible sites to the protein surface, may be linked to proteolytic susceptibility, representing a potential structure-based rationale for the observed differences in Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization.

  4. Characteristics of Cherenkov Radiation in Naturally Occuring Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, R E; Uggerhøj, U I; Klein, S R

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope - IceCube. Being located at the Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occuring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in ap...

  5. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells: markers, mechanisms, and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, Klaus G; Neunkirchner, Alina; Pickl, Winfried F

    2012-06-01

    Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(high) forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) are key mediators of immunity, which orchestrate and maintain tolerance to self and foreign antigens. In the recent 1.5 decades, a multitude of studies have aimed to define the phenotype and function of nTregs and to assess their therapeutic potential for modulating immune mediated disorders such as autoimmunity, allergy, and episodes of transplant rejection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of nTregs. We address the exact definition of nTregs by specific markers and combinations thereof, which is a prerequisite for the state-of-the-art isolation of defined nTreg populations. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism by which nTregs mediate immunosuppression and how this knowledge might translate into novel therapeutic modalities. With first clinical studies of nTreg-based therapies being finished, questions concerning the reliable sources of nTregs are becoming more and more eminent. Consequently, approaches allowing conversion of CD4(+) T cells into nTregs by coculture with antigen-presenting cells, cytokines, and/or pharmacological agents are discussed. In addition, genetic engineering approaches for the generation of antigen-specific nTregs are described.

  6. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  7. Pulsed light inactivation of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron Maftei, Nicoleta; Ramos-Villarroel, Ana Y; Nicolau, Anca I; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2014-03-15

    Pulsed light (PL) is emerging as a non-thermal technology with excellent prospects for the decontamination of foods and food contact surfaces. Its application for mould inactivation on cereal grains would allow a reduction of storage losses as well as the prevention of mycotoxin contamination at a post-harvest level. The potential of PL for the decontamination of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain was investigated in this study. Treatments of up to 40 flashes of a fluence of 0.4 J cm⁻² per pulse were applied to both sides of the grain, with an overall energy release ranging from 6.4 to 51.2 J g⁻¹. The most powerful treatment applied to wheat in this study (51.2 J g⁻¹) resulted in a mould reduction of approximately 4 log cycles on samples displaying an initial mould contamination level of 2.2 × 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹. At the same time, the seed germination percentage was only slightly affected. For PL treatments causing an inactivation of 3-4 log cycles, only 14-15% of the germination power of the wheat seeds was lost. The PL treatments attained greater microbial reductions for higher treatment times and lower initial mould loads. The absence of the UV portion of the radiation spectrum was found to significantly reduce the treatment effectiveness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

  9. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  10. Review of international normatives for natural radioactivity determination in building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossini Eros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities, such as high-altitude flights and living in buildings, have enhanced the public exposure to natural radiation. In particular, 40K and radionuclides belonging to 232Th and 238U decay chains are present even in building materials, and they may be considered as partially responsible for the effective dose coming from natural radioactivity. Scientists and governments have devoted great attention to the evaluation of the effects produced on the public by naturally occurring radionuclides. In this context, to evaluate the building materials acceptability, accurate and reliable methods for the measurement of the specific activity of natural radioactive isotopes in building materials have been developed. This paper aims to provide a clear and exhaustive review on natural radionuclide measurement procedures. Several standard national normatives (Dutch NEN 5697, Italian UNI 10797, Polish ITB 455, based on gamma spectrometry, have been considered and some critical issues were identified regarding the preparation and the radiometric measuring of the samples. Therefore, the direct measurement of 238U and 232Th by ICP-MS spectrometry as well as the extrapolation of the specific activities without waiting for secular equilibrium have been considered as two promising alternative approaches.

  11. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The meeting covers all topics concerning natural argillaceous geological barriers and the clay material based engineered barrier systems, investigated by means of: laboratory experiments on clay samples (new analytical developments), in situ experiments in underground research laboratories, mock-up demonstrations, natural analogues, as well as numerical modelling and global integration approaches (including up-scaling processes and treatment of uncertainties). The works presented deal with: examples of broad research programs (national or international) on the role of natural and artificial clay barriers for radionuclide confinement; clay-based repository concepts: repository designs, including technological and safety issues related to the use of clay for nuclear waste confinement; geology and clay characterisation: mineralogy, sedimentology, paleo-environment, diagenesis, dating techniques, discontinuities in rock clay, fracturing, self sealing processes, role of organic matter and microbiological processes; geochemistry: pore water geochemistry, clay thermodynamics, chemical retention, geochemical modelling, advanced isotopic geochemistry; mass transfer: water status and hydraulic properties in low permeability media, pore space geometry, water, solute and gas transfer processes, colloid mediated transport, large scale movements, long-term diffusion; alteration processes: oxidation effects, hydration-dehydration processes, response to thermal stress, iron-clay interactions, alkaline perturbation; geomechanics: thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of clay, rheological models, EDZ characterisation and evolution, coupled behaviour and models (HM, THM, THMC). A particular interest is given to potential contributions coming from fields of activities other than radioactive waste management, which take advantage of the confinement properties of the clay barrier (oil and gas industries, gas geological storage, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, chemical waste isolation

  12. Naturally occurring radiation sources: existing or planned exposure situation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann-Jensen, Per [Danish Decommissioning, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-12-01

    After more than fifteen years of application, ICRP Publication 60 has been revised. The revision was based upon the concept of 'controllable dose' as the dose or sum of doses to an individual from a particular source that can reasonably be controlled by whatever means. The new recommendations have been published as ICRP Publication 103. The European Basic Safety Standards as well as the International Basic Safety Standards are currently under revision as a result of the new recommendations from ICRP. According to the ICRP, there have been indications that some changes to the structure and terminology of the system of protection were desirable in order to improve clarity and utility. In particular the distinction between practices and interventions may not have been clearly understood and the ICRP now recognises three types of exposure situations, which replace the previous categorisation into practices and interventions. These exposure situations are intended to cover the entire range of exposure situations: (1) planned exposure, (2) existing exposure and (3) emergency exposure. There are situations of exposure to naturally occurring radiation sources in different occupations, e.g. exposure to radon and radon progeny in workplaces other than where the exposure is required by or is directly related to the work and aircrew exposed to cosmic radiation. In the European (Euratom) and the International Basic Safety Standards, these exposure situations are treated conceptually different-either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation. This note reviews the change of exposure situations from Publication 60 to Publication 103 and the implications for the revision of both the International and the European Basic Safety Standards. The paper draws some conclusions on the classification of the exposure situations in the two basic safety standards based on a logical interpretation of the ICRP recommendations. It is recommended that the

  13. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug.

  14. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  15. Natural radioactivity and chemical concentrations in Egyptian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rafat M; Khalil, F A; El Fayoumi, M A K

    2011-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water have been performed in many parts of the world, mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. A study of the radionuclide and chemical components in groundwater from Beni Suef Governate, Egypt has been carried out. Fifty water samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy to determine the 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K concentrations; major elements, pH, alkalinity, and conductivity were also measured. The specific activity values ranged from 0.008 to 0.040 Bq/l for 226Ra, from 0.003 to 0.019 Bq/l for 232Th, and from 0.025 to 0.344 Bq/l for 40K. The annual ingestions of these radionuclides, using local consumption rates (average over the whole population) of 1.5 l day(-1), were estimated to be 8.59, 4.86, and 83.47 Bq year(-1) for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The estimated values and weighted means of these radionuclides compare well with the world average. The estimated effective doses from drinking water were found to be 2.4 μSv year(-1) (226Ra), 1.1 μSv year(-1) (232Th), and 0.51 μSv year(-1) (40K). Contribution of these radionuclides to the committed effective dose from 1 year consumption of drinking water is estimated to be only 4%.

  16. Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in sedimentary rocks from Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure concentrations and distributions of natural radionuclides occurring mentary rock samples from Eastern Desert (Um El-Huetat), Nile Valley (Gebel Owina) and from southwest Sinai (Wadi Ghweiba) were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The samples under investigation (clay, shale and sandstone) were used as raw materials in the construction industry (bricks, ceramics, cement, fillers, etc.). Though the sediments of Egypt have already been investigated in the geological and mineralogical aspects, it is necessary to investigate the natural radioactivity in order to complete their classification. The average concentration values of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K in the surveyed samples were 47 ± 7,21± 5, 393±19 Bq.kg-1 (clay); 23 ± 5, 30 ± 6, 563 ± 24 Bq.kg-1(shale); and 17 ± 4, 14 ± 4, 299 ± 17 Bq.kg-1 (sandstone), respectively. All sediment samples have radium equivalent natural radionuclides present in the samples have been computed and compared with the global averages. In terms of the radiation safety, the natural radioactivity of the sediment in Egypt is below the recommended limits of the gamma dose rate. Therefore, they can be used for all kinds of public buildings.

  17. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  18. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOKRI

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... found in position 9, such as elaidic acid, with a Gaussian distribution of FAs with the ... traditional method of manually churning the naturally fermented milk and heating the ..... trans PUFA and CLA. PC1 was heavily weighted.

  19. The presence of natural radioactivity and 137Cs in the South China Sea bordering peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Y M; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Takleef, Ghazwa Hatem; Bradley, D A

    2013-10-01

    The presence of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs has been investigated in fresh media obtained from South China Sea locations off the coast of peninsular Malaysia. The media include seafood, sea water and sediment. The samples were collected some weeks prior to the devastating 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and associated tsunami, the occurrence of which precipitated the Fukushima incident. All samples showed the presence of naturally occurring (226)Ra, (228)Ra and primordial (40)K, all at typically prevailing levels. The concentrations of natural radioactivity in molluscs were found to be greater than that of other marine life studied herein, the total activity ranging from 337 to 393 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. The total activity in sea water ranged from 15 to 88 Bq l(-1). Sediment samples obtained at deep sea locations more than 20 km offshore further revealed the presence of (137)Cs. The activity of (137)Cs varied from ND to 0.5 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, the activity increasing with offshore distance and depth. The activity concentrations presented herein should be considered useful in assessing the impact of any future radiological contamination to the marine environment.

  20. Natural Radioactivity in Groundwater from the Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pery, N.; Vengosh, A.; Haqin, G.; Paytan, A.; Elhanani, S.; Pankratov, I.; Broshi, L.; Yungreiss, Z.; Gazit-Yaari, N.

    2004-12-01

    As most of the groundwater basins in the Middle East are being diminished or contaminated, exploitation of the deep aquifers referred as the "Nubian Sandstone" from the Paleozoic and Lower Cretaceous sandstone units is increasing. In many basins across the Sahara and Sahel regions, the Arabian peninsula, Gulf States, Jordan, and Israel the fossil groundwater are the only available water resource. Natural radioactivity is an important water quality factor of groundwater from this aquifer.Systematic analyses of radium isotopes (226Ra,228Ra,224Ra,223Ra) in over sixty groundwater samples from the Negev and Arava Valley, Israel, reveal that a large number of the pumping wells exceeds the international drinking water regulations as regulated by the USEPA and the European Community (EU). In the Lower Cretaceous Nubian sandstone (Kurnob Group) aquifer 26 out of the 29 (90%) investigated wells are having radium activity above the EU and the EPA regulations. Excluding the activity of the shorted-live 224Ra isotopes (half life of 3.6 days) the fraction of wells with activity above the EU regulation reduces to 79%. In the overlying Upper Cretaceous carbonate (Judea Group) aquifer the numbers of wells with activity exceeding the EU and EPA drinking regulations are 9 (39%) and 11 (48%) out of 23. In the carbonate aquifer we observed a linear correlation between 226Ra activity and salinity whereas in the sandstone aquifer the 228Ra isotopes is predominated and no relationship with salinity was found. Our results clearly indicate that high activity of radium, even low saline groundwater, play a key role in exploitation and water utilization for domestic and agriculture applications.

  1. Natural radioactivity in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuanjing, P.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims to study the specific activity of natural radioactivity in soil, rock, construction sand and shallow well water samples in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Totally 161 samples were collected and analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The specific activities of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in soil samples ranged from 8 to 203 (mean 96±18 Bq/kg, 12 to 236 (mean 88±23 Bq/kg and 21 to 1191 (mean 524±127 Bq/kg, in rock samples ranged from 11 to 113 (mean 46±14 Bq/kg, 3 to 113 (mean 47±16 Bq/kg and 18 to 1305 (mean 472±187 Bq/kg, in sand samples ranged from 3 to 91 (mean 42±5 Bq/kg, 14 to 91 (mean 50±5 Bq/kg and 102 to 966 (mean 509±57 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity of soil samples in 2 districts was found to be higher than 370 Bq/kg. The radiation hazard indices calculated for assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these rock and sand samples in the construction of dwellings were within the safety limits recommended by UNSCEAR. The mean estimated outdoor dose rates in soil and rock samples were 119±23 and 70±21 nGy/h, respectively. The mean estimated indoor dose rate in sand samples was 134±9 nGy/h. The specific activities of Ra-226 in well water samples ranged from 2 to 179 (Mean 17±7 mBq/l. Only one water sample from Muang District had the Ra-226 specific activity of 179 mBq/l, which was higher than the maximum contaminant level (111 mBq/l.

  2. Measurements of Natural Radioactivity in Submicron Aerosols in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Sterling, K.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2003-12-01

    Natural radionuclides can be useful in evaluating the transport of ozone and aerosols in the troposphere. Beryllium-7, which is produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and becomes adsorbed on fine aerosols, can be a useful indicator of upper air transport into a region. Lead-210 is produced by the decay of radon-222 out-gassed into the lower atmosphere from ground-based uranium deposits. Potassium-40, found in soils, can act as a measure of wind-blown dust and also comes from burning of wood and other biomass that is enriched in this natural radioisotope. Thus, both lead-210 and potassium-40 can aid in identification of aerosols sourced in the lower atmosphere. As part of our continuing interest in the lifetimes and sources of aerosols and their radiative effects, we report here measurements of fine aerosol radioactivity in Mexico City, one of the largest megacities in the world. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters by using cascade impactors (Sierra type, Anderson Instruments) and high-volume air samplers from the rooftop of the main laboratory of El Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental (CENICA). By using stage 4 of the impactor and timers, we were able to collect integrated samples of sizes > 1 micrometer and < 1 micrometer over 12-hr time periods daily for approximately one month in April 2003. Samples were counted at the University of Illinois at Chicago by using state-of-the-art gamma counting (beryllium-7, 477.6 keV; potassium-40, 1460.8 keV; lead-210, 46.5 keV). The beryllium-7 data indicate one possible upper-air transport event during April 2003. As expected, the lead-210 data indicate very little soil contribution to the fine aerosol. The potassium-40 data showed an increase in fine aerosol potassium during Holy Week that might be attributed to local combustion of biomass fuels. The data will be presented and discussed in light of future data analysis and comparison with other

  3. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  4. Use of natural radioactivity distribution images of vegetables at public meetings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, C.; Koido, S.; Suzuki, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Radioactivity distribution images in vegetables and pottery works were obtained by use of Imaging Plate whose sensitivity to radiations is 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} times larger than that of conventional X-ray films. A brochure titled `Natural Radiations through Naked Eyes` was published which contained the distribution images in natural materials, even in living animal bodies. In this paper, the reduction of background radiations and the procedure to obtain the distribution images of extremely low level natural radioactivity, measurement of radioactivity itself, and the content of the brochure are described. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity assessment of a phosphate fertilizer plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, rock phosphate and phosphogypsum samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were determined. Also the external background gamma levels were surveyed.238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K activities in soil samples were 21–674 Bq/kg, 11–44 Bq/kg, 22–683 Bq/kg and 51–295 Bq/kg respectively. The external background gamma radiation levels in the plant premises were ranging from 48 to 133 nGy/h.

  6. The Frequency, Nature, and Effects of Naturally Occurring Appearance-Focused Social Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and weight-related cognitions. During their daily activities, women reporting body dissatisfaction (n = 53) and women reporting body satisfaction (n = 34) recorded their reactions to comparison information.…

  7. ION EXCHANGE MECHANISM OF Cr+3 ON NATURALLY OCCURRING CLINOPTILOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.D. de Barros

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange isotherms are very important tools to achieve a better comprehension of cation removal by means of zeolite treatment. In this work, three isotherms were obtained (at 298K, at 313K and at 333K from natural pretreated Na+ clinoptilolite. The ion exchange was carried out with Cr+3 ions. The isotherms’ shape is similar to the classical type "b" isotherm, according to the arrangement proposed by Breck (1984. Mathematical fitting was applied to the experimental points (Table Curve software to obtain a representative curve thereof. From such fittings, points were simulated and then used to construct the Kielland plots, whose shape was associated with an ion exchange mechanism. Straight lines were obtained as an indication that, although the zeolite used is of natural occurrence and presents impurities such as mordenite and clays, only one site is involved in the ion exchange process

  8. Shear wave filtering in naturally-occurring Bouligand structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarín-Zapata, Nicolás; Gomez, Juan; Yaraghi, Nick; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2015-09-01

    Wave propagation was investigated in the Bouligand-like structure from within the dactyl club of the stomatopod, a crustacean that is known to smash their heavily shelled preys with high accelerations. We incorporate the layered nature in a unitary material cell through the propagator matrix formalism while the periodic nature of the material is considered via Bloch boundary conditions as applied in the theory of solid state physics. Our results show that these materials exhibit bandgaps at frequencies related to the stress pulse generated by the impact of the dactyl club to its prey, and therefore exhibiting wave filtering in addition to the already known mechanisms of macroscopic isotropic behavior and toughness. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions between plasma proteins and naturally occurring polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Hagerman, Ann E

    2013-05-01

    The plant natural products known as polyphenols are found at micronutrient levels in fruits, vegetables, and plant-based beverages such as wine, tea, coffee and cocoa. Consumption of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet, the "Mediterranean diet", has been epidemiologically related to health benefits especially for chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The abundance of polyphenols in plant-rich diets, and the potent bioactivities of polyphenols, provide indirect evidence for a role for polyphenols in maintaining good health. However, molecular mechanisms for therapeutic or preventative activity have not been demonstrated in vivo. We summarize the chemical classes of natural polyphenols, their bioactivities and bioavailability and metabolism. Because many polyphenols bind protein, we focus on the potential of protein binding to mediate the health-related effects of polyphenols. We discuss interactions with plasma proteins as the first target organ past the digestive tract for these orally-ingested compounds.

  10. Going Wild: Lessons from Naturally Occurring T-Lymphotropic Lentiviruses

    OpenAIRE

    VandeWoude, Sue; Apetrei, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    Over 40 nonhuman primate (NHP) species harbor species-specific simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Similarly, more than 20 species of nondomestic felids and African hyenids demonstrate seroreactivity against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigens. While it has been challenging to study the biological implications of nonfatal infections in natural populations, epidemiologic and clinical studies performed thus far have only rarely detected increased morbidity or impaired fecundity/sur...

  11. Two-proton radioactivity - a curiosity of nature?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B.; Giovinazzo, J.; Pfuetzner, M.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Zerguerras, T

    2004-04-05

    In the present paper, we describe recent results on two-proton mission studies. In the first part, new results on two proton emission from excited states in {sup 17}Ne are presented. In these complete kinematics measurements performed at the SPEG facility of GANIL, the angle between the two proton has been measured evidencing a {sup 2}He emission pattern. In a second part, recent results on the two-proton radioactivity of {sup 45}Fe from GANIL and GSI are presented, which show the first evidence of this new radioactivity.

  12. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  13. Virological and serological findings in dogs with naturally occurring distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Larocca, Vittorio; Martella, Vito; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. The unpredictable and variable course of CDV-related disease may hamper correct diagnosis of infection and makes it crucial the collection of samples suitable for laboratory confirmation. In the present study we were able to follow the disease in two dogs infected naturally, collecting different biological matrices during the entire period of infection. By real time RT-PCR, viral RNA was detected and quantified, suggesting that urine and rectal swabs would be useful for ante-mortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the clinical stage and form of the illness.

  14. A naturally-occurring 'cold earth' spot in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-29

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth's surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about -1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost's existence due to the peat's thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  15. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Structures and Properties of Naturally Occurring Polyether Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rutkowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely used as growth promoters in veterinary. Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is strictly connected with their molecular structure; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of their formula, molecular structure, and properties.

  17. Natural radioactivity consideration for high- dielectrics and metal gates choice in nanoelectronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Gedion, Michael; Wrobel, Frédéric; Saigné, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In order to face downscaling, new chemical elements are used and suggested for the semiconductor industry. However, some of these elements have natural radioactive isotopes, which may cause reliability issues in nanoelectronic devices by triggering soft errors. In this paper, we focus on high-? dielectric materials and metal gates. We show that beside physical, chemical and mechanical properties of high-? dielectrics and metal gates, natural radioactivity is also a crucial propert...

  18. Naturally Occurring Off-Switches for CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, April; Amrani, Nadia; Zhang, Yan; Garcia, Bianca; Hidalgo-Reyes, Yurima; Lee, Jooyoung; Edraki, Alireza; Shah, Megha; Sontheimer, Erik J; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2016-12-15

    CRISPR-Cas9 technology would be enhanced by the ability to inhibit Cas9 function spatially, temporally, or conditionally. Previously, we discovered small proteins encoded by bacteriophages that inhibit the CRISPR-Cas systems of their host bacteria. These "anti-CRISPRs" were specific to type I CRISPR-Cas systems that do not employ the Cas9 protein. We posited that nature would also yield Cas9 inhibitors in response to the evolutionary arms race between bacteriophages and their hosts. Here, we report the discovery of three distinct families of anti-CRISPRs that specifically inhibit the CRISPR-Cas9 system of Neisseria meningitidis. We show that these proteins bind directly to N. meningitidis Cas9 (NmeCas9) and can be used as potent inhibitors of genome editing by this system in human cells. These anti-CRISPR proteins now enable "off-switches" for CRISPR-Cas9 activity and provide a genetically encodable means to inhibit CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Naturally occurring antifouling substances. Kaiyo fuchaku seibutsu no kiraina mono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, K. (Shizuoka University, Sizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1991-07-20

    Prohibition would be imposed on a method of mixing organic tin or copper suboxide into paints coated on vessel hulls or seawater ducts as a means to prevent deposition of marine contaminant organisms, such as barnacles and Mytilidae, Mytilidae, because the method can cause detrimental contamination. Therefore, this paper describes an attempt to find antifouling substances from plant extracts with Mytilus as the object. The antifouling activity was determined by a uniquely devised test plate method (count and evaluate the positions and number of moving tracks of shells utilizing their nature that shells extend their byssuses rear to their body when they face aversive substances, and the number of byssus reduces when their living energy gets weakened), and the toxicity was determined by the number of dead shells opening their shells after they have been immersed for a predetermined time. Thus, tests were carried out on methanol extracts of about 100 kinds of ground plants and seaweeds, whereas some of them were found having antifouling activity of several times that of copper sulfate, but the plant genera and families were unspecified. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-01

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Reb ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. ["On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows," Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  1. Naturally-occurring dimers of flavonoids as anticarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Andrew G; Pomilio, Alicia B

    2013-10-01

    Biflavonoids are dimers of flavonoid moieties linked by a C-C or C-O-C bond. Simple, complex, rearranged, natural and ketalized Diels-Alder adducts, benzofuran derivatives, and spirobiflavonoids are some of the structural groups of biflavonoids. These compounds are mainly distributed in the Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (monocots and dicots), ferns (Pteridophyta), and mosses (Bryophyta). Biflavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, vasorelaxant, anticlotting, among others. This work is focused on probably the most potentially relevant biological activity of biflavonoids, the anticancer activity and the involved mechanisms of action, such as induction of apoptosis [inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases; effects on NF-κB family of transcription factors; activation of caspase(s); inhibition effects on bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of p53 and caspase-3 gene expression]; inhibition of angiogenesis [anti-proliferative effects; activation of Rho-GTPases and ERK signaling pathways; inhibition of FASN activity]; inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing; inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases I and II-α; anti-inflammatory/ immunoregulatory effects [inhibition of XO; inhibition of proinflammatory enzymes, such as PLA2 and COX; effects on cytokines mediated COX-2 and iNOS expression]; modulation of immune response; inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation; antioxidant and analgesic activities in relation to the anticarcinogen behavior. For that reason the structures and anticarcinogenic activities of 83 biflavonoids are thoroughly discussed. The results of this work indicate that biflavonoids strongly affect the cancer cells with little effect on normal cell proliferation, suggesting a therapeutic potential against cancer.

  2. Natural Radioactivity In Poultry Rations And DCP For Bovine Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz-Filho, Isaias V.; Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity present in samples of poultry rations and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) used for cattle feed. Knowledge of these levels is of fundamental importance, because part of this radioactivity will possibly be transferred to humans. The radiation found in such samples is due to the presence of radioactive series of 238U and 232Th and 40K. Measurements were performed with a 66% HPGe detector at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina. The measured samples were commercialized in Londrina, Brazil, in the second half of 2007. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 1 L Marinelli beaker. Poultry rations were divided into two types: for young chickens and adult chickens. Among these, the ration for adult chickens showed the highest values for the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra, 0.23±0.17 and 0.493±0.091 Bq/kg respectively. But the ration for young chickens showed the highest activity for the 40K, 304±15 Bq/kg. The DCP sample showed a much higher value for the series of 238U and 232Th, 83±26 and 7.79±0.70 Bq/kg, respectively. However, the 40K activity in this sample was about 5 or 6 times lower than samples for poultry feed, reaching 46.6±2.8 Bq/kg.

  3. Analysis of naturally-occurring radionuclides in coal combustion fly ash, gypsum, and scrubber residue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Angela R; Stabin, Michael G; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S

    2013-03-01

    Coal combustion residues from coal-fired power plants can be advantageous for use in building and construction materials. These by-products contain trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series, as well as other naturally occurring radionuclides such as K. Analysis was performed on samples of coal fly ash, flue gas desulfurization, gypsum and scrubber sludges, fixated scrubber sludges, and waste water filter cakes sampled from multiple coal-fired power plants in the United States. The radioactive content of U and Th decay series nuclides was determined using gamma photopeaks from progeny Pb at 352 keV and Tl at 583 keV, respectively; K specific activities were determined using the 1,461 keV photopeak. The samples were hermetically sealed to allow for secular equilibrium between the radium parents and the radon and subsequent progeny. Samples were analyzed in a common geometry using two high purity germanium photon detectors with low energy detection capabilities. The specific activities (Bq kg) were compared to results from literature studies including different building materials and fly ash specific activities. Fly ash from bituminous and subbituminous coals had U specific activities varying from 30-217 Bq kg (mean + 1 s.d. 119 ± 45 Bq kg) and 72-209 Bq kg (115 ± 40 Bq kg), respectively; Th specific activities from 10-120 Bq kg (73 ± 26 Bq kg) and 53-110 Bq kg (81 ± 18 Bq kg), respectively; and K specific activities from 177 to 928 Bq kg (569 ± 184 Bq kg) and 87-303 Bq kg (171 ± 69 Bq kg), respectively. Gypsum samples had U, Th, and K specific activities approximately one order of magnitude less than measured for fly ash samples.

  4. Natural and Fukushima-derived radioactivity in macroalgae and mussels along the Japanese shoreline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baumann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the failure of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture in March 2011, peer-reviewed publications describing radioactivity levels in organisms inhabiting coastal environments are scarce. This paper reports on elevated levels of 134Cs and 137Cs in macroalgae and mussels (up to ~ 800 Bq kg−1 dry wt. in June 2011. Cs concentrations in biota sampled in early June 2011 were higher in areas south of Fukushima than sampled in the last third of the month north of Fukushima. Radioactivity from 134+137Cs in organisms south of Fukushima were comparable to or lower than that from the naturally occuring 40K in the same samples. While 210Pb and 210Po concentrations were generally lower than these other radionuclides, 210Po as an α-emitter is more significant from a radiological viewpoint than γ-emitters as it can inflict greater biological damage. By applying known bioconcentration factors of Cs in biota, measured biota concentrations of Cs were also used to estimate Cs concentraitons in coastal seawater to be in the range of 102–103 Bq m−3. These estimates show that 3 months after the accident and maximal release of radioactive Cs, levels of Cs persisted in coastal waters, although at levels that were two orders of magnitude lower than at the time of release. These June coastal seawater Cs levels were four orders of magnitude above Cs concentrations off Japan prior to the Fukushima disaster.

  5. Natural and Fukushima-derived radioactivity in macroalgae and mussels along the Japanese shoreline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baumann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the failure of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture in March 2011, peer-reviewed publications describing radioactivity levels in organisms inhabiting coastal environments are scarce. This paper reports on elevated levels of 134Cs and 137Cs in macroalgae and mussels (up to ~ 800 Bq kg−1 dry wt. in June 2011. Cs concentrations in biota sampled in early June 2011 were higher in areas south of Fukushima than sampled in the last third of the month north of Fukushima. Activity concentrations from 134+137Cs in organisms south of Fukushima were comparable to or lower than those from the naturally occurring 40K in the same samples. While 210Pb and 210Po concentrations were generally lower than these other radionuclides, 210Po as an α-emitter is more significant from a radiological viewpoint than γ-emitters as it can inflict greater biological damage. By applying known bioconcentration factors of Cs in biota, measured biota concentrations of Cs were also used to estimate Cs concentrations in coastal seawater to be in the range of 102–103 Bq m−3. These estimates show that, 3 months after the accident and maximal release of radioactive Cs, levels of Cs persisted in coastal waters, although at levels that were two orders of magnitude lower than at the time of release. These June coastal seawater Cs levels were four orders of magnitude above Cs concentrations off Japan prior to the Fukushima disaster.

  6. Study of natural radioactivity in riverbank soils along the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santawamaitre, T., E-mail: tods_education@hotmail.com [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Matthews, M. [Centre for Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A.; Regan, P.H. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in surface soils along the Chao Phraya river have been investigated. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay chains and from {sup 40}K were determined through gamma-ray spectrometry measurements made using a hyperpure germanium detector in a low background configuration. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were found to be 55.3{+-}1.2{r_reversible}65.2{+-}1.4, 60.7{+-}1.2{r_reversible}69.1{+-}1.3 and 393{+-}13{r_reversible}478{+-}16 Bq/kg, respectively. Concerning radiological risk, the absorbed gamma dose rate in air from those soils was estimated to lie in the range 81.6{+-}1.9{r_reversible}90.4{+-}2.1 nGy/h; the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent was calculated to be 100.1{+-}2.3{r_reversible}110.8{+-}2.5 {mu}Sv/yr. These results are compared with radioactivity measurements with world mean values.

  7. Study of natural radioactivity in riverbank soils along the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H. A.; Matthews, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.

    2011-10-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in surface soils along the Chao Phraya river have been investigated. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in the 238U and 232Th decay chains and from 40K were determined through gamma-ray spectrometry measurements made using a hyperpure germanium detector in a low background configuration. Activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 55.3±1.2↔65.2±1.4, 60.7±1.2↔69.1±1.3 and 393±13↔478±16 Bq/kg, respectively. Concerning radiological risk, the absorbed gamma dose rate in air from those soils was estimated to lie in the range 81.6±1.9↔90.4±2.1 nGy/h; the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent was calculated to be 100.1±2.3↔110.8±2.5 μSv/yr. These results are compared with radioactivity measurements with world mean values.

  8. Natural radioactivity in poultry rations and DCP for bovine nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz Filho, Isaias Venancio da; Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity present in samples of poultry rations and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) used for cattle feed. Knowledge of these levels is of fundamental importance, because part of this radioactivity will possibly be transferred to humans. The radiation found in such samples is due to the presence of radioactive series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th and 40 K. Measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina. The data acquisition system consisted of an HPGe detector (66 % of relative efficiency and energy resolution of 2.03 keV for the 1332.46 keV {sup 60}Co line) and standard nuclear electronic chain for gamma ray spectrometry. The measured samples were commercialized in Londrina, Brazil, in the second half of 2007. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 1 L Marinelli beaker. Poultry rations were divided into two types: for young chickens and adult chickens. Among these, the ration for adult chickens showed the highest values for the activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, 0.23 +- 0.17 and 0.493 +- 0.091 Bq/kg respectively. But the ration for young chickens showed the highest activity for the 40K, 304 +- 15 Bq/kg. The DCP sample showed a much higher value for the series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, 83 +- 26 and 7.79 +- 0.70 Bq/kg, respectively. However, the 40K activity in this sample was about 5 or 6 times lower than samples for poultry feed, reaching 46.6 +- 2.8 Bq/kg. (author)

  9. Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

    Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

  10. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  11. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  12. Survey of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in environmental samples from Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Polić, P; Bartolomei, P; Benzi, V; Martellini V; Cvetković, O; Damjanov, V; Simić, M; Zunić, Z; Zivancević, B; Simić, S; Jovanović, V

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in sediments, soil, turf and honey from Serbia and Kosovo (Yugoslavia) was measured using gamma and alpha spectrometry in order to estimate the radiation hazard from natural and man-made sources, as well as to compile a database for radioactivity levels in those regions. One sample, collected in the vicinity of a "depleted uranium" (DU) shell of the recent Balkan war, revealed a high 238U activity and a non-natural 235U/238U activity ratio, confirming therefore its anthropogenic origin. However, some other soil samples coming from characteristic DU craters did not show any characteristic level of radioactivity. The other sediment and turf samples taken all around the country show low radioactivity levels for all the isotopes here considered. With the aim of obtaining some indication about radioactivity migration in the food chain, several honey samples have been examined too. All samples show very low radioactivity content, often indistinguishable from natural background.

  13. Natural radioactivity levels in mineral, therapeutic and spring waters in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, S., E-mail: labidisalam@yahoo.f [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (ISTMT), 9 Avenue du Docteur Z.Essafi, Tunis 1006 (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H. [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (ISTMT), 9 Avenue du Docteur Z.Essafi, Tunis 1006 (Tunisia); Essafi, F. [Faculte de Medecine de Tunis. Section de Biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Salah, R. [Faculte de Medecine de Sousse, 270, Sahloul II, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)

    2010-12-15

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out in 26 groundwater samples from Tunisia. Activity concentrations of uranium were studied by radiochemical separation procedures followed by alpha spectrometry and that for radium isotopes by gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that, the concentrations in water samples range from 1.2 to 69 mBq/L.1, 1.3 to 153.4 mBq/L, 2.0 to 1630.0 mBq/L and 2.0 to 1032.0 mBq/L for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, respectively. The U and Ra activity concentrations are low and similar to those published for other regions in the world. The natural radioactivity levels in the investigated samples are generally increased from mineral waters through therapeutic to the spring waters. The results show that a correlation between total dissolved solids (TDS) values and the {sup 226}Ra concentrations was found to be high indicating that {sup 266}Ra has a high affinity towards the majority of mineral elements dissolved in these waters. High correlation coefficients were also observed between {sup 226}Ra content and chloride ions for Cl{sup -}Na{sup +} water types. This can be explained by the fact that radium forms a complex with chloride and in this form is more soluble. The isotopic ratio of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 234}U varies in the range from 0.8 to 2.6 and 0.6 to 360.8, respectively, in all investigated waters, which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the two members of the {sup 238}U series. The fractionation of isotopes of a given element may occur because of preferential leaching of one, or by the direct action of recoil during radioactive decay. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of the mineral waters have been estimated to be well below the 0.1 mSv/y reference dose level.

  14. Natural radioactivity and health: is it the moment to pay more attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Estrada Vélez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, it is more usual to be aware of health problems, which were not given priority in the past .We, have overcome previous health problems to which we have given importance and life expectancy has increased and inconsequence we do now require to give more attention to natural radioactivity because it affects oncological and genetic problems. On the one hand, it is connected with new processes or factors regarding, for example building techniques and materials which include radon and on the other hand, to exposure by exploitation to fossil water. Natural radioactivity does not produce acute illness but it is always linked to chronic illness, in which to damage affects the genetic information: the AND as a simple molecule and the chromosome as a whole, which gives rise to oncological processes. Therefore natural radioactivity is a cancer producing agent “per se” of mayor significance. In this opinion paper we are seeking awareness of how natural radioactivity affects the buildings, water, etc. in there particular geographical areas with high levels of natural radioactivity.

  15. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides activity concentration in East Malaysian marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yii, M.W. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)], E-mail: yii@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zaharudin, A.; Abdul-Kadir, I. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2009-04-15

    Studies of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in East Malaysia were carried out as part of a marine coastal environment project. The results of measurements will serve as baseline data and background reference level for Malaysia coastlines. Sediments from 21 coastal locations and 10 near shore locations were collected for analyses. The samples were dried, finely ground, sealed in a container and stored for a minimum of 30 days to establish secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra and their respective radioactive progenies. They were counted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer covering the respective progeny energy peak. For {sup 40}K, the presence of this was measured directly via its 1460 keV energy peak. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples obtained from coastal Sarawak ranged between 23 and 41 (mean 30{+-}2) Bq/kg, 27 and 45 (mean 39{+-}4) Bq/kg and 142 and 680 (mean 462{+-}59) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from coastal Sabah ranged between 16 and 30 (mean 23{+-}2) Bq/kg, 23 and 45 (mean 35{+-}4) Bq/kg and 402 and 842 (mean 577{+-}75) Bq/kg, respectively. For the Sarawak near shore stations, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K ranged between 11 and 36 (mean 22{+-}2) Bq/kg, 21 and 65 (mean 39{+-}5) Bq/kg and 149 and 517 (mean 309{+-}41) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from Sabah ranged between 9 and 31 (mean 14{+-}2) Bq/kg, 10 and 48 (mean 21{+-}3) Bq/kg and 140 and 580 (mean 269{+-}36) Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated external hazard values of between 0.17 and 0.33 (less than unity) showed that there is little risk of external hazard to the workers handling the sediments.

  16. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  17. Natural radioactivity in stream sediments of Oltet River, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Adriana

    2017-04-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) in stream sediments of the Oltet River was measured in order to establish the primary sources of radionuclides, the transport pathways and the geochemical factors favouring their mobilisation and concentration in the existing geological context. The Oltet River has a length of 185 Km and crosses the southern central part of the country, being the right tributary of the Olt River. The range in elevation of the watercourse varies between 1963 m in the springs area (Parîng Mountains) and 200 m at the confluence with the Olt River, whereas the relief of the Oltet Basin has a varied character, manifested by the presence of diverse forms of relief, starting with major mountainous heights and ending with low-lying plains regions. In cross section from North to South, the Olteț River cuts metamorphic rocks (schist, gneisses, quartzite, marble, mica-schist's), magmatic rocks (granite and granitoid massifs - intruded by veins of microgranite, aplite, pegmatite and lamprophyre) and limestone, followed by deposits composed of clays, marls, sands and gravels, that are characterized by the presence of lignite seams. 44 stream sediment samples were collected in summer of 2016 from sampling points distributed along the river with an equidistance of about 4 - 5 km. The activity concentrations of the U-238, Th-232 and K-40 were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe detector (ORTEC) with 26% relative efficiency in multilayer shielding. The reference materials used were IAEA - RGK-1 and IAEA - 314. Analysis was performed on the <2 mm fraction of sediment sample, each sample was counted for 24,000 s. U-238 specific activity in the stream sediments varies between 6.18 and 68.76 Bq/Kg and Th-232 specific activity from 8.12 to 89.28 Bq/Kg, whereas the K-40 specific activity in sediments ranges from 99.01 to 312.16 Bq/Kg. In the upper sector of the Oltet River, concentrations of U-238, Th-232 and K-40

  18. Structure and reactions of GRNa,SO4 and the occurence of GR in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this PhD thesis is to describe the processes that take place where iron-containing minerals are present. The work was especially focused on the ferro-ferric hydroxide minerals, the green rust series, and their possible role in the geochemical iron-cycle. The goal of the first study...... analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Using newly determined data for chemical composition from pure samples, we were able to determine details in the structure and composition of the solid. The new results proved that sodium is essential for sulphate-containing green rust, GRNa,SO4. The chemical...... rods. These and other radioactive elements pose a serious environmental risk for long term storage, if leaks develop in the waste repository. To better understand the behaviour of these radioactive elements in the natural environment and their reactivity with the repository iron structures, I examined...

  19. Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation Dose Estimation in Some Sedimentary Rock Samples in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Akkurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radioactivity existed since creation of the universe due to the long life time of some radionuclides. This natural radioactivity is caused by γ-radiation originating from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In this study, the gamma radiation has been measured to determine natural radioactivity of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in collected sedimentary rock samples in different places of Turkey. The measurements have been performed using γ-ray spectrometer containing NaI(Tl detector and multichannel analyser (MCA. Absorbed dose rate (D, annual effective dose (AED, radium equivalent activities (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, and internal hazard index (Hin associated with the natural radionuclide were calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the sedimentary rock samples. The average values of absorbed dose rate in air (D, annual effective dose (AED, radium equivalent activity (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, and internal hazard index (Hin were calculated and these were 45.425 nGy/h, 0.056 mSv/y, 99.014 Bq/kg, 0.267, and 0.361, respectively.

  20. A pin-point selection of underground water and hot spring sources by using natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Nobuo [Sokuchi Tansui Risachisenta K.K. (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    It is proved by many actually excavated results that there is an underground water vein at a place where void space like fragmentation zone exits continuously to underground depth. A natural radioactive matter rises through cracks and tears of rocks to reach surface of ground, from where it seems to emit into air with many other kinds of radiation. A used tester is a special detector scintillation type and is made up so as to measure radiation by dividing radiations to underground, on and from earth surface, and in air. And, from difference between both measured values, which are count numbers of Bi and Tl, a radioactivity intensity can be recorded automatically through a calculation circuit. Here were described on underground fragmentation zone surveying method using gamma ray selection type tester, relationship between characteristic point of natural radioactivity and fragmentation zone, introduction of pin-pint method using a graphical example, and application of resources showing rock fragmentation zone. (G.K.)

  1. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of the sources of natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholt, J.N.

    1957-01-01

    Study of the state of equilibrium of any natural radioactive source requires determination of several key nuclides or groups of nuclides to find their contribution to the total amount of radioactivity. Alpha activity measured by scintillation counting is used for determination of protactinium-231, thorium-232, thorium-230, and radium-226. The chemical procedures for the separations of the specific elements are described, as well as the measurement techniques used to determine the abundances of the individual isotopes. To correct for deviations in the ore standards, an independent means of evaluating the efficiencies of the individual separations and measurements is used. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis facilitates detailed investigation of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  2. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

  3. Improved and new uses of natural radioactivity in mineral exploration and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; Stapel, C.; Jones, D.G.; Roberts, P.D.; Rozendaal, A.; Macdonald, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of natural radioactivity has been used in both a qualitative and a quantitative way in mineral exploration, particularly in the search for uranium. In the last five years, the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) and British Geological Survey (BGS) have designed, built and tested a new

  4. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+ from aqueous waste streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and selectivity of new Ra2+ extractants. The results presented provide insight in both the requirements needed to give Ra2+ selectivity and in the achievable Ra2+/Mn+ (Mn+ = alkali(ne earth) cation) separations.

  5. Gamma-ray measurements of naturally occurring radioactive samples from Cyprus characteristic geological rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tzortzis, M; Christofides, S; Christodoulides, G

    2003-01-01

    Using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the terrestrial gamma radiation in all the predominant types of geological rock formations appearing in Cyprus was measured. Soil samples were collected from each rock type, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory for 24 hours each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for Th-232 (range from 1.3 to 52.8 Bq/kg), U-238 (from 0.9 to 90.3 Bq/kg) and K-40 (from 13 to 894 Bq/kg). Elemental concentrations mean values of (2.8 +- 0.7) ppm, (1.3 +- 0.3) ppm and (0.6 +- 0.1) % were extracted, for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range of 0.1-50 nGy/h, depending on the geological features, with an overall mean value of (14.7 +- 7.3) nGy/h. The corresponding effective dose rates per person outdoors were estimated to be between 0.1 and 61.4 microSv/y, assuming a 20% occupancy factor.

  6. Characterization of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in Oil and Gas Industry Equipment and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-10-07

    This Sampling and Analysis (S and A) Plan was developed for the NORM Characterization Program, and describes the information to be gained through the program, how the required information is to be collected, and the anticipated form and content of the final data. The S and A Plan provides detailed procedures describing the work to be performed, how and why the work will be performed, and who will be responsible for conducting the various aspects of the work. The S and A Plan has been prepared with input from all parties involved with the program. Where appropriate, portions of the procedures described in the S and A Plan will be field tested by personnel of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO), as well as representatives of the cosponsor organizations prior to their use in the field.

  7. Radiometric Mapping for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM Assessment in Mamuju, West Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Syaeful

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mamuju has been known to have high radiation dose rate which comes from NORM in rock and soil. Major concern is due to its location which is near inhabitant settlement area. Preliminary research has been done by environmental team which is limited to main access road only, while some remote area has left untouched. The purpose of the research is to delineate the location and distribution of thorium and uranium anomaly in Mamuju, and also to provide adequate information regarding the anomaly and high dose rate area to decision makers and stakeholders in neither local nor central government. Method applied is radiometric mapping using spectrometer RS-125 with NaI(Tl detector in the area of interest Geological Formation of Adang Volcanic, which is more than 800 square km in size. The radiometric mapping method is widely used in uranium/thorium exploration, and now has been added with the measurement of radiation dose rate which is appropriate to environmental surveys. The mapping has been successfully delineated the area of NORM or the area with thorium and uranium anomaly. Thorium and uranium anomaly are related with multi-geological-process resulting the increase of grade into several fold from its original state

  8. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo

    1998-07-01

    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  9. Natural radioactivity in construction materials; Natuerliche Radioaktivitaet in Bauprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bernd [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Rocks and soils contain traces of uranium and thorium and their daughter products, also the primordial nuclide K-40. Most construction materials are produced from mineral raw materials and residuals from industrial processes, thus natural radionuclides can be detected. The radionuclide concentrations are relevant with respect to radiation protection. Radionuclides in construction materials can cause indoor radiation exposure due to their gamma radiation and due to inhalation of radon a gaseous nuclide that can diffuse out of the materials. Based on new legal developments in the European Union the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz is now again concerned with radiation protection issues of building materials.

  10. Natural radioactivity of some spring and bottled mineral waters from several central Balkan sites, as a way of their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCEPAN S. MILJANIC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the radioactive content of some spring and bottled mineral waters originating frommetamorphic rock areas was carried out.Ahigh content of radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra, was found by radiometric analysis in the spring waters: Studenica (226Ra: 289 mBq/L, ^ibutkovica (226Ra: 92, 4 mBq/L, 228Ra: 610 mBq/L, and Crni Guber (226Ra: 120 mBq/L, 228Ra: 1170 mBq/L. On the other hand, the radiochemical results showed a higher concentration of 238U in the bottled mineral water samples (dissolved uranium concentrations were from 0.21 mBq/L, for "Kopaonik" to 71.5mBq/L fo "Skadarska" than in the spring water samples (dissolved uranium concentrations were very low » 10 mBq/L. The concentrations of all the present naturally occuring radionuclides: 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra and 226Ra were determined by alpha/gamma spectrometric analysis. The activity ratios 234U/238U, 226Ra/230Th and 228Th/232Th, 228Ra/228Th were calculated and are discussed as an indication of the radioactive disequilibrium in bothe the 238U and 232Th radioactive series. The high contents of radium isotopes with respect to the equilibrium values expected from the respective parents 232Th/(232Th series and 230Th (238U series found in the spring water samples is the main evidence for the existence of significant radioactive disequilibrium in both the radioactive series.

  11. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  12. Measurement of natural radioactivity in Brazilian beach sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sanches, N. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Macario, K. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Iguatemy, M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, J.G. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho, Fundacentro C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, A.M.A. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho, Fundacentro C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mosquera, B. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Baptista Filho, M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Umisedo, N.K. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-02-15

    The distribution of natural radionuclide {gamma}-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were determined for sand samples collected along the coast of four Brazilian States: Sao Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espirito Santo (ES) and Bahia (BA). For some specific beaches, the values of the annual effective dose rates or {gamma}-ray radiation hazard indices exceed the average worldwide exposure of 2.4mSvy{sup -1} due to natural sources and the limits proposed by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development for building materials. The average values of the radium equivalent activities were evaluated and found to be 696Bqkg{sup -1} in Mambucaba (RJ), 1621Bqkg{sup -1} in Buena (RJ), 2289Bqkg{sup -1} in Anchieta (ES), 10205Bqkg{sup -1} in Meaipe (ES), 83425Bqkg{sup -1} in Guarapari (ES), 531Bqkg{sup -1} in Vitoria (ES), 2026Bqkg{sup -1} in Serra (ES), 3240Bqkg{sup -1} in Sao Mateus (ES), 3075Bqkg{sup -1} in Porto Seguro (BA) and 1841Bqkg{sup -1} in Itacare (BA). These values are above the limit of 370Bqkg{sup -1} recommended for the safe use of building materials for dwellings by OECD.

  13. Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies.

  14. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van, E-mail: msbatalha@oi.com.b, E-mail: rvangenuchten@yahoo.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Bezerra, Camila Rosa, E-mail: camila.rosabz@gmail.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  15. Natural radioactivity levels (K, Th and Ra in some areas of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity, natural and man-made, is omnipresent in the earth's crust in different amounts. Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis has been carried out in soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab, India using gamma-ray spectrometry. Phe technique of gamma ray spectrometry was applied using high purity germanium gamma-ray detector and a PC based MCA. Radium equivalent activities are calculated for the analyzed samples to assess radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples in construction of dwellings. Phe measured activity in the soil ranges from 23.17 to 57.87 Bq kg−1, 59.03 to 160.40 Bq kg−1 and 228.06 to 501.03 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Ph and 40K with mean values of 37.93, 84.47 and 351.17Bqkg−1 respectively. It has been observed that on the average the outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate is about 84.65nGyh−1.

  16. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  17. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  18. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BULGARIAN SOILS ALONG THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from gamma-spectrometry analyses of soils and sediments samples taken along the Danube river is presented in the paper. Results about the content of natural and artifi cial radionuclides like Sr-90 and Cs-137 are discussed. The region around the Kozloduj NPP including its exclusion zone is investigated in more details. Data from the last years is compared with such from former investigations of similar samples from the region. The soil is a natural depot and initial reservoir for spreading of all man-made radionuclides and natural radioactivity. The man-made isotopes with the longest half-life time, like Sr-90 and Cs-137 are mainly investigated. Because of their feature to be bioelements, that is to include themselves in human’s metabolism, they are especially dangerous when their concentrations in the nutritious chain increase. That is why the investigation of these nuclides together with the natural once like uranium, thorium and radium started in 1978 with annual determination of their concentrations in soils collected from the region of “Kozloduj” NPP and some places along the Danube river potentially exposed to radioactive contamination. The aim was to make a picture of the radioecological status of the soils along the Danube river. The period after 1986 is concerned as the accident in Chernobyl’s NPP changed basically the radioactive situation in the country.

  19. Natural Radioactivity in Some Food Crops from Bangka-Belitung Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarbaini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural radioactivities of food crops are the main sources of internal radiation exposure in humans. Bangka Belitung islands of Indonesia has natural background radioactivity higher than normal area because of tin mining activities.The study was carried out to evaluate the natural radioactivity concentration in some food crops grown in Bangka and Belitung Islands. Food samples collected from Bangka and Belitung Islands were analysed by means of a gamma spectroscopy for natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The annual intake of the food was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. Calculations were also made to determine the effective dose to an individual consuming such diets. The intakes of these radionuclides were calculated using the concentrations in Bangka Belitung foods and annual consumption rates of these food. Annual intakes of these radionuclides were as follows: 226Ra= 190.00; 232Th, 633.79 and 40K = 2065.10 Bq/year. The annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radionuclides in food was 0.205 mSv/year which is very much lower than annual dose limit of 1 mSv for general public. The radionuclides with highest consumption is 40K followed by 232Th and 226Ra

  20. Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Annual Forum, Montreal, Canada, 2002. 3. Samuel, P. D.; Pines, D. J. A Review of Vibration Based Techniques for Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics...Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain by Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas...5066 ARL-TR-6795 January 2014 Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain Kelsen E. LaBerge

  1. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, A M A; Ahmad, I A; Kamel, A M

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  2. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, A.M.A., E-mail: Ghostvolca@hotmail.com [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmad, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Kamel, A.M. [Labeled Compounds Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Labs Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Abou-Zaabal 13759 (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  3. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-1, 23.76 (11.10–37.10 Bq· kg-1, 96.84 (30.60–229.30 Bq· kg-1 and 28.09 Bq·kg-1 (3.10–61.80 Bq·kg-1, respectively. Both 238U and 232Th have high correlations with ash yield of coals, suggesting their inorganic origins. The overall environmental effect of natural radionuclides in studied coals is considered to be negligible, as assessed by related indexes (i.e., radium equivalent activity, air-adsorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, and external hazard index. However, the absorbed dose rates values are higher than the average value of global primordial radiation and the Chinese natural gamma radiation dose rate.

  4. Association of naturally occurring radionuclides in sludges from Drinking Water Treatment Plants previously optimized for their removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2014-02-01

    The raw water used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can present high values of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to reduce this content, the routine working conditions of DWTPs were successfully modified. This meant that those radionuclides were accumulated in the sludges generated, whose radioactive content was frequently above the exemption levels. It therefore becomes necessary to assess the association of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sludges for their potential use as agricultural fertilizers. Two approaches were studied: (a) the effect of different sequential extraction methods applied to a selected sludge; and (b) the effect of the different contents of inorganic complexes dissolved in the input water on the composition of the sludges generated by two DWTPs with different origins of their input water. Uranium and radium were mainly associated with the carbonated and reducible fractions, while (210)Po and (228)Th were associated with the residual fraction. There were differences between the two speciation methods, but the order of bioavailable radionuclides was roughly the same: (226)Ra≈(234,238)U>(228)Th>(210)Po. The major inorganic complexes content, mainly carbonate, in the raw water affected the radionuclide association. The greater the carbonate content in the raw water, the greater was the association of uranium and radium with the carbonated and easily reducible fractions.

  5. Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionucleides Pb-210, Po-210, and Ra-226 in aquatic fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Study reveals naturally occurring radionuclides are ubiquitous and contribute a substantial fraction of the natural radiation dose to humans and various biota. Measurements may be useful in ecological and other biological problems such as tracing food chains of animals and study of the metabolism of these elements.

  6. Natural radioactivity in granite stones used as building materials in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharizadeh, F; Abbasi, A; Hochaghani, O; Gooya, E S

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing concern about environmental radiological protection, specific radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in different types of commonly used granite stone samples collected from the Tehran city of Iran have been determined by means of a high-resolution HPGe gamma-spectroscopy system. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 18 to 178, 6 to 160 and 556 to 1539 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) set by NEA-OECD [Nuclear Energy Agency. Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts. OECD (1979)], except in two samples. The internal hazard indexes have been found well below the acceptable limit in most of the samples. Five samples of investigated commercial granite stones do not satisfy the safety criterion illustrated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Exposure from natural sources of radiation. Report to the General Assembly (1993). Applying dose criteria recently recommended by the EC [European Commission Report on Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials. Radiation Protection 112 (1999)] for superficial materials, all investigated samples meet the exemption dose limit of 0.3 mSv y(-1).

  7. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  8. Encapsulation of piceatannol, a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol, by natural and modified cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matencio, Adrián; García-Carmona, Francisco; López-Nicolás, José Manuel

    2016-05-18

    In this work, an in-depth study of the interaction between piceatannol (a type of stilbene with high biological activity) and different natural and modified cyclodextrins (CDs) is made, using steady state fluorescence. This bioactive molecule forms a 1 : 1 complex with all the natural (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) and modified (HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and M-β-CD) CDs tested. Among natural CDs, the interaction of piceatannol with β-CD was the most efficient. However, the modified CDs showed higher encapsulation constants (KF) than β-CD, except M-β-CD; the highest KF being found for HP-β-CD (14 048 ± 702 M(-1)). The encapsulation of piceatannol in the internal cavity of CDs showed a strong dependence on pH and temperature. The interaction between HP-β-CD and piceatannol was less effective in the pH region where the stilbene begins to suffer the deprotonation of its hydroxyl group. Moreover, the values of KF decreased as the system temperature increased. To obtain information on the mechanism involved in the piceatannol affinity for CD, the thermodynamic parameters of the complexation (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) were studied, the results showed a negative entropy (-3.7 ± 0.2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-24.6 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and Gibbs free energy change at 25 °C (-23.5 ± 1.2 J mol(-1)). Finally, molecular docking calculations provided further insights into how the different interactions influence the complexation constant. A high degree of correlation was observed between the computed scores and experimental values.

  9. Predicting Emotions in Facial Expressions from the Annotations in Naturally Occurring First Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the automatic identification of emotions from the manual annotations of the shape and functions of facial expressions in a Danish corpus of video recorded naturally occurring first encounters. More specifically, a support vector classified is trained on the corpus annotation...... to it are reliable and can be used to model and test emotional behaviours in emotional cognitive infocommunicative systems.......This paper deals with the automatic identification of emotions from the manual annotations of the shape and functions of facial expressions in a Danish corpus of video recorded naturally occurring first encounters. More specifically, a support vector classified is trained on the corpus annotations...... to identify emotions in facial expressions. In the classification experiments, we test to what extent emotions expressed in naturally-occurring conversations can be identified automatically by a classifier trained on the manual annotations of the shape of facial expressions and co-occurring speech tokens. We...

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some building materials used in Kilpenathur, Tiruvannamalai dist, Tamilnadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, Y. [Department of Physics, AarupadaiVeedu Institute of Technology, Paiyanoor, Chennai 603 104, Tamilnadu (India); Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R., E-mail: ravisankarphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Tiruvannamalai 606603, Tamilnadu (India); Chandrasekaran, A. [Departement of physics, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai- 603110, Tamilnadu India (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present study aimed to measure the radioactivity concentration of naturally occuring radionuclides in the locally used building materials from Kilpenthaur, Tiruvannmalai Dist, Tamilnadu, India. This study will also evaluate the radiation hazard arising due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings. The concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in five types of building materials have been measured by gamma spectrometry using NaI (Tl) 3” x 3”detector. The estimated radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (D{sub R}), annual effective dose rate (H{sub R}) and the external hazard indexes(H{sub ex}) were lower than the recommended safe limit and are comparable with results from similar studies conducted in other countries. Therefore, the use of these building material samples under investigation in the construction of dwellings is considered to be safe for inhabitants.

  11. Natural radioactivity in commercial granites extracted near old uranium mines: scientific, economic and social impact of disinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Pereira, Alcides; Neves, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The study of radioactivity in natural stones is a subject of great interest from different points of view: scientific, social and economic. Several previous studies have demonstrated that the radioactivity is dependent, not only on the uranium content, but also on the structures, textures, minerals containing the uranium and degree of weathering of the natural stone. Villavieja granite is extracted in a village where uranium mining was an important activity during the 20th century. Today the mine is closed but the granite is still extracted. Incorrect information about natural radioactivity given to natural stone users, policy makers, construction managers and the general public has caused turmoil in the media for many years. This paper considers problems associated with the communication of reliable information, as well as uncertainties, on natural radioactivity to these audiences.

  12. EVALUATION OF RADIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RARE-EARTH METALS WITH NATURAL RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Lisachenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the rare-earth metals with natural radioactive isotopes, lantan, lutetium and samarium are allocated a relatively high specific activity. The formation of the additional external radiation keep it close to the significance of the materials to the radiation categories of materials with a high content of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium family, lanthanum value is much less. Samarium, with acceptable toxicology content in the working area, forms the internal exposure to the limits for professionals. The use of these elements in science and industry requires the radiation-hygienic evaluation.

  13. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L.; Cox, J.R. [Exploranium Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of {sup 137}Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from {sup 137}Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au). 10 refs.

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity in soil samples of Dez river sides – Khouzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nasrabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical features of each region of the world affect the activity concentration of natural radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and potassium. In this study, 26 soil samples were randomly collected from sides of the Dez River and transferred to the Laboratory for preparation. Activity concentration of natural radioactive materials was measured using p-type HPGe detector with a 38% relative efficiency. The results indicated that radioactivity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples varied over a range of 15.97 - 32.87Bqkg-1, 8.04 - 33. 85 Bqkg-1 and 106.82 - 471.35 Bqkg-1, respectively while their mean values were 25.21, 19.71 and 289.57Bqkg-1 in that order. Statistical results at 5% internal error showed that the mean values of radionuclides' activity concentrations were lower than their defined ones--the average values of the world and Iran. The results of radiological parameters predicted no radioactivity danger in the region.

  15. Natural Radioactivity in Soil and Water from Likuyu Village in the Neighborhood of Mkuju Uranium Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat K. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of high concentration uranium deposit at Mkuju, southern part of Tanzania, has brought concern about the levels of natural radioactivity at villages in the neighborhood of the deposit. This study determined the radioactivity levels of 30 soil samples and 20 water samples from Likuyu village which is 54 km east of the uranium deposit. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined using low level gamma spectrometry of the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC Laboratory in Arusha. The average radioactivity concentrations obtained in soil samples for 238U (51.7 Bq/kg, 232Th (36.4 Bq/kg, and 40K (564.3 Bq/kg were higher than the worldwide average concentrations value of these radionuclides reported by UNSCEAR, 2000. The average activity concentration value of 238U (2.35 Bq/L and 232Th (1.85 Bq/L in water samples was similar and comparable to their mean concentrations in the control sample collected from Nduluma River in Arusha.

  16. Natural decrease of the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Matishov, D. G.; Solatie, D.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Leppanen, A.

    2009-08-01

    The results of radioecological investigations carried out within the framework of the Russian-Finnish high-latitude expedition in 2007 are presented. The characteristics of the present-day accumulation level of the significant radioecological isotopes 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in the Barents Sea are described. The comparative analysis is performed for the radiation pollution of the environment in the 1980s and 1990s and in the first decade of the 21st century. Natural purification processes in the marine environment are the main factors of the decrease in the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes. These processes include repeated dilution, nuclear decay, occlusion by sediments and suspended solid material, and accumulation by aquatic inhabitants. A stable decreasing trend is observed for the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes in the Barents Sea.

  17. RADIOACTIVE OR NATURAL TRACER。TECHNIQUES FOR LEAK DETERMINING OF DAM ABUTMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 杜国平; 等

    1995-01-01

    Infiltration and localization of preferential infiltration zones at the dam abutment are measured using radioactive tracer tests of flow in boreholes,meanwhile interconnection between boreholes and the energing water points is analysed.The theory and practice of radioactive tracer synthetic detective method are described to give methods and calculation formulae used under the condition of stable flow in single well to measure permeability coefficient and hydrostatic heads.Major single hole techniques including measurement for seepage line,velocity,rate of seepage flow and relationship of recharge of groundwater in aquifers are introduced briefly.The possibilities offered by natureal tracers are analysed,uincluding electric-conduct,pH-value and temperature of water as well as stable isotopes(D,18O) and tritium.Furthermore,the sensibilities of this theory and methods were confirmed by detecting seepage flow field of Xinanjiang Dam.

  18. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  20. Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, K; Furukawa, H; Hirono, I

    1995-03-01

    Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol-beta-glucoside, is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound. The genotoxicity of cycasin was assayed in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cycasin induced small single and large single spots on feeding at 10 mumol/g medium. The presence of these spots indicates that cycasin is genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. Microorganisms which showed beta-glucosidase activity for cleaving cycasin to toxic aglycon were isolated from gut flora of the Drosophila larvae. Consequently, the Drosophila wing spot test would be useful for mutagenicity screening of other naturally occurring glucosides.

  1. Natural and artificial radioactivity distribution in soil of Fars Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S

    2011-04-01

    Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg(-1), 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1), 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg(-1) and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (137)Cs, (232)Th and (238)U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 μSv.

  2. A library screening approach identifies naturally occurring RNA sequences for a G-quadruplex binding ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirihana Arachchilage, Gayan; Morris, Mark J; Basu, Soumitra

    2014-02-07

    An RNA G-quadruplex library was synthesised and screened against kanamycin A as the ligand. Naturally occurring G-quadruplex forming sequences that differentially bind to kanamycin A were identified and characterized. This provides a simple and effective strategy for identification of potential intracellular G-quadruplex targets for a ligand.

  3. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Marinov, A; Kashiv, Y; Halicz, L; Segal, I; Pape, A; Gentry, R V; Miller, H W; Kolb, D; Brandt, R

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of long-lived neutron-deficient isotopes has been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using iductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. They are interpreted as belonging to the recently discovered class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomers.

  4. BIOCONVERSION OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING PRECURSORS AND RELATED SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS USING PLANT-CELL CULTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRAS, N

    1992-01-01

    The nearly unlimited enzymatic potential of cultured plant cells can basically be employed for bioconversion purposes. Plant enzymes are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific reactions and can therefore be applied to the production of compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Naturally occurring as

  5. Naturally occurring products of proglucagon 111-160 in the porcine and human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, T; Thim, L; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the glucagon gene is expressed in the mammalian intestine. Here it codes for "glicentin" (proglucagon 1-69) and a glucagon-like peptide, proglucagon 78-107, recently isolated from porcine intestine. We studied the fate of the remaining COOH-terminal part of progl...... that this is the structure of the naturally occurring human peptide....

  6. Therapeutic Recreation in the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC): Benefitting "Aging in Place."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Describes how therapeutic recreation in naturally occurring retirement communities (neighborhoods where most residents are older) can promote healthy lifestyles, presenting a case report of an in-home therapeutic recreation program offered in conjunction with nursing and social services in a such a community and discussing implications for…

  7. Predicting Emotions in Facial Expressions from the Annotations in Naturally Occurring First Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the automatic identification of emotions from the manual annotations of the shape and functions of facial expressions in a Danish corpus of video recorded naturally occurring first encounters. More specifically, a support vector classified is trained on the corpus annotations...... to identify emotions in facial expressions. In the classification experiments, we test to what extent emotions expressed in naturally-occurring conversations can be identified automatically by a classifier trained on the manual annotations of the shape of facial expressions and co-occurring speech tokens. We...... also investigate the relation between emotions and the communicative functions of facial expressions. Both emotion labels and their values in a three dimensional space are identified. The three dimensions are Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance. The results of our experiments indicate that the classifiers...

  8. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  9. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  10. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  11. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

  12. A Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacokinetics of Amentoflavone, a Naturally-Occurring Biflavonoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone (C30H18O10 is a well-known biflavonoid occurring in many natural plants. This polyphenolic compound has been discovered to have some important bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, and anti-senescence effects on many important reactions in the cardiovascular and central nervous system, etc. Over 120 plants have been found to contain this bioactive component, such as Selaginellaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Calophyllaceae plant families. This review paper aims to profile amentoflavone on its plant sources, natural derivatives, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics, and to highlight some existing issues and perspectives in the future.

  13. Metal Complexes Containing Natural and and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Kharissova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium, are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  14. Natural radioactivity in environmental samples from Pontal Negra, Marica (RJ, Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Teresa Cristina dos Santos; Lima, Marco A. Frota; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos - LARARA; Silva, Ademir Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Patcheneelam, Sambasiva Rao [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica

    2007-07-01

    Determination of environmental radioactivity levels is of basic importance to estimate the radiation levels to which man is directly or indirectly exposed. The recognition of increased risks to our society has strengthened the debate and favored the communication of such risks. Thus, the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are being widely and controversially discussed, and represent an acute problem of public concern. In the present study, samples have been collected along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, at Ponta Negra, district of Marica, in order to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides and to record their spectra, aiming the verification of local natural radioactivity levels. The gamma spectrometry has been used for a panoramic determination of this region. From these results, calculations of annual dose of radiation (ADR) for each sample can be carried out, allowing to estimate the dose contribution to which individuals of the public (e.g. residents) are submitted, and to predict eventual health damage. These results must be compared with the limits established by the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). (author)

  15. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less.

  16. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K).

  17. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in the zirconium mineral manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, L.; Zarza, I.; Ortiz, J.; Serradell, V. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Lab. de Radiactividad Ambiental (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The spanish 'Real Decatur 783/2001', published as result of the adaptation of the European Council directive 96/29/EURATOM (B.S.S. directive), regulates in Spain the use of natural radioactive substances. This decree establishes the need to study and control those activities in which significant increases of the exposure of workers or members of the public could take place. One of these natural radioactive substances are zirconium minerals. They are widely employed in some industrial activities, such as the production of zirconia and zirconium chemicals, glazed ceramic products manufacture, refractories, foundry sands (including investment casting) and zirconium mineral manufacturing. Its major end uses are fine ceramics where it acts as an opacifier in glazes and enamels and also as an additive in special glass (i.e. TV glass). This paper provides a description of a measurement campaign carried out to estimate the risk of occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in the zirconium mineral manufacturing industries. Zirconium raw sands have generally a granular size of 100 to 200 {mu}m, which may be reduced to around 2 {mu}m for use in ceramics and paint applications by milling to flour. These sands contain varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: {sup 232}Th,{sup 235}U, and mostly {sup 238}U, together with their progenies. The first part of the study is to identify situations and areas where worker s are exposed to radiation. Five pathways of exposure were found: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. Samples from raw materials and from the environment at the work areas are performed; both where the zircon sands are unloaded and stored and at the milling area. Secondly, collected samples are analysed to evaluate activities on those natural radionuclides. Gamma spectrometry analysis is performed for the whole of the samples. For this purpose, a Ge-HP detector (high purity Ge

  18. Prospective trial of metronomic chlorambucil chemotherapy in dogs with naturally occurring cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, T N; Childress, M O; Greene, S N; Mohamed, A S; Moore, G E; Schrempp, D R; Lahrman, S R; Knapp, D W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicoses and antitumor activity of metronomic chlorambucil at a dosage of 4 mg m(-2) daily in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. Thirty-six dogs were enrolled in the study. The protocol was well tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 toxicoses noted. Complete remission was achieved, and lasted over 35 weeks in three dogs (mast cell tumour, soft tissue sarcoma and thyroid carcinoma). Partial remission was noted in 1 dog with histiocytic sarcoma (39 weeks duration) for an overall remission rate of 11% (4 of 36). Stable disease was noted in 17 dogs (47%) with various other cancers. The median progression-free interval was 61 days, and the median survival time was 153 days. Chlorambucil given in a metronomic protocol showed antitumor activity in dogs with a variety of naturally occurring cancers.

  19. Left atrial volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höllmer, M.; Willesen, J. L.; Tolver, A.

    2017-01-01

    of cardiac compensation. Left atrial function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to evaluate LA volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD. ANIMALS: This prospective study included 205 client-owned dogs of different breeds, 114...... healthy dogs, and 91 dogs with MMVD of different disease severities. METHODS: Using two-dimensional echocardiography, the biplane area-length method was applied to assess LA volume and calculate volumetric indices of LA reservoir, conduit, and contractile function. RESULTS: Left atrial volume and LA...... stroke volume increased, whereas LA reservoir and contractile function decreased with increasing disease severity. A maximal LA volume dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100...

  20. Extraction and characterization of naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2011-01-01

    is therefore to extract and identify naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from salmon. A number of aqueous extracts were made from gills, skin and belly flap. In order to preserve the bioactivity of the peptides mild extraction procedures as acidic, basic and aqueous solutions were...... number of bio-components such as bioactive peptides for this purpose. Tissue and proteins from e.g. fish gills, skin and viscera could be a new source of peptides that could have a nutritional and pharmaceutical value, and be used in health and functional foods and thereby increasing the value adding...... of secondary marine products. Only few naturally occurring bioactive peptides have been characterized such as the antimicrobial polypeptide piscidines from gills. It is therefore hypothesized, that fish tissue also contains numerous other peptides with other bioactive properties. The approach in this project...

  1. [The cytogenetic effects in natural populations of Crepis tectorum L. growing in the region of the eastern Urals radioactive trace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V V; Grinikh, L I; Abramov, V I

    1998-01-01

    Genetic consequences of a prolonged action of ionizing radiation were analyzed in five natural Crepis tectorum populations growing at the radioactively contaminated territory of the East-Ural radioactive track. In these populations about 40 years after the start of a chronic irradiation an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations was found out. An additional acute gamma irradiation at the dose of 20 Gy did not reveal any changes of radioresistance of the plants investigated.

  2. Recombinant feline leukemia virus genes detected in naturally occurring feline lymphosarcomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, R L; Pandey, R.; Jen, W C; Roy-Burman, P

    1993-01-01

    Using a polymerase chain reaction strategy aimed at detecting recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) genomes with 5' env sequences originating from an endogenous source and 3' env sequences resulting from FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A), we detected recombinant proviruses in approximately three-fourths of naturally occurring thymic and alimentary feline lymphosarcomas (LSAs) and one-third of the multicentric LSAs from cats determined to be FeLV capsid antigen positive by immunofluorescence assay. ...

  3. Natural occurring 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones, structure elucidation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2015-01-01

    2-(2-Phenylethyl) chromone (PEC), an uncommon class of chromones, possesses a phenylethyl substituent at the C2 position. They have been isolated from a few plant species. They have promising biological activities such as neuro-protective, cytotoxic, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. This review focuses on the naturally occurring PEC derivatives, their sources, physical and spectral data, as well as biological activities.

  4. Inhibition of the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Media by Naturally Occurring Acacia Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvija Garg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in HCl solution by naturally occurring Acacia Senegal has been studied in relation to the concentration of inhibitor and concentration of corrosive medium. It has been observed that the Acacia Senegal alcoholic extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid solution and the adsorption of the extract provides a good protection against mild steel corrosion.

  5. A database of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins for use in clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Zürbig; Joshua Coon; Hartwig Bauer; Georg Behrens; Mohammed Dakna; Anna Dominiczak; Stephane Decramer; Jochen Ehrich; Danilo Fliser; Moritz Frommberger; Arnold Ganser; Mark Giolami; Igor Golovko; David Good; Wilfried Gwinner

    2007-01-01

    Owing to its availability, ease of collection and correlation with (patho-) physiology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics. However, the lack of comparable datasets from large cohorts has greatly hindered development in this field. Here we report the establishment of a high resolution proteome database of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins - ranging from 800-17,000 Da - from over 3,600 individual samples using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass s...

  6. Sedimentological study of a lagoon through natural radioactivity and 137Cs determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, E. G.; Pérez-Moreno, J. P.; Aguado, J. L.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of artificial fallout (such as 137Cs) and natural radioactivity radionuclides in sediment cores are useful tools to study sedimentological properties of different aquatic environments as well as to evaluate average sedimentation rates. In the Portil lagoon, a small natural reservoir located in Huelva province (southwest of Spain), and through the analysis of 210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs, 238U and 210Po vertical profiles in sediment cores, it is shown how the accumulative or transport character of the collection zones may be inferred. In the accumulation zone of the lagoon the influence of focusing effects has been analysed and an average sedimentation rate has been determined through 210Pb in one sediment core. This 210Pb-sedimentation rate is consistent with sediment dating based on the 137Cs data.

  7. Natural radioactivity in sand used in thermal therapy at the Red Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Arabi, A M

    2005-01-01

    The development of climatotherapy in Safaga opens the field of medical tourism in Egypt, in order to detect any harmful radiation that would affect the patients during treatment and is becoming important economic resource. Studies and survey of natural radiation and radioactivity in upper Egypt conducted since 1990, included monitoring of the concentration of natural radionuclides in environmental samples. The results of the study reveals that, for all sand samples, the mean activity concentration of 40K (618+/-122-548+/-82 Bq kg(-1)) are much higher than that of both 226Ra (25.3+/-14-20.6+/-10 Bq kg(-1)) and 232Th (21.4+/-10-22.4+/-10 Bq kg(-1)). Different radiation hazard indices were calculated, the radiation dose to which workers are subjected is not negligible (26.5-50.9 nGy h(-1)), although depending on the inhalation of dust.

  8. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 μg/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis.

  9. Assessment of natural radioactivity in aquifer medium bearing uranium ores in Koprubasi, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Celalettin

    2008-10-01

    Koprubasi, located within Manisa Province near the Izmir, is the biggest uranium mine where uranium ores originate from Neogene aged altered sandstone and conglomerate layers. The main objective of this study is to determine the radiation hazard associated with radioactivity levels of uranium ores, and the rocks and sediments around Koprubasi. In this regard, measured activity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were compared with world averages. The average activity levels of 226 Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured to be 5369.75, 124.78 and 10.0 Bq/kg in uranium ores, 24.32, 52.94 and 623.38 Bq/kg in gneiss, 46.24, 45.13 and 762.26 Bq/kg in sandstone and conglomerate, 73.11, 43.15 and 810.65 Bq/kg in sediments, respectively. All samples have high 226Ra and 40K levels according to world average level. As these sediments are used as construction materials and in agricultural activities within the study area, the radiation hazard are calculated by using dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (He), radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and radiation hazard index (Iyr). All the samples have Raeq levels that are lower than the world average limit of 370 Bq/kg. On the other hand, D, He and Iyr values are higher than world average values. These results indicate that the uranium ores in the Koprubasi is the most important contributor to the natural radiation level. The radioactivity levels of sediments and rocks make them unsuitable for use as agricultural soil and as construction materials. Moreover, it is determined that shallow groundwater in sediments and deep groundwater in conglomerate rocks and also surface water sources in the Koprubasi have high 226Ra content. According to environmental radioactive baseline, some environmental protection study must be taken in Koprubasi uranium site and the environment.

  10. [Measurement of C14 beta-radioactivity of stable natural origin taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) in bovine bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetano, G; Bisegna, F; Bisio, V; Parenti, M

    1994-01-01

    Taurine from natural sources has gained great importance as essential nutrient in milk for formula-fed infants. There is a strong request for a method capable of determining the natural origin of taurine. The measure of beta-radioactivity of 14C of taurine by means of liquid scintillation counting proved the most reliable. A simple method is reported.

  11. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health.

  12. Natural radioactivity in different commercial ceramic samples used in Yemeni buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sahar A.; Naji, Mustafa

    2013-05-01

    In this work we calculated the radioactivity concentrations of the natural radioactive nuclides 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K for 10 commercial samples collected from 10 different companies which are used in the construction of Yemeni buildings. Gamma ray spectroscopy was used to analyze the samples and the concentrations of radioisotopes were determined using a hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector in Bq/kg dry-weight. The average concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K were found to be 131.4, 83.55, 131.88 and 400.7 Bq/kg respectively. Different hazard indices were also determined. The results showed that the average radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (Dr), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the external hazard index (Hex) and representation level index (Iγ) were: 307.52 Bq/kg, 139.31 nGy/h, 1.40 mSv/yr, 0.83 and 2.15 respectively. The mean value of (Raeq) obtained in this study is in good agreement with that of the international value while the mean values of the other indices are found to be higher than the international reference values. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclide were compared with the reported data obtained from similar materials used in other countries.

  13. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  14. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  15. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population.

  16. Is natural radioactivity and ionizing radiation necessary for us and our earth?; Sind (natuerliche) Radioaktivitaet und ionisierende Strahlung fuer uns und unsere Erde notwendig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdepartement

    2017-04-01

    Artificial radioactive materials and ionizing radiation are used in medicine, industry and science. Is there also a purpose in the sense of Aristoteles that nothing on earth is unnecessary? The contribution discusses examples of natural radioactivity in the atmosphere, the production of geothermal energy and the role of radioactivity and ionizing radiation in evolution.

  17. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes.

  18. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M. [Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock).

  19. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses.

  1. Analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides and their radioactive equilibrium in raw materials and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Kim, Chang-Jong; Jang, Mee; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-03-01

    An investigation into the distribution of natural radionuclides and radioactive secular equilibrium in raw materials and by-products in a domestic distribution was conducted to deduce the optimum conditions for the analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides for (238)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th using a gamma-ray spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The range of the specific activities of natural radionuclides was first evaluated by analyzing (228)Ac and (214)Bi, which are (232)Th and (226)Ra indicators, respectively, in about 100 samples of raw materials and by-products through a gamma-ray spectrometer. From further experiments using several samples selected based on the results of the distribution of natural radionuclides, the validation of their analytical evaluations for the indirect measurements using a gamma-ray spectrometer and direct measurements using ICP-MS was assured by comparing their results. Chemically processed products from the raw materials, such as Zr sand and ceramic balls, were generally shown for the type of bead and particularly analyzed showing a definite disequilibrium with above a 50% difference between (238)U and (226)Ra in the uranium series and (232)Th and (228)Ra in the thorium series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Thoracic Radiography and Computed Tomography in Calves with Naturally Occurring Respiratory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fowler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the severity and extent of lung disease using thoracic computed radiography (CR compared to contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT of the thorax in calves with naturally occurring respiratory disease and to evaluate the feasibility and safety of performing contrast-enhanced thoracic multi-detector MDCT examinations in sedated calves. Furthermore, to evaluate if combining CR or MDCT with respiratory scoring factors will improve prediction of the chronicity of pulmonary disease in calves.AnimalsThirty Jersey heifer calves ranging in age between 25 and 89 days with naturally occurring respiratory disease.ProceduresAll calves were evaluated via thoracic CR and contrast-enhanced MDCT. All calves were euthanized immediately following thoracic MDCT and submitted for necropsy. Imaging and histopathology results were compared with each other.ResultsThoracic MDCT was superior for evaluation of pneumonia in calves due to the lack of summation in all areas of the lungs. Intravenously administered sedation provided an adequate plane of sedation for acquiring MDCT images of diagnostic quality, without the need for re-scanning. A diagnosis of pneumonia was made with equal rate on both thoracic CR and MDCT. Although mild differences in classification of lung pattern and extent of lung disease were seen when comparing an experienced and a less experienced evaluator, the overall differences were not statistically significant. The best intra- and inter-observer agreement was noted when evaluating the cranioventral aspects of the lungs in either modality. Clinical respiratory scoring is inadequate for diagnosing chronicity of pneumonia in calves with naturally occurring pneumonia.Conclusion and clinical importanceBoth imaging modalities allowed diagnosis of pneumonia in calves. The cranial ventral aspects of the lungs were most commonly affected. Thoracic CR and MDCT provided similar diagnostic effectiveness in diagnosing

  3. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  4. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: a UV-visible spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S W H; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids-the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, K(c). Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biologically active cis-cinnamic acid occurs naturally in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biologically active cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) has been perceived as a synthetic plant growth regulator for decades. However, in the present study, we found that cis-CA actually exists as a naturally occurring compound in a Brassica plant. This natural growth- regulating substance presents in both the sunlight-irradiated leaf tissue and the non-irradiated root tissue. The concentrations of cis-CA in both tissues are comparable to the biologically effective levels of those major plant hormones. The presence of cis-CA in root tissue suggests that it may be produced through both light-dependent and -independent path- ways or it can be transported from a plant organ to another.

  6. Naturally occurring variation in Arabidopsis: an underexploited resource for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, C; Koornneef, M

    2000-01-01

    The definition of gene functions requires the phenotypic characterization of genetic variants. Currently, such functional analysis of Arabidopsis genes is based largely on laboratory-induced mutants that are selected in forward and reverse genetic studies. An alternative complementary source of genetic variation is available: the naturally occurring variation among accessions. The multigenic nature of most of this variation has limited its application until now. However, the use of genetic methods developed to map quantitative trait loci, in combination with the characteristics and resources available for molecular biology in Arabidopsis, allow this variation to be exploited up to the molecular level. Here, we describe the current tools available for the forward genetic analysis of this variation, and review the recent progress in the detection and mapping of loci and the cloning of large-effect genes.

  7. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations.

  8. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  10. Characterization of naturally-occurring and modified fullerenes by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettich, Robert L.; Jin, Changming; Compton, Robert N.; Buseck, Peter R.; Tsipursky, Semeon J.

    1993-10-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C60Fx (x=44,46) and C70Fy (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.

  11. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids.

  12. Naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria associated with seeds of various plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Jennifer L; Lawrence, John R; Germida, James J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of 11 of 19 plant species tested yielded naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria when placed on phenanthrene impression plates. Seed associated phenanthrene degrading bacteria were mostly detected on caragana, Canada thistle, creeping red fescue, western wheatgrass, and tall wheat grass. Based on 16S rRNA analysis the most common bacteria isolated from these seeds were strains belonging to the genera Enterobacteria, Erwinia, Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas. These plants may provide an excellent source of pre-adapted bacterial-plant associations highly suitable for use in remediation of contaminated soil environments.

  13. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Adriano; Costante, Roberto; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Mathieu, Veronique; Kiss, Robert; Epifano, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Three naturally occurring oxyprenylated diketopiperazines were synthesized and preliminarily tested as growth inhibitory agents in vitro against various cancer cell lines. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only deoxymicelianamide (11) displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 growth inhibitory values ranging from 2 to 23 μM. A comparative study with the non-geranylated saturated derivative of (11) revealed the importance of the presence of the geranyloxy side chain and the exocyclic 2,5-DPK double bond moiety for the observed activity.

  14. Natural radioactivity in winter wheat from organic and conventional agricultural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Patric; Maquet, Alain [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Hult, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.hult@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Gasparro, Joel; Marissens, Gerd; Gonzalez de Orduna, Raquel [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2011-02-15

    The distribution of natural radionuclides was studied in winter wheat plants collected from three sites in Belgium during 2004-2007. Activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th in organically and conventionally grown wheat, and in the corresponding soil samples, were determined using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry. The observed soil-to-wheat concentration ratios were calculated for the different parts of the wheat plant (root, stem and grain) in the two agricultural systems (organic and conventional). There were large variations in radionuclide activity concentrations between the sites and fields, but no significant difference between conventionally and organically grown wheat plants was observed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Winter wheat was cultivated using both organic and conventional farming. {yields} No difference in radioactivity in wheat between the two systems could be detected. {yields} Data on the uptake of radionuclides in different parts of the plant are presented.

  15. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; El-Bahi, S M; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m2d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples.

  16. A review of the nationwide proficiency test on natural radioactivity measurements by gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, N K; Yeltepe, E; Yücel, Ü

    2016-03-01

    This study is the review of the first proficiency test on radioactivity measurement organized in Turkey by Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM) of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in 2013. The objective of the test was to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in natural soil samples using gamma-ray spectrometry. The bulk material consisting of uranium- and thorium-rich soil and sand was milled, mixed thoroughly and sieved. Homogeneity of the final mix was tested with 6 randomly taken samples. 16 proficiency test samples were distributed to 16 participating laboratories. 12 laboratories reported results. The results were evaluated on the accuracy and precision criteria adopted by the IAEA Proficiency Testing Group. The percentage of acceptable scores was 49%. Some recommendations have been provided to the laboratories to improve the quality of their results. It is planned to extend these proficiency tests periodically for various radionuclides in various matrices.

  17. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in Tunisian building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, F; Oueslati, M; Abdelli, W; Samaali, M; Ben Tekaya, M

    2012-12-01

    Building materials can expose public and workers to radiation because of their content of radium, thorium and potassium isotopes. This is why it is very important from the radiological point of view to survey the natural radioactivity content of commonly used building materials in any country. This work consists of the measurement of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in a variety of commonly used building materials in Tunisia and on the estimation of their radiological hazard. The maximum value of radium equivalent for the studied materials was equal to 169 Bq kg(-1) and corresponds to the clay brick, which is lower than the recommended value of 370 Bq kg(-1). In this work, several radiological indexes were calculated and were found to be under their highest permitted limit.

  18. Natural radioactivity and Rare Earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia, E-mail: nadia_walley5@hotmail.co [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shershaby, Amal [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); Afifi, Sofia [Nuclear Materials Authority (Egypt); Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150 km{sup 2} of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg{sup -1} has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 0 to 7894.6 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), dose rate (D{sub R}) and external hazard (H{sub ex}) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  19. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  20. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  1. Measurement methodology of natural radioactivity in the thermal establishments; Methodologies de mesure de la radioactivite naturelle dans les etablissements thermaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Robe, M.C

    2004-11-15

    The thermal baths have been identified as an activity susceptible to expose to ionizing radiations the workers through the natural sources of radon and radon 220. The new regulation obliges these facilities to realize radioactivity measurements. The principal ways of exposure are radon and its daughters inhalation,, exposure to gamma radiation, ingestion of radioelements in thermal waters. I.R.S.N. proposes two methods of measurements of the natural radioactivity in application to the regulation relative to the protection of persons and workers. Some principles to reduce exposure to radon are reminded. (N.C.)0.

  2. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-jing Pang

    Full Text Available Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3 are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.

  3. HIV-1 Tat and Viral Latency: What We Can Learn from Naturally Occurring Sequence Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamori, Doreen; Ueno, Takamasa

    2017-01-01

    Despite the effective use of antiretroviral therapy, the remainder of a latently HIV-1-infected reservoir mainly in the resting memory CD4+ T lymphocyte subset has provided a great setback toward viral eradication. While host transcriptional silencing machinery is thought to play a dominant role in HIV-1 latency, HIV-1 protein such as Tat, may affect both the establishment and the reversal of latency. Indeed, mutational studies have demonstrated that insufficient Tat transactivation activity can result in impaired transcription of viral genes and the establishment of latency in cell culture experiments. Because Tat protein is one of highly variable proteins within HIV-1 proteome, it is conceivable that naturally occurring Tat mutations may differentially modulate Tat functions, thereby influencing the establishment and/or the reversal of viral latency in vivo. In this mini review, we summarize the recent findings of Tat naturally occurring polymorphisms associating with host immune responses and we highlight the implication of Tat sequence variations in relation to HIV latency.

  4. Naturally occurring hybrids of coral reef butterflyfishes have similar fitness compared to parental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Bay, Line K.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Hybridisation can produce evolutionary novelty by increasing fitness and adaptive capacity. Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, has been documented in many plant and animal taxa, and is a notable consequence of hybridisation that has been exploited for decades in agriculture and aquaculture. On the contrary, loss of fitness in naturally occurring hybrid taxa has been observed in many cases. This can have negative consequences for the parental species involved (wasted reproductive effort), and has raised concerns for species conservation. This study evaluates the relative fitness of previously documented butterflyfish hybrids of the genus Chaetodon from the Indo-Pacific suture zone at Christmas Island. Histological examination confirmed the reproductive viability of Chaetodon hybrids. Examination of liver lipid content showed that hybrid body condition was not significantly different from parent species body condition. Lastly, size at age data revealed no difference in growth rates and asymptotic length between hybrids and parent species. Based on the traits measured in this study, naturally occurring hybrids of Chaetodon butterflyfishes have similar fitness to their parental species, and are unlikely to supplant parental species under current environmental conditions at the suture zone. However, given sufficient fitness and ongoing genetic exchange between the respective parental species, hybrids are likely to persist within the suture zone. PMID:28257492

  5. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.

  6. Naturally Occurring Human Urinary Peptides for Use in Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, David M.; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Àngel; Bauer, Hartwig W.; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J.; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stéphane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Ehrich, Jochen H. H.; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A.; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A.; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neusüss, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P.; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M.; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides. PMID:20616184

  7. Oocyst Discharge, Rumen Metabolism and Performance of Early Weaned Lambs with Naturally Occurring Coccidiosis Fed Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G. M. J.; Stockdale, P. H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-six 9.5 kg early-weaned lambs with naturally occurring coccidiosis were fed monensin either at 0, 11, 22, or 33 mg/kg of feed for 105 days. Fecal oocyst discharge during the first three days was highest with monensin 22 mg, lowest with monensin 33 mg and averaged 149.6 × 103 oocysts per gram feces for all lambs. Monensin at 22 mg/kg of feed reduced Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae and E. ahsata oocyst discharge. Organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were highest (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed monensin 22 mg/kg of feed. Monensin increased (P ≤ 0.01) rumen ammonia and propionic acid and decreased (P ≤ 0.01) acetic acid. Feeding monensin 33 mg decreased (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake by 5% and had no effect on gain or feed efficiency. Optimal responses were observed with monensin at 11 mg, feed consumption was not affected, gains were 8% higher (P ≤ 0.05) and feed was utilized 9% more efficiently (P ≤ 0.05) than the controls. In conclusion, monensin was an effective therapeutic agent against naturally occurring coccidial infections in early weaned lambs. Performance responses were largest with monensin fed at the rate of 11 mg/kg of feed. PMID:7197187

  8. Harnessing naturally occurring tumor immunity: a clinical vaccine trial in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu O Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of patients with paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PND have revealed that apoptotic tumor serves as a potential potent trigger for the initiation of naturally occurring tumor immunity. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity of an apoptotic tumor-autologous dendritic cell (DC vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have modeled PND tumor immunity in a clinical trial in which apoptotic allogeneic prostate tumor cells were used to generate an apoptotic tumor-autologous dendritic cell vaccine. Twenty-four prostate cancer patients were immunized in a Phase I, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine. Vaccinations were safe and well tolerated. Importantly, we also found that the vaccine was immunogenic, inducing delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH responses and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, with no effect on FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. A statistically significant increase in T cell proliferation responses to prostate tumor cells in vitro (p = 0.002, decrease in prostate specific antigen (PSA slope (p = 0.016, and a two-fold increase in PSA doubling time (p = 0.003 were identified when we compared data before and after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: An apoptotic cancer cell vaccine modeled on naturally occurring tumor immune responses in PND patients provides a safe and immunogenic tumor vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289341.

  9. Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine carcinogenesis in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, L W; Sparnins, V L; Barany, G

    1989-05-15

    Naturally occurring compounds belonging to two chemical groups were studied for their capacities to inhibit N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced carcinogenesis in female A/J mice. One group consists of organosulfur compounds found in Allium species, including garlic, onions, leeks, and shallots, and the other, two monoterpenes, i.e., D-limonene and D-carvone. In an initial experiment, in which organosulfur compounds were investigated, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl disulfide were found to produce a marked inhibition of NDEA-induced neoplasia of the forestomach when the test compounds were administered p.o. 96 and 48 h prior to NDEA. The most potent was diallyl disulfide which reduced forestomach tumor formation by more than 90%. Pulmonary adenoma formation also was inhibited but to a considerably lesser extent, i.e., about 30%. In three additional experiments, test compounds were given p.o. either 15 min or 1 h prior to NDEA. Under these conditions diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan again inhibited forestomach tumor formation substantially, i.e., greater than 75%, and pulmonary adenoma formation marginally, i.e., less than 20%. In these experiments D-limonene and D-carvone were tested and reduced forestomach tumor formation by slightly over 60% and pulmonary adenoma formation by about 35%. The results of these studies provide evidence of an increasing diversity of naturally occurring compounds having the capacity to inhibit nitrosamine carcinogenesis.

  10. High diversity of the fungal community structure in naturally-occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis, which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specimens has not been investigated in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the technique of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP, the mycobiota of three different sections (stromata, sclerotia, and mycelial cortices from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. For the culture-dependent method, 572 fungal strains were isolated, and 92 putative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified from 226 sequenced strains with the threshold of 97%. For the culture-independent method, 490 fungal clones were identified from about 3000 clones of ITS fragments from the whole-community DNA; based on PCR-SSCP analyses, 266 of these clones were selected to be sequenced, and 118 putative OTUs were detected. The overwhelming majority of isolates/clones and OTUs were detected from mycelial cortices; only a few were detected from stromata and sclerotia. The most common OTUs detected with both methods belonged to Ascomycota; however, only 13 OTUs were detected simultaneously by both methods. Potential novel lineages were detected by each of the two methods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A great number of fungal species present in the mycobiota of naturally-occurring O. sinensis specimens were detected, and many of them may represent undescribed lineages. That only a few of the same OTUs were detected by both methods indicated that different methods should be used. This study increased our

  11. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  12. Neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in naturally occurring atypical scrapie cases in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah Jo; Simmons, Marion; Chaplin, Melanie; Spiropoulos, John

    2008-11-01

    Scrapie belongs to a group of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Two different categories of naturally occurring scrapie have been identified: classical scrapie, which was first recorded around 1750, and atypical scrapie or 'Nor-98', which was first identified in Norway in 1998. The molecular characteristics of atypical scrapie have been well defined, but detailed descriptions of the neuropathological phenotype are rare since the majority of cases have been detected through active surveillance programmes where only brainstem and cerebellum are collected for statutory diagnosis. In order to characterise the neuropathology of naturally occurring atypical scrapie in sheep, we examined multiple brain levels from 15 whole brains from field cases of atypical scrapie, both clinical suspects and fallen stock, collected in Great Britain between 2004 and 2006. We found that the distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and vacuolation in atypical scrapie cases are very different to both classical scrapie and experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep. Immunolabelling for PrP(Sc) is mild and restricted at the obex and more intense and widespread rostrally, particularly in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, thalamus and basal nuclei. Intracellular immunolabelling types are not seen, but distinctive white matter immunolabelling is widespread. Vacuolation associated with PrP(Sc) deposits was not observed in the brainstem neuroanatomical areas commonly affected in classical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but was instead most prominent in the cerebellar cortex and neocortex. This is the largest comprehensive descriptive study of atypical scrapie pathology to date, and provides baseline data against which other natural or experimental cases can be compared. It also reinforces the current recommendation to collect cerebellum in addition to brainstem to enable confident confirmation of this

  13. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  14. Fourier–transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of naturally occurring glassy fulgurites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B J Saikia; G Parthasarathy; N C Sarmah; G D Baruah

    2008-04-01

    We report here for the first time the spectroscopic characterization of natural fulgurites of Garuamukh. On April 22, 2005 at 04 : 00 local time, large amounts of black-brown colour of colloidal solution came out from below the earth’s surface at Garuamukh near Nagaon town (latitude 26°20′39″N, longitude 92°41′39″E, Assam, India) with fire and smoke. This colloidal solution got transformed into fulgurites, glassy material, within a few hours. We present here the characterization of the fulgurites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The amorphous nature of the substance has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra of the fulgurites, which exhibit prominent absorption band in the region 400–1200 cm-1, the basic component of amorphous silica. The present study might have significant implications in understanding the thermodynamic properties of naturally occurring glasses, which are formed by shock metamorphism.

  15. Effective structural descriptors for natural and engineered radioactive waste confinement barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Laurent; Rogiers, Bart; De Craen, Mieke; Laloy, Eric; Jacques, Diederik; Huysmans, Marijke; Swennen, Rudy; Urai, Janos L.; Desbois, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The microstructure of a radioactive waste confinement barrier strongly influences its flow and transport properties. Numerical flow and transport simulations for these porous media at the pore scale therefore require input data that describe the microstructure as accurately as possible. To date, no imaging method can resolve all heterogeneities within important radioactive waste confinement barrier materials as hardened cement paste and natural clays at the micro scale (nm-cm). Therefore, it is necessary to merge information from different 2D and 3D imaging methods using porous media reconstruction techniques. To qualitatively compare the results of different reconstruction techniques, visual inspection might suffice. To quantitatively compare training-image based algorithms, Tan et al. (2014) proposed an algorithm using an analysis of distance. However, the ranking of the algorithm depends on the choice of the structural descriptor, in their case multiple-point or cluster-based histograms. We present here preliminary work in which we will review different structural descriptors and test their effectiveness, for capturing the main structural characteristics of radioactive waste confinement barrier materials, to determine the descriptors to use in the analysis of distance. The investigated descriptors are particle size distributions, surface area distributions, two point probability functions, multiple point histograms, linear functions and two point cluster functions. The descriptor testing consists of stochastically generating realizations from a reference image using the simulated annealing optimization procedure introduced by Karsanina et al. (2015). This procedure basically minimizes the differences between pre-specified descriptor values associated with the training image and the image being produced. The most efficient descriptor set can therefore be identified by comparing the image generation quality among the tested descriptor combinations. The assessment

  16. Natural radioactivity of materials used in industry and construction in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Dragana J; Janković, Marija M

    2011-01-01

    Four different kinds of materials (feldspar, gypsum, clay and kaolin) commonly used in building construction and industry in Serbia were analyzed for their natural radioactivity, using gamma spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, Ra(eq), the absorbed dose rate, D, the annual effective dose, D(E), and the external hazard index, H(ex), were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The radium equivalent activities calculated in all samples are lower than the maximum admissible value 370 Bq kg(-1) set in the UNSCEAR report. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.19 μGy h(-1). Considering the fact that the average gamma dose rate indoors in Europe is 0.07 μGy h(-1), gamma dose rate calculated for feldspar, clay and kaolin samples exceed this limit. The obtained results for annual effective dose exceed limits of 0.41 mSv for feldspar, clay and kaolin samples. If the H(ex) exceeds unity, we might conclude that the potential external dose(s) to exposed individual(s) will exceed the acceptable level, and some action may be required. The obtained values of H(ex) are lower than unity for all investigated samples. All samples were measured immediately after preparation, except 10 samples of feldspar, because a comparative analysis were made between 215 samples which were measured immediately after preparation and 10 samples which were measured after radioactive equilibrium was reached in order to detect differences in the obtained concentrations.

  17. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W

    2013-05-01

    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  18. Characterization of naturally-occurring and modified fullerenes by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettich, R.L.; Jin, C.; Compton, R.N. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6120 (United States)); Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J. (Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States))

    1993-10-10

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C[sub 60]F[sub x] (x=44,46) and C[sub 70]F[sub y] (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.

  19. Morphologic studies of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring porcine circovirus type 2 diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif

    of an outbreak of naturally occurring PCV2 associated reproductive failure in a Danish herd. In stillborn and Summary VIII mummified foetuses PCV2 was detected mainly in the heart and bone marrow, by IHC, and replication was detected in myocardiocytes, by ISH. The study showed that measurements of total....... • Manuscript IV is an update on the pathology and pathogens present in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Danish finishing pigs. Multiple pathogens were detected, including PCV2, confirming the previously reported pathogen profile and multifactorial aetiology of PRDC. The histopathology was very......This Ph.D. thesis presents different aspects of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs), based upon work performed at The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and at The National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark. The introduction, chapter 1, briefly presents...

  20. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliermans; , Carl B.

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  1. Effect of Naturally Occurring nif Reiterations on Symbiotic Effectiveness in Rhizobium phaseoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, David; Singleton, Paul W.; Segovia, Lorenzo; Morett, Enrique; Bohlool, B. Ben; Palacios, Rafael; Dávila, Guillermo

    1988-01-01

    Most naturally occurring strains of Rhizobium phaseoli possess reiteration of the nif genes. Three regions contain nitrogenase structural genes in strain CFN42. Two of these regions (a and b) have copies of nifH, nifD, and nifK, whereas the third region (c) contains only nifH. Strains containing mutations in either nif region a or nif region b had significantly diminished symbiotic effectiveness compared with the wild-type strain on the basis of nodule mass, total nitrogenase activity per plant, nitrogenase specific activity, total nitrogen in the shoot, and percentage of nitrogen. A strain containing mutations in both nif region a and nif region b was totally ineffective. These data indicate that both nif region a and nif region b are needed for full symbiotic effectiveness in R. phaseoli. PMID:16347593

  2. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of Brucella melitensis antigens in cases of naturally occurring abortions in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Fatma; Yener, Zabit

    2008-11-01

    Brucella melitensis, a worldwide zoonotic pathogen, is a significant cause of abortion in sheep and goats in some countries. The present study was carried out to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of B. melitensis antigens in 110 naturally occurring aborted sheep fetuses. Sections of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen of each fetus were stained with immunoperoxidase to detect Brucella antigens. Brucella melitensis antigens were detected in 33 of 110 fetuses (30%). In the 33 positive cases, Brucella antigens were found in lung (25 [22.7%]), liver (21 [19%]), spleen (13 [11.8%]), and kidney (6 [5.4%]). Microscopic studies demonstrated that Brucella antigens were mainly located in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils of the lung, and in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the portal infiltrates and Kupffer cells of the liver. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a useful tool for the diagnosis of spontaneous ovine abortion caused by B. melitensis.

  4. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways.

  5. The corrosion inhibition of iron and aluminum by various naturally occurring biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, E.; Hansen, D.C. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Biological polymers that exhibit a strong affinity for metal surfaces are increasingly becoming the focus of research toward the development of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. This paper deals with the use of various naturally occurring organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors for iron or aluminum. Among the organic molecules considered are catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores isolated from bacteria, the adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. FTIR analysis, anodic polarization curves, and AC impedance measurements were used to determine the adsorption and effectiveness of the various organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors. Parabactin, a catecholate siderophore, was effective in inhibiting both the corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid and the pitting of aluminum in 0.1 M sodium chloride. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel was also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  6. The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E. [Naval Research lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  7. Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTB, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhofer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-10-15

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II-Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. (authors)

  8. Extraction and characterization of naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2011-01-01

    (Free Radical Scavenging assay). A number of extracts showed high ACE inhibiting and anti-oxidative activity. The extracts were then size fractionated by ultrafiltration using a 10 kDa filter, and relevant fractions below 10 kDa from gills, skin and belly flap were further fractionated by gel...... number of bio-components such as bioactive peptides for this purpose. Tissue and proteins from e.g. fish gills, skin and viscera could be a new source of peptides that could have a nutritional and pharmaceutical value, and be used in health and functional foods and thereby increasing the value adding...... is therefore to extract and identify naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from salmon. A number of aqueous extracts were made from gills, skin and belly flap. In order to preserve the bioactivity of the peptides mild extraction procedures as acidic, basic and aqueous solutions were...

  9. Natural Competence of Xylella fastidiosa Occurs at a High Frequency Inside Microfluidic Chambers Mimicking the Bacterium's Natural Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Prem P.; Lopez, Samantha M.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that is the causal agent of emerging diseases in a number of economically important crops. Genetic diversity studies have demonstrated homologous recombination occurring among X. fastidiosa strains, which has been proposed to contribute to host plant shifts. Moreover, experimental evidence confirmed that X. fastidiosa is naturally competent for recombination in vitro. Here, as an approximation of natural habitats (plant xylem vessels and insect mouthparts), recombination was studied in microfluidic chambers (MCs) filled with media amended with grapevine xylem sap. First, different media were screened for recombination in solid agar plates using a pair of X. fastidiosa strains that were previously reported to recombine in coculture. The highest frequency of recombination was obtained with PD3 medium, compared to those with the other two media (X. fastidiosa medium [XFM] and periwinkle wilt [PW] medium) used in previous studies. Dissection of the media components led to the identification of bovine serum albumin as an inhibitor of recombination that was correlated to its previously known effect on inhibition of twitching motility. When recombination was performed in liquid culture, the frequencies were significantly higher under flow conditions (MCs) than under batch conditions (test tubes). The recombination frequencies in MCs and agar plates were not significantly different from each other. Grapevine xylem sap from both susceptible and tolerant varieties allowed high recombination frequency in MCs when mixed with PD3. These results suggest that X. fastidiosa has the ability to be naturally competent in the natural growth environment of liquid flow, and this phenomenon could have implications in X. fastidiosa environmental adaptation. IMPORTANCE Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that lives inside xylem vessels (where water and nutrients are transported inside the plant) and the mouthparts of insect

  10. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC.

  11. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tellez

    Full Text Available AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT, but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA. Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9, with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  12. Naturally occurring marine brominated indoles are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands/agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Danica E; Franks, Diana G; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E; Denison, Michael S

    2015-06-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as brominated indoles) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat, and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate that marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally occurring AhR agonists.

  13. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  14. Naturally occurring triggers that induce apoptosis-like programmed cell death in Plasmodium berghei ookinetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Ali

    Full Text Available Several protozoan parasites have been shown to undergo a form of programmed cell death that exhibits morphological features associated with metazoan apoptosis. These include the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Malaria zygotes develop in the mosquito midgut lumen, forming motile ookinetes. Up to 50% of these exhibit phenotypic markers of apoptosis; as do those grown in culture. We hypothesised that naturally occurring signals induce many ookinetes to undergo apoptosis before midgut traversal. To determine whether nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species act as such triggers, ookinetes were cultured with donors of these molecules. Exposure to the nitric oxide donor SNP induced a significant increase in ookinetes with condensed nuclear chromatin, activated caspase-like molecules and translocation of phosphatidylserine that was dose and time related. Results from an assay that detects the potential-dependent accumulation of aggregates of JC-1 in mitochondria suggested that nitric oxide does not operate via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. L-DOPA (reactive oxygen species donor also caused apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. Removal of white blood cells significantly decreased ookinetes exhibiting a marker of apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of the activity of nitric oxide synthase in the mosquito midgut epithelium using L-NAME significantly decreased the proportion of apoptotic ookinetes and increased the number of oocysts that developed. Introduction of a nitric oxide donor into the blood meal had no effect on mosquito longevity but did reduce prevalence and intensity of infection. Thus, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are triggers of apoptosis in Plasmodium ookinetes. They occur naturally in the mosquito midgut lumen, sourced from infected blood and mosquito tissue. Up regulation of mosquito nitric oxide synthase activity has potential as a transmission blocking strategy.

  15. Naturally occurring MHR variants in Turkish patients infected with hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayiner, A Arzu; Ozcan, Ayla; Sengonul, Aylin

    2008-03-01

    Major B-cell epitopes are located at the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg). The genotypes, subtypes, and naturally occurring amino acid (aa) substitutions of MHR were analyzed in 81 Turkish adult patients (41 inactive HBsAg carriers and 40 patients with chronic hepatitis B) by direct sequencing of the S gene fragment. All the isolates were genotype D according to the phylogenetic analysis. The most common HBsAg subtype was ayw2, followed by ayw3 while one isolate specified ayw4 by encoding Leu127. MHR variants were detected in 22 of the 81 (27.2%) isolates. The prevalence was significantly higher in the chronic hepatitis B group (42.5%) compared to inactive HBsAg carriers (12.2%). Twenty-two samples had a total of 26 amino acid substitutions involving 14 positions. The majority of the patients had a single variation. Most of the amino acid substitutions were located at the HBs1 region of the MHR, while 9 of the 26 were in the classic "a" determinant (aa 124-147). When samples with "a" variants were evaluated by two different commercial HBsAg tests, only the isolate with Ser143Leu variation had a decreased reactivity in the assay using monoclonal antibodies for capture and detection. In conclusion, the findings of the study was in accordance with previous studies showing HBV genotype and subtype homogeneity (genotype D/ayw) in Turkey. Naturally occurring MHR and "a" determinant variants were common, especially among chronic hepatitis B patients. The influence of detected "a" variants on diagnostic assays was limited.

  16. Risk and protective factors for cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyarungsri, Kakanang; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant disease in cats. Identifying risk and protective factors may help to prevent this significant disease. Methods An age-matched case-control study was performed to determine the risk factors in cats with naturally occurring CKD. Twenty-nine clinically normal cats aged ⩾5 years and 101 cats with naturally occurring CKD were studied. Risk factors were determined by interviewing cat owners from the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, and veterinary hospitals in the Bangkok Metropolitan area, through questionnaires completed between June 2004 and November 2014. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using two independent proportional test methods and logistic regression analysis with backward elimination. Results Male sex (odd ratios [OR] 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-8.87; P = 0.02), tap water (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.08-11.45; P = 0.03) and an outdoor lifestyle (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.03-17.99; P = 0.04) were associated with an increased risk for CKD. Commercial dry cat food (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.17; P = 0.00), filtered water (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.52; P = 0.01) and an indoor lifestyle (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.07-0.98; P = 0.02) were associated with a decreased risk. Logistic regression analysis using backward elimination demonstrated that cats fed commercial dry cat food (OR 0.042, 95% CI 0.01-0.17; P = 0.00) had a decreased risk for CKD compared with cats on other types of diet. Conclusions and relevance Multivariable analysis found only feeding commercial dry cat food to be significant, suggesting that commercial dry cat food may be a potential protective factor for CKD in cats.

  17. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  18. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  19. An assessment of the external radiological impact in areas of Greece with elevated natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florou, H; Trabidou, G; Nicolaou, G

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the radiological impact assessment in three selected areas of elevated natural radioactivity in Greece is attempted, based on measurements, theoretical relations, and simple model application. These areas are Milos--an island of volcanic origin in Cyclades Archipelago, Ikaria--an island in the Eastern Aegean Sea and Loutraki--a coastal area in mainland Greece. These areas are characterized by their geothermal springs and vents, which emit fluids into the littoral and sublittoral zones. The results include: (a) the exposure dose rates assessed by a car-borne scintillation spectrometry system; (b) laboratory measurements of the activity concentrations of the gamma-emitters of 238U and 232Th series and 40K in soil, spring water, seawater and sediments by gamma-spectrometry; (c) estimations of the effective dose rate equivalents and health risk assessment for humans and external dose rates for natural aquatic populations in relation to organism habitat; and (d) a radiological evaluation for the environmental quality, in terms of the discrete zones of impact of ionizing radiation.

  20. Environmental release assessment for the very low level radioactive liquid waste treatment using natural evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Park, Seung Kook; Jung Ki Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    A small evaporation facility (evaporation capacity of 200 m{sup 3}/y) was designed and constructed at the TRIGA reactors site in Seoul based on the operational data obtained by the Taejon facility. The following conservative data was used to assess the dose rate for individual members of the public in there were any impact when the natural evaporator would be operational; Evaporation capacity = 200 m{sup 3}/y, Volume reduction factor (VR) = 100, expected maximum evaporation rate = 0.25m{sup 3}/y, decontamination factor = 10{sup 4}, and exhausted air rate = 6.6 m{sup 3}/sec. The result of the assessment with conservative conditions shows that the effective dose for an individual is 1.01x10{sup -3} mSv/y, far below the regulated dose limit of 1mSv/y. And the maximum radioactivity calculated in the exhausted air is 4.637x10{sup -14}{mu}Ci/cc(Cs-137), also largely negligible compared with the maximum permissible concentration of 2x10{sup -9}{mu}/cc-air containing Cs-137. It demonstrates no environmental impact even if full operation of the natural evaporator is done. (author)

  1. The MTAP-CDKN2A Locus Confers Susceptibility to a Naturally Occurring Canine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Abigail L.; Hedan, Benoit; Cadieu, Edouard; Erich, Suzanne A.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Faden, Daniel L.; Cullen, John; Abadie, Jerome; Kwon, Erika M.; Gröne, Andrea; Devauchelle, Patrick; Rimbault, Maud; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Lynch, Mary; Galibert, Francis; Breen, Matthew; Rutteman, Gerard R.; André, Catherine; Parker, Heidi G.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Advantages offered by canine population substructure, combined with clinical presentations similar to human disorders, makes the dog an attractive system for studies of cancer genetics. Cancers that have been difficult to study in human families or populations are of particular interest. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15–25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD). Methods Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected BMD in North America (NA) and Europe. Both independent and combined genome wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify cancer-associated loci. Fine mapping and sequencing narrowed the primary locus to a single gene region. Results Both populations shared the same primary locus, which features a single haplotype spanning MTAP and part of CDKN2A and is present in 96% of affected BMD. The haplotype is within the region homologous to human chromosome 9p21, which has been implicated in several types of cancer. Conclusions We present the first GWAS for HS in any species. The data identify an associated haplotype in the highly cited tumor suppressor locus near CDKN2A. These data demonstrate the power of studying distinctive malignancies in highly predisposed dog breeds. Impact Here, we establish a naturally-occurring model of cancer susceptibility due to CDKN2 dysregulation, thus providing insight regarding this cancer-associated, complex, and poorly understood genomic region. PMID:22623710

  2. Enhancing arsenic removal from groundwater at household level with naturally occurring iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Kumari Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of drinking water low in Arsenic (As prevents arsenic poisoning. The presence of high concentrations of iron (Fe in groundwater under the alluvial plains of the large rivers in Southeast Asia is a prerequisite for the simple removal of As. This study investigated the mechanisms and possibilities for enhancing As removal with naturally occurring Fe in a reliable, low cost and sustainable way. The results of the study show that As removal with Fe is greatly enhanced by the addition of an oxidizing agent (preferably KMnO4 immediately after the pumping of groundwater. Further enhancement of As removal in the presence of Fe can be achieved by adding a small volume of a concentrated basic solution of MnO4- and AlO2-, which has a combined oxidation, coagulation and buffering capacity. Best results were obtained when this solution was mixed with the groundwater immediately after its pumping until a pale pink color appeared. Maximum required reaction time was 10 minutes and subsequent filtration of the water was able to reduce the As concentration to near zero. Concentrations of MnO4- and AlO2- can be varied in the solution to achieve sufficient As removal to suit different Fe/As ratios and the presence of interfering co-occurring anions.

  3. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23, rue du Loess BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: Catherine.galindo@ires.in2p3.fr; Mougin, L. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23, rue du Loess BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Fakhi, S. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie (LRC), Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23, rue du Loess BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Lamghari, A. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie (LRC), Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Hannache, H. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Thermo-Structuraux Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2007-07-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and {alpha}-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 23}Th and {sup 228}Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite.

  4. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Fakhi, S; Nourreddine, A; Lamghari, A; Hannache, H

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 228Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite.

  5. Aberrant wound healing in the horse: naturally occurring conditions reminiscent of those observed in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, Christine L; Wilmink, Jacintha M

    2013-01-01

    Impaired wound healing represents an enormous clinical and financial problem for companion animals and humans alike. Unfortunately, most models used to study healing rely on rodents, which have significant differences in the healing and scarring process and rarely develop complications. In order to better simulate impaired healing, the model should strive to reproduce the natural processes of healing and delayed healing. Wounds on the limbs of horses display similarities to wounds in humans in their epithelialization/contraction ratio, genetic influence as well as dysregulated cytokine profile and the spontaneous development of fibroproliferative disorders. Veterinarians have access to advanced wound therapies that are often identical to those provided to human patients. Wound research in large animals has resulted in new wound models as well as a better understanding of the physiology, immunology, and local environmental impact on both normal and aberrant wound healing. One such model reproduces the naturally occurring fibroproliferative disorder of horses known as exuberant granulation tissue. Comparisons between the normally healing and impaired wounds provide insight into the repair process and can facilitate product development. A better understanding of the wound healing physiopathology based on clinically accurate animal models should lead to the development of novel therapies thereby improving outcomes in both human and veterinary patients. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. In vitro conversion of vinyl to formyl groups in naturally occurring chlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Patrick C; Willows, Robert D; Chen, Min

    2014-08-14

    The chemical structural differences distinguishing chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are either formyl substitution (chlorophyll b, d, and f) or the degree of unsaturation (8-vinyl chlorophyll a and b) of a side chain of the macrocycle compared with chlorophyll a. We conducted an investigation of the conversion of vinyl to formyl groups among naturally occurring chlorophylls. We demonstrated the in vitro oxidative cleavage of vinyl side groups to yield formyl groups through the aid of a thiol-containing compound in aqueous reaction mixture at room temperature. Heme is required as a catalyst in aqueous solution but is not required in methanolic reaction mixture. The conversion of vinyl- to formyl- groups is independent of their position on the macrocycle, as we observed oxidative cleavages of both 3-vinyl and 8-vinyl side chains to yield formyl groups. Three new chlorophyll derivatives were synthesised using 8-vinyl chlorophyll a as substrate: 8-vinyl chlorophyll d, [8-formyl]-chlorophyll a, and [3,8-diformyl]-chlorophyll a. The structural and spectral properties will provide a signature that may aid in identification of the novel chlorophyll derivatives in natural systems. The ease of conversion of vinyl- to formyl- in chlorophylls demonstrated here has implications regarding the biosynthetic mechanism of chlorophyll d in vivo.

  7. Naturally Occurring Self-Reactive CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells: Universal Immune Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nafiseh Pakravan; Agheel Tabar Molla Hassan; Zuhair Muhammad Hassan

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring thymus-arisen CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are considered to play a central role in self-tolerance. Precise signals that promote the development of Treg cells remain elusive, but considerable evidence suggests that costimulatory molecules, cytokines, the nature of the TCR and the niche or the context in which the T cell encounters antigen in the thymus play important roles. Analysis of TCR from Treg cells has demonstrated that a large proportion of this population has a higher avidity to self-antigen in comparison with TCR from CD4+CD25- cells and that peripheral antigen is required for their development, maintenance, or expansion. Treg cells have been shown to undergo expansion in the periphery, likely regulated by the presence of self-antigen. Many studies have shown that the involvement of Treg cells in the tolerance induction is antigen-specific, even with MHC-mismatched,in transplantation/graft versus host disease (GVHD), autoimmunity, cancer, and pregnancy. Theses studies concluded a vital role for self-reactive Treg cells in maintenance of the body integrity. Based on those studies, we hypothesize that self-reactive Treg cells are shared among all healthy individuals and recognize same self-antigens and their TCR encodes for few dominant antigens of each organ which defines the healthy self. These dominant self antigens can be regarded as "universal immune code".

  8. Acoustic surface perception from naturally occurring step sounds of a dexterous hexapod robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneyitoglu Ozkul, Mine; Saranli, Afsar; Yazicioglu, Yigit

    2013-10-01

    Legged robots that exhibit dynamic dexterity naturally interact with the surface to generate complex acoustic signals carrying rich information on the surface as well as the robot platform itself. However, the nature of a legged robot, which is a complex, hybrid dynamic system, renders the more common approach of model-based system identification impractical. The present paper focuses on acoustic surface identification and proposes a non-model-based analysis and classification approach adopted from the speech processing literature. A novel feature set composed of spectral band energies augmented by their vector time derivatives and time-domain averaged zero crossing rate is proposed. Using a multi-dimensional vector classifier, these features carry enough information to accurately classify a range of commonly occurring indoor and outdoor surfaces without using of any mechanical system model. A comparative experimental study is carried out and classification performance and computational complexity are characterized. Different feature combinations, classifiers and changes in critical design parameters are investigated. A realistic and representative acoustic data set is collected with the robot moving at different speeds on a number of surfaces. The study demonstrates promising performance of this non-model-based approach, even in an acoustically uncontrolled environment. The approach also has good chance of performing in real-time.

  9. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  10. The membrane integration of a naturally occurring alpha-helical hairpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Akos; Turner, R James

    2007-05-04

    Helical hairpins, two closely spaced helical membrane spanning segments separated by a short surface turn, are thought to be common in integral membrane proteins. Here, we study the membrane integration of a naturally occurring helical hairpin from the secretory Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1. This sequence is only slightly longer and significantly less hydrophobic than a previously identified minimal poly-leucine model hairpin structure. Using site directed mutagenesis we document the importance of the turn propensity of the amino acids in the intervening surface turn but, somewhat surprisingly, our results indicate that the formation of this natural hairpin apparently does not depend on specific helix-helix interactions. Our results suggest that helical hairpins may be formed quite readily from even minimally hydrophobic sequences separated by a short, sufficiently strong, turn signal, and that current methods for predicting integral membrane protein topology may miss many similar short helical hairpin sequences. Thus the occurrence of these structures may be much more common than presently thought.

  11. Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L; Collett, M G; Pattison, R S; Marshall, J; West, D M; Pomroy, W E

    2012-04-30

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. caninum infection naturally occurring in New Zealand sheep flocks and particularly its impact on reproduction success. Thus, this present study provides preliminary data on the role that Neospora is playing in ovine reproductive failure by establishing the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies and DNA in ewe blood and foetal material present in 21 New Zealand sheep farms with ongoing unexplained abortion problems and 10 farms with consistently high fertility levels. The results of this study demonstrated an overall seroprevalence of 1.4% which varied between Aborting/non-pregnant (1.8%), age-matched pregnant controls (0.6%) and high fertility (2.1%) ewes. However, despite the variation observed, there was no statistical difference between the three groups. In addition, Neospora DNA was detected by PCR in 13% of submitted foetal brains and in ewe blood from aborting/non-pregnant (6.9%), age-matched pregnant controls (3.6%) and high fertility pregnant (2.1%) ewes. When the PCR results were considered with the IFAT and IDEXX ELISA results, there was no correlation between serology positive and PCR positive blood samples. Taken together, these results reveal that reliance on ELISA-based serology or PCR alone may underestimate the involvement of Neospora. Furthermore, determining the involvement of Neospora appears to require a multi-facetted approach where diagnostic methods and serological cut-off values may need to be adjusted as further information about the effect of natural

  12. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G.M. [University of Oxford, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wakeford, R. [University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Athanson, M. [University of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Oxford (United Kingdom); Vincent, T.J. [University of Oxford, Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford (United Kingdom); Carter, E.J. [University of Worcester, Earth Heritage Trust, Geological Records Centre, Henwick Grove, Worcester (United Kingdom); McColl, N.P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Little, M.P. [National Cancer Institute, DHHS, NIH, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matern correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matern model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matern model. (orig.)

  13. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial and Military Sources. 4th Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Steve

    1998-09-01

    Merril Eisenbud's series of books on environmental radioactivity have long had a place on the bookshelves of those involved with the environmental aspects of radiation protection. They provide authoritative coverage of the subject including sources, transport mechanisms and effects. The first edition, published in 1963, was naturally mostly concerned with the effects of nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. The second edition, published in 1977, reflected the then expansive phase of nuclear power development worldwide and included an extensive treatment of the nuclear fuel cycle and its contributions to environmental radioactivity. In 1987 the third edition included coverage of the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl accident against the background of cessation of new orders for nuclear plant in the United States. The fourth edition is a major revision with a lot of new material, and the welcome adoption of SI units throughout. The principal additions to the new edition are chapters on environmental surveillance, radiological assessment and dose reconstruction, and the remediation of contaminated sites; nothing has been lost from the extensive coverage of other topics in the third edition, whilst the text and bibliography have been revised and brought up to date. Earlier editions of the book have provided good summaries of accidents which have resulted in environmental contamination, and the updating here results in more extensive and up-to-date coverage of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, including the more recent evidence of health effects from the latter, together with new sections on the Palomares nuclear weapons accident in Spain, the Mayak/Chelyabinsk complex in Russia, and the accidents involving lost gamma radiation sources in Juarez, Mexico and Goiania, Brazil. Both here and in the extensive coverage of contamination at the USDoE production sites the new edition reflects and benefits from the increased public availability

  15. Traces of the future. Learning from the nature for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes; Spuren der Zukunft. Lernen von der Natur fuer die Tiefenlagerung von radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2007-04-15

    In view of the long term safety of an underground storage facility for radioactive waste, some observations from the nature can be helpful by judging laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Some examples which are described in this report (so-called natural analogues) show that in the nature geological systems, materials and processes are found the stability of which can be studied over long time intervals of the past. A natural analogue presents an example that is valid for the actual geological conditions and so can give highly useful remarks. However, such an example should not be over estimated. The examples shown in this report are limited to natural analogues which concern the total storage system, the technical barriers or the host rock of a geological underground repository for highly radioactive wastes as they are produced in a nuclear reactor. (author)

  16. Criteria for evaluation of building materials hazard based on their natural radioactivity in Russia and in the European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzina Darya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby have considered the natural radioactivity of building materials as a source of radiation for the human environment. We have considered the Russian and the European evaluation criteria for ensuring radiation safety of the population. We also present an experimental research of the content of natural radionuclides in building materials. We have calculated the effective specific activity and the activity concentration index based on the results presented. We have identified discrepancies between the Russian and the European standards.

  17. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelić Igor S.; Todorović Dragana J.; Krneta-Nikolić Jelena D.; Lazarević Đorđe R.; Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ...

  18. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis Gustavo; Cheberle, Luan T.V.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lgcustodio@hotmail.com, E-mail: lt.cheberle@bol.com.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/IPEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Many studies have shown that mushrooms are organisms which efficiently accumulate radionuclides and can be used as indicators of environmental contamination and ecosystem quality. The Pocos de Caldas plateau, in Minas Gerais, is a region that has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. Seventy areas of radioactive anomalies have been identified in this region. From the radiological point of view the determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb is relevant because they are decay products of the natural series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, mainly responsible for natural radioactive exposures of man. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, in which the concentration activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom samples were determined. The mushrooms were collected at different points of the plateau under the influence of radioactive anomalies and away from the influence of anomalies. From statistical studies a correlation between the accumulation of radionuclides in mushrooms and anomalies was established and it was possible to confirm the efficiency that the mushrooms present as environmental contamination indicators. (author)

  20. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  1. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p ~8, reflecting the pH-dependence of their mobilization. Based on the

  2. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A

    2014-06-02

    Background: Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings. The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion: Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms

  3. Evaluation of excessive lifetime cancer risk due to natural radioactivity in the rivers sediments of Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmed Qureshi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K present in the rivers sediments of Northern Pakistan were measured using HPGe γ-ray spectrometer to evaluate the radiation health hazard indices and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR. Average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the sediments were found to be 50.66 ± 1.29, 70.15 ± 1.45 and 531.70 ± 5.45 Bq kg−1 respectively. Radium equivalent activity (190.89 Bq kg−1, outdoor external dose (87.47 nGy h−1, indoor external dose (165.39 nGy h−1, and total average annual effective dose (0.92 mSv were calculated. The hazard indices are higher than the world's average values. Total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR was found to be 3.21 × 10−3 which is relatively higher. Numerous cancer deaths are annually reported from the Northern areas of Pakistan, which may be related to high radioactivity in the area.

  4. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term and area (long-term samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013–0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010–0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (<0.0047 ppm–0.016 ppm. Mean estimated 8 h time-weighted average (8 h TWA exposures for the barista ranged from 0.007–0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance. These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  5. Naturally occurring mentoring in Japan and the United States: social roles and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; Toyokawa, Teru; Matsuda, Sei

    2002-04-01

    Although the word "mentor"has traditionally been used to describe a relationship between an older adult and a younger person, recent work has extended its usage to relationships with peers and groups rather than with individuals and uncoupled the instrumental and affective qualities of the role. This paper examines (a) the extent to which adolescents' relationships with significant others in different social roles are characterized by mentoring and (b) the extent to which mentoring and other relationship functions covary. Adolescents' naturally occurring social relationships are explored in two very different contexts-Japan and the United States-that differ in the norms and patterning of social interactions. College students (N = 365) used questionnaires to describe the extent to which relations with significant others were characterized by mentoring. Results indicate striking similarity in the patterning of results in the two countries and support the traditional view of mentoring. Mentoring is most likely to occur in relationships with adults (especially parents), rather than with peers, and with same-gender, rather than other-gender associates. Mentoring by parents appears to covary with other aspects of positive relationships, but be more independent in relationships with unrelated adults or peers. Although more of the variability in experienced mentoring is attributed to differences between associates than to differences between adolescents in both the United States and Japan, this is especially true of the United States. Results suggest that although "classic" mentoring is most common in both countries, mentoring is somewhat less constrained by social role differences in Japan than is in the United States.

  6. Bordetella pertussis naturally occurring isolates with altered lipooligosaccharide structure fail to fully mature human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J M; Schuijt, Tim J; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A C M; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Han, Wanda G H; Pinelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones.

  7. Persistence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria and bacteriophage fractions of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2016-05-15

    The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a serious global health concern. ARGs from bacteria can be mobilized by mobile genetic elements, and recent studies indicate that phages and phage-derived particles, among others, could play a role in the spread of ARGs through the environment. ARGs are abundant in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of water bodies and for successful transfer of the ARGs, their persistence in these environments is crucial. In this study, three ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and sul1) that naturally occur in the bacterial and phage fractions of raw wastewater were used to evaluate the persistence of ARGs at different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C and 37 °C) and pH values (3, 7 and 9), as well as after various disinfection treatments (thermal treatment, chlorination and UV) and natural inactivation in a mesocosm. Gene copies (GC) were quantified by qPCR; then the logarithmic reduction and significance of the differences between their numbers were evaluated. The ARGs persisted for a long time with minimal reductions after all the treatments. In general, they showed greater persistence in the bacteriophage fraction than in the bacterial fraction. Comparisons showed that the ARGs persisted under conditions that reduced culturable Escherichia coli and infectious coliphages below the limit of detection. The prevalence of ARGs, particularly in the bacteriophage fraction, poses the threat of the spread of ARGs and their incorporation into a new bacterial background that could lead to the emergence of new resistant clones.

  8. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) binding with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irudayam Maria; Prakash, Halan; Prathiba, Jeyaguru; Raghunathan, Raghavachary; Malathi, Raghunathan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+) and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m)) or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3) M(-1), DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3) M(-1), and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3) M(-1). On the other hand T(m)/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C) and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+), methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+). The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  9. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine binding with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irudayam Maria Johnson

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+ and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3 M(-1, DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3 M(-1, and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3 M(-1. On the other hand T(m/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+, methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+. The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  10. Corticosterone regulates both naturally occurring and cocaine-induced dopamine signaling by selectively decreasing dopamine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Ebben, Amanda L; Kurtoglu, Beliz; Lovell, Marissa E; Bohn, Austin T; Jasek, Isabella A; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R; Gasser, Paul J; Wheeler, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Stressful and aversive events promote maladaptive reward-seeking behaviors such as drug addiction by acting, in part, on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Using animal models, data from our lab and others show that stress and cocaine can interact to produce a synergistic effect on reward circuitry. This effect is also observed when the stress hormone corticosterone is administered directly into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), indicating that glucocorticoids act locally in dopamine terminal regions to enhance cocaine's effects on dopamine signaling. However, prior studies in behaving animals have not provided mechanistic insight. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, we examined the effect of systemic corticosterone on spontaneous dopamine release events (transients) in the NAc core and shell in behaving rats. A physiologically relevant systemic injection of corticosterone (2 mg/kg i.p.) induced an increase in dopamine transient amplitude and duration (both voltammetric measures sensitive to decreases in dopamine clearance), but had no effect on the frequency of transient release events. This effect was compounded by cocaine (2.5 mg/kg i.p.). However, a second experiment indicated that the same injection of corticosterone had no detectable effect on the dopaminergic encoding of a palatable natural reward (saccharin). Taken together, these results suggest that corticosterone interferes with naturally-occurring dopamine uptake locally, and this effect is a critical determinant of dopamine concentration specifically in situations in which the dopamine transporter is pharmacologically blocked by cocaine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical and laboratory findings associated with naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels

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    Swelum Ayman A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, haematological, and biochemical changes induced by naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels were described. Of 258 dromedary camels studied, 34 camels suffered from fever, appetite loss, weakness, depression, and reluctant movement; abortion and/or infertility were also observed. Parasitological blood examinations were performed using Giemsastained blood smears. The clinically affected animals were diagnosed with babesiosis, with 13.17% overall morbidity. Camels that suffered from babesiosis were subjected to haematological and biochemical analyses and the affected group was compared with a control group containing 34 healthy camels. The affected animals showed a highly significant (P<0.001 reduction of the total red blood cell (RBC count, haemoglobin (HGB concentration, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV as well as a highly significant reduction (P<0.01 of haematocrit (HCT and a significant reduction of (P<0.05 mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH. Additional, highly significant increases (P<0.01 in white blood cell (WBC count and plateletcrit (PCT percentage were detected. However, other haematological parameters were not significantly altered. There was a very significant reduction (P<0.001 of the blood iron level and a very significant increase (P<0.001 in blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the affected camels. Additionally, significant increases in total protein, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and total bilirubin were observed in the affected camels. It was concluded that babesiosis highly affects the haematobiochemical parameters of dromedary camels, including the liver, kidney, and muscle functions. These results represent novel findings concerning natural babesiosis in camels.

  12. Riesgos Debido a la Radiactividad Natural de Pizarras de Construcción Natural Radioactivity Hazards produced by Construction Slates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Miró

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es medir la radiactividad natural en pizarras utilizadas como material de construcción. Se analizaron pizarras fabricadas en la región de Extremadura-España como caso de estudio. Las concentraciones se determinaron por espectrometría gamma utilizando detectores coaxiales de HPGe. Se determinaron las actividades equivalente de radio y varios índices de riesgo. Así mismo se compararon los resultados con los obtenidos en la bibliografía en otros países del mundo. Los resultados muestran que los valores medios de concentración debido al 40K, 226Ra y 232Th fueron 840, 29 y 75 Bq/kg, respectivamente. La actividad equivalente de radio fue inferior al valor de 370 Bq/kg establecido como norma, y los otros índices de riesgo también fueron inferiores a sus límites.The aim of this work is to measure the natural radioactivity in slates used as building material. Slates manufactured in the region of Extremadura-Spain were used as a study case. The concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe coaxial detector. Radium equivalent activities (Ra eq and various hazard indices were also calculated. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. The results show that the average values of the concentrations due to 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were found 840, 29 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was less than the accepted standard criterion value of 370 Bq/kg and the values of other hazard indices were also below their limit values.

  13. Assessment of Annual Effective Dose for Natural Radioactivity of Gamma Emitters in Biscuit Samples in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abojassim, Ali Abid; Al-Alasadi, Lubna A; Shitake, Ahmed R; Al-Tememie, Faeq A; Husain, Afnan A

    2015-09-01

    Biscuits are an important type of food, widely consumed by babies in Iraq and other countries. This work uses gamma spectroscopy to measure the natural radioactivity due to long-lived gamma emitters in children's biscuits; it also estimates radiation hazard indices, that is, the radium equivalent activity, the representative of gamma level index, the internal hazard index, and the annual effective dose in children. Ten samples were collected from the Iraqi market from different countries of origin. The average specific activities for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were 9.390, 3.1213, and 214.969 Bq/kg, respectively, but the average of the radium equivalent activity and the internal hazard index were 33.101 Bq/kg and 0.107, respectively. The total average annual effective dose from consumption by adults, children, and infants is estimated to be 0.655, 1.009, and 0.875 mSv, respectively. The values found for specific activity, radiation hazard indices, and annual effective dose in all samples in this study were lower than worldwide median values for all groups; therefore, these values are found to be safe.

  14. Results of radiometric and geochemical measurement for the natural radioactivity map of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Andjelov

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, a program was initiated to cover Slovenia with portable gamma-ray spectrometer measurements on a 5 x 5 km grid. The measurements were performed with a four channel Scintrex GAD-6 spectrometer. Five gamma-ray measurements were taken at each of 816 locations. Samples of the upper 10 cm of soil profile were collected for laboratory analysis. Uranium in samples was determinedby delayed neutron method (DNC. Other 35 elements: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be,Bi, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Ti,U, V, W, Y, Zn and Zr were analyzed by plasma-coupled emission spectrometry (ICP. The field gamma-ray measurements were converted to ground concentrationsof potassium, uranium and thorium. These show good correlation with the laboratory analyses of soil samples. Regardless of the wide spaced sampling, the produced maps show relatively good correlation with main geological units. They demonstrated that the methodology can be successfully implemented for environmental monitoring, geological mapping and mineral exploration. The product ofthis project is the frist natural background radioactivity map of Slovenia covering the entire country.

  15. Natural radioactivity, dose assessment and uranium uptake by agricultural crops at Khan Al-Zabeeb, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kharouf, Samer J. [Royal Scientific Society, Amman 11941 (Jordan); Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F. [Prince Abdullah Bin Ghazi Faculty of Science and IT, Al-Balqa Applied University (BAU), Salt 19117 (Jordan)], E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com; Dababneh, Munir [Prince Abdullah Bin Ghazi Faculty of Science and IT, Al-Balqa Applied University (BAU), Salt 19117 (Jordan)

    2008-07-15

    Khan Al-Zabeeb, an irrigated cultivated area lies above a superficial uranium deposits, is regularly used to produce vegetables and fruits consumed by the public. Both soil and plant samples collected from the study area were investigated for their natural radioactivity to determine the uranium uptake by crops and hence to estimate the effective dose equivalent to human consumption. Concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in nine soil profiles were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry whereas watermelon and zucchini crops were analyzed for their uranium content by means of alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Correlations between measured radionuclides were made and their activity ratios were determined to evaluate their geochemical behavior in the soil profiles. Calculated soil-plant transfer factors indicate that the green parts (leaves, stems and roots) of the studied crops tend to accumulate uranium about two orders of magnitude higher than the fruits. The maximum dose from ingestion of 1 kg of watermelon pulp was estimated to be 3.1 and 4.7 nSv y{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U, respectively. Estimations of the annual effective dose equivalent due to external exposure showed extremely low values. Radium equivalent activity and external hazard index were seen to exceed the permissible limits of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} and 1, respectively.

  16. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  17. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  18. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  19. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

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    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  20. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg.

  1. Complications following thiacetarsamide sodium therapy in Louisiana dogs with naturally-occurring heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, J D; Hribernik, T N; Kearney, M T

    1985-10-01

    Four hundred and sixteen dogs with naturally-occurring heartworm disease were evaluated for complications following thiacetarsamide sodium therapy. Of these, 109 dogs (26.2%) experienced complications. Increased lung sounds was the most commonly seen complication, followed by fever and coughing. In dogs with complications, 83.5% of them presented without clinical evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism or heart failure. There were no statistically significant differences between the age, sex, breed and body size of dogs that experienced complications following thiacetarsamide therapy and dogs that did not. Complications were most frequently seen 5 to 9 days following thiacetarsamide therapy although some dogs experienced initial complications as late as 28 days. Thirty-three of 109 dogs (33.0%) with complications responded to exercise restriction. The remaining 76 dogs with complications prior to or following thiacetarsamide required adjunct drug therapy. Of these, 35 dogs responded favorably to anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone or prednisone. Five dogs died or were euthanatized because of the complications experienced. Eighteen of 416 dogs (4.3%) presented with clinical evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism or heart failure prior to the thiacetarsamide therapy. All 18 dogs experienced complications in spite of adjunct drug therapy and exercise restriction prior to, during, and following thiacetarsamide therapy. Survival rate following resolution of the thiacetarsamide-induced complications was greater than 98%.

  2. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Jesus Benitez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18 have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary. Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. In -polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  3. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  4. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Yeğingil, Z

    2013-01-01

    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1).

  5. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Cimino Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality.

  6. A naturally occurring diatom frustule as a SERS substrate for the detection and quantification of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, Nabadweep; Chetia, Lakhi; Zahan, Nashrat; Dutta, Sibasish; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Nath, Pabitra

    2017-05-01

    Naturally occurring photonic crystal structures play an important role in different fields of application. Herein, we exploit the periodic pore pattern of a diatom frustule and demonstrate surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using its structure as a template for the SERS substrate. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were initially allowed to self-assemble on the surface and inside the pores of the diatoms. The enhancement in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) field magnitude for the assembled AuNPs on the diatom frustule were studied using simulation software. For the proposed SERS substrate, an average field enhancement of the order of 108 magnitude was observed. We demonstrate the operation of the designed substrate for the detection and quantification of Raman signals from two Raman active samples, namely malachite green (MG) and fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Using the proposed SERS substrate, an MG concentration as low as 1 nM with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7.57% and a fluoride concentration of 100 nM with an RSD of 17.26% could be measured with the Raman spectrometer. We envision that the proposed technique could emerge as an inexpensive alternative fabrication method of SERS substrates which can produce an enhanced LSPR field magnitude and scatter intense Raman signals from Raman active samples.

  7. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established.

  8. Novel class of glutathione transferases from cyanobacteria exhibit high catalytic activities towards naturally occurring isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktelius, Eric; Stenberg, Gun

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we report a novel class of GSTs (glutathione transferases), called the Chi class, originating from cyanobacteria and with properties not observed previously in prokaryotic enzymes. GSTs constitute a widespread multifunctional group of proteins, of which mammalian enzymes are the best characterized. Although GSTs have their origin in prokaryotes, few bacterial representatives have been characterized in detail, and the catalytic activities and substrate specificities observed have generally been very modest. The few well-studied bacterial GSTs have largely unknown physiological functions. Genome databases reveal that cyanobacteria have an extensive arsenal of glutathione-associated proteins. We have studied two cyanobacterial GSTs which are the first examples of bacterial enzymes that are as catalytically efficient as the best mammalian enzymes. GSTs from the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 and from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 were found to catalyse the conjugation of naturally occurring plant-derived isothiocyanates to glutathione at high rates. The cyanobacterial GSTs studied are smaller than previously described members of this enzyme family, but display many of the typical structural features that are characteristics of GSTs. They are also active towards several classical substrates, but at the same moderate rates that have been observed for other GSTs derived from prokaryotes. The cloning, expression and characterization of two cyanobacterial GSTs are described. The possible significance of the observed catalytic properties is discussed in the context of physiological relevance and GST evolution. PMID:17484723

  9. The Phenotypic Characterization of Naturally Occurring Regulatory CD4+CD25+T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanfa Yi; Yu Zhen; Lingling Jiang; Jialin Zheng; Yong Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The homeostasis of the immune system depends on the balance between the immune response to an invaded pathogen and the immune tolerance to self antigens. Both central and peripheral tolerances are important mechanisms for the induction and maintenance of T cell tolerance. Recently, much attention has been paid to regulatory T cells (Treg), which play a significant role in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. So far, there has been no satisfactory advance regarding the surface markers of Treg cells, as none is unique for Treg cells. In this review, we summarize some important molecules expressed in naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg cells(nTreg), including forkhead/winged-helix family transcriptional repressor p3 (Foxp3), the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, CD28/CTLA4 molecules, chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), membranebound TGF-β and other molecules, such as neuropilin-1, lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG)-3 and granzyme.This review provides a collective view on current studies of nTreg cell activation and development related to the expression of molecules and cell phenotype markers, which is important for elucidation of nTreg cell origin,development and function.

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis.

  11. Effect of Naturally Occurring Ozone Air Pollution Episodes on Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Pirozzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx, 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC, spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5 vs. 28.6 (±17.6 μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01 and control participants (7.6 (±16.5 vs. 28.5 (±15.6 μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02. There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes.

  12. Naturally occurring cancers in dogs: insights for translational genetics and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we briefly review the state of knowledge of human cancer genetics to elaborate on the need for different types of mammalian models, highlighting the strengths of the dog. Mouse models are unparalleled for their experimental tractability and rapid genetic manipulation but have some key limitations in the area of human relevance. Companion dog models are attractive, because they are genetically more similar to humans, share environmental exposures with their owners, suffer from the same diseases as humans, and receive a high level of health care. They are ideal for the study of chronic diseases, because they age five to eight times faster than humans and generally live to old age. In addition, each dog breed is on the order of 100-fold genetically simpler than the whole human or dog population. These traits make the dog ideal for the study of complex genetics of naturally occurring cancers. Here, we contrast the relative strengths of cancer genetics in humans and dogs. We propose that humans are most ideal for the study of somatic cancer genetics, whereas dogs are most ideal for germline genetics. That proposition is supported by comparison of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in human and canine cancer. One of the advantages of dog cancer GWASs is the ability to rapidly map complex traits, conduct fine mapping and identification of causative variation, and thus be in a position to move on to functional studies. We mention how these strengths of dog models will lead to rapid advances in translational medicine.

  13. Recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin-ISCOM matrix adjuvanted vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Lane, V Michael; Ball, Louise M; Hess, John F

    2010-03-01

    A randomized, blinded, controlled field trial was conducted during summer 2006 in a northern California, USA, herd of beef cattle to evaluate the efficacy of a recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin subunit vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK; pinkeye). A convenience sample comprised of 127 steers were administered a subcutaneous dose of either adjuvant alone (ISCOM matrices; control group) or recombinant M. bovoculi cytotoxin carboxy terminus adjuvanted with ISCOM matrices (MbvA group) and were boostered 21 days later. The steers were examined once weekly for 15 weeks for evidence of IBK. No significant difference in the cumulative proportion of corneal ulcerations was detected between groups. Compared to the control calves, the MbvA vaccinates had significantly higher increases in serum neutralizing titers to M. bovoculi hemolysin between week 0 and week 6. The prevalence of M. bovis isolations was higher from ulcerated eyes of calves vaccinated with MbvA as compared to control calves. Vaccination of calves against the carboxy terminus of M. bovoculi RTX toxin resulted in significant increases in serum hemolysin neutralizing titers and may modulate organism type cultured from ulcerated eyes of calves in herds where both M. bovis and M. bovoculi exist. Use of M. bovoculi antigens alone in vaccines to prevent IBK may not be beneficial in herds where IBK is associated with both M. bovoculi and M. bovis.

  14. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Don

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4 that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development.

  15. Mobilization of Phosphorus by Naturally Occurring Organic Acids in Oxisols and Ultisols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANXING-GUO; C.F.JORDAN; 等

    1995-01-01

    Citric and malic acids at concentrations of 0.1,1.0,10,and 100 mmol/L were added to three Ultisols and one Oxisol,The amount of P in solution increased with increasing organic acid concentrations,while the amount of Fe-and Al-bound P decreased.This result suggested that naturally occurring products of organicmatter decomposition could increase the P availability to plants in soils where there is a relatively large pool of Fe-and Al-bound P.The interactions between citric and malic acids at the above concentrations,and p added at rates of 10,20,40,and 80mg/kg were determined.At zero levels of organic acids,all added P became either labile or bound ,and greater proportions remained soluble as the concentration of orgaic acids increased,which suggested that organic acids reduced fixation of dissolved P in Fe-and AL-rich soils .Agricultural practices which increase organic matter input on P-deficient acid soild could decrease P deficiency,This would be important in many tropical and subtropical regions where these soils are common,and where the costs of fertilizers and lime are relatively high.

  16. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Naturally-Occurring Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disease, characterized by unexplained hypertrophy of the left ventricle. HCM features similar clinical and pathological characteristics in human beings and cats and is a common cause of sudden death and heart failure. Mitochond......Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disease, characterized by unexplained hypertrophy of the left ventricle. HCM features similar clinical and pathological characteristics in human beings and cats and is a common cause of sudden death and heart failure....... Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are well known to play a role in the development of various cardiovascular diseases. However, their roles in HCM remain unexplored. Objectives Methods: Cardiac muscle was obtained from eight cats diagnosed with naturally-occuring HCM (5 males; 2-10 years old, 6.......3 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD)) and from nine age-matched control cats (CON) (3 males; 2-11 years, 4.9 ± 3.1). High-resolution respirometry was used to measure mitochondrial function in permeabilized, cardiac muscle fibres. Oxidative stress was assessed by measurements of mitochondrial H2O2 generation...

  18. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveena, R. [Department of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadasivam, K. [Department of Physics, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-06

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET–PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different –OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H–atom abstraction from 4’–OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B–ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  19. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  20. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  1. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental {gamma} radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m{sup 3} outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m{sup 3} indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  2. Introduction to Astronomy with Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2010-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity and thus the physics of weak interactions, well before atomic and quantum physics was known. The different types of radioactive decay, alpha, beta, and gamma decay, all are different types of interactions causing the same, spontaneous, and time-independent decay of an unstable nucleus into another and more stable nucleus. Nuclear reactions in cosmic sites re-arrange the basic constituents of atomic nuclei (neutrons and protons) among the different configurations which are allowed by Nature, thus producing radioactive isotopes as a by-product. Throughout cosmic history, such reactions occur in different sites, and lead to rearrangements of the relative abundances of cosmic nuclei, a process called cosmic chemical evolution, which can be studied through the observations of radioactivity. The special role of radioactivity in such studies is contributed by the intrinsic decay of such material after it has been produced in cosmic site...

  3. Evaluation of air pollution due to natural radioactive elements; Evaluacion de contaminacion del aire debido a elementos radiactivos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, B. A.; Lopez, M. E., E-mail: bertin.perez@pucp.edu.pe [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The presence of radioactive materials in the crustal and as consequence present in the surface, originate the natural radioactive contamination in the different solid, liquid and gaseous materials; particularly in the air that we breathe. Among these radioactive materials that contribute to the environmental pollution are the presences of uranium, radio, thorium and their respective disintegration chains, as the gas radon (Rn-222) that spreads in the air; whose presence increases in areas where the seismic activity is notorious or other natural events take place, case of the Lima (Peru) City. In this work we show the measurements realized during two consecutive years in the roof of a building of three floors in the Lima City, with the purpose of establishing the fluctuations of this gassy pollutant in the surrounding air. The measurements were made using nitrocellulose detectors (Lr-115 type 2) applying the nuclear prints technique. The obtained results allowing to have an indicator of the Rn-222 presence in the air during different seasons of the year and also the presence of other possible radioactive pollutants. The use of this technique allows obtaining and studying the prints that generate the alpha particles that are emitted during the Rn-222 disintegration or by means of their descendants or predecessors; also allowing to discriminate between the short-range tracers or lineal type prints and other very different prints obtained during some of the measurements. The results analyzed according to proposed models are presented in this work. (author)

  4. Function of minerals in the natural radioactivity level of Vaigai River sediments, Tamilnadu, India--spectroscopical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, V; Paramasivam, K; Suresh, G; Jose, M T

    2014-01-03

    Using Gamma ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, level of natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and mineralogical characterization of Vaigai River sediments have been analyzed with the view of evaluating the radiation risk and its relation to available minerals. Different radiological parameters are calculated to know the entire radiological characterization. The average of activity concentrations and all radiological parameters are lower than the recommended safety limit. However, some sites are having higher radioactivity values than the safety limit. From the FTIR spectroscopic technique, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, gibbsite, calcite, montmorillonite and organic carbon are identified and they are characterized. The extinction co-efficient values are calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz and the result indicates that the presence of ordered crystalline quartz in the present sediment. The role of minerals in the level of radioactivity is assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and Cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables such as absorbed dose rate and concentrations of (232)Th and (238)U. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  6. Quantitative Determination of Noa (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in Rocks : Comparison Between Pcom and SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Amodeo, Francesco; Giorgis, Ilaria; Vitaliti, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of NOA (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in a rock or soil matrix is complex and subject to numerous errors. The purpose of this study is to compare two fundamental methodologies used for the analysis: the first one uses Phase Contrast Optical Microscope (PCOM) while the second one uses Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The two methods, although they provide the same result, which is the asbestos mass to total mass ratio, have completely different characteristics and both present pros and cons. The current legislation in Italy involves the use of SEM, DRX, FTIR, PCOM (DM 6/9/94) for the quantification of asbestos in bulk materials and soils and the threshold beyond which the material is considered as hazardous waste is a concentration of asbestos fiber of 1000 mg/kg.(DM 161/2012). The most used technology is the SEM which is the one among these with the better analytical sensitivity.(120mg/Kg DM 6 /9/94) The fundamental differences among the analyses are mainly: - Amount of analyzed sample portion - Representativeness of the sample - Resolution - Analytical precision - Uncertainty of the methodology - Operator errors Due to the problem of quantification of DRX and FTIR (1% DM 6/9/94) our Asbestos Laboratory (DIATI POLITO) since more than twenty years apply the PCOM methodology and in the last years the SEM methodology for quantification of asbestos content. The aim of our research is to compare the results obtained from a PCOM analysis with the results provided by SEM analysis on the base of more than 100 natural samples both from cores (tunnel-boring or explorative-drilling) and from tunnelling excavation . The results obtained show, in most cases, a good correlation between the two techniques. Of particular relevance is the fact that both techniques are reliable for very low quantities of asbestos, even lower than the analytical sensitivity. This work highlights the comparison between the two techniques emphasizing strengths and weaknesses of

  7. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide.

  8. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  9. HIV infection of naturally occurring and genetically reprogrammed human regulatory T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Grill, Stacy M; Shariat, Nikki; Leelawong, Mindy; Sundrud, Mark S; Haas, David W; Unutmaz, Derya

    2004-07-01

    A T-cell subset, defined as CD4(+)CD25(hi) (regulatory T-cells [Treg cells]), was recently shown to suppress T-cell activation. We demonstrate that human Treg cells isolated from healthy donors express the HIV-coreceptor CCR5 and are highly susceptible to HIV infection and replication. Because Treg cells are present in very few numbers and are difficult to expand in vitro, we genetically modified conventional human T-cells to generate Treg cells in vitro by ectopic expression of FoxP3, a transcription factor associated with reprogramming T-cells into a Treg subset. Overexpression of FoxP3 in naïve human CD4(+) T-cells recapitulated the hyporesponsiveness and suppressive function of naturally occurring Treg cells. However, FoxP3 was less efficient in reprogramming memory T-cell subset into regulatory cells. In addition, FoxP3-transduced T-cells also became more susceptible to HIV infection. Remarkably, a portion of HIV-positive individuals with a low percentage of CD4(+) and higher levels of activated T-cells have greatly reduced levels of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(hi) T-cells, suggesting disruption of the Treg cells during HIV infection. Targeting and disruption of the T-cell regulatory system by HIV may contribute to hyperactivation of conventional T-cells, a characteristic of HIV disease progression. Moreover, the ability to reprogram human T-cells into Treg cells in vitro will greatly aid in decoding their mechanism of suppression, their enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection, and the unique markers expressed by this subset.

  10. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in dogs with naturally occurring cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Michelle R; Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R

    2012-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring cancer represent an important large animal model for drug development and testing novel immunotherapies. However, poorly defined immunophenotypes of canine leukocytes have limited the study of tumor immunology in dogs. The accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to be a key mechanism of immune suppression in tumor-bearing mice and in human patients. We sought to identify MDSCs in the blood of dogs with cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs with advanced or early stage cancer and from age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Suppressive function was tested in T cell proliferation and cytokine elaboration assays. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify potential mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression. PBMCs from dogs with advanced or metastatic cancer exhibited a significantly higher percentage of CD11b(+)CD14(-)MHCII(-) cells compared to dogs diagnosed with early stage non-metastatic tumors and healthy dogs. These CD11b(+) CD14(-)MHCII(-) cells constitute a subpopulation of activated granulocytes that co-purify with PBMCs, display polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology, and demonstrate a potent ability to suppress proliferation and IFN-γ production in T cells from normal and tumor-bearing donors. Furthermore, these cells expressed hallmark suppressive factors of human MDSC including ARG1, iNOS2, TGF-β and IL-10. In summary our data demonstrate that MDSCs accumulate in the blood of dogs with advanced cancer and can be measured using this three-marker immunophenotype, thereby enabling prospective studies that can monitor MDSC burden.

  11. Modeling the pulsed light inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring on vegetable substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquier, Adriana; Gómez-López, Vicente M

    2011-09-01

    Pulsed light (PL) is a fast non-thermal method for microbial inactivation. This research studied the kinetics of PL inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring in some vegetables. Iceberg lettuce, white cabbage and Julienne-style cut carrots were subjected to increasing PL fluences up to 12J/cm(2) in order to study its effect on aerobic mesophilic bacteria determined by plate count. Also, sample temperature increase was determined by infrared thermometry. Survivors' curves were adjusted to several models. No shoulder but tail was observed. The Weibull model showed good fitting performance of data. Results for lettuce were: goodness-of-fit parameter RMSE=0.2289, fluence for the first decimal reduction δ=0.98±0.80J/cm(2) and concavity parameter p=0.33±0.08. Results for cabbage were: RMSE=0.0725, δ=0.81±0.23J/cm(2) and p=0.30±0.02; and for carrot: RMSE=0.1235, δ=0.39±0.24J/cm(2) and p=0.23±0.03. For lettuce, a log-linear and tail model was also suitable. Validation of the Weibull model produced determination coefficients of 0.88-0.96 and slopes of 0.78-0.99. Heating was too low to contribute to inactivation. A single low-energy pulse was enough to achieve one log reduction, with an ultrafast treatment time of 0.5ms. While PL efficacy was found to be limited to high residual counts, the achievable inactivation level may be considered useful for shelf-life extension.

  12. Naturally occurring variation in trophoblast invasion as a source of novel (epigenetic biomarkers

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    Marie eVan DIjk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the first trimester of pregnancy fetal trophoblasts invade the maternal decidua, thereby remodelling the maternal spiral arteries. This process of trophoblast invasion is very similar to cancer cell invasion, with multiple signaling pathways shared between the two. Pregnancy-related diseases, e.g. pre-eclampsia, and cancer metastasis start with a decrease or increase in cellular invasion, respectively. Here, we investigate if first trimester placental explants can be used to identify epigenetic factors associated with changes in cellular invasion and their potential use as biomarkers. We show that the outgrowth potential of first trimester explants significantly correlates with promoter methylation of PRKCDBP and MMP2, two genes known to be differentially methylated in both placenta and cancer. The increase in methylation percentage coincides with an increase in invasion potential. Subsequently, as a non-invasive marker must be detectable in blood, plasma samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women were analyzed. The MMP2 promoter showed high methylation levels in non-pregnant plasma samples, which decreased in pregnant plasma. The decrease in methylated plasma DNA during pregnancy is most likely due to the fractional increase in unmethylated placental DNA. This suggests that the level of unmethylated DNA has the potential to be used as an invasion marker, where higher levels of unmethylated DNA indicate a lower invasion potential of trophoblasts.These proof of principle data provide evidence that human first trimester placental explants are an excellent ex vivo model system to identify (epigenetic factors and thus potential biomarkers associated with changes in cellular invasion, e.g. to detect pregnancy-related diseases or cancer metastasis. To identify novel biomarkers the next step is to correlate naturally occurring variation in invasion potential to changes in (epigenetic factors by genome-wide approaches such as massively parallel

  13. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  14. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects.

  15. Removal of arsenite and arsenate using hydrous ferric oxide incorporated into naturally occurring porous diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min; Min, Soo-Hong; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Park, Jae Kwang

    2006-03-01

    In this study, a simplified and effective method was tried to immobilize iron oxide onto a naturally occurring porous diatomite. Experimental resultsfor several physicochemical properties and arsenic edges revealed that iron oxide incorporated into diatomite was amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Sorption trends of Fe (25%)-diatomite for both arsenite and arsenate were similar to those of HFO, reported by Dixit and Hering (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 4182-4189). The pH at which arsenite and arsenate are equally sorbed was 7.5, which corresponds to the value reported for HFO. Judging from the number of moles of iron incorporated into diatomite, the arsenic sorption capacities of Fe (25%)-diatomite were comparable to or higher than those of the reference HFO. Furthermore, the surface complexation modeling showed that the constants of [triple bond]SHAsO4- or [triple bond]SAsO4(2-) species for Fe (25%)-diatomite were larger than those reference values for HFO or goethite. Larger differences in constants of arsenate surface species might be attributed to aluminum hydroxyl ([triple bond]Al-OH) groups that can work better for arsenate removal. The pH-controlled differential column batch reactor (DCBR) and small-scale column tests demonstrated that Fe (25%)-diatomite had high sorption speeds and high sorption capacities compared to those of a conventional sorbent (AAFS-50) that is known to be the first preference for arsenic removal performance in Bangladesh. These results could be explained by the fact that Fe (25%)-diatomite contained well-dispersed HFO having a great affinity for arsenic species and well-developed macropores as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pore size distribution (PSD) analyses.

  16. Polyporus tenuiculus: a new naturally occurring mushroom that can be industrially cultivated on agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra; Lechner, Bernardo E; Albertó, Edgardo

    2009-05-01

    Polyporus tenuiculus is a naturally occurring species from Central and South America that is consumed by different ethnic groups in the region. To determine the optimal conditions for fruiting body production, two strains were assayed on wheat straw and sawdust with or without supplements. Sixty days of incubation at 25 degrees C were needed to produce a solid block. The highest yield was obtained with strain ICFC 383/00 grown on supplemented willow sawdust. In a second experiment the strain ICFC 383/00 and different supplements were used to improve the biological efficiency (BE) and to determine the quality traits and its biodegradation capacity. The highest yields were obtained on sawdust with 25% of supplements reaching 82.7% of BE. Supplements raised the number of flushes, generally from four to five, contributing to increased yields. The type of substrate had a significant effect on fruiting body diameters of P. tenuiculus, and the largest mushrooms were harvested on supplemented substrate with the highest BE coinciding with the highest dry matter loss in substrates. P. tenuiculus showed a capacity to degrade sawdust, causing a decrease of 67.2-74.5% in cellulose, 80.4-85.7% in hemicellulose, and 60.6-66.2% in lignin content at the end of the cultivation cycle. The decrease in hemicellulose was relatively greater than that of cellulose and lignin on supplemented substrates. This is the first report of the cultivation of P. tenuiculus on lignocellulosic waste, and it is a promising species both for commercial production and for its potential use in the degradation of other biowastes.

  17. HIV infection of naturally occurring and genetically reprogrammed human regulatory T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Oswald-Richter

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A T-cell subset, defined as CD4(+CD25(hi (regulatory T-cells [Treg cells], was recently shown to suppress T-cell activation. We demonstrate that human Treg cells isolated from healthy donors express the HIV-coreceptor CCR5 and are highly susceptible to HIV infection and replication. Because Treg cells are present in very few numbers and are difficult to expand in vitro, we genetically modified conventional human T-cells to generate Treg cells in vitro by ectopic expression of FoxP3, a transcription factor associated with reprogramming T-cells into a Treg subset. Overexpression of FoxP3 in naïve human CD4(+ T-cells recapitulated the hyporesponsiveness and suppressive function of naturally occurring Treg cells. However, FoxP3 was less efficient in reprogramming memory T-cell subset into regulatory cells. In addition, FoxP3-transduced T-cells also became more susceptible to HIV infection. Remarkably, a portion of HIV-positive individuals with a low percentage of CD4(+ and higher levels of activated T-cells have greatly reduced levels of FoxP3(+CD4(+CD25(hi T-cells, suggesting disruption of the Treg cells during HIV infection. Targeting and disruption of the T-cell regulatory system by HIV may contribute to hyperactivation of conventional T-cells, a characteristic of HIV disease progression. Moreover, the ability to reprogram human T-cells into Treg cells in vitro will greatly aid in decoding their mechanism of suppression, their enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection, and the unique markers expressed by this subset.

  18. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance.

  19. Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins.

  20. The naturally occurring steroid solasodine induces neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecanu, L; Hashim, A I; McCourty, A; Giscos-Douriez, I; Dinca, I; Yao, W; Vicini, S; Szabo, G; Erdélyi, F; Greeson, J; Papadopoulos, V

    2011-06-02

    In this study, we explored the capacity of the naturally occurring compound solasodine to promote neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mouse embryonic teratocarcinoma P19 cells exposed to solasodine for 2 days followed by a 5-day washout differentiated into cholinergic neurons that expressed specific neuronal markers and displayed important axonal formation that continued growing even 30 days after treatment. In vivo, a 2-week infusion of solasodine into the left ventricle of the rat brain followed by a 3-week washout resulted in a significant increase in bromodeoxyuridine uptake by cells of the ependymal layer, subventricular zone, and cortex that co-localized with doublecortin immunostaining, demonstrating the proliferative and differentiating properties of solasodine on neuronal progenitors. In addition, these data demonstrate that under our experimental conditions adult ependymal cells retrieved their proliferative and differentiating abilities. The GAP-43/HuD pathway was activated both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a role in the differentiating process triggered by solasodine. Solasodine treatment in rats resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of the cholesterol- and drug-binding translocator protein in ependymal cells, suggesting a possible role played by neurosteroid production in solasodine-induced neurogenesis. In GAD65-GFP mice that express the green fluorescent protein under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa promoter, solasodine treatment increased the number of GABAergic progenitors and neuroblasts generated in the subventricular zone and present in the olfactory migratory tract. Taken together, these results suggest that solasodine offers an interesting approach to stimulate in situ neurogenesis from resident neuronal progenitors as part of neuron replacement therapy.

  1. Natural diatomite (Rudovci, Serbia as adsorbent for removal Cs from radioactive waste liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadović S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Cs (I ions from aqueous solution was studied using natural diatomite as adsorption materials originated from Rudovci, Serbia. The microstructure of natural diatomite has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM while the degree of Cs adsorption was evaluated by atomic emission spectroscopy. The cation exchange capacity (CEC values for natural diatomite was 50 meq/100g. Depending on whether the Cs adsorption occurred in the acidic and alkaline media at a temperature of 298.15 K in acidic media ΔG0 values was -12.674 kJ/mol, while in alkaline media ΔG0 was - 13.142 kJ/mol and a change of ΔS0 to 42.51 J/molK in acidic media and 44.08 J/molK in alkaline medium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45012

  2. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity level of Nigerian tar sand deposits, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria

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    Akinmosin Adewale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of natural radionuclides in twenty seven samples collected from the eastern Dahomey basin in southwestern Nigeria were evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a 3" x 3" sodium iodide NaI(Tl detector. A major trace element assessment of the samples was made by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry techniques. Gamma ray radioactive standard sources, 137Cs and 60Co, were used to calibrate the measurement system and the International Atomic Energy Agency SOIL-375 radioactive standard source was also used to analyze and compute the specific activities of desired natural radionuclides. Three radioelements, viz. 238U, 232Th and 40K, were identified in the samples with the following specific activities of 238U ranging from 9.88 ± 4.70 Bq/kg to 69.15 ± 12.37 Bq/kg with an average of 26.50 ± 7.18 Bq/kg; 232Th from 12.78 ± 5.16 Bq/kg to 36.86 ± 13.35 Bq/kg with an average of 22.77 ± 4.28 Bq/kg; 40K ranging from 189.82 ± 79.51 Bq/kg to 518.77 ± ± 119.54 Bq/kg with an average of 297.69 ± 16.21 Bq/kg. The result was compared with the world mean values of 35, 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively, specified by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The mean result obtained for the radium equivalent, total absorbed dose rate, external hazard index, internal hazard index, and the annual effective dose equivalent, were 79.90 Bq/kg, 38.50 μSv/h, 0.22 Bq/kg, 0.29 Bq/kg, and 47.22 μSv, respectively. With respect to radiological risk to human health, the absorbed gamma dose rate in air was estimated to be in the range of 21.7 ± 0.4 to 155.7 ± 2.2 μSv/h; the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent was evaluated to vary from 26.6 ± 0.4 to 190.9 ± ± 2.7 μSv with the arithmetic mean value of 79.06 ± 33.23 μSv and compared to the world-wide effective dose of 70 μSv. Also, the values of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index for all samples in the study area were

  3. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio. There are no internationally distributed isotopic reference materials for the elements zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium. Preparation of such materials will help to make isotope ratio measurements among

  4. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giorgia; Tositti, Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; Baré, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP. Experimental verification of the calibration goodness is obtained by comparison with appropriate standards, as reported. On-site measurements yield a quick quantitative assessment of natural radioactivity levels present ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th). On-site gamma spectrometry can prove particularly useful insofar as it provides information on materials from which samples cannot be taken.

  5. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Igor S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. In addition, the internal health hazard index, the absorbed dose rates and the effective annual doses were calculated. The results were then compared both with the reported data from the previous studies concerning the territory of the Balkan Peninsula, as well as with the worldwide values for the materials of historic buildings. The results obtained from the materials examined in this paper all showed the radioactivity levels below the maximum permitted values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007 i br. 43009

  6. Natural radioactivity in some major rivers of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Rajashekara, K M; Siddappa, K

    2007-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation level and distribution of radionuclides have been carried out in riverine environs of three major rivers of coastal Karnataka, viz. Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi. The ambient gamma radiation levels along three rivers were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, sediment and rock were measured using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi riverbanks, the median values of absorbed gamma dose rates in air were found to be 44 nGy h(-1), 35 nGy h(-1) and 57 nGy h(-1), respectively. The highest activity of (226)Ra was found in riverbank soil samples of Sharavathi River. The highest activities of (232)Th and (40)K were found in riverbank soil and sediment samples of Netravathi River. In Kali River, the highest (226)Ra activity was recorded for rock samples. To assess the radiological hazard of natural radioactivity in the samples, absorbed gamma dose rates in air, radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external hazard index and internal hazard index associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values. The representative level index (I(gammar)) values are high in sediment samples of Netravathi River. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) values are high in rock samples of Kali River. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Determination of natural radioactivity in irrigation water of drilled wells in northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    The levels of natural radiation in bedrock groundwater extracted from drilled wells in selected farms in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia were addressed. The investigated waters form a source of irrigation for vegetables, agricultural crops, wheat, and alfalfa to feed livestock consumed by the general public. Information about water radioactivity in this area is not available yet. Therefore, this study strives to contribute to the quality assessment of the groundwater of these wells that are drilled into the non-renewable Saq sandstone aquifer. Hence, gross alpha and beta activities as well as the concentrations of (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (234)U, (238)U, and U(total) were measured, compared to national and international limits and contrasted with data quoted from the literature. Correlations between the activities of the analyzed radionuclides were discussed. The concentrations of gross alpha and beta activities as well as (228)Ra were identified by liquid scintillation counting whereas alpha spectrometry was used to determine (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U after separation from the matrix by extraction chromatography. The mean activity concentrations of gross α and β were 3.15 ± 0.26 Bq L(-1) and 5.39 ± 0.44 Bq L(-1), respectively. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) showed mean concentrations of 3.16 ± 0.17 Bq L(-1) and 1.12 ± 0.07 Bq L(-1), respectively, whereas lower levels of uranium isotopes ((234)U and (238)U) were obtained.

  8. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  9. The stretch-shortening cycle : a model to study naturally occurring neuromuscular fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Caroline; Avela, Janne; Komi, Paavo V

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue has traditionally been examined using isolated forms of either isometric, concentric or eccentric actions. However, none of these actions are naturally occurring in human (or animal) ground locomotion. The basic muscle function is defined as the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), where the preactivated muscle is first stretched (eccentric action) and then followed by the shortening (concentric) action. As the SSC taxes the skeletal muscles very strongly mechanically, its influence on the reflex activation becomes apparent and very different from the isolated forms of muscle actions mentioned above. The ground contact phases of running, jumping and hopping etc. are examples of the SSC for leg extensor muscles; similar phases can also be found for the upper-body activities. Consequently, it is normal and expected that the fatigue phenomena should be explored during SSC activities. The fatigue responses of repeated SSC actions are very versatile and complex because the fatigue does not depend only on the metabolic loading, which is reportedly different among muscle actions. The complexity of SSC fatigue is well reflected by the recovery patterns of many neuromechanical parameters. The basic pattern of SSC fatigue response (e.g. when using the complete exhaustion model of hopping or jumping) is the bimodality showing an immediate reduction in performance during exercise, quick recovery within 1-2 hours, followed by a secondary reduction, which may often show the lowest values on the second day post-exercise when the symptoms of muscle soreness/damage are also greatest. The full recovery may take 4-8 days depending on the parameter and on the severity of exercise. Each subject may have their own time-dependent bimodality curve. Based on the reviewed literature, it is recommended that the fatigue protocol is 'completely' exhaustive to reduce the important influence of inter-subject variability in the fatigue responses. The bimodality concept is

  10. A naturally occurring omega current in a Kv3 family potassium channel from a platyhelminth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated ion channels are membrane proteins containing a selective pore that allows permeable ions to transit the membrane in response to a change in the transmembrane voltage. The typical selectivity filter in potassium channels is formed by a tetrameric arrangement of the carbonyl groups of the conserved amino-acid sequence Gly-Tyr-Gly. This canonical pore is opened or closed by conformational changes that originate in the voltage sensor (S4, a transmembrane helix with a series of positively charged amino acids. This sensor moves through a gating pore formed by elements of the S1, S2 and S3 helices, across the plane of the membrane, without allowing ions to pass through the membrane at that site. Recently, synthetic mutagenesis studies in the Drosophila melanogaster Shaker channel and analysis of human disease-causing mutations in sodium channels have identified amino acid residues that are integral parts of the gating-pore; when these residues are mutated the proteins allow a non-specific cation current, known as the omega current, to pass through the gating-pore with relatively low selectivity. Results The N.at-Kv3.2 potassium channel has an unusual weak inward rectifier phenotype. Several mutations of two amino acids in the voltage sensing (S4 transmembrane helix change the phenotype to a typical delayed rectifier. The inward rectifier channels (wild-type and mutant are sensitive to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP but not tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA, whereas the delayed rectifier mutants are sensitive to TEA but not 4-AP. The inward rectifier channels also manifest low cation selectivity. The relative selectivity for different cations is sensitive to specific mutations in the S4 helix, Conclusion N.at-Kv3.2, a naturally occurring potassium channel of the Kv3 sequence family, mediates ion permeation through a modified gating pore, not the canonical, highly selective pore typical of potassium channels. This channel has evolved to

  11. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  12. Demographics, nature and treatment of orthopaedic trauma injuries occurring in an agricultural context in the West of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, F J

    2011-03-01

    Farming is a major industry in the West of Ireland. This prospective study examined the age profile, nature and treatment of orthopaedic injuries occurring in agricultural surroundings presenting at the Orthopaedic Unit of Merlin Park Hospital, Galway.

  13. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and material.

  14. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  15. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  16. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-04-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk.

  17. EFFECTIVE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE NORM BELONGED TO 238U AND 232TH SERIES BEING IN THE STATE OF DISTURBED RADIOACTIVE EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sanitary Rules SR 2.6.1.1292-03 and SR 2.6.6.1169-02 classification of the industrial waste containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is adopted in accordance to the values of their effective specific activity Aeff. In a case of the disturbed equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series it is necessary to take into consideration actual contribution of the separate natural radionuclides of the mentioned series into the value of gamma dose rate of the waste. This will permit to avoid unjustified overestimating or understating of the waste category which prevents as unjustified expenditures on their treating so undertaking of the necessary measures providing radiation safety.

  18. Estimation of radiation hazard indices from natural radioactivity of some rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks from Egypt and Germany have been considered to measure γ-ray activity concentrations due to naturally occurring, potentially hazardous radonuclides 2266Ra, 232Th and 40K. The radiation hazard parameters including radiation equivalent activity, gamma-absorbed dose rate, and external and internal hazard indices have been estimated. The gamma-absorbed dose rates in air of rocks in Egypt range found that the radiation hazard indices in common igneous rocks are distinctly higher in acidic than in ultrabasic rocks. The results are discussed and compared with the corresponding published data.

  19. Natural radioactivity in sand beaches of Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Santos, Talita O.; Reis, Patricia L., E-mail: danilo@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MH (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using gamma ray spectrometry, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K was determined in sand beaches samples from different areas in Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, from Brazil. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated and the results are compared with the internationally accepted values as well as others high background radiation areas (HBRAs).The activity concentration of the {sup 232}Th in Areia Preta as well as the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were higher than the others regions compared. The results show that Areia Preta in Guarapari has higher background found in beaches in world. (author)

  20. Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J. S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

  1. The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Slaughter, J

    1999-08-01

    Three closely related 4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanones have been found in a range of highly cooked foodstuffs where they are important flavour compounds with aroma threshold values as low as 20 micrograms kg-1 water (approximately 0.14 mumol l-1). The compounds are formed mainly as a result of the operation of the Maillard reactions between sugars and amino acids during heating but one compound, 5-(or 2)-ethyl-2-(or 5)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, appears in practice to be produced by yeast, probably from a Maillard intermediate, during the fermentation stages in the production of soy sauce and beer. The compounds are also important in the flavour of strawberry, raspberry, pineapple and tomato but the route of biosynthesis is unknown. Two 3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanones, emoxyfuranone and sotolon, which are produced spontaneously from amino acids such as threonine and 4-hydroxy-L-leucine are major contributors to meaty and spicy/nutty flavours in foods. The biosynthesis of 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (erythroascorbic acid) from sugars in plants and yeast, respectively, has been characterized to the enzymic level. After treatment with chlorine, humic waters contain a range of chloro-furanones, some of which, particularly 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), are powerful mutagens. The furanones which occur in foods are also mutagenic to bacteria and cause DNA damage in laboratory tests. However, these compounds are, in practice, very effective anti-carcinogenic agents in the diets of animals which are being treated with known cancer-inducing compounds such as benzo[alpha]pyrene or azoxymethane. Two of the food-derived furanones have antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. A biological function has been discovered for some of the furanones besides vitamin C. 5-Methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone is a male pheromone in the cockroach Eurycolis

  2. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental {gamma} radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many

  3. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  4. Radioactive labeling of a natural assemblage of marine sedimentary bacteria and microalgae for trophic studies: An autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, K R

    1990-05-01

    Autoradiography was used to examine critical questions for trophic studies concerning the uptake of radioactive tracers by a natural assemblage of sedimentary microorganisms. Labeled organic substrates ([(3)H]-acetate and [(3)H]-thymidine) were taken up only by heterotrophic bacteria, and [(14)C]-bicarbonate was taken up only by microalgae. Only approximately 2% of the bacterial assemblage took up detectable quantities of either [(3)H]-acetate or [(3)H]-thymidine, regardless of whether labeled substrates were delivered to sediments via slurries or by injection with a microliter syringe. Significantly more diatoms were labeled when [(14)C]-bicarbonate was delivered to sediments by the injection method (75%) as compared to the slurry method (50%). These results indicate that radio-active tracers can be used in natural sediments to selectively label potential microbial food of invertebrate grazers. Only a small proportion of bacteria, however, may actually use a labeled substrate, which introduces a large uncertainty into the conversion of radioactivity in grazers to the number of bacteria consumed. Finally, the use of disruptive methods (e.g., slurries) to deliver labels to sediments does not increase the proportion of microorganisms that become labeled. Thus, given the variety of artifacts that may be associated with the use of sediment slurries, it is probably advisable to use nondisruptive methods to deliver substrates to sediments.

  5. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata;

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...

  6. Characterizing resilient behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands for road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil sand is a generic name given to natural deposits of bituminous sand materials that are mined for crude oil production. These materials are currently used as subgrade materials of temporary and permanent roads in oil sand fields for operating...

  7. Incorporation monitoring, above all for naturally occuring radionuclides; Inkorporationsueberwachung, vor allem bei natuerlichen radioaktiven Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung; Buchholz, Werner [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). FB Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Burow, Mechthild [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich ' ' Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz' ' ; and others

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of the main topic deals with further development of ICRP-models and standardization of regulations in the field of incorporation monitoring. Natural radionuclides, medically used radionuclides and quality assurance, will be discussed. The planning and realization of a shielding chamber for a whole body counter is presented.

  8. Evaluation of the natural gamma radioactivity in the interior and exterior of housings in the Cusco; Evaluacion de la radioactividad gamma natural en el interior y exterior de viviendas en el Cusco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warthon, J. L.; Olarte, A., E-mail: juliowarthon@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Departamento Academico de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 921, Cusco (Peru)

    2012-10-15

    The natural radioactivity is present in our environment and in all moment what indicates that the human beings are exposed to this radiation type. In the Cusco city (Peru) measurements of the environmental radioactivity levels have been realized by Umeres F. and Sajo L., who contributed valuable information about the natural radioactivity in several places of the Cusco city; these studies have motivated to continue the measurement of the natural radioactivity in this locality, inside and outside of constructions, these measurements also were made like part of the courses of Electromagnetism II and Experimental Physics (graduate degree) that imparts the Academic Physics Department of the National University of San Antonio Abad of the Cusco city, also the measurements were taken in different dates, what demonstrated that the measured values are inside of a radioactivity dose interval and their averages are approximate to the half world value for natural exposition (2.4 mSv per year). (Author)

  9. Effects of a naturally occurring compatible osmolyte on the internal dynamics of ribonuclease A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A; Robertson, A D; Bolen, D W

    1995-11-21

    Osmolytes are small organic solutes accumulated intracellularly by many organisms as they adapt to environmental stresses. Compatible osmolytes, a functional class of osmolytes, increase protein stability while having little or no effect on protein function. To investigate the interrelationships between protein stability, function, and internal dynamics, a hydrogen exchange (HX) quench method was established and used to study the effects of sucrose (a typical compatible osmolyte) on the structural fluctuations of ribonuclease A. It was found that the HX rates of the amide protons with intermediate rates are not affected by 1 M sucrose, but the slow-exchanging amide protons exchange even slower in 1 M sucrose. The protection factors of the slow-exchanging protons fall into a comparatively narrow range while those of the intermediate-exchanging protons vary widely. In agreement with the two-process model [Woodward, C.K., & Hilton, B. D. (1980) Biophys. J. 32, 561-575], we conclude that for those slow-exchanging amide protons, the exchange occurs mainly from the compact unfolded state ensemble of the protein. The internal dynamics leading to slow exchange involve exposure of large protein surface areas, similar to that which occurs upon the unfolding of protein. Because sucrose opposes such an increase in protein surface area exposure, both the slow HX rates and the protein stability are affected by sucrose. For those amide protons with fast and intermediate HX rates, the exchange occurs mainly from the native state ensemble of the protein. The internal dynamics involved in the exchange are localized without much surface area change, and functionally important structural fluctuations are likely to occur within this dynamic range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Nanostructural Organization of Naturally Occurring Composites—Part I: Silica-Collagen-Based Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Ehrlich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass sponges, as examples of natural biocomposites, inspire investigations aiming at both a better understanding of biomineralization mechanisms and novel developments in the synthesis of nanostructured biomimetic materials. Different representatives of marine glass sponges of the class Hexactinellida (Porifera are remarkable because of their highly flexible basal anchoring spicules. Therefore, investigations of the biochemical compositions and the micro- and nanostructure of the spicules as examples of naturally structured biomaterials are of fundamental scientific relevance. Here we present a detailed study of the structural and biochemical properties of the basal spicules of the marine glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni. The results show unambiguously that in this glass sponge a fibrillar protein of collagenous nature is the template for the silica mineralization in all silica-containing structural layers of the spicule. The structural similarity and homology of collagens derived from M. chuni spicules to other sponge and vertebrate collagens have been confirmed by us using FTIR, amino acid analysis and mass spectrometric sequencing techniques. We suggest that nanomorphology of silica formed on proteinous structures could be determined as an example of biodirected epitaxial nanodistribution of amorphous silica phase on oriented fibrillar collagen templates. Finally, the present work includes a discussion relating to silica-collagen-based hybrid materials for practical applications as biomaterials.

  11. EAGLE GUIDE. Radioactivity from A to Z; EAGLE-GUIDE. Radioaktivitaet von A bis Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, Werner

    2011-07-01

    The booklet on radioactivity is a lexicon-type compendium of definitions, fundamental terms and information on radioactivity. Radioactive processes occur in the sun and on earth, live is dependent on these processes. Human beings are exposed to cosmic radiation, radiation from natural radioactive nuclides and artificial radiation sources. There is almost no possibility to protect oneself from natural radioactivity. The protection from artificial radioactivity can be reached by appropriate protection measures. Artificial radiation sources will certainly by part of mankind in the future, in nuclear medicine, radiation therapy and for research purposes. The booklet is aimed to provide information to everybody as a basis to be able to discuss the respective topics.

  12. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Fujun Niu; Guodong Cheng; Yonghong Niu; Mingyi Zhang; Jing Luo; Zhanju Lin

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about −1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of ...

  13. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, C.; Mougin, L.; Fakhi, S.; Nourreddine, A.; Lamghari, A.; Hannache, H.

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It ...

  14. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use......Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south...... permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby...

  15. The natural radioactivity in water by gross alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O.; Tessari, B.W.; Silva, A. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    An alternative method for evaluating gross alpha and beta radioactivity in water was developed by performing alpha counting using a surface barrier detector and gamma- ray spectrometry using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Several experiments were realized under controlled conditions in the laboratory with the aim of establishing adequate calibration of the systems utilized for performing activity concentration measurements in water samples of variable salinity. Groundwater samples collected at several spas in Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais States in Brazil were submitted to the developed technique in order to assure its applicability in waters characterized by different Total Dissolved Solids content. The values obtained were compatible with the previous knowledge of the radioactivity of the studied water sources, thus indicating the reliability and usefulness of the method for generating information on investigations focusing environmental aspects and/or the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects.

  16. Natural Radioactivity of Beach Sand Samples in the Tripoli Region, Northwest Libya

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine the radioactivity concentrations of beach sand samples from different sites along the coast of Tripoli, northwest Libya, using high resolution g-ray spectroscopy. Collection of samples was carried out during low tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by sea water during high tide. From the measured g-ray spectra, elemental concentrations were determined for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 210Pb at...

  17. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about ‑1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost’s existence due to the peat’s thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  18. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  19. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about −1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost’s existence due to the peat’s thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions. PMID:27685441

  20. The source of naturally occurring arsenic in a coastal sand aquifer of eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Bethany; Jankowski, Jerzy; Sammut, Jesmond

    2007-07-01

    The discovery of dissolved arsenic in a coastal aquifer used extensively for human consumption has led to widespread concern for its potential occurrence in other sandy coastal environments in eastern Australia. The development of an aquifer specific geomorphic model (herein) suggests that arsenic is regionally derived from erosion of arsenic-rich stibnite (Sb(2)S(3)) mineralisation present in the hinterland. Fluvial processes have transported the eroded material over time to deposit an aquifer lithology elevated in arsenic. Minor arsenic contribution to groundwater is derived from mineralised bedrock below the unconsolidated aquifer. An association with arsenic and pyrite has been observed in the aquifer in small discrete arsenian pyrite clusters rather than actual acid sulfate soil horizons. This association is likely to influence arsenic distribution in the aquifer, but is not the dominant control on arsenic occurrence. Arsenic association with marine clays is considered a function of their increased adsorptive capacity for arsenic and not solely on the influence of sea level inundation of the aquifer sediments during the Quaternary Period. These findings have implications for, but are not limited to, coastal aquifers. Rather, any aquifer containing sediments derived from mineralised provenances may be at risk of natural arsenic contamination. Groundwater resource surveys should thus incorporate a review of the aquifer source provenance when assessing the likely risk of natural arsenic occurrence in an aquifer.

  1. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment.

  2. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  3. Origin of Natural Radioactivity%关于天然放射性的成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许靖华; Min-penChen; 等

    2003-01-01

    天然放射性衰变通常被认为是自发性的行为,并且这种衰变有一个恒定的半衰期,尽管有一些实验和经验性的证据对上述基本理论曾提出质疑.许靖华(1994)提出过这方面的问题--衰变作用是否是自发性行为?以及衰变作用是否是粒子与粒子之间相互作用的结果?为了检验β衰变是由中微子与中子相互作用的结果这一论点,对C-14衰变进行实验监测.我们的研究假设,β衰变速率的变化与中微子流的数量之间呈相关关系.在一个短实验周期里,具有较长半衰期的C-14样品的衰变速率应该是一个近似常数.然而我们的实验发现,检测到的衰变速率偏离理论值达1%.这种变化的信号强度超过本底噪声1000倍以上.曾经有一种假说提到,β衰变是由于中子与太阳发出的中微子碰撞产生的,而上述变化与太阳活动无关.经过一年半的实验检测,发现该衰变速率与在北京测量到的宇宙射线强度呈正相关关系.这一结果与作者提出的,β衰变是被宇宙射线的中微子激活的假说相符合.%Natural radioactive decays have been assumed spontaneous. The decays are said to have a constant halflife, despite of experimental and empirical evidence to the contrary. Hsü raised the question if decays are spontaneous, or if they are particle-particle interactions(Hsü K J, 1994). A test of the postulate that beta-decay is a neutrino-neutron interaction has been carried through experimental monitoring of C-14 decay. Our working hypothesis predicted a correlation of the variation of beta-decay rate to the flux of neutrinos. The decay rate of the C-14 sample with its long half-life should be nearly constant during the short duration of the experiment. Our experiments have found, however, rates deviating up to 1% from the theoretical value. The signals of the variation are about 1 000 times greater than the background noise. The variation is not correlative to solar

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  5. Naturally occurring plant polyphenols as potential therapies for inherited neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Heidi R; Humphrey, Emma L; Morris, Glenn E

    2013-11-01

    There are several lines of laboratory-based evidence emerging to suggest that purified polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol, found naturally in red grapes, epigallocatechin galate from green tea and curcumin from turmeric, might be useful for the treatment of various inherited neuromuscular diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Here, we critically examine the scientific evidence related to the known molecular effects that these polyphenols have on different models of inherited neuromuscular disease, with particular attention to problems with the validity of in vitro evidence. We also present proteomic evidence that polyphenols have in vitro effects on cells related to metal ion chelation in cell-culture media. Although their precise mechanisms of action remain somewhat elusive, polyphenols could be an attractive approach to therapy for inherited neuromuscular disease, especially since they may be safer to use on young children, compared with some of the other drug candidates.

  6. Naturally occurring branched-chain polyamines induce a crosslinked meshwork structure in a giant DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Akira; Shimizu, Yuta; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Fukuda, Wakao; Umezawa, Naoki; Horai, Yuhei; Higuchi, Tsunehiko; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of branched-chain polyamines on the folding transition of genome-sized DNA molecules in aqueous solution by the use of single-molecule observation with fluorescence microcopy. Detailed morphological features of polyamine/DNA complexes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations indicated that branched-chain polyamines tend to induce a characteristic change in the higher-order structure of DNA by forming bridges or crosslinks between the segments of a DNA molecule. In contrast, natural linear-chain polyamines cause a parallel alignment between DNA segments. Circular dichroism measurements revealed that branched-chain polyamines induce the A-form in the secondary structure of DNA, while linear-chain polyamines have only a minimum effect. This large difference in the effects of branched- and linear-chain polyamines is discussed in relation to the difference in the manner of binding of these polyamines to negatively charged double-stranded DNA.

  7. Effect of silver nanoparticles on fluorescence and nonlinear properties of naturally occurring betacyanin dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-01-01

    We present the linear and nonlinear optical studies of a natural dye betacyanin extracted from red beet root in the presence of silver nano particles in colloidal solution. We synthesized silver nano particles and characterized by XRD and HRTEM. We show how appropriate concentration of silver nanoparticles can enable tuning of dye fluorescence efficiency. Nonlinear properties are studied using open aperture Z scan technique with Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). We show modification of nonlinear properties for the dye to the desired level can be achieved in the presence of silver nanoparticles. High nonlinearity we also demonstrated in PVA/Ag nano/Betacyanin composite films. Theoretical analysis is performed using model based on nonlinear absorption of materials and scattering of metal nanoparticles.

  8. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shoukat; Kang, Moonkyu; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2007-09-01

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants and is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional methods to prevent tyrosinase action encourages researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for food and cosmetics. This article presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, biochemical characteristics, type of inhibitions, activators from various natural sources with its clinical and industrial importance in recent prospects is discussed in this paper.

  9. Pathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings in naturally occurring virulent systemic feline calicivirus infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; MacLachlan, N J; Dillard-Telm, L; Grant, C K; Hurley, K F

    2004-05-01

    Infection with feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory and oral disease in cats. FCV infection is rarely fatal, however, virulent, systemic strains of FCV (VS-FCV) that cause alopecia, cutaneous ulcers, subcutaneous edema, and high mortality in affected cats have recently been described. Seven cats with natural VS-FCV infection all had subcutaneous edema and ulceration of the oral cavity, with variable ulceration of the pinnae, pawpads, nares, and skin. Other lesions that were present in some affected cats included bronchointerstitial pneumonia, and pancreatic, hepatic, and splenic necrosis. Viral antigen was present within endothelial and epithelial cells in affected tissues as determined by immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody to FCV. Mature intranuclear and intracytoplasmic virions in necrotic epithelial cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy. VS-FCV infection causes epithelial cell cytolysis and systemic vascular compromise in susceptible cats, leading to cutaneous ulceration, severe edema, and high mortality.

  10. Serum canine pancreatic-specific lipase concentrations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia rossi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S. Köster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L – 475.5 µg/L on admission (n = 87 and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L – 434.0 µg/L on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40. Twenty-four dogs (28% had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L at admission with 13 dogs (32.5% presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L – 571.5 µg/L; n = 53, which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L – 131.8 µg/L; n = 32 (P = 0.018. This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.

  11. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells.

  12. Natural radioactivity in some building materials in Cuba and their contribution to the indoor gamma dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barreras Caballero, Aldo A.; Montalvan Estrada, Alberto; Queipo Garcia, Maite [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Camaguey (Cuba). Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear. Lab. de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Zerquera, Juan Tomas [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, La Habana (Cuba). Agencia de Energia Nuclear. Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones

    2001-07-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials commonly used in Cuba was measured by gamma spectrometry. Typical concentrations, so far encountered, are in the ranges: 47 to 2511 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40} K; 9 to 71 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226} Ra; and 2 to 38 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232} Th. The external gamma ray absorbed doses in indoor air, and the corresponding effective dose equivalents in a typical dwelling are presented in this work. (author)

  13. The natural radioactivity measurements in coastal sediment samples along the East Coast of Tamilnadu using gamma spectrometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramohan, J. [E.G.S Pillay Engineering College, Nagapattinam, 611002, Tamilnadu (India); Tholkappian, M. [Sri Vari College of Education, Then Arasampattu, Tiruvannamalai, 606611, Tamilnadu (India); Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R., E-mail: ravisankarphysics@gmail.com [Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Tiruvannamalai 606603, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-28

    The natural radioactivity concentration in beach sediment samples collected from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam of East Coast of Tamilnadu have been determined by NaI (TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The specific activity concentrations range from ≤ 2.21 (BDL) to 37.02 Bq kg{sup −1} with a mean of 3.79 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 238}U, ≤ 2.11 (BDL) to 643.77 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 49.60 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 232}Th and 300.34 Bqkg{sup −1} to 449.08 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 360.23 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 40}K. The potential radiological hazards due to natural radionuclides content such as Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), Representative level index (RLI), External hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed gamma does rate (D{sub R}), and Annual effective dose rate (AEDR) are estimated to assess the radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The obtained data are compared with the recommended safety limits and international approved values. All the values are well below the recommended safety limits indicating that radiation levels do not poses any significant health hazard to the public in the area as a result of the natural radioactivity of beach sediments. This study may help the baseline data for more extensive works in the same subjects of future studies.

  14. Efficiency of natural self-purification of ecosystems vs. countermeasures applied at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, I.; Pozolotina, V.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of the radiation accident in 1957 at the Production Association "Mayak" (Russia, the Urals) a fast area (23000 km^2), later named the East-Ural radioactive trace, was contaminated. Accidental emission presented by the long-living radionuclides was found to be dominated by Sr-90. In 1967 the EURT area was subjected to a secondary contamination resulting from radioactive sediments transport by wind from "Mayak" technological reservoir, Karachay Lake. Currently, the stock of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the EURT's soil cover consist of 640•10^12 Bq. This study is aimed to compare an efficiency of the countermeasures adopted at the EURT and natural processes responsible for self-purification of contaminated ecosystems. With concern to the principle of ranging the contaminated areas two zones were established: impact and buffer ones. The impact zone is situated near the accident epicenter, i.e. within 2-30 km from of the Trace central axis. After accident this zone was removed from agricultural utilization. The buffer zone has permanent anthropogenic pressure. The native, undisturbed during the reclamation operations, flow adjacent of landscape sites were chosen within the impact and buffer zones. They included of a watershed area and bank area of the lakes. The impact zone demonstrated the lowest concentration of the radionuclides around the frequently flooded lake shore. Absence of anthropogenic pressure, the high density of the plant cover and deficit of the soil moisture in summer time are the main reasons for decreasing the intensity of the water runoff from watershed. As a result the self-purification processes are dominated around the shoreline soils. The buffer zone is characterized by an opposite regularity appeared in increasing of the Sr-90 content in the soils of the lake shore. In this case, the intensive agricultural utilization of the flat watersheds leads to increase of erosion and degradation processes and, as consequently, to the

  15. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model.

  16. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  17. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Brown, Cathy A

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3-7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining.

  18. Phylogeny and virulence of naturally occurring type III secretion system-deficient Pectobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T; Charkowski, Amy O

    2009-07-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers.

  19. Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2009-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers. PMID:19411432

  20. Optical Observations of Naturally Occuring Airglow Emissions as a Tsunami Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, J. J.; Grawe, M.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past five years, observations of the redline emission in Earth's thermosphere, caused by the dissociative recombination of O2+, have been shown to have applications for monitoring tsunamis. This emission occurs at approximately 250-km altitude and is perturbed by tsunami-generated atmospheric gravity waves, allowing the use of optical observations made from ground-based imaging systems to study the properties of the underlying tsunami. These measurements have been shown to depend on the posture between the observation raypath and the structure of the gravity wave, making them anisotropic. New analysis methods have been shown to be effective in both determining the observability (where to look in the sky) and inferring parameters (orientation, wavelength) of these atmospheric gravity waves. Here, we present a complete review of the historical observations of tsunami-generated gravity waves made from an imaging system in Hawaii and the techniques used to analyze the data. Strengths and weaknesses of the optical observational technique as a tsunami monitoring tool will be discussed as well as possible methods and observing platforms that could be employed in the future to overcome these weaknesses.

  1. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-10-20

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  2. Nanostructural Organization of Naturally Occurring Composites—Part II: Silica-Chitin-Based Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Ehrlich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the micro- and nanostructures and chemical composition of the sponge skeletons as examples for natural structural biocomposites are of fundamental scientific relevance. Recently, we show that some demosponges (Verongula gigantea, Aplysina sp. and glass sponges (Farrea occa, Euplectella aspergillum possess chitin as a component of their skeletons. The main practical approach we used for chitin isolation was based on alkali treatment of corresponding external layers of spicules sponge material with the aim of obtaining alkali-resistant compounds for detailed analysis. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physicochemical properties of spicules of the glass sponge Rossella fibulata. The structural similarity of chitin derived from this sponge to invertebrate alpha chitin has been confirmed by us unambiguously using physicochemical and biochemical methods. This is the first report of a silica-chitin composite biomaterial found in Rossella species. Finally, the present work includes a discussion related to strategies for the practical application of silica-chitin-based composites as biomaterials.

  3. Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

  4. Ionospheric plasma disturbances generated by naturally occurring large-scale anomalous heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradipta, Rezy; Lee, Min-Chang; Coster, Anthea J.; Tepley, Craig A.; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.

    2017-04-01

    We report the findings from our investigation on the possibility of large-scale anomalous thermal gradients to generate acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In particular, here we consider the case of summer 2006 North American heat wave event as a concrete example of such large-scale natural thermal gradients. This special scenario of AGW/TID generation was formulated based on the results of our experiments at the Arecibo Observatory in July 2006, followed by a systematic monitoring/surveillance of total electron content (TEC) fluctuations over North America in 2005-2007 using the MIT Haystack Observatory's Madrigal database. The data from our Arecibo experiments indicate a continual occurrence of intense AGW/TID over the Caribbean on 21-24 July 2006, and the Madrigal TEC data analysis shows that the overall level of TID activity over North America had increased by ∼0.2 TECU during the summer 2006 heat wave event. Our proposed scenario is in agreement with these empirical observations, and is generally consistent with a number of past ionospheric HF heating experiments related to AGW/TID generation.

  5. Natural Occurring Weed’s Interference in Melon Quantity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Torabi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed's behaviors differ in a multiweed-crop competition system compare to a mono weed-crop competition system. The present investigation was carried out in Mashhad, Iran, to study the effect of weeds, which emerged naturally in a multi species community along side with melon, on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the crop during 2007. Thirty five plots were selected randomly in a girded filed. Weeds were allowed to compete freely with melon by the harvest time in 32 plots. The other 3 plots were weeded during crop development. Weed sampling was conducted prior to melon harvesting. Density, frequency and dry mater were recorded species-wise. Maximum melon plant growth and yield indices were also recorded. Stepwise multivariate regression equations were established to determine the competitive relation between population and dry matter of each weed species and melon characteristics. Results revealed that dry matter had more significant relation with characteristics under study compare to weed density. Weeds showed two adverse competitive responses. According to their effects on melon traits, weeds were divided in antagonistic and synergistic groups. Lesger burdock, redroot amaranth, and black nightshade were antagonistic while fat hen and common porcelains were synergetic. Nut grass had a null effect. Results also showed that yield was more affected by weeds than other melon yield components.

  6. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentra