WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural turf sports

  1. Natural turf surfaces: the case for continued research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Victoria H; James, Iain T; Dixon, Sharon J; Guisasola, Igor N

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that health and social benefits can be attained through participation in sport and exercise. Participation, particularly in sports, benefits from appropriate surface provisions that are safe, affordable and high quality preferably across the recreational to elite continuum. Investment, construction and research into artificial sports surfaces have increased to meet this provision. However, not all sports (e.g. golf, rugby and cricket) are suited to training and match-play on artificial turf without compromising some playing characteristics of the games. Therefore, full sport surface provision cannot be met without the use of natural turf surfaces, which also have an important role as green spaces in the built environment. Furthermore, a significant number of people participate in outdoor sport on natural turf pitches, although this is a declining trend as the number of synthetic turf surfaces increases. Despite natural turf being a common playing surface for popular sports such as soccer, rugby and cricket, few biomechanical studies have been performed using natural turf conditions. It is proposed that if natural turf surfaces are to help meet the provision of sports surfaces, advancement in the construction and sustainability of natural turf surface design is required. The design of a natural turf surface should also be informed by knowledge of surface-related overuse injury risk factors. This article reviews biomechanical, engineering, soil mechanics, turfgrass science, sports medicine and injury-related literature with a view to proposing a multidisciplinary approach to engineering a more sustainable natural turf sport surface. The present article concludes that an integrated approach incorporating an engineering and biomechanical analysis of the effects of variations in natural turf media on human movement and the effects of variations in human movement on natural turf is primarily required to address the longer-term development of

  2. Solar–terrestrial radiant-energy regimes and temperature anomalies of natural and artificial turfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar and terrestrial radian energy regimes affect temperature response of sports turfs. • Adjacent natural and artificial turfs were monitored with replications on sunny days. • Artificial turf has meager albedo, low specific heat and moisture to augment warming. • Artificial turf surface and substrate reach 70 °C but cool down effectively at night. • Artificial turf may induce heat stress on athletes in hot summer afternoon. - Abstract: Artificial turf can develop unusually high surface temperature on hot sunny days. Solar and terrestrial radiant energy regimes as key determinants of thermal performance deserve detailed investigation. This study evaluated six components of the radiant-energy environment of a natural turf (NT) and a contiguous artificial turf (AT) sports fields in Hong Kong: direct solar, reflected solar, net solar, sky thermal, ground thermal, and net thermal. Temperature was monitored at five positions: air at 150 cm, 50 cm and 15 cm height, turf surface, and substrate. The experiment included four replications, namely two summer sunny days, and two duplicated instrument sets at each turf site. The two sites reacted very differently to the same intense daily sum of solar radiation input of 23.70 MW m −2 with 9 h of bright sunshine (>120 W m −2 ), and daily sum of sky thermal radiation input of 38.59 MW m −2 . The maximum direct solar radiation reached 976.1 W m −2 at 1245 h. NT albedo of 0.23 vis-à-vis AT of merely 0.073, and higher moisture content and specific heat of NT materials, presented critical differences. The hydrophobic and generally dry plastic (polyethylene) pile-fibers and black rubber-granule infill materials have low specific heat. Intense incoming shortwave and longwave radiation absorbed readily by AT materials raised turf surface temperature to 70.2 °C and substrate 69.3 °C, in comparison with <40 °C at NT. A cascading warming effect was triggered, beginning with low albedo, high net solar

  3. Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with rubber granulate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; de Groot GM; CPV; M&V

    2017-01-01

    New research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) indicates that the health risk of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with an infill of rubber granulate is virtually negligible. Therefore, it is considered safe for people to play sports on such pitches.

  4. A kinematic analysis of the spine during rugby scrummaging on natural and synthetic turfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Ramesh; Williams, Jonathan M; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Artificial surfaces are now an established alternative to grass (natural) surfaces in rugby union. Little is known, however, about their potential to reduce injury. This study characterises the spinal kinematics of rugby union hookers during scrummaging on third-generation synthetic (3G) and natural pitches. The spine was sectioned into five segments, with inertial sensors providing three-dimensional kinematic data sampled at 40 Hz/sensor. Twenty-two adult, male community club and university-level hookers were recruited. An equal number were analysed whilst scrummaging on natural or synthetic turf. Players scrummaging on synthetic turf demonstrated less angular velocity in the lower thoracic spine for right and left lateral bending and right rotation. The general reduction in the range of motion and velocities, extrapolated over a prolonged playing career, may mean that the synthetic turf could result in fewer degenerative injuries. It should be noted, however, that this conclusion considers only the scrummaging scenario.

  5. Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J. S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

  6. Effect of turf on the cutting movement of female football players

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Strutzenberger; Hue-Man Cao; Janina Koussev; Wolfgang Potthast; Gareth Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The globalisation of artificial turf and the increase in player participation has driven the need to examine injury risk in the sport of football. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface–player interaction in female football players between natural and artificial turf. Methods: Eight university level female football players performed an unanticipated cutting manoeuvre at an angle of 30° and 60°, on a regulation natural grass pitch (NT) and a 3G artificial turf pit...

  7. Turf Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... players, participants in soccer, basketball, wrestling, gymnastics and dance also are at risk. Causes The name “turf ... toe can include pain, swelling and limited joint movement. If turf toe is caused by repetitive actions ...

  8. Incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related collegiate women's soccer injuries on FieldTurf and natural grass surfaces: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C

    2013-10-01

    Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. Over the past 2 decades, however, newer generations of synthetic turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although synthetic turf has been determined to be safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. Collegiate female soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related injuries on FieldTurf and on natural grass. Cohort study: Level of evidence, 2. Female soccer athletes from 13 universities were evaluated over 5 competitive seasons for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomic location, field location at the time of injury, injury severity, head and lower extremity trauma, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. In sum, 797 collegiate games were evaluated for match-related soccer injuries sustained on FieldTurf or natural grass during 5 seasons. Overall, 355 team games (44.5%) were played on FieldTurf versus 442 team games (55.5%) on natural grass. A total of 693 injuries were documented, with 272 (39.2%) occurring during play on FieldTurf and 421 (60.8%) on natural grass. Multivariate analysis per 10 team games indicated a significant playing surface effect: F₂,₆₉₀ = 6.435, P = .002, n-β = .904. A significantly lower total injury incidence rate (IIR) of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-8.1) versus 9.5 (95% CI, 9.3-9.7) (P = .0001) and lower rate of substantial injuries, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-1.0) versus 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) (P = .001), were documented on FieldTurf versus natural grass, respectively. Analyses also indicated significantly less trauma on FieldTurf when comparing injury time loss, player position, injury grade

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Soccer Injuries on Artificial Turf and Natural Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay H. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation was to determine if playing or training on third-generation artificial turf (AT surfaces increases the incidence rate of injuries compared to natural grass (NG surfaces. This was accomplished by a meta-analysis performed on previously published research. Eight studies met the criteria of competitive soccer players, participation on both surfaces, and presentation of both exposure time and injury occurrence. Exposure time and injury incidence values were used to generate injury rate ratios (IRRs, AT/NG for all injuries as well as specific injuries. Subgroup analyses were also performed by condition (match or training, gender, and age (youth or adult. The overall IRR was 0.86 ( suggesting a lower injury risk on AT than NG. However, there was considerable heterogeneity between studies. Analyses of individual injuries and subgroups found that in many cases IRR values were significantly less than 1.0. In no case was the IRR significantly greater than 1.0. Based on this, it appears that the risk of sustaining an injury on AT under some conditions might be lowered compared to NG. However, until more is known about how issues such as altered playing styles affect injury incidence, it is difficult to make firm conclusions regarding the influence of AT on player safety.

  10. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  11. EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL TURF AND NATURAL GRASS ON PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ávalos Guillén

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of artificial turf (AT and natural grass (NG on the physical and technical performance of professional soccer players. A total of 17 healthy male soccer players (24.0 ± 4.1 years, height 174 ± 6.1 cm; body weight 73.4 ± 6.3 kg; body fat % 14.2 ± 2.3; VO2max 55.5 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min from a Costa Rican Professional Soccer League club were subjected to different tests in both types of surfaces (technical test, agility test, repeated sprint ability test, and a small-sided game [8 minutes, 32 x 32 meters, 5 vs. 5]. Players were monitored using a GPS in two sessions, separated by 48 hours, during the club’s pre-season. There were no significant differences between the two types of surfaces for the technical, agility, and repeated sprint ability tests. The physiological and kinematic variables analyzed during the small-sided game presented significant differences in average heart rate (NG = 168.5 ± 8.8, AT = 154.8 ± 11.8, p <.001, maximum heart rate (NG = 183.2 ± 8.3, AT = 175.9 ± 10.4, p =.02, body load (NG = 34.3 ± 11.2, AT = 30.5 ± 11.4, p =.03, and total impacts (NG = 230.1 ± 89.5, AT = 194. 8 ± 86.4, p=.03. It is concluded that playing on the natural grass surface caused more impact on physiological and perceived body load in players. In the case of technical variables, it is concluded that there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of surfaces (p <0.05.

  12. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-08-01

    To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study involving American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all training injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Training exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of training injuries for men was 3.34 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 3.01 on grass (incidence ratio 1.11; p = 0.21) and for women it was 2.60 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 2.79 on grass (incidence ratio 0.93; p = 0.46). For men, the mean severity of injuries that were not season ending injuries was 9.4 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 7.8 days (median 4) on grass and, for women, 10.5 days (median 4) on artificial turf and 10.0 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and muscle/tendon injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most training injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 2.92, grass 2.63, p = 0.24; women: artificial turf 1.94, grass 2.23, p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 1.08, grass 0.85, p = 0.10; women: artificial turf 0.47, grass 0.56; p = 0.45). There were no major differences between the incidence, severity, nature or cause of training injuries

  13. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 1: match injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Dick, Randall W; Corlette, Jill; Schmalz, Rosemary

    2007-08-01

    To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female footballers. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study of American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams). Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Athletic trainers recorded details of the playing surface and the location, diagnosis, severity and cause of all match injuries. The number of days lost from training and match play was used to define the severity of an injury. Match exposures (player hours) were recorded on a team basis. The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 25.43 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 23.92 on grass (incidence ratio 1.06; p = 0.46) and for women was 19.15 injuries/1000 player hours on artificial turf and 21.79 on grass (incidence ratio = 0.88; p = 0.16). For men, the mean severity of non-season ending injuries was 7.1 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.4 days (median 5) on grass and, for women, 11.2 days (median 5) on artificial turf and 8.9 days (median 5) on grass. Joint (non-bone)/ligament/cartilage and contusion injuries to the lower limbs were the most common general categories of match injury on artificial turf and grass for both male and female players. Most injuries were acute (men: artificial turf 24.60, grass 22.91; p = 0.40; women: artificial turf 18.29, grass 20.64; p = 0.21) and resulted from player-to-player contact (men: artificial turf 14.73, grass 13.34; p = 0.37; women: artificial turf 10.72; grass 11.68; p = 0.50). There were no major differences in the incidence, severity, nature or cause of match injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and

  14. Transplantation of subalpine wood-pasture turfs along a natural climatic gradient reveals lower resistance of unwooded pastures to climate change compared to wooded ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2014-04-01

    Climate change could impact strongly on cold-adapted mountain ecosystems, but little is known about its interaction with traditional land-use practices. We used an altitudinal gradient to simulate a year-round warmer and drier climate for semi-natural subalpine grasslands across a landscape of contrasting land-use management. Turf mesocosms from three pasture-woodland land-use types-unwooded pasture, sparsely wooded pasture, and densely wooded pasture-spanning a gradient from high to low management intensity were transplanted downslope to test their resistance to two intensities of climate change. We found strong overall effects of intensive (+4 K) experimental climate change (i.e., warming and reduced precipitation) on plant community structure and function, while moderate (+2 K) climate change did not substantially affect the studied land-use types, thus indicating an ecosystem response threshold to moderate climate perturbation. The individual land-use types were affected differently under the +4 K scenario, with a 60% decrease in aboveground biomass (AGB) in unwooded pasture turfs, a 40% decrease in sparsely wooded pasture turfs, and none in densely wooded ones. Similarly, unwooded pasture turfs experienced a 30% loss of species, advanced (by 30 days) phenological development, and a mid-season senescence due to drought stress, while no such effects were recorded for the other land-use types. The observed contrasting effects of climate change across the pasture-woodland landscape have important implications for future decades. The reduced impact of climate change on wooded pastures as compared to unwooded ones should promote the sustainable land use of wooded pastures by maintaining low management intensity and a sparse forest canopy, which buffer the immediate impacts of climate change on herbaceous vegetation.

  15. Torsional injuries of the lower limb: an analysis of the frictional torque between different types of football turf and the shoe outsole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Kristof; Jacobs, Pieter; Hertogs, Robbin; Luyckx, Jean-Philippe; Innocenti, Bernardo; Corten, Kristoff; Ekstrand, Jan; Bellemans, Johan

    2012-12-01

    Football turf is increasingly used in European soccer competition. Little is known on the rotational torque that players experience on these fields. High rotational torques between the shoe outsole and the sports surface has been correlated with torsional injuries of the lower limb and knee. To evaluate the effect of six parameters that could influence the rotational torque between the shoe outsole and the latest generation football turf. Controlled laboratory study. A testing apparatus was constructed to measure the peak torque generated during a controlled rotation of the foot. Six parameters that could potentially influence the frictional forces, were considered: (1) the sports surface, (2) the shoe outsole cleat design, (3) the weather conditions, (4) the weight, (5) the presence of an impact and (6) the direction of rotation. The football turf without infill showed significantly lower frictional torques than natural grass whereas a football turf with sand/rubber infill had significantly higher torques. Blades were associated with significantly higher torques than studs on natural grass and on one football turf with sand/rubber infill. Dry weather was associated with higher torques only for the football turf without infill. The torque increased linearly and significantly with an increasing vertical load. The rotational torque increased significantly following an impact. Torques on external rotational movements were significantly higher with blades. Important differences in rotational torques are found and could be seen as potential risk factors for torsional injuries of the lower limb.

  16. The nature of sport and its relation to the aesthetic dimension of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kobiela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the aesthetics of sport I shall start with some metaphysical considerations: instead of using the notion of essence (definition of sport, understood as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions, I shall try to base these considerations on the notion of the nature of sport. In my understanding, the nature of sport is a very basic phenomenon that lies at the origin and shapes the history of sport. It is a technology of training and mastering physical skills valued for themselves. Now, the aesthetic dimension of sport is based on the technically valuable qualities of sports, which are the consecutive properties of sport. Such qualities are present in all types of sport, not only in the so-called ‘aesthetic sports’ (Best or ‘performances’ (Suits. Finally, I advance a thesis that although sport is not a form of art, its aesthetic dimension is closer to the nature of sport than its ethical dimension.

  17. The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe professional soccer players’ perceptions towards injuries, physical recovery and the effect of surface related factors on injury resulting from soccer participation on 3rd generation artificial turf (FT) compared to natural grass (NG). Methods Information was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by 99 professional soccer players from 6 teams competing in Major League Soccer (MLS) during the 2011 season. Results The majority (93% and 95%) of the players reported that playing surface type and quality influenced the risk of sustaining an injury. Players believed that playing and training on FT increased the risk of sustaining a non-contact injury as opposed to a contact injury. The players identified three surface related risk factors on FT, which they related to injuries and greater recovery times: 1) Greater surface stiffness 2) Greater surface friction 3) Larger metabolic cost to playing on artificial grounds. Overall, 94% of the players chose FT as the surface most likely to increase the risk of sustaining an injury. Conclusions Players believe that the risk of injury differs according to surface type, and that FT is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injury. Future studies should be designed prospectively to systematically track the perceptions of groups of professional players training and competing on FT and NG. PMID:24581229

  18. Dancing with Nature: Rhythm and Harmony in Extreme Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brymer, Eric; Gray, Tonia

    2009-01-01

    Research on extreme sports has downplayed the importance of the athletes' connection to the natural world. This neglect stems, in part, from the assumption that these activities derive their meaning primarily from risk. The authors' long-term research reveals that the interplay between adventure athletes and the natural world is, in fact, crucial…

  19. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  20. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: a pilot study in elite Saudi National Team footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on

  1. Nadine Gordimer: The White Artist as A Sport of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Temple-Thurston

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This article applies principles of new historicism to show that A Sport of Nature can be read as Gordimer's attempt to persuade South African artists to reject mere protest art and to shift art beyond the trap of oppositional forces in South Africa's history today. The text calls instead—via fiction and the imagination—for a new post-apartheid art that will generate creative possibilities for a future South Africa. Gordimer's protagonist, Hillela Capran, is read as a metaphor for the white South African artist who, like Hillela, struggles for an authentic identity and meaningful role in the evolving history of South Africa. This paper asserts that A Sport of Nature boldly proposes the mutation necessary for the South African artist and people to resolve the political, personal, or artistic fragmentation, beckoning other artists along the path. Hope of its assured success, however, remains as elusive and unpredictable as any "sport of nature" must be.

  2. PIXE Analysis of Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Skye; Chalise, Sajju; Porat, Zachary; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been debate regarding the use of the crumb rubber infill in artificial turf on high school and college campuses due to the potential presence of heavy metals and carcinogenic chemicals. We performed Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of artificial turf infill and blade samples collected from high school and college campuses around the Capital District of NYS to search for potentially toxic substances. Crumb rubber pellets were made by mixing 1g of rubber infill and 1g of epoxy. The pellets and the turf blades were bombarded with 2.2 MeV proton beams from a 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory and x-ray energy spectra were collected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. We analyzed the spectra using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. The turf infill showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The highest concentration of Br in the crumb rubber was 1500 +/-100 ppm while the highest detectable amount of Pb concentration was 110 +/-20 ppm. The artificial turf blades showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, and Zn with only the yellow blade showing concentrations of V and Bi.

  3. Skin friction related behaviour of artificial turf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sock Peng; Fleming, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Forrester, Steph

    2017-08-01

    The occurrence of skin friction related injuries is an issue for artificial turf sports pitches and remains a barrier to their acceptance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current industry standard Securisport® Sports Surface Tester that measures skin surface related frictional behaviour of artificial turf. Little research has been published about the device and its efficacy, despite its widespread use as a standard FIFA test instrument. To achieve a range of frictional behaviours, several "third generation" (3G) carpet and infill combinations were investigated; friction time profiles throughout the Securisport rotations were assessed in combination with independent measurements of skin roughness before and after friction testing via 3D surface scanning. The results indicated that carpets without infill had greatest friction (coefficients of friction 0.97-1.20) while those completely filled with sand or rubber had similar and lower values independent of carpet type (coefficient of friction (COF) ≈0.57). Surface roughness of a silicone skin (s-skin) decreased after friction testing, with the largest change on sand infilled surfaces, indicating an "abrasive" polishing effect. The combined data show that the s-skin is damaged in a surface-specific manner, thus the Securisport COF values appear to be a poor measure of the potential for skin abrasion. It is proposed that the change in s-skin roughness improves assessment of the potential for skin damage when players slide on artificial turf.

  4. Beating Social Democracy on Its Own Turf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    -right parties to flourish in contexts where welfare issues have a natural salience as in the case of universal welfare states. In contrast, Scandinavian universal welfare states ought to benefit social democracy when it comes to issue voting on welfare issues. It is argued in this article that centre...... us to understand why centre-right parties have recently turned into serious competitors on social democracy's turf: the universal welfare state......Recent elections yielded sweeping majorities for the centre-right in Scandinavia with a decade of pure centre-right majorities in Denmark and the longest sitting centre-right coalition in Sweden for decades. This is a blind spot in the issue voting literature, which would not expect centre...

  5. Plantar-plate disruptions: "the severe turf-toe injury." three cases in contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C; Fiore, Russell; Murphy, Conor; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    To present 3 cases of plantar-plate rupture and turf-toe injury in contact athletes at 1 university and to discuss appropriate diagnosis and treatment algorithms for each case. Turf toe is a common injury in athletes participating in outdoor cutting sports. However, it has been used as an umbrella term to describe many different injuries of the great toe. In some cases, the injury can be so severe that the plantar plate and sesamoid apparatus may be ruptured. These patients may be better managed with surgery than with traditional nonoperative interventions. Turf toe, plantar-plate disruption, sesamoid fracture. For stable injuries in which the plantar plate is not completely disrupted, nonoperative treatment with casting or a stiff-soled shoe, gradual weight bearing, and rehabilitation is the best practice. Unstable injuries require surgical intervention and plantar-plate repair. Turf toe and injury to the first metatarsophalangeal joint are relatively common injuries in athletes, but few researchers have detailed the operative and nonoperative treatments of plantar-plate disruption in these patients. We examine 3 cases that occurred over 4 seasons on a collegiate football team. Turf toe represents a wide array of pathologic conditions involving the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Stress and instability testing are key components to assess in determining whether surgical intervention is warranted to restore optimal function. Stiffer-soled shoes or shoes with steel-plate insertions may help to prevent these injuries and are useful tools for protection during the rehabilitation period.

  6. The nature of mental toughness in sport | Fourie | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... These are: motivation level, coping skills, confidence maintenance, cognitive skill, discipline and goal-directedness, competitiveness, possession of prerequisite physical and mental requirements, team unity, preparation skills, psychological ...

  7. The facilitative nature of avoidance coping within sports injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, F; Polman, R C J

    2010-04-01

    Avoidance coping has commonly been reported within literature to be a debilitative process. However, in situations where goal attainment is reduced or eradicated avoidance coping strategies appear to have some benefit. The aim of this study was to identify the role of avoidance coping within the sports injury rehabilitation setting. A mixed methodological approach was utilized with four professional male rugby union players, concurrent with their rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Twice monthly interviews were conducted with each player, along with a self-report diary and the Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems (CHIP; Endler & Parker, 2000) inventory. Content analysis showed six higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: (a) behavioral avoidance coping (physical distraction, social interaction, maladaptive behaviors), and (b) cognitive avoidance coping (denial, thought stopping, cognitive distraction). Results suggest avoidance coping strategies facilitate control of short-term emotional states, as well has appearing to have long-term benefits for injured players. Particular benefits were associated with undertaking alternate work within the sports organization.

  8. Why Do People Exercise in Natural Environments? Norwegian Adults' Motives for Nature-, Gym-, and Sports-Based Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Elliott, Lewis R

    2017-04-04

    Exercise in natural environments ("green exercise") confers numerous health benefits, but little is known about why people engage in green exercise. This study examined the importance of nature experiences as a motive for physical activity and the motivational profile of people who engage in green exercise compared to gym- and sports-based exercise. Physical activity motives and typical times spent in different domains of physical activity were reported by 2168 Norwegian adults in a survey. Experiencing nature was generally rated as the second-most important physical activity motive, exceeded only by convenience motives, and it was especially important for older adults and those who engage in greater amounts of instrumental physical activity. Green exercisers reported stronger motives concerning convenience and experiencing nature, whereas gym- or sports-based exercisers reported stronger motives for physical health and sociability. The motives associated with different leisure-time exercise domains may assist in understanding optimal promotion of green exercise.

  9. [Frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at different types of schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H

    2012-12-01

    A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show

  10. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  11. Differences in friction and torsional resistance in athletic shoe-turf surface interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, R S; Dormer, S G; Cawley, P W; Scranton, P E; Losse, G; Howard, M

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the shoe-surface interaction of 15 football shoes made by 3 manufacturers in both anterior translation and rotation using a specially designed pneumatic testing system. The shoes included traditional cleated football shoes, "court" shoes (basketball-style shoes), molded-cleat shoes, and turf shoes. Under an 11.35-kg (25-pound) axial load, all shoes were tested on synthetic turf under wet and dry conditions and on natural stadium grass. Test-retest reliability, as calculated using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation test, was 0.85 for force of translation and 0.55 for the moment of rotation. The wet versus dry surface values on translation were significantly different for rotation about the tibial axis. Spatting, which is protective taping of the ankle and heel applied on the outside of the shoe, resulted in a reduction of forces generated in both translation and rotation. No overall difference between shoes on grass versus AstroTurf was noted. However, there were significant differences for cleated and turf shoes. Shoes tested in conditions for which they were not designed exhibited reproducible excessive or extreme minimal friction characteristics that may have safety implications. On the basis of this study, we urge shoe manufacturers to display suggested indications and playing surface conditions for which their shoes are recommended.

  12. MR Imaging of the Plantar Plate: Normal Anatomy, Turf Toe, and Other Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Umans, Hilary; Yamada, André F

    2017-02-01

    The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex is a weight-bearing structure important to the biomechanics of the standing position, walking, shoe wearing, and sport participation. Acute dorsiflexion injury of the first MTP joint, "turf toe," is common among American football and soccer players. The first and lesser MTP joint complexes can be affected by degenerative or inflammatory arthritis, infarct, and infection. These conditions can lead to plantar plate disruption. Imaging studies help physicians to properly diagnose and treat this condition. This article reviews the anatomy, diagnostic imaging, and clinical management of injury and pathology of the first and lesser MTP joint complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of two football stud configurations on biomechanical characteristics of single-leg landing and cutting movements on infilled synthetic turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Elizabeth; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare; Liu, Xuan; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C

    2014-11-01

    Multiple playing surfaces and footwear used in American football warrant a better understanding of relationship between different combinations of turf and footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of shoe and stud types on ground reaction force (GRF) and ankle and knee kinematics of a 180° cut and a single-leg 90° land-cut on synthetic turf. Fourteen recreational football players performed five trials of the 180° cut and 90° land-cut in three shoe conditions: non-studded running shoe, and football shoe with natural and synthetic turf studs. Variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Peak vertical GRF (p < 0.001) and loading rate (p < 0.001) were greater during 90° land-cut than 180° cut. For 180° cut, natural turf studs produced smaller peak medial GRFs compared to synthetic turf studs and non-studded shoe (p = 0.012). For land-cut, peak eversion velocity was reduced in running shoes compared to natural (p = 0.016) and synthetic (p = 0.002) turf studs. The 90° land-cut movement resulted in greater peak vertical GRF and loading rate compared to the 180° cut. Overall, increased GRFs in the 90° land-cut movement may increase the chance of injury.

  14. Unusual algal turfs associated with the rhodophyta Phyllophora crispa: Benthic assemblages along a depth gradient in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Gravina, Maria Flavia; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Gian Domenico

    2017-02-01

    Macroalgal assemblages dominated by the turf-forming alga Phyllophora crispa are described in detail for the first time in the Central Mediterranean Sea. This particular form of algal growth, which comprises an upper mixed layer of multiple algal species with a basal stratum formed by entangled thalli of P. crispa, was observed for the first time in 2012 along the promontory of Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Italy). In this study, this assemblage was analysed to document the diversity of macroalgae and invertebrate associated communities and assess their distribution along a depth gradient. The algae forming turfs grow directly on the rock at low depth up to 10-15 m depth, while they grow above P. crispa from 15 m to 35 m depth, resulting in luxuriant beds covering up to 100% of the substrate. Multivariate analysis revealed clear differences regarding algae and invertebrate species richness and abundance between shallow and deep strata because of the dominance of Phyllophora crispa at depths greater than 20 m. The long laminal thalli of P. crispa favoured sessile fauna colonization, while the vagile species were principally linked to the architectural complexity of the turf layer created by the P. crispa, which increased the microhabitat diversity and favoured sediment deposition within the turf layer. The complex structures of these turf assemblages and their widespread distribution along the whole coast of the island suggest a well-established condition of the communities linked to the high natural sedimentation rate observed in the area.

  15. Conventional theories and modern views on the nature of the mental motor image used in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Kaminsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of motor imagery widely used by athletes in a variety of sports as an effective psychological training method. The research introduces basic approaches, theories and modern views on the issue. There are a wide variety of views on the mechanisms underlying mental practice of motor tasks. In particular, mental image can be considered from exclusively cognitive perspective or as a direct and essential background for producing movement. To signify the notion of mental image in specialist studies the terms «mental study» or «mental training» are used. The research devoted to this issue has significantly influenced the conceptual understanding of the motor image nature. There are opposing theories, who employ the mental image that is regarded as a basic cognitive component and does not consist in direct interaction with the executive link of the motor system. On the other hand, there are theories that view the mental image as the immediate basis of the movement that stores information about all its parameters. Modern studies, including neuroimaging methods, confirm inseparability of these approaches and central locale of trigger mechanism that modulates physiological reactions and also its generality for real and imaginary action. In conclusion, taking into account recent data on the nature of motor imagery, special attention is paid to practical aspects of using it in sports, which is different from conventional approaches and recommendations on motor imagery use.

  16. Genes, environment and sport performance: why the nature-nurture dualism is no longer relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Keith; Baker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The historical debate on the relative influences of genes (i.e. nature) and environment (i.e. nurture) on human behaviour has been characterised by extreme positions leading to reductionist and polemic conclusions. Our analysis of research on sport and exercise behaviours shows that currently there is little support for either biologically or environmentally deterministic perspectives on elite athletic performance. In sports medicine, recent molecular biological advances in genomic studies have been over-interpreted, leading to a questionable 'single-gene-as-magic-bullet' philosophy adopted by some practitioners. Similarly, although extensive involvement in training and practice is needed at elite levels, it has become apparent that the acquisition of expertise is not merely about amassing a requisite number of practice hours. Although an interactionist perspective has been mooted over the years, a powerful explanatory framework has been lacking. In this article, we propose how the complementary nature of degenerate neurobiological systems might provide the theoretical basis for explaining the interactive influence of genetic and environmental constraints on elite athletic performance. We argue that, due to inherent human degeneracy, there are many different trajectories to achieving elite athletic performance. While the greatest training responses may be theoretically associated with the most favourable genotypes being exposed to highly specialised training environments, this is a rare and complex outcome. The concept of degeneracy provides us with a basis for understanding why each of the major interacting constraints might act in a compensatory manner on the acquisition of elite athletic performance.

  17. 1,5-Dimethylhexylamine (octodrine) in sports and weight loss supplements: Natural constituent or synthetic chemical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Haider, Saqlain; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-04-15

    In the past years, there has been a mounting trend toward the addition of sympathomimetic stimulants in sports and weight loss supplements sold in the US and claimed to be from natural constituents. The latest among those pharmaceutical stimulants is 1,5-dimethylhexylamine (1,5-DMHA or octodrine), an ingredient in newly introduced sports and weight loss supplements with its 'natural' origin being cited from Aconitum or Kigelia plants. In order to validate the natural existence of 1,5-DMHA, two GC/MS methods were developed. One method involved using thick film megabore capillary columns to analyze the underivatized 1,5-DMHA. The second method was to determine enantiomeric distribution of 1,5-DMHA. Fifteen Aconitum or Kigelia plant samples originating from various locations were analyzed, and none of them contained 1,5-DMHA within the limit of detection (25 ng/mL) of the method. In contrast, although 1,5-DMHA was listed on the labels or website for all the 13 dietary supplements, only four products were found to contain this compound, with the highest quantity being reported as 112 mg per serving size. This is equivalent to more than three times the highest pharmaceutical dose established in Europe. The enantiomeric ratios of 1,5-DMHA in these products were determined to be between 0.9-1.0 (expressed as peak area ratio of one enantiomer over another), suggesting racemic nature. Interestingly, two byproducts from 1,5-DMHA synthesis were identified in commercial supplements containing 1,5-DMHA, indicating that 1,5-DMHA indeed originated from a poor quality source. Overall, the significant amount of 1,5-DMHA observed in the supplements, the enantiomeric distribution and the presence of the synthetic byproducts all suggested the synthetic origin of 1,5-DMHA in the commercial products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment of pesticide runoff from turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Douglas A; Rossi, Frank S

    2003-01-01

    The TurfPQ model was used to simulate the runoff of 15 pesticides commonly applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) fairways and greens on golf courses in the northeastern USA. Simulations produced 100-yr daily records of water runoff, pesticide runoff, and pesticide concentration in runoff for three locations: Boston, MA, Philadelphia, PA, and Rochester, NY. Results were summarized as annual and monthly means and annual maximum daily loads (AMDLs) corresponding to 10- and 20-yr return periods. Mean annual pesticide runoff loads did not exceed 3% of annual applications for any pesticide or site, and most losses were substantially less than 1% of application. However, annual or monthly mean concentrations of chlorothalonil, iprodione, and PCNB in fairway runoff often exceeded concentrations that result in 50% mortality of the affected species (LC50) for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of azoxystrobin, bensulide, cyfluthrin, and trichlorfon in extreme (1 in 10 yr or 1 in 20 yr) events often approached or exceeded LC50 levels. Concentrations of halofenozide, mancozeb, MCPP, oxadiazon, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimefon, and trinexapac-ethyl were well below LC50 levels, and turf runoff of these chemicals does not appear to be hazardous to aquatic life in surface waters.

  19. Soil reclamation with turfing plant harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Maubert, H.; Bon, P.; Barthe, P.

    1992-01-01

    This work performed within the European RESSAC Programme aims at providing efficient countermeasures to decontaminate agricultural soils. The evaluation of the admissible concentration of radionuclides in the soil is an important question in this topic. Two considerations may help to answer this question: the health aspect approaches with ICRP recommendations and the economical aspects which can widely interfere with the other. If the cleaning technique is inexpensive, it will be possible to enlarge its use beyond the low intervention levels. According to the frequently low migration rate of radionuclides in the soil profile after deposition on the soil surface, a method removing a thin layer of the soil surface entrapped by turfing plants will allow to limit the waste production. The method being tried in summer 1991 is inexpensive because it uses the power of the plants to convert sunlight energy into biomass. The method consist in sowing turfing plants able to develop a very dense root network entrapping the soil surface contaminated particles allowing their mechanical removal by means of existing machines: sod harvesters. This promising method, according to lab-experiments, can use the green techniques as well for hydro-seeding: a very fast tool for sowing by helicopter at the rate of 0,3 km sup 2 per day, as sod harvester able to remove a sod-soil layer thinner than 2 cm. (author)

  20. Research Protocol: Collections Related to Synthetic Turf ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds” (referred to subsequently as the Federal Research Action Plan or FRAP) was finalized in February 2016. The U.S. EPA and CDC/ATSDR, in collaboration with CPSC, have prepared this research protocol to implement portions of the research activities outlined under the FRAP. Specifically, this research protocol is designed to implement three of the research elements described in the Federal Research Action Plan: Conduct a literature review and data gaps analysis; Perform tire crumb rubber characterization research; Perform human exposure characterization research. Concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used in synthetic turf fields and playgrounds in the United States. Several studies have been identified that examine exposure to tire crumb rubber infill in these settings. While, in general, these studies have not provided evidence for these health concerns, the existing studies do not comprehensively evaluate all aspects of exposure associated with these use scenarios. Additional research is needed to help fill important data gaps that will lead to improved exposure assessment and risk evaluation for children and adults using synthetic turf fields and playgrounds with tire crumb rubber. In response, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Su

  1. Effectiveness of turf stripping as a measure for restoring species-rich fen meadows in suboptimal hydrological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der D.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.

    2007-01-01

    Most species-rich fen meadows in nature reserves in The Netherlands are acidified due to weaker upwelling of base-rich groundwater. The present study investigated whether and why turf stripping combined with superficial drainage might promote the long-term recovery of such meadows and restore the

  2. Effect of light and nutrient availability on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by Caribbean turf algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; den Haan, Joost; Visser, Petra M; Vermeij, Mark J A; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2016-03-22

    Turf algae increasingly dominate benthic communities on coral reefs. Given their abundance and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates, turf algae are considered important contributors to the DOC pool on modern reefs. The release of photosynthetically fixed carbon as DOC generally, but not always, increases with increased light availability. Nutrient availability was proposed as an additional factor to explain these conflicting observations. To address this proposed but untested hypothesis, we documented the interactive contributions of light and nutrient availability on the release of DOC by turf algae. DOC release rates and oxygen production were quantified in incubation experiments at two light levels (full and reduced light) and two nutrient treatments (natural seawater and enriched seawater). In natural seawater, DOC release at full light was four times higher than at reduced light. When nutrients were added, DOC release rates at both light levels were similar to the natural seawater treatment at full light. Our results therefore show that low light in combination with low nutrient availability reduces the release of DOC by turf algae and that light and nutrient availability interactively determine DOC release rates by this important component of Caribbean reef communities.

  3. Incidence and risk factors for turf toe injuries in intercollegiate football: data from the national collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    Turf toe is the general term for a sprain of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex. Previously attributed to shoe design and artificial turf, the incidence of turf toe injury has been thought to decline with the advent of newer turf designs. However, the current incidence and epidemiology remain unknown as the majority of the literature consists of small series and addresses diagnosis and treatment rather than epidemiology and prevention. We examined data from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (2004-2005 through 2008-2009), including all preseason, regular season, and postseason practice and competition data. The incidence, epidemiology, and risk factors for turf toe injury, defined as injury to the connective tissue of the first MTP joint, plantar plate complex, and/or sesamoid fracture, were determined. The overall incidence of turf toe injuries in NCAA football players was 0.062 per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es; 95% CI 0.052, 0.072). Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared to practice, with a mean days lost due to injury of 10.1 (7.9, 12.4). Fewer than 2% of turf toe injuries required operative intervention. There was a significantly higher injury rate on third-generation artificial surfaces compared to natural grass (0.087 per 1000 A-E [0.067, 0.11] vs 0.047 per 1000 A-E [0.036, 0.059]). The majority of injuries occurred as a result of contact with the playing surface (35.4%) or contact with another player (32.7%), and running backs and quarterbacks were the most common positions to suffer turf toe injury. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of turf toe injuries during games, a greater susceptibility among running backs and quarterbacks, and a significant contribution of playing surface to risk of injury. Though turf toe injuries may be less common that previously reported in elite football players, these injuries warrant appropriate acute and long

  4. Radiological assessment of the use of turf cut from sea-washed land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For more than 40 years, sea-washed land along the coast of north Wales, northwest England and southwest Scotland has received sediment containing artificial radionuclides as a result of authorised discharges into the Irish Sea from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Some parts of this sea-washed land have been used to produce high-quality turf for many years, and the radiation doses to those people who abstract the turf have been kept under review by Government departments and agencies. For the turf-cutters themselves, external irradiation was the dominant exposure pathway. The original intention was to estimate external dose rates arising from non-natural sources by taking field dose rate measurements and subtracting an appropriate background dose rate measured at a control site that contained, as far as possible, only naturally occurring radionuclides. This approach is similar to that adopted in the previous study undertaken by the Fisheries Research Laboratory (now CEFAS) in 1989. However, in some cases subsequent radiochemical analyses indicated that the control sites had been inundated by the sea. Consequently, external dose rates attributable to non-natural sources were estimated using measurements of concentrations of artificial radionuclides at various depths in the soil, together with an established predictive model. Observed and predicted external dose rates were compared for those sites where the controls were suitable. The predicted values were up to about five times greater than those observed in the field. This was to be expected because the predictions were based on small locations where concentrations of radionuclides in soil were highest, whereas instrument measurements at the same location would give values that were representative of an area of about 20 m in diameter. At most sites, the overall annual doses to turf-cutting operatives were less than 10 (μSv. In some cases this was due to very low external dose rates and in others to

  5. Theoretical training bases for young athletes in aquatic sports on the natural environment: Bodyboard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mecías Calvo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bodyboard is a surfing discipline whose growth has been considerably since the 60s, so it is considered one of the fastest growing aquatic sport in the world. Despite this, scientific research of this discipline has been reflected poorly compared to other sports. As in any other sport, the bodyboarder requires of specific physical and physiological conditions to help it to practice the sport effectively as it does not follow a specific training or develop conditioning programs. Therefore, this article comes up with the idea of providing a basis for determining the most appropriate training based on study objectives and bodyboard actions to improve physical, technical and psychological condition of the bodyboarders based on the particularities of their own sport and the athlete, taking into account scientific studies in the field at hand: the Bodyboard.

  6. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.

    2009-01-01

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  7. 7 CFR 201.12a - Lawn and turf seed mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lawn and turf seed mixtures. 201.12a Section 201.12a... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12a Lawn and turf seed mixtures. Seed mixtures intended for lawn and turf purposes shall be designated as a mixture on the label and each seed component shall be...

  8. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierts, T.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal

  9. Life satisfaction, health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students of sport sciences, education and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle and health of an individual are influenced by many factors; a significant factor is life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is understood as a multidimensional construct closely related to the area of personal wellbeing and quality of life. Life satisfaction in university students represents one of the determinants of good health, high motivation for studying, work productivity, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and overall healthy lifestyle. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to identify and compare the level of overall life satisfaction and selected components of health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students with respect to their study specialization. Methods: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. To assess the current level of life satisfaction, the research study used a standardized psychodiagnostic tool - Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ. The used diagnostic methods are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statistica programme v10.0. Results: The highest level of overall life satisfaction was revealed in university students of sport sciences. In comparison with the students of education and students of natural sciences the difference is significant. Satisfaction with health among the students of sport sciences is significantly higher than in the students of education (p ≤ .001; d = 0.53 and the students of natural sciences (p ≤ .05; d = 0.38. Similar results were found in the area of satisfaction with own person and self-evaluation, where the values of the students of sport sciences were significantly higher compared with the students of education (p

  10. Prairie and turf buffer strips for controlling runoff from paved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, K; Stier, J C; Kussow, W R; Thompson, A

    2007-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface waters due to nonpoint source pollution from urban environments has raised awareness of the need to decrease runoff from roads and other impervious surfaces. These concerns have led to precautionary P application restrictions on turf and requirements for vegetative buffer strips. The impacts of two plant communities and three impervious/pervious surface ratios were assessed on runoff water quality and quantity. A mixed forb/grass prairie and a Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) blend were seeded and runoff was monitored and analyzed for total volume, total P, soluble P, soluble organic P, bioavailable P, total suspended solids, and total organic suspended solids. Mean annual runoff volumes, all types of mean annual P nutrient losses, and sediment loads were not significantly affected by treatments because over 80% of runoff occurred during frozen soil conditions. Total P losses from prairie and turf were similar, averaging 1.96 and 2.12 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Vegetation appeared to be a likely contributor of nutrients, particularly from prairie during winter dormancy. When runoff occurred during non-frozen soil conditions turf allowed significantly (P runoff volumes compared with prairie vegetation and the 1:2 and 1:4 impervious/pervious surface ratios had less runoff than the 1:1 ratio (P runoff occurs during frozen ground conditions, vegetative buffers strips alone are unlikely to dramatically reduce runoff and nutrient loading into surface waters. Regardless of vegetation type or size, natural nutrient biogeochemical cycling will cause nutrient loss in surface runoff waters, and these values may represent baseline thresholds below which values cannot be obtained.

  11. Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John R.; And Others

    Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…

  12. Functional genomics in forage and turf - present status and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combination of bioinformatics and genomics will enhance our understanding of the molecular functions of forage and turf species. This review focuses on recent advances and applications of functional genomics for large-scale EST projects, global gene expression analyses, proteomics, and metabolic profiling, as well ...

  13. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  14. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile's central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs.

  15. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  16. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Contact with turf algae alters the coral microbiome: contact versus systemic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Zoe A.; Longo, Guilherme O.; Burns, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2018-03-01

    Coral reefs are degrading to algae-dominated reefs worldwide, with alterations of coral microbiomes commonly co-occurring with reef demise. The severe thermal anomaly during the 2016 El Niño event in the South Pacific killed many corals and stressed others. We examined the microbiome of turf algae and of the coral Porites sp. in contact with turf during this thermal event to investigate algal turf effects on the coral microbiome during a period of environmental stress. The microbial composition of turf did not differ between coral-contacted and non-contacted turfs. However, microbiomes of corals in direct contact with turf were similar to those of the turf microbiome, but differed significantly from coral portions 5 cm from the point of turf/coral contact and from portions of the coral that looked most healthy, regardless of location. Although the majority of significant differences occurred in coral samples at the point of contact, a small subset of microbial taxa was enriched in coral tissues taken 5 cm from turf contact compared to all other sample types, including samples from areas of the coral that appeared most healthy. These results suggest that the coral microbiome is susceptible to colonization by microbes from turf, but not vice versa. Results also suggest that algal contact elicits a subtle shift in the coral microbiome just beyond the contact site. The combination of turf microbiome stability and coral microbiome vulnerability at areas of contact may contribute to the continued decline in coral cover and increase in algal cover associated with coral-algae phase shifts.

  18. A comparison of cleat types during two football-specific tasks on FieldTurf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, R M; Charnock, B L; Garrett, W E; Hardaker, W M; Sims, E L; Moorman, C T

    2008-04-01

    To examine the effect of different cleat plate configurations on plantar pressure during two tasks. Thirty-six athletes ran an agility course 5 times while wearing 4 different types of Nike Vitoria cleats: (1) bladed, (2) elliptical firm ground, (3) hard ground and (4) turf. Plantar pressure data were recorded during a side cut and a cross cut using Pedar-X insoles. Controlled laboratory study No history of lower extremity injury in the past 6 months, no previous foot or ankle surgery, not currently wearing foot orthotics and play a cleated sport at least twice a week. Total foot contact time, contact area, maximum force, peak pressure and the force-time integral (FTI) in the medial, middle and lateral regions of the forefoot were collected. A 1x4 ANOVA (alpha = 0.05) was performed on each dependent variable. A Bonferroni adjustment was conducted (alpha = 0.008). In the cross cut task, statistical differences between cleats were observed in three variables: total foot peak pressure, lateral forefoot FTI, and lateral forefoot normalised maximum force. In the side cut task, statistical differences between cleats were observed in 4 variables: total foot peak pressure, the medial and middle forefoot FTI, and the medial and middle forefoot normalised maximum force. Significant differences in forefoot loading patterns existed between cleat types. Based on the results of this study, it might be beneficial to increase the forefoot cushioning in cleats in an attempt to decrease loading in these regions of the foot.

  19. Mechanical Characterization and Numerical Modelling of Rubber Shockpads in 3G Artificial Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cole

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Third generation (3G artificial turf systems use in sporting applications is increasingly prolific. These multi-component systems are comprised of a range of polymeric and elastomeric materials that exhibit non-linear and strain rate dependent behaviours under the complex loads applied from players and equipment. To further study and better understand the behaviours of these systems, the development of a numerical model to accurately predict individual layers’ behaviour as well as the overall system response under different loading conditions is necessary. The purpose of this study was to characterise and model the mechanical behaviour of a rubber shockpad found in 3G artificial surfaces for vertical shock absorption using finite element analysis. A series of uniaxial compression tests were performed to characterise the mechanical behaviour of the shockpad. Compression loading was performed at 0.9 Hz to match human walking speeds. A Microfoam material model was selected from the PolyUMod library and optimised using MCalibration software before being imported into ABAQUS for analysis. A finite element model was created for the shockpad using ABAQUS and a compressive load applied to match that of the experimental data. Friction coefficients were altered to view the effect on the loading response. The accuracy of the model was compared using a series of comparative measures including the energy loss and root mean square error.

  20. Acclimation of morphology and physiology in turf grass to low light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This short review elucidated the significance of the research on acclimation of the morphology and ... Due to lack of sunlight, the turf cannot ... turf grass breeding material, selection is of great significance. The concept of low light stress has no strict definition in plant physiology. It is generally acknowledged ...

  1. lawn: An R client for the Turf JavaScript Library for Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    lawn is an R package to provide access to the geospatial analysis capabilities in the Turf javascript library. Turf expects data in GeoJSON format. Given that many datasets are now available natively in GeoJSON providing an easier method for conducting geospatial analyses on thes...

  2. Taxonomic and Functional Metagenomic Signature of Turfs in the Abrolhos Reef System (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juline M Walter

    Full Text Available Turfs are widespread assemblages (consisting of microbes and algae that inhabit reef systems. They are the most abundant benthic component in the Abrolhos reef system (Brazil, representing greater than half the coverage of the entire benthic community. Their presence is associated with a reduction in three-dimensional coral reef complexity and decreases the habitats available for reef biodiversity. Despite their importance, the taxonomic and functional diversity of turfs remain unclear. We performed a metagenomics and pigments profile characterization of turfs from the Abrolhos reefs. Turf microbiome primarily encompassed Proteobacteria (mean 40.57% ± s.d. 10.36, N = 1.548,192, Cyanobacteria (mean 35.04% ± s.d. 15.5, N = 1.337,196, and Bacteroidetes (mean 11.12% ± s.d. 4.25, N = 424,185. Oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AANP bacteria showed a conserved functional trait of the turf microbiomes. Genes associated with oxygenic photosynthesis, AANP, sulfur cycle (S oxidation, and DMSP consumption, and nitrogen metabolism (N2 fixation, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite ammonification were found in the turf microbiomes. Principal component analyses of the most abundant taxa and functions showed that turf microbiomes differ from the other major Abrolhos benthic microbiomes (i.e., corals and rhodoliths and seawater. Taken together, these features suggest that turfs have a homogeneous functional core across the Abrolhos Bank, which holds diverse microbial guilds when comparing with other benthic organisms.

  3. Taxonomic and Functional Metagenomic Signature of Turfs in the Abrolhos Reef System (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Juline M; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Meirelles, Pedro M; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Tenório, Márcio; Valle, Rogério; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-01-01

    Turfs are widespread assemblages (consisting of microbes and algae) that inhabit reef systems. They are the most abundant benthic component in the Abrolhos reef system (Brazil), representing greater than half the coverage of the entire benthic community. Their presence is associated with a reduction in three-dimensional coral reef complexity and decreases the habitats available for reef biodiversity. Despite their importance, the taxonomic and functional diversity of turfs remain unclear. We performed a metagenomics and pigments profile characterization of turfs from the Abrolhos reefs. Turf microbiome primarily encompassed Proteobacteria (mean 40.57% ± s.d. 10.36, N = 1.548,192), Cyanobacteria (mean 35.04% ± s.d. 15.5, N = 1.337,196), and Bacteroidetes (mean 11.12% ± s.d. 4.25, N = 424,185). Oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AANP) bacteria showed a conserved functional trait of the turf microbiomes. Genes associated with oxygenic photosynthesis, AANP, sulfur cycle (S oxidation, and DMSP consumption), and nitrogen metabolism (N2 fixation, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite ammonification) were found in the turf microbiomes. Principal component analyses of the most abundant taxa and functions showed that turf microbiomes differ from the other major Abrolhos benthic microbiomes (i.e., corals and rhodoliths) and seawater. Taken together, these features suggest that turfs have a homogeneous functional core across the Abrolhos Bank, which holds diverse microbial guilds when comparing with other benthic organisms.

  4. Covering path generation for autonomous turf-care vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jouffroy, Jerome; Top, Søren

    2017-01-01

    A covering path generation algorithm is developed to generate a lengthwise pattern based on a polygon describing the outer boundary and obstacles (polygon holes) of a geographical area. The algorithm is applied to an autonomous lawn-care robot for application to large grass turfs, for example golf......-courses, which require structured and precise cutting patterns. The geographical polygon is recorded by manually driving the vehicle around the contour, resulting in a polygon given as geographical (latitude, longitude) coordinates of the vertices, which together with machine parameters are used to generate...

  5. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  6. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on postponing bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) turf dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Somayeh; Salehi, Hassan

    2012-06-15

    Growth chamber and field experiments were carried out to determine the effects of extended photoperiod under low and freezing temperatures on bermudagrass turf dormancy at Bajgah, in the southern part of Iran. The experiment in the growth chamber was conducted with four temperature regimes (15, 7.5, 0 and -7.5°C) and three light durations (8, 12 and 16h) in a completely randomized design with four replications. The field study was conducted in two consecutive years (2008-2009) with three light durations (8, 12 and 16h) in months with natural short day length and arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results in both experiments showed that decreasing temperature and photoperiod decreased verdure fresh and dry weight, shoot height, tiller density, leaf area and chlorophyll and relative water contents (RWC). However, rooting depth and fresh weight of roots increased in the growth chamber. Decreasing the temperature and light duration increased electrolyte leakage and proline content. Reducing sugars increased with decreasing temperature and declined with lowering light duration in both shoots and roots. Starch content of both shoots and roots showed an adverse trend compared to reducing sugars; starch content increased in both shoots and roots in all treatments by shortening the photoperiod. Practically, the problem of bermudagrass turf's dormancy could be solved via increasing the photoperiod in months with short day lengths. This treatment would be efficient and useful for turfgrass managers to apply in landscapes and stadiums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The School Psychologist and Sport: A Natural Interface to Promote Optimal Functioning Between, Student-Athlete, Family and School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Marshall L.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a background and logical explanation for school psychologists to feel justified in the pursuit of providing sport psychology services. This perspective is useful for the school psychologist or other school administrative personnel who may question or be questioned about the value or need for the provision of sport psychology…

  8. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging

  9. The effect of footwear and sports-surface on dynamic neurological screening for sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John; Kvarnström, Johan; Olsson, Maria; Ydén, Tobias; Marshall, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is a standardised global assessment for the identification of sport-related concussion (SRC). An integral component of the SCAT is the neurological screen, which contains the assessment of motor performance including gait evaluation. However, it is not known how performance of gait is affected by the surface/footwear interactions encountered in various sporting environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of footwear and sporting surface on the time to perform a standardised Tandem Gait (TG) task. One hundred and eight amateur athletes were recruited, and three common sports-surfaces (grass, hardwood court, artificial turf) were compared. All groups were tested barefoot and with sports-surface specific footwear. Mixed model ANOVA, controlling for covariates and including a post hoc Bonferroni procedure, was used to investigate the influence of footwear and sports-surface on TG time. The study demonstrated that times for a defined TG task in healthy athletes depended on footwear, sports-surface, and the specific athletic population. The study demonstrated a significant interaction (F(2,104)=3.35, p=0.039) between groups (grass, hardwood court and artificial turf), and times were faster wearing footwear compared to barefoot (F(2,138)=26.31, p=0.001). In contrast to the footwear conditions, there was no statistical difference between the barefoot conditions on any of the sport-surfaces. These findings suggest that clinicians should standardise footwear and the testing surface at baseline in order to accurately assess motor performance tests when SRC is suspected. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hall et al., 2016 Artificial Turf Surrogate Surface Methods Paper Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mercury dry deposition data quantified via static water surrogate surface (SWSS) and artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) collectors. This dataset is associated...

  11. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  12. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...

  13. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    The world of sports intrinsically involves fast and accurate motion that is not only challenging for competitors to master, but can be difficult for coaches and trainers to analyze, and for audiences to follow. The nature of most sports means that monitoring by the use of sensors or other devices...

  14. Sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Schwartzhoffová

    2010-01-01

    Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.

  15. Biomechanical analysis of surface-athlete impacts on third-generation artificial turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, David; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Excessive repetitive loads are widely believed to be the cause of overload or overuse injuries. On third-generation artificial turf, impacts have been found to vary with surface and shoe properties. Mechanical devices are considered not representative for measuring impact absorption during athletic movements, and pressure insoles have been shown as inaccurate with regard to magnitude of force. To compare impact properties between different third-generation artificial turf systems in combination with various cleat configurations in vivo using force plate technology. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-two male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 23.1 ± 2.8 y; height, 1.81 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 77.5 ± 6.0 kg) performed 10 short sprints, 5 straight with a sudden stop and 5 with a 90° cut, over a force plate covered with artificial turf for each combination of 3 turf systems and 3 cleat configurations. During stop sprints, peak impact was significantly higher on a recreational-level turf system than professional-level turf systems with and without an underlying shock pad (3.12 body weight [W] vs 3.01 W and 3.02 W, respectively). During cut sprints, peak impact was significantly higher with traditional round cleats than with turf cleats and bladed cleats (2.99 W vs 2.84 W and 2.87 W, respectively). The results indicate that both an increase in assumed impact-absorbing surface properties and a larger distribution of shorter cleats produced lower impacts during standardized athletic movements. Regardless, none of the shoe-surface combinations yielded peak impacts of an assumed hazardous magnitude. The study provides information on the extent to which various third-generation artificial turf systems and cleat configurations affect impact force, widely believed to be a causative factor for overload and overuse injuries.

  16. Towards a definition of "sport administration"

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 紀宏

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of "sport administration" was defined. Sport administration is a specialized field of sport sciences as well as a part of the field of business administration classified by each industry. In previous studies on sport administration, there has not been a common understanding of the concept of sport administration among researchers. Accordingly the nature and meanings of sport administration as a special field of business administration was examined in this paper by r...

  17. Time-dependent contact behavior between diamond and a CNT turf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, A; Bahr, D F; Fowler, S P; Jiao, J; Kiener, D

    2011-01-01

    The elastic and adhesive properties of nominally vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) turfs have been measured using nanoindentation. The perceived stiffness of a CNT turf is dependent on the unloading rate, which decreases at slower unloading rates. Depth-controlled nanoindentation was used to examine adhesion effects. Adhesive loads between the turf and the probe tip increased as the time the tip is in contact with the turf increased. As these effects could be from either more tubes coming into contact with the tip due to relaxation and motion of CNTs relative to one another or each tube in contact increasing its adhesive behavior and sub-contact stiffness due to tube-tube interactions within the turf, electrical resistance measurements during nanoindentation were carried out. When the tip is held at a fixed nominal depth, the current remains constant while the contact load decreases, suggesting the number of tubes in contact with the tip stays constant with time while the relaxation mechanisms in the turf occur at positions lower than the contact surface. These observations, in conjunction with in situ TEM compression test of CNT arrays, are used to describe the relative effects the various length and time scales may have on the perceived properties measured during experiments, including elastic modulus and adhesion for gecko-like dry adhesives.

  18. Sport-related maxillofacial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone

  19. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  20. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  1. Eye-Tracking Technology and the Dynamics of Natural Gaze Behavior in Sports: A Systematic Review of 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredel, Ralf; Vater, Christian; Klostermann, André; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Reviewing 60 studies on natural gaze behavior in sports, it becomes clear that, over the last 40 years, the use of eye-tracking devices has considerably increased. Specifically, this review reveals the large variance of methods applied, analyses performed, and measures derived within the field. The results of sub-sample analyses suggest that sports-related eye-tracking research strives, on the one hand, for ecologically valid test settings (i.e., viewing conditions and response modes), while on the other, for experimental control along with high measurement accuracy (i.e., controlled test conditions with high-frequency eye-trackers linked to algorithmic analyses). To meet both demands, some promising compromises of methodological solutions have been proposed-in particular, the integration of robust mobile eye-trackers in motion-capture systems. However, as the fundamental trade-off between laboratory and field research cannot be solved by technological means, researchers need to carefully weigh the arguments for one or the other approach by accounting for the respective consequences. Nevertheless, for future research on dynamic gaze behavior in sports, further development of the current mobile eye-tracking methodology seems highly advisable to allow for the acquisition and algorithmic analyses of larger amounts of gaze-data and further, to increase the explanatory power of the derived results.

  2. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  3. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...

  4. Mapping and modeling the biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Cristina; Running, Steven W; Elvidge, Christopher D; Dietz, John B; Tuttle, Benjamin T; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2005-09-01

    Turf grasses are ubiquitous in the urban landscape of the United States and are often associated with various types of environmental impacts, especially on water resources, yet there have been limited efforts to quantify their total surface and ecosystem functioning, such as their total impact on the continental water budget and potential net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In this study, relating turf grass area to an estimate of fractional impervious surface area, it was calculated that potentially 163,800 km2 (+/- 35,850 km2) of land are cultivated with turf grasses in the continental United States, an area three times larger than that of any irrigated crop. Using the Biome-BGC ecosystem process model, the growth of warm-season and cool-season turf grasses was modeled at a number of sites across the 48 conterminous states under different management scenarios, simulating potential carbon and water fluxes as if the entire turf surface was to be managed like a well-maintained lawn. The results indicate that well-watered and fertilized turf grasses act as a carbon sink. The potential NEE that could derive from the total surface potentially under turf (up to 17 Tg C/yr with the simulated scenarios) would require up to 695 to 900 liters of water per person per day, depending on the modeled water irrigation practices, suggesting that outdoor water conservation practices such as xeriscaping and irrigation with recycled waste-water may need to be extended as many municipalities continue to face increasing pressures on freshwater.

  5. Effects of structural components of artificial turf on the transmission of impacts in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; García-Gallart, Antonio; Gallardo, Ana M; Sánchez-Sáez, Juan A; Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier

    2017-02-24

    The third generation of artificial turf systems (ATS) has matched the mechanical behaviour of natural grass, but today a high heterogeneity at structural level and mechanical behaviour in the new ATS also exists. The objective was to analyse the effect of the structural components of ATS football pitches and running speed on the capacity of impact attenuation. A total of 12 athletes were evaluated at three speed conditions (3.33 m/s, 4 m/s and maximum speed) on four different ATS, classifying them by their components (length of fibre, type of in-fill and sub-base). Impact attenuation was significantly higher in ATS3, characterised by longer fibre compared to other ATS with less fibre length. The ATS4 with a higher length fibre and built on compacted granular material proportioned significantly lower values in the maximum peaks of tibia acceleration. Finally, as speed increases, the peak tibia impacts were significantly higher. Longer fibre length and the capacity to accommodate a higher quantity of infill facilitate higher impact attenuation. Equally, a compacted granular sub-base is related to lower magnitude of maximum tibia peaks. Finally, the magnitude of the tibia acceleration peaks is dependent of running speed for all ATS analysed, being higher as speed increases.

  6. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  7. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  8. Geography of a Sports Metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...

  9. Chest Ultrasonography in Modern Day Extreme Settings: From Military Setting and Natural Disasters to Space Flights and Extreme Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Feletti, Francesco; Mucci, Viviana; Aliverti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Chest ultrasonography (CU) is a noninvasive imaging technique able to provide an immediate diagnosis of the underlying aetiology of acute respiratory failure and traumatic chest injuries. Given the great technologies, it is now possible to perform accurate CU in remote and adverse environments including the combat field, extreme sport settings, and environmental disasters, as well as during space missions. Today, the usage of CU in the extreme emergency setting is more likely to occur, as thi...

  10. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  11. SPORT FACILITIES - SPORT ACTIVITIES HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.

  12. Imaging of orthopedic sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.

    2007-01-01

    This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)

  13. The effects of nutrient enrichment and herbivore abundance on the ability of turf algae to overgrow coral in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; van Moorselaar, I.; Engelhard, S.; Hörnlein, C.; Vonk, S.M.; Visser, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Turf algae are multispecies communities of small marine macrophytes that are becoming a dominant component of coral reef communities around the world. To assess the impact of turf algae on corals, we investigated the effects of increased nutrients (eutrophication) on the interaction between the

  14. Effect of light and nutrient availability on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by Caribbean turf algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, B.; den Haan, J.; Visser, P.M.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae increasingly dominate benthic communities on coral reefs. Given their abundance and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates, turf algae are considered important contributors to the DOC pool on modern reefs. The release of photosynthetically fixed carbon as DOC generally, but not

  15. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  16. Sports Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  17. Turf algal epiphytes metabolically induce local pH increase, with implications for underlying coralline algae under ocean acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Short, J.A.; Pedersen, Ole; Kendrick, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of epiphytic turf algae may modify the effects of ocean acidification on coralline algal calcification rates by altering seawater chemistry within the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) above coralline algal crusts. We used microelectrodes to measure the effects of turf algal epiphytes...... on seawater pH and the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) within the DBL at the surface of Hydrolithoideae coralline algal crusts under ambient (36 Pa) CO2 and an ocean acidification scenario with elevated CO2 (200 Pa). Turf algae significantly increased the mean diel amplitude of pH and pO2, and this effect...... was more pronounced under elevated CO2. We suggest that increases in seawater CO2 under ocean acidification conditions may drive an increase in the abundance of epiphytic turf algae, consequently modifying the chemistry within the DBL. Thus, the effect of epiphytic turf algae on microscale pH is striking...

  18. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  19. oh sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.

  20. Sport Biomechanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  1. Chest Ultrasonography in Modern Day Extreme Settings: From Military Setting and Natural Disasters to Space Flights and Extreme Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Feletti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest ultrasonography (CU is a noninvasive imaging technique able to provide an immediate diagnosis of the underlying aetiology of acute respiratory failure and traumatic chest injuries. Given the great technologies, it is now possible to perform accurate CU in remote and adverse environments including the combat field, extreme sport settings, and environmental disasters, as well as during space missions. Today, the usage of CU in the extreme emergency setting is more likely to occur, as this technique proved to be a fast diagnostic tool to assist resuscitation manoeuvres and interventional procedures in many cases. A scientific literature review is presented here. This was based on a systematic search of published literature, on the following online databases: PubMed and Scopus. The following words were used: “chest sonography,” “ thoracic ultrasound,” and “lung sonography,” in different combinations with “extreme sport,” “extreme environment,” “wilderness,” “catastrophe,” and “extreme conditions.” This manuscript reports the most relevant usages of CU in the extreme setting as well as technological improvements and current limitations. CU application in the extreme setting is further encouraged here.

  2. Injuries in extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2017-04-18

    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  3. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents in in fill material for artificial turf soccer pitches: development and implementation of a survey protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, P.; Proietto, A.R.; Gordiani, A.; Ferrante, R.; Tranfo, G.; Paci, E.; Pigini, D.

    2008-01-01

    Health concerns over the composition of the in fill material used to construct artificial turf pitches (e.g., for soccer and rugby), raised the need to develop a specific procedure to assess the risks of human exposure to pollutants that may be released by these materials. The aim of this paper was to develop and implement a survey protocol to assess exposure of artificial turf pitches users (e.g., coaches and maintenance personnel) through environmental and biological monitoring of toxic and carcinogenic substances contained in some types of in fill materials for artificial turf pitches. The exposure was assessed by personal and environmental sampling of hazardous substances - particularly of benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin and zinc) - for comparison with the occupational exposure limit values as per the Italian regulations and the lists of the American Conference of Industrial Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH). In addition, biological monitoring was performed for the quantitative and qualitative determination of the exposure bio markers of the substances of interest in potentially exposed individuals and in control group. Environmental sampling was performed on an outdoor, artificial turf soccer pitch in a sports facility in Rome characterized by recycled in fill material (rubber granules from recycled tyres, without any further processing); suction pumps were used as environmental samplers to collect the samples (located in areas of the soccer pitch deemed representative of exposure conditions) and personal samplers (in this latter case exclusively for monitoring PAHs) worn by the coaches during training sessions. For the various substances the following sampling systems were used: vials for BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene), filters for metals and combined systems (filter plus vial) for the PAHs. The extracts were then analyzed by various instrumental techniques such as gas

  4. The Fragility of Turf: The Neighborhoods of New York City. New York State History Themes #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleman, Michael

    People continue to define themselves, their lifestyles, and their beliefs through their neighborhoods--their turf. In studying the history of New York City neighborhoods, it is important to consider the developmental trends and constraints (geography, economic structure, transportation, and technological advances) that contributed to the growth of…

  5. A qualitative vision of artificial turf football fields: Elite players and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the most important parameters for the design and safety of artificial turf football fields according to professional footballers and coaches. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted. The sample consisted of 32 professional players and 25 professional coaches. The players and coaches emphasised ...

  6. The case of latex removal for carpet and artificial turf recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger)

    2014-01-01

    For the recycling of carpet and artificial turf the latex backing is often a real stumble block. Many strategies have been developed like freezing the carpet, followed by grinding and subsequent separation of the milled particles. Once it has been separated from its backing materials, PA 6 is

  7. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and ex...

  8. How Rapidly Do Fall-Applied Prodiamine And Dithiopyr Disperse In Established Bermudagrass Turf In Arizona?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass is a major weed in turf. In Arizona, prodiamine and dithiopyr are applied in late August to provide pre-emergent control of annual bluegrass and to allow the herbicides to dissipate enough to allow overseeding with perennial ryegrass in October. This study was done to compare the ...

  9. Ocular Injuries In Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur İNAM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.

  10. Rethinking enhancement in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2006-12-01

    This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.

  11. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...

  13. Return to sport following amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F

    2014-08-01

    Amputation in athletes has a substantial impact on lifestyle and sporting activity, as well as self-perception and quality of life. The impact of limb loss on athletic ability will vary depending on the cause of amputation and the anatomical location of the amputation. The use of sporting activity for rehabilitation of amputees was first introduced in 1944 at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. The first international paralympic games were founded in 1960. Following these events the opportunity to participate in sport following limb loss has increased significantly. Sport participation has been aided by the development of sporting prostheses, however multiple factors will determine the exact prosthesis used. These include the nature of the sporting activity as well as the level of the amputation. The biomechanics involved in walking and running are altered following the loss of a limb or part thereof. This can cause subsequent degenerative changes within the remaining joints on the amputated limb as well as the contralateral limb. Factors affecting return to sporting activity are multivariate and inter-related, including patient factors, surgical factors, nature and level of the sporting activity and prosthetic factors. The authors review current literature, detail predictive factors of return to sport and the physical and psychosocial impact on patients following limb amputation.

  14. Sports related to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  15. Sport Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  16. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  17. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  18. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  19. Simulating natural ventilation in large sports buildings : Prediction of temperature and airflow patterns in the early design stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Aquilio, A.; Šileryte, R.; Yang, D.; Turrin, M.; Attar, Ramtin; Chronis, Angelos; Hanna, Sean; Turrin, Michela

    2016-01-01

    In large sport’s buildings, a big part of energy can be saved by providing natural instead of mechanical ventilation. However, additional challenges arise while controlling airflow and temperatures in different zones. These measures
    highly depend on the shape, construction and ventilation

  20. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  1. Sports Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  2. Materials and technology in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Mike; Blair, Kim; Vasquez, Mike

    2012-08-01

    An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.

  3. The Effect of Natural or Simulated Altitude Training on High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance in Team-Sport Athletes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Hopkins, Will G

    2018-02-01

    While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model. The modifying effects of study characteristics (type and dose of hypoxic exposure, training duration, post-altitude duration) were estimated with fixed effects, random effects allowed for repeated measurement within studies and residual real differences between studies, and the standard-error weighting factors were derived or imputed via standard deviations of change scores. Effects and their uncertainty were assessed with magnitude-based inference, with a smallest important improvement of 4% estimated via between-athlete standard deviations of performance at baseline. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, but two were excluded owing to small sample size and risk of publication bias. Hypoxic interventions occurred over a period of 7-28 days, and the range of total hypoxic exposure (in effective altitude-hours) was 4.5-33 km h in the intermittent-hypoxia studies and 180-710 km h in the live-high studies. There were 11 control and 15 experimental study-estimates in the final meta-analysis. Training effects were moderate and very likely beneficial in the control groups at 1 week (20 ± 14%, percent estimate, ± 90% confidence limits) and 4-week post-intervention (25 ± 23%). The intermittent and live-high hypoxic groups experienced additional likely beneficial gains at 1 week (13 ± 16%; 13 ± 15%) and 4-week post

  4. Autonomous Mower vs. Rotary Mower: Effects on Turf Quality and Weed Control in Tall Fescue Lawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Pirchio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines designed for lawn mowing that require very low human labour. Autonomous mowers can increase turf quality and reduce local noise and pollution compared with gasoline-powered rotary mowers. However, very little is known about the effects of autonomous mowing on encroaching weeds. The aim of this research was to compare the effects of an autonomous mower and an ordinary gasoline-powered mower on weed development in an artificially infested tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. turf with different nitrogen (N rates. A three-way factor experimental design with three replications was adopted. Factor A consisted of three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha−1, factor B consisted of two mowing systems (autonomous mower vs. walk-behind gasoline rotary mower equipped for mulching, and factor C which consisted of four different transplanted weed species: (a Bellis perennis L., (b Trifolium repens L.; (c Trifolium subterraneum L.; and (d Lotus corniculatus L. Of these, B. perennis is a rosette-type plant, while the other three species are creeping-type plants. The interaction between mowing system and transplanted weed species showed that the four transplanted weed species were larger when mowed by the autonomous mower than by the rotary mower. The autonomous mower yielded larger weeds probably because the constant mowing height caused the creeping weed species to grow sideways, since the turfgrass offered no competition for light. N fertilization increased turf quality and mowing quality, and also reduced spontaneous weed infestation. Autonomous mowing increased turf quality, mowing quality, but also the percentage of spontaneous weed cover.

  5. Effect of turf on the cutting movement of female football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Strutzenberger

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings provide some support for the use of AT in female football, with no evidence to suggests that there is an increased risk of injury when performing on an artificial turf. The ankle response was less clear and further research is warranted. This initial study provides a platform for more detailed analysis, and highlights the importance of exploring the biomechanical changes in performance and injury risk with the introduction of AT.

  6. Is genetic engineering ever going to take off in forage, turf and bioenergy crop breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Yu; Brummer, E Charles

    2012-11-01

    Genetic engineering offers the opportunity to generate unique genetic variation that is either absent in the sexually compatible gene pool or has very low heritability. The generation of transgenic plants, coupled with breeding, has led to the production of widely used transgenic cultivars in several major cash crops, such as maize, soybean, cotton and canola. The process for regulatory approval of genetically engineered crops is slow and subject to extensive political interference. The situation in forage grasses and legumes is more complicated. Most widely grown forage, turf and bioenergy species (e.g. tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, switchgrass, alfalfa, white clover) are highly self-incompatible and outcrossing. Compared with inbreeding species, they have a high potential to pass their genes to adjacent plants. A major biosafety concern in these species is pollen-mediated transgene flow. Because human consumption is indirect, risk assessment of transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy species has focused on their environmental or ecological impacts. Although significant progress has been made in genetic modification of these species, commercialization of transgenic cultivars is very limited because of the stringent and costly regulatory requirements. To date, the only transgenic forage crop deregulated in the US is 'Roundup Ready' (RR) alfalfa. The approval process for RR alfalfa was complicated, involving several rounds of regulation, deregulation and re-regulation. Nevertheless, commercialization of RR alfalfa is an important step forward in regulatory approval of a perennial outcrossing forage crop. As additional transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy crops are generated and tested, different strategies have been developed to meet regulatory requirements. Recent progress in risk assessment and deregulation of transgenic forage and turf species is summarized and discussed.

  7. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water while Capturing Solar Energy for Bio fuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Bannon, J.; Adey, W.

    2010-01-01

    Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. Since they are controlled ecosystems, using local algae, ATS does not suffer the major disadvantages of agricultural crops, which for maximum efficiency require fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. ATS removes CO 2 from water and the atmosphere, and can be configured to remove CO 2 from power plant stack gases. As a normal part of operations, ATS removes heavy metals, break down toxic hydrocarbons, and oxygenates treated waters. ATS systems are capable of removing nitrogen and phosphorous from surface waters in the mid latitude US at $0.60/kg and $10.60/kg respectively (10% of the cost certified by the Chesapeake Bay Commission), and independently producing an energy product at $0.85/gallon. Given a nutrient credit system for rewarding nutrient removal from rivers and lakes, this price can be driven down to below $.40/gallon. Conservatively ATS can produce the equivalent of US imported oil on less than 30 M acres of land along major rivers

  8. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  9. [Sports purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  11. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  12. Sports Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  13. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research in sport science: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to examine: (1) the nature of scientific thought in sport science (elite sport); (2) methodological aspects of sport science; (3) the relationship between philosophical-theoretical postulates and elite sport practice. The comparative method, as well as descriptive and theoretical analysis method was ...

  14. Perceived Impacts of Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of this preliminary project to measure how individuals perceive the impacts of sport in such areas as the economy, the environment, culture, community image and the quality of life, among other areas. The instrument was initially field tested in 1999 with a sample of 702 residents in the North eastern part of the United States. Their views suggest that they perceive sports to make a generally positive contribution to their communities and the local region. Some negative impacts were also identified, mostly of an environmental nature. However, the findings suggest that sports for the most part are perceived to play a major role in the lives of people and contribute in significant ways to the economy, and community pride.

  15. Les sports de nature dans le Parc national de la Guadeloupe : des conflits potentiels au potentiel de coopération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lahaye

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La perspective d’un classement en « cœur de parc » des îlets Pigeon, haut lieu de la plongée sous-marine, relance les débats autour de la place des sports de nature dans le Parc national de la Guadeloupe. Faut-il craindre une interdiction de la plongée sous-marine en cœur de parc, comme ce fut le cas pour le canyoning, suite au conflit environnemental entourant cette pratique? La réglementation est-elle toujours de mise, alors que la loi sur les parcs de 2006 exhorte les parcs à s’engager dans des démarches partenariales, afin de bâtir un projet de territoire reposant sur les principes du développement durable et de solidarité écologique entre le cœur de parc et ses espaces environnants ? Parallèlement, si le Parc doit passer d’une gestion de crises, souvent hésitante et parfois arbitrale, à une gestion concertée, de quel potentiel de coopération dispose-t-il pour dépasser des situations de conflits potentiels comme celle des îlets Pigeon? Existe-t-il un effet d’apprentissage du conflit du canyoning capable de modeler ce potentiel de coopération ?The probability that the Pigeon Islands, a Mecca for diving, will be classified as a protected “heart of park”, reopens the debate about outdoor sports in the National Park of Guadeloupe. Should we be worried about the prohibition of diving in this “heart of park”, as has happened in the case of canyoning, following an environmental conflict around this practice? Are regulations always acceptable, when at the same time the law on the national parks of 2006 exhorts the parks to make a commitment to participatory initiatives, and to create projects based on the principles of sustainable development and ecological solidarity between the heart of park and its surrounding spaces? At the same time, if the Park has to develop from a crisis management style, with hesitating and arbitrary decisions, to a more cooperative management style, what potential is there to use

  16. Darwinism and the cultural evolution of sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Andreas; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines a Darwinian approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character and thereby overcomes the traditional nature-culture dichotomies in the sociology of sport. We argue that there are good reasons to view sports as culturally evolved signaling systems that serve a function similar to (biological) courtship rituals in other animals. Our approach combines the insights of evolutionary psychology, which states that biological adaptations determine the boundaries for the types of sport that are possible, and pure cultural theories, which describe the mechanism of cultural evolution without referring to sport's biological bases. Several biological and cultural factors may moderate the direct effect that signaling value has on a sport's viability or popularity. Social learning underlies many aspects of the cultural control of sports, and sports have evolved new cultural functions more-or-less unrelated to mate choice as cultural evolution itself became important in humans.

  17. An Artificial Turf-Based Surrogate Surface Collector for the Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Mercury Dry Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima L. Hall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film. The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks, and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds. Performance characteristics including collocated precision, in-field procedural and laboratory blanks were evaluated. The results of these performance evaluations included a mean collocated precision of 9%, low blanks (0.8 ng, high extraction efficiency (97%–103%, and a quantitative matrix spike recovery (100%.

  18. The Indoorisation of Outdoor Sports. An Exploration of the Rise of Lifestyle Sports in Artificial Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Lotte Salome; Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg

    2010-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a remarkable new type of service has been developed in the world of sports, which can be described as the indoorisation of outdoor sports. Typical outdoor sports like climbing, skiing, surfing, rowing, and skydiving, which used to be exclusively practiced in a natural

  19. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  20. Turf soil enhances treatment efficiency and performance of phenolic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmao; Yao, Xianyang; Li, Qing X; Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Jiahao; Zhang, Simin; Ming, Jie; Liu, Zhiyuan; Deng, Jingmin; Yoza, Brandon A

    2018-04-10

    Phenols are industrially generated intermediate chemicals found in wastewaters that are considered a class of environmental priority pollutants. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are used for phenolic wastewater treatment and exhibit high volume loading capability, favorable granule settling, and tolerance to impact loads. Use of support materials can promote biological productivity and accelerate start-up period of UASB. In the present study, turf soil was used as a support material in a mesophilic UASB reactor for the removal of phenols in wastewater. During sludge acclimatization (45-96 days), COD and phenols in the treatments were both reduced by 97%, whereas these contents in the controls were decreased by 81% and 75%, respectively. The phenol load threshold for the turf soil UASB reactor was greater (1200 mg/L, the equivalent of COD 3000 mg/L) in comparison with the control UASB reactor (900 mg/L, the equivalent of COD 2250 mg/L) and the turf soil UASB reactor was also more resistant to shock loading. Improved sludge settling, shear resistance, and higher biological activity occurred with the turf soil UASB reactor due to the formation of large granular sludge (0.6 mm or larger) in higher relative percentages. Granular sludge size was further enhanced by the colonization of filamentous bacteria on the irregular surface of the turf soil. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Snow mould prevalence on perennial ryegrass (Lolim perenne L. in relation to the light conditions and intensity of turf maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of shade, nutrition, height of mowing and density of turf on snow mould (Microdochium nivale prevalence on Lolium perenne under turf maintenance were studied in 2000-2004 at Radzików (central Poland. The materials for studies were cultivars of L. perenne originated from Poland and abroad. The turf experiments were performed in three series of trials where each factor were analysed independently. The cultivars were assessed for: density of turf, the first symptom of disease and snow mould injury in spring. The investigations revealed that shade as well as high nutrition applied in autumn and high mowing of grass influenced significantly snow mould prevalence on L. perenne. The cultivars expressed a wide range of susceptibility to snow mould. The cultivars with high density of turf were the most injured by snow mould. Disease occurred at different periods of autumn and winter, usually before snow fall. Winter weather conditions had a slight effect on changes in snow mould injury of L. perenne in subsequent years.

  2. Selected sports talent development models

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Vičar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmen...

  3. Sports Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  4. Racquet Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)

  5. Sports Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.

  6. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  7. Sports Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...

  8. Social Diffusion of Water Conservation: A Study of Residential Turf Rebate Programs in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, K.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Feldman, D.

    2017-12-01

    From 2011 to 2017, the combination of record low precipitation and extreme warm temperatures resulted in the most severe drought in California's written history. In April 2015, Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order mandating a statewide 25% reduction in potable urban water usage. Under such circumstances, outdoor watering is an obvious target for restriction, because it can account for a large fraction of total domestic water usage, up to 50% in the arid southwest [Syme et. al 2004, Cameron et. al 2012]. In this study we analyzed one such effort, in which the Irvine Ranch Water District (IRWD) in Orange County (California) offered a financial incentive through a turf rebate program to encourage Irvine residents to replace turf grass with drought tolerant landscaping. We focused specifically on the number of residents who applied to the turf rebate program. Our hypothesis was that the observed application rate (number of applicants per month) is influenced by a combination of (a) financial incentives issued by IRWD, (b) drought awareness, and (c) the fraction of neighbors that have already applied to the program (a phenomenon that can be described quantitatively through models of social contagion or social diffusion [Karsai et. al 2014]). Our preliminary results indicate that applications to the program occurred in geographic "hot spots", consistent with the idea that early adopters may have influenced neighbors to retrofit their lawns. We are currently evaluating the geographic, demographic, and temporal drivers that influence the rate of spontaneous adoption, the rate of adoption under influence, and the total size of the susceptible population. Overall, our goal is to identify the key factors that contribute to early rapid uptake of conservation behavior, and the rapid diffusion of that behavior through the community.

  9. Hazardous chemicals in synthetic turf materials and their bioaccessibility in digestive fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Han, In-Kyu; Zhang, Lin; Crain, William

    2008-11-01

    Many synthetic turf fields consist of not only artificial grass but also rubber granules that are used as infill. The public concerns about toxic chemicals possibly contained in either artificial (polyethylene) grass fibers or rubber granules have been escalating but are based on very limited information available to date. The aim of this research was to obtain data that will help assess potential health risks associated with chemical exposure. In this small-scale study, we collected seven samples of rubber granules and one sample of artificial grass fiber from synthetic turf fields at different ages of the fields. We analyzed these samples to determine the contents (maximum concentrations) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several metals (Zn, Cr, As, Cd, and Pb). We also analyzed these samples to determine their bioaccessible fractions of PAHs and metals in synthetic digestive fluids including saliva, gastric fluid, and intestinal fluid through a laboratory simulation technique. Our findings include: (1) rubber granules often, especially when the synthetic turf fields were newer, contained PAHs at levels above health-based soil standards. The levels of PAHs generally appear to decline as the field ages. However, the decay trend may be complicated by adding new rubber granules to compensate for the loss of the material. (2) PAHs contained in rubber granules had zero or near-zero bioaccessibility in the synthetic digestive fluids. (3) The zinc contents were found to far exceed the soil limit. (4) Except one sample with a moderate lead content of 53 p.p.m., the other samples had relatively low concentrations of lead (3.12-5.76 p.p.m.), according to soil standards. However, 24.7-44.2% of the lead in the rubber granules was bioaccessible in the synthetic gastric fluid. (5) The artificial grass fiber sample showed a chromium content of 3.93 p.p.m., and 34.6% and 54.0% bioaccessibility of lead in the synthetic gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively.

  10. Onepoto sports changing facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Located in the centre of a small extinct volcano, the sports changing rooms are the focus for community activities. The construction exploits natural and local products such as the volcanic rock contained in stainless steel gabions. The roof awnings serve several purposes: to increase rainwater harvesting area, to provide shade for spectator seating and for solar panels. Short-listed for the NZIA sustainability award.

  11. Advanced phenotyping offers opportunities for improved breeding of forage and turf species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    improvement programmes, in particular, where breeding populations and cultivars are characterized by high genetic diversity and substantial genotype × environment interactions, precise and efficient phenotyping is essential to meet future challenges imposed by climate change, growing demand and declining....... Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future...

  12. Physical and Physiological Responses of Amateur Football Players on Third-Generation Artificial Turf Systems During Simulated Game Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier; García-Unanue, Jorge; Felipe, José L; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Viejo-Romero, David; Gómez-López, Maite; Hernando, Enrique; Burillo, Pablo; Gallardo, Leonor

    2016-11-01

    Sánchez-Sánchez, J, García-Unanue, J, Felipe, JL, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Viejo-Romero, D, Gómez-López, M, Hernando, E, Burillo, P, and Gallardo, L. Physical and physiological responses of amateur football players on third generation artificial turf systems during simulated game situations. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3165-3177, 2016-The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical and physiological load imposed on amateur football players in a simulated game situation on different artificial turf systems. For that purpose, 20 football players (21.65 ± 3.10 year old) were monitored with Global Positioning Systems and heart rate bands during 45-minutes games on 4 selected artificial turf systems. The results show more covered distance in high-intensity ranges on the system with lower levels of damping and higher rates of rotational traction (p ≤ 0.05). Likewise, this system of artificial turf demonstrated a high number of sprints (12.65 ± 5.67) and more elevated maximum speed peaks during the last part of the game (28.16 ± 2.90 km·h) in contrast to the systems with better damping capacity (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, the physiological load was similar across the 4 artificial turf systems (p > 0.05). Finally, the regression analysis demonstrated a significant influence of the mechanical properties of the surface on global distance (15.4%), number (12.6%), and maximum speed (16.6%) of the sprints. To conclude, the mechanical variability of the artificial turf systems resulted in differences in the activity profiles and the players' perceptions during simulated football games.

  13. Complex and interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature on epilithic and endolithic coral-reef turf algal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maggie D.; Comeau, Steeve; Lantz, Coulson A.; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2017-12-01

    Turf algal assemblages are ubiquitous primary producers on coral reefs, but little is known about the response of this diverse group to ocean acidification (OA) across different temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that CO2 influences the functional response of epilithic and endolithic turf assemblages to increasing temperature. Replicate carbonate plugs covered by turf were collected from the reef and exposed to ambient and high pCO2 (1000 µatm) conditions for 3 weeks. Each pCO2 treatment was replicated across six temperatures (24.0-31.5 °C) that spanned the full seasonal temperature range on a fringing reef in Moorea, French Polynesia, and included one warming treatment (3 °C above daily average temperatures). Temperature and CO2 enrichment had complex, and sometimes interactive, effects on turf metabolism and growth. Photosynthetic and respiration rates were enhanced by increasing temperature, with an interactive effect of CO2 enrichment. Photosynthetic rates were amplified by high CO2 in the warmest temperatures, while the increase in respiration rates with temperature were enhanced under ambient CO2. Epilithic turf growth rates were not affected by temperature, but increased in response to CO2 enrichment. We found that CO2 and temperature interactively affected the endolithic assemblage, with the highest growth rates under CO2 enrichment, but only at the warmest temperatures. These results demonstrate how OA may influence algal physiology and growth across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, and indicate that the effects of CO2 enrichment on coral-reef turf assemblages can be temperature dependent. The complex effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature across a suite of algal responses illustrates the importance of incorporating multiple stressors into global change experiments.

  14. Sport og etik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted

    Sportsidealismens grundsyn på forholdet mellem sport og moral har længe domineret sportsetikken. Opfattelsen, der går ud på, at sporten udgør frugtbar jord for dyrkelse af et moralsk sindelag, fordi sporten indeholder en moralsk dimension i kraft af sin egen-natur, understøttes ikke af den...... forholdet mellem sport og moral kom således til at bekræfte og delvist forklare empirien på området. Endeligt kunne sportsidealismens hovedtese tilbagevises, for så vidt at den omhandler forholdet mellem sport og moral i dette sidste ords moderne betydning. Dette skete i artiklens afsluttende fjerde afsnit......, hvor forskellen mellem antik og moderne etik blev tydeliggjort. På baggrund af den præsenterede undersøgelse af forholdet mellem sport og moral kan vi konkludere, at sporten isoleret set ikke egner sig som arnested for udviklingen af et moralsk sindelag, idet sporten ikke indeholder den af...

  15. Application Of Biomechanics Cinematography To The Study Of Sports And Industrial Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagenhoef, Stanley

    1982-02-01

    A personal history of biomechanical analyses from motion pictures is presented. The areas of work are of total body motions of athletes in many sports, analysis of work-related injuries in industry, measurements of synthetic turfs, diagnosis of muscular imbalance, and animal motion. A film presentation illustrates each of these areas.The filming and analysing of any motion should produce data that has practical applications. This means taking measured data, interpreting it properly, and then using the information to actually obtain useful results. The practical application of data obtained from the high speed filming of humans and animals is presented here.

  16. Injuries in amateur soccer players on artificial turf: a one-season prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro; Rebelo, António; Brito, João

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies in soccer are important for injury prevention. However, most of the available information is limited to elite players. To determine the epidemiology of injuries in amateur soccer players on artificial turf. Prospective cohort study during one competitive season (2010-2011). Amateur soccer players. 231 players (aged 24.7; range: 18-38 years). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively according to the consensus statement for soccer. 213 injuries were recorded; 57% of the players suffered injuries. Injury incidence was 5.1 (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) injuries/1000 h exposure. Injury incidence was higher in matches than in training (32.2 [95% CI: 23.1-41.3] vs. 2.4 [95% CI: 1.8-3.0] injuries/1000 h; p injuries (79%) were traumatic; 21% were overuse injuries. Re-injuries accounted for 10% of all injuries sustained during the season. Injury incidence in amateur soccer players is higher during matches played on artificial turf than during training sessions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wild

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km: Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore, Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore, and Lighthouse Reef (offshore. In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29% when compared to the other sites (4–19%. The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia, particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  18. Morphological and community changes of turf algae in competition with corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P.; Quan-Young, Lizette I.; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio

    2015-08-01

    The morphological plasticity and community responses of algae competing with corals have not been assessed. We evaluated eight morphological characters of four species of stoloniferous clonal filamentous turf algae (FTA), including Lophosiphonia cristata (Lc) and Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Psv), and the composition and number of turf algae (TA) in competition for space with the coral Orbicella spp. under experimental and non-manipulated conditions. All FTA exhibited morphological responses, such as increasing the formation of new ramets (except for Psv when competing with O. faveolata). Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis. The characters modified by each FTA species, and the number and composition of TA species growing next to coral tissue differed from that of the TA growing at ≥3 cm. The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary. These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

  19. An optimal management of water for a turf irrigation system in Milan area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Mazzoleni, Abramo

    2015-04-01

    The design of an irrigation system is not just "draw", but a complex organization that takes into account of a whole range of information that are inherently contained in the graphic representation of the final plan. The various stages that make up the activity of designing an irrigation system include: general survey of the site to be irrigated, meteorological analysis of the site and the calculation of the water requirement, development of the project with the choice and location of the components. The use of a numerical model based on water balance in a soil-water-atmosphere system allows the evaluation of the optimal water requirement as a function of meteorological characteristics. The water saving is enabled through a smart programming of a modern automation system for irrigation. The meteorological data analysis was conducted choosing from the series of two special years: the year 2002, particularly rainy, and the other in 2007, extraordinarily drought. The determination of the water requirements of turf was conducted on a daily scale. The water consumption was calculated in a classic irrigation system that covers the delivery of 5 mm of water per day, interrupted only by a rain sensor. In the second case water consumption was analysed by managing an irrigation controller based on actual water needs of turf day by day. For the two years in question water savings ranges between 13 and 27%.

  20. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2014-01-01

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12-70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26-29%) when compared to the other sites (4-19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  1. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  2. Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with rubber granulate : Scientific background document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot GM; Oomen AG; Mennen MG; CPV; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Uit nieuw onderzoek van het RIVM blijkt dat het risico voor de gezondheid van sporten op kunstgrasvelden die zijn ingestrooid met rubbergranulaat, praktisch verwaarloosbaar is. Dat betekent dat het verantwoord is om op deze velden te sporten. Aanleiding voor het onderzoek is de maatschappelijke

  3. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...

  4. Modern psychological science to sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem I. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 the 7th All-Russian Festival of Student Sport took place. It was established seven years ago by the decision of the Academician V.A. Sadovnichy, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University. This year the sports festival has embraced more than two hundreds of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation. A variety of sporting events with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, performances by famous athletes, delivery standards and other sport events allowed to attract both participants and spectators of all ages, professional sports facilities and the degree of preparedness. A distinctive feature of the Festival’2015 was the fact of timing the celebration of the 70th anniversary of Victory in the 1941-1945Great Patriotic War in Russia. As a result, the program of the festival in addition to traditional sports and competitive events also includes sports and patriotic elements, i.e. trips to places of military glory, lectures and discussion clubs devoted to the development of sport and athletes during the war. Another innovation this year was held in the framework of the festival of scientific-practical conference “Fundamental science – sport”. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference allowed to unite representatives of different areas of knowledge, e.g. psychologists, biologists, doctors, philosophers and educators. The wide coverage of the audience and the speakers allowed to hold the conference in the format of online video simultaneously with the Tomsk State University, St. Petersburg State University, Southern Federal University and Perm State Humanitarian Teacher-Training University. To emphasize the importance of both fundamental and practical research, the conference was divided into two parts: the plenary session which highlighted the important methodological issues of interaction between science and sport, and the youth section of the conference that included reports on the

  5. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not

  6. Restoring species-rich meadow by means of turf transplantation: long-term colonization of ex-arable land

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Fajmon, K.; Jongepierová, I.; Doležal, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 62-73 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Turf transfer * Grassland restoration * Spontaneous colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  7. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of a...

  8. Effects of Revolution on soil wetting, turf performance and nitrogen efficiency of a fairway prone to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of applications of the surfactant Revolution on soil wetting and turf performance of fairway 10 of the Rosendaelsche Golfclub, located near Arnhem, The Netherlands. In addition, the influence of Revolution on soil water repellency and the nitrogen contents in grass

  9. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  10. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  11. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  12. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...

  13. Sports cream overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  14. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  15. Application II: Search Arts and Sports Photography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Application II: Search Arts and Sports Photography. Depth variation induces defocus. Defocus blur is severe in nature and sports photography. Given a low DOF image, segment the focused region and retrieve the images based similarities in the focused region.

  16. eSports Gaming and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Hein, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Digital gaming communities are nuanced and developing. The eSports community has advanced in noticeable ways and represents the highest form of online competitive play for digital gaming environments. Due to the high stakes nature of eSports, its participants sit on the very edge of strategic planning boundaries and push the ceiling of…

  17. Teaching Competition in Professional Sports Leagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been some dispute over the appropriate way to model decision making in professional sports leagues. In particular, Szymanski and Kesenne (2004) argue that formulating the decision-making problem in a noncooperative game leads to radically different conclusions about the nature of competition in sports leagues. The author…

  18. Sport and Children's Spirituality: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Micheline Wyn

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of…

  19. Sport, public relations and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Raymond; Haynes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the disruptive nature of social media as it alters the relationship between sports journalism and public relations. It looks at some key examples and argues that while much is changing, some aspects of the relationship between the media and sports also remain constant.

  20. Re-aerosolization of Bacillus thuringiensis spores from concrete and turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A H; O'Sullivan, C M; Lane, A; Butler Ellis, M C; Sellors, W J

    2017-05-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis deposited on surfaces can become airborne again as a result of air currents and mechanical forces. As such, they are a potential source of infection by inhalation. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis were used to quantify this phenomenon in a simulation of outdoor conditions. Concrete and turf surfaces were inoculated by aerosol to produce high spore densities (greater than 1 × 10 9  CFU per m 2 ) which were then subjected to the passage of air at 10 ms -1 with and without simulated walking. Re-aerosolized spores were sampled by wetted wall cyclone air samplers. The mean total re-aerosolization rate from concrete (m -2  min -1 ) was 1·16 × 10 -3 for wind alone and 3·2 × 10 -3 for wind and simulated walking while for turf the respective values were 2·7 × 10 -4 and 6·7 × 10 -4 . Following the malicious and/or accidental release of an aerosol of Bacillus anthracis spores, the immediate risk of human inhalation would decrease as the spores were deposited on surfaces or diluted by wind flow. There is, however, a concern that the deposited spores could become re-aerosolized and so present an ongoing hazard. Using an accurate simulant for B. anthracis spores a method is reported here that allowed the enumeration of re-aerosolized spores from concrete and turf by wind flow and footfall. Under the conditions used, the rates of re-aerosolization were low. These findings will need to be verified under real outdoor conditions before the true significance in terms of secondary exposure to pathogenic spores can be assessed. © 2017 Crown copyright. Letter of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  1. Turf Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to raising money for college and university athletic programs, every professional knows how the game is played. Tickets drive the bus. In exchange for gifts, donors typically pay seat-licensing fees. This kind of "quid pro quo" giving--where generous contributions put one in position to buy good tickets--is a very common model," says…

  2. The correlates of sports participation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando; Rasciute, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Eurobarometer data from 2009 (N = 26,788), this paper investigates the correlates of sports participation. In addition to examining standard socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors, the paper also focuses on the impact of motivational factors, the availability of sports infrastructure and government support, for the first time collectively at the European level. A further contribution of the paper is that it simultaneously investigates both the decision to participate in sport and the frequency of sports participation in this context. This is made possible through the application of a Zero-Inflated Ordered Probit estimator. This estimator also takes into account two types of non-participants: those who have never participated in sport and those who did not participate at the time of the survey. The results show that the decision to participate in sports and the frequency of sports participation of males and females are affected by different factors, therefore distinct government policies should be applied to attract new, and retain the existing, participants. For example, women are affected more by a need to improve self-esteem, while the men to produce social integration. The provision of sports facilities is of more importance for males, which may indicate a male-oriented nature of the sports facilities, for example, the gym. However, the number of adults and the number of children in the household reduce the probability of sports participation by females. Therefore, higher provision of childcare may be important if female participation is to be increased.

  3. Pediatric neurodevelopment and sports participation. When are children ready to play sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Pratt, Helen D; Greydanus, Donald E

    2002-06-01

    A fundamental knowledge of normal child and adolescent development is essential to providing a developmentally appropriate sports experience for the child, and to providing guidance to parents regarding their child's sport participation. This article reviews neurodevelopment, normal child and adolescent development relevant to sport participation, and developmental readiness to participate in sports. Neurodevelopmental maturation is a complex, continuous process. The sense of social comparison is not achieved until after 6 years of age, and the ability to understand the competitive nature of sports is generally not achieved until 9 years of age. By about 12 years of age, most children are mature enough to comprehend the complex tasks of sports and are physically and cognitively ready to participate in competitive sports with appropriate supervision.

  4. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  5. Risk management practices in sport in independent schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Education and sport has a natural place in education whether the approach is formal or informal. Providing learners with the opportunity to play sport at school and to participate in Physical Education ensure that they receive education that addresses the body, mind and spirit. Participation in sport and physical ...

  6. Patterns in childhood sports injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damore, Dorothy T; Metzl, Jordan D; Ramundo, Maria; Pan, Sharon; Van Amerongen, Robert

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this epidemiologic study is twofold: first, to determine the relative frequency of sports-related injuries compared with all musculoskeletal injuries in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to the emergency department (ED), and second, to evaluate the sports-specific and anatomic site-specific nature of these injuries. Patterns of injury in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to four pediatric EDs with musculoskeletal injuries in October 1999 and April 2000 were prospectively studied. Information collected included age, sex, injury type, anatomical injury site, and cause of injury (sports-related or otherwise). Information about patient outcome and disposition was also obtained. There were a total of 1421 injuries in 1275 patients. Musculoskeletal injuries were more common in male patients (790/62%) than in female patients. The mean age of the patients was 12.2 years (95% CI, 12.0-12.4). Sprains, contusions, and fractures were the most common injury types (34, 30, and 25%, respectively). Female patients experienced a greater percentage of sprains (44% vs 36%) and contusions (37% vs 33%) and fewer fractures (22% vs 31%) than male patients. Sports injuries accounted for 41% (521) of all musculoskeletal injuries and were responsible for 8% (495/6173) of all ED visits. Head, forearm, and wrist injuries were most commonly seen in biking, hand injuries in football and basketball, knee injuries in soccer, and ankle and foot injuries in basketball. Sports injuries in children and adolescents were by far the most common cause of musculoskeletal injuries treated in the ED, accounting for 41% of all musculoskeletal injuries. This represents the highest percentage of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries per ED visit reported in children to date. As children and adolescents participate in sports in record numbers nationwide, sports injury research and prevention will become increasingly more important.

  7. Fate and Transport of Pharmaceutical Compounds Applied to Turf-Covered Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.; Green, R. L.; Devitt, D.; McCullough, M.; Wright, L.; Vanderford, B. J.; Snyder, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, the use of treated wastewater for landscape irrigation is becoming common practice and a significant asset to conserve potable water supplies. Public interest and lack of field-scale data are leading to a concern that compounds found in reuse water could persist in the environment and contaminate groundwater. As part of a larger study, 2-yr experiments were conducted in CA and NV, where reuse water was the primary source of non-ambient water input. A total of 13 compounds were studied, all originating in irrigation water applied to soil covered in turf or left bare. The target compounds included atenolol, atorvastatin, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, and trimethoprim. Analytical protocols for all compounds (detection at ng/L range) were established before the study commenced. The goals of the research were to increase available data on the fate and transport of these target compounds in turfgrass/soil systems, and to use these data to assess long-term risk from using water containing these compounds. Experiments conducted at two scales are discussed here: lysimeter-scale and field-scale. At the lysimeter-scale, 24 drainage lysimeters (120 cm thick) were exposed to treated wastewater as an irrigation source. Lysimeters varied by soil type (two types), soil cover (bare- versus turf-covered) and leaching fraction (5% and 25%). Upper and lower boundary conditions were monitored throughout the study. Water samples were collected periodically after water breakthrough. After the study, soil samples were analyzed for compound mass, allowing compound mass balance and removal to be assessed. At the field-scale, passive drain gages (Decagon Devices) were installed in triplicate in fairways at four operational golf courses, one in NV and three in CA, all with histories of using treated wastewater. The gages measure water fluxes through the 60

  8. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  9. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  10. Safe! Sports, Campers & Reducing Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Beth J.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…

  11. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M

    2001-01-01

    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  12. Nutrient removal from horticultural wastewater by benthic filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., Stigeoclonium spp. and their communities: From laboratory flask to outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Danneels, Bram; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Benthic filamentous algae have evident advantages in wastewater treatment over unicellular microalgae, including the ease in harvesting and resistance to predation. To assess the potentials of benthic filamentous algae in treating horticultural wastewater under natural conditions in Belgium, three strains and their mixture with naturally wastewater-borne microalgae were cultivated in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in laboratory as well as in 1 m(2) scale outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) with different flow rates. Stigeoclonium competed well with the natural wastewater-borne microalgae and contributed to most of the biomass production both in Erlenmeyer flasks and outdoor ATS at flow rates of 2-6 L min(-1) (water velocity 3-9 cm s(-1)), while Klebsormidium was not suitable for growing in horticultural wastewater under the tested conditions. Flow rate had great effects on biomass production and nitrogen removal, while phosphorus removal was less influenced by flow rate due to other mechanisms than assimilation by algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of models to predict dose of pesticides in professional turf applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shelley A; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea M; Corey, Paul N; Purdham, James T

    2002-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies designed to assess the chronic effects of pesticides are limited by inadequate measurements of exposures. Although cohort studies have been initiated to evaluate the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and other pesticides in professional turf applicators, they may have limited power to detect significant health risks and may be subject to bias from exposure measurement error. In this study, the doses of 2,4-D, mecoprop [2-(4-chloro-2 methylphenoxy) propionic acid, MCPP] and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) were evaluated in a group of 98 professional turf applicators from 20 companies across southwestern Ontario. During a 1-week period (Saturday to Thursday), the volume of pesticide (active ingredient) applied was only weakly related to the total dose of 2,4-D absorbed (R(2)=0.21). Two additional factors explained a large proportion of variation in dose: the type of spray nozzle used and the use of gloves while spraying. Individuals who used a fan-type nozzle had significantly higher doses than those who used a gun-type nozzle. Glove use was associated with significantly lower doses. Job satisfaction and current smoking influenced the dose but were not highly predictive. In the final multiple regression models predicting total absorbed dose of 2,4-D and mecoprop, approximately 63-68% of the variation was explained. The future application of these models for epidemiologic research will depend on the availability of information and records from employers, the feasibility of contacting study subjects and cost.

  14. BS sport

    OpenAIRE

    Pruchnický, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je návrh novostavby sportovního zařízení na úrovni dokumentace pro provedení stavby. Návrh klade důraz na dispoziční řešení včetně zajištění konstrukce pro statické stránce, architektonické, požární bezpečnosti, úspory energie a bezpečnosti při užívání objektu. Práce obsahuje textovou i grafickou část. Grafická část práce je zpracována v programu ArchiCad. The subject of the diploma thesis is to design a new building of sports facilities at the documentation for b...

  15. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  16. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  17. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  18. COMMUNICATIONS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasoje Bjelica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing questions related to business communications, especially communications in sport, is possible if the analysis of the size and the subject of the communication concept has been done before, in order to enter into a specific stratum of sport communications. This stratum contains the subjects of communications which could be realized in sport or somehow are connected with sport.

  19. Report on Sport 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...

  20. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  1. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are

  2. [Sports injuries of the face].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzavzez, G; Chrzavzez, J P; D'Erceville, T; Kharrat, N; Barbillon, C; Pilz, F

    1984-01-01

    Of 249 patients with facial injuries admitted to the Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hôpital Bel Air, Thionville, France, between 1981 and 1982, 45 (18%) were cases of injury from sporting activities. The particular characteristics of the latter lesions were their predominance in males, their increased seasonal frequency in spring and early summer, the high incidence of damage to the nasal pyramid and maxillomalar complex, and the fact that the most implicated sport was football (71% of cases). Whereas most accidents resulted in relatively minor lesions, three cases--including two from riding--involved severe, complex injuries comparable to those seen in certain car accidents. Findings in this series confirm the natural "bumper" property of the face. Emphasis is placed on the importance of well-conducted training, and the need to eliminate consideration of sport as a means for expressing aggressiveness that is not always possible in daily life.

  3. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Carlos Castilla, Juan

    2005-04-01

    Rocky shore communities are often influenced by near-shore coastal upwelling. For macrofauna in algal turf, these effects may be caused directly by well-studied bottom-up mechanisms or indirectly via changes in habitat structure provided by algal turf associated high nutrient loads. Here, we investigated possible interactions between upwelling and habitat structure by sampling diverse faunal assemblages in coralline algal turf on seven rocky intertidal shores in northern Chile, ranging from El Cobre [23°17'1″S, 70°31'40″W] to La Lobería [23°03'40″S, 70°33'14″W]. Some of these shores were located adjacent to strong upwelling centers, while others were in areas rarely affected. On each shore, we sampled four (2 × 2 m) sites separated by 15-50 m. In each site, we collected three replicate cores (80 mm in diameter) from which we measured macrofauna greater than 850 μm, biomass of sediment and epiphytes, frond density and average frond length. We used mean water temperature and its variation at 1-1.5 m water depth (below Extreme Low Water Spring, ELWS) to represent local upwelling intensity because long-term data have shown that these variables make excellent indicators for this region. In total, we found 94 macrofaunal taxa in coralline turf, which is almost three times higher than has previously been reported in Chile. Although macrofaunal assemblages varied significantly among shores, there were no patterns to suggest mesoscale variation in upwelling intensity affected either faunal assemblages or local habitat characteristics. In contrast, multivariate and univariate correlations highlighted sediment and frond density as strong determinants of community structure. We therefore conclude that traditionally studied habitat characteristics, such as structural complexity and habitat heterogeneity, have greater influence on faunal assemblages in mat-like habitats on rocky shores than environmental variables associated with mesoscale coastal upwelling.

  4. Effects of turf and cleat footwear on plantar load distributions in adolescent American football players during resisted pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Griffin, Janet R; Ford, Kevin R

    2018-06-01

    Metatarsal and midfoot injuries are common in American football. Footwear design may influence injury rates by altering plantar foot loading patterns in these regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cleat design on in-shoe plantar foot loading during a football-specific, resisted pushing task. Twenty competitive football players (age 14.7 ± 1.8 years, height 1.72 ± 0.10 m, and mass 71.8 ± 26.9 kg) completed three trials of pushing a weighted sled at maximal effort in a standard shoe (CLEAT) and artificial turf-specific shoe (TURF), with flexible in-shoe force measuring insoles. Repeated measures ANOVAs identified mean differences in maximum force and relative load under all regions of the foot. Results showed higher forces in the CLEAT under the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p = 0.004) midfoot, central (p = 0.007) and lateral (p < 0.001) forefoot, and lesser toes (p = 0.01), but lower forces in the hallux (p = 0.02) compared to the TURF shoe. Additionally, relative loading was higher in the CLEAT under the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p = 0.002) midfoot and lateral (p < 0.001) forefoot, but lower in the medial forefoot (p = 0.006) and hallux (p < 0.001) compared to the TURF shoe. The two shoes elicited distinct plantar loading profiles and may influence shoe selection decisions during injury prevention or rehabilitation practices.

  5. Capitalising on CSR-based partnerships in sports branding and sports sponsorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a toolkit for academics and practitioners, which elaborates on how strategic application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) may guide sports branding initiatives and sponsorship partnerships and lead to increased levels of brand capitalisation....... Inspired by Shank's (2009) notion of the sports brand building process, i.e.: 1) brand awareness; 2) brand image; 3) brand equity; 4) brand loyalty, the interacting nature of sports brands exemplified by how sports brands at the corporate level interact with sports brands at the personal and product levels...... is integrated in the article. This is done to propose how these interactions may increase the effect of the work with strategic CSR on corporate sports brands....

  6. MANAGEMENT PARTICULARITIES IN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN NEFERU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.

  7. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  8. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Mark D.; James, Iain T.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km 2 ), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1 Mg CO 2 e ha -1 y -1 ; Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2 Mg CO 2 e ha -1 y -1 ). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO 2e ha -1 y -1 . On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2 Mg CO 2e ha -1 y -1 . Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range

  9. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  10. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  11. Prof. Dr. Dusko Bjelica's Articles Published in Sport Mont Journal: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vukovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport Mont Journal (SMJ is a print and electronic scientific journal aims to present easy access to the scientific knowledge for sport-conscious individuals using contemporary methods. SMJ is published three times a year by the Montenegrin sport academy (MSA, in february, june and october of each year. SMJ publishes original scientific papers, review papers, editorials, short reports, peer review - fair review, as well as invited papers and award papers in the fields of sports science and medicine, as well as it can function as an open discussion forum on significant issues of current interest. SMJ covers all aspects of sports science and medicine, all clinical aspects of exercise, health, and sport, exercise physiology and biophysical investigation of sports performance, sports biomechanics, sports nutrition, rehabilitation, physiotherapy, sports psychology, sports pedagogy, sports history, sports philosophy, sports sociology, sports management and all aspects of scientific support of the sports coaches from the natural, social and humanistic side. Professor Bjelica is the editor-in-chief of this reputable magazine. He has also published works on it from 2004 to 2017 and published 65 papers. They are from various fields from the sphere of sports sciences. Among them he mostly dealt with football, sports training, biomechanics, physical education of children, nutrition and many others. This professor has obtained a lot of awards because of his great and hard work.

  12. Sport and globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...

  13. Sports and Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Sports and Concussion Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of ... ages—reducing blows to the head by playing sports safely and avoiding falls is vital to a ...

  14. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  15. Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...

  16. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    YETİM, Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Sport is themost effective and common social institute of modern societies. The mostimportant element of societies is individual. Societies in which individualshealthy, well educated, social and cultured could be thought as modern basicaim of sport is to support the development of human in terms of physical mentaland social. And also sport is very effective phenomenon to create a modernsociety. In addition personel benefits and missions sport has very importantsocial effects. In this age, it ...

  17. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  18. Organizational socialization in team sport environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2016-04-01

    Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  20. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers

  1. LAW IMPLEMENTATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mexhid Krasniqi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.

  2. Sport and Social Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Howard L., II

    Sport is examined in relation to a number of basic aspects of social organization. Each of the seven sections includes a brief clarification of the key sociological concepts used for analysis, a consideration of various applications of those concepts to sport, and a review and discussion of what is known about specific aspects of sport in relation…

  3. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....

  4. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  5. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  6. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know they can be a lot of ... the right safety gear. Think about your favorite sport. Do you wear anything to protect your eyes, ...

  7. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  8. Researching Sport Education Appreciatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…

  9. Report on Sport 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2015-01-01

    More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

  11. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...

  12. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  13. Marketing of sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  14. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović

    2013-01-01

    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  16. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...

  18. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  19. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...

  20. FUNCTION of MANAGEMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  1. Biological responses of the coral Montastraea annularis to the removal of filamentous turf algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Hernández-Arana, Héctor A; Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef degradation increases coral interactions with filamentous turf algae (FTA) and macroalgae, which may result in chronic stress for the corals. We evaluated the effects of short (2.5 month) and long (10 month) periods of FTA removal on tissue thickness (TT), zooxanthellae density (ZD), mitotic index (MI), and concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) in Montastraea annularis at the beginning and end of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes within a colony) consistently surrounded by FTA and ramets surrounded by crustose coralline algae (CCA) were used as controls. FTA removal reduced coral stress, indicated by increased TT and ZD and lower MI. The measured effects were similar in magnitude for the short and long periods of algal removal. Ramets were more stressed at the end of gametogenesis compared with the beginning, with lower ZD and Chl a cm(-2), and higher MI. However, it was not possible to distinguish the stress caused by the presence of FTA from that caused by seasonal changes in seawater temperature. Ramets surrounded by CCA showed less stress in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA: with higher TT, Chl a cm(-2) and ZD, and lower MI values. Coral responses indicated that ramets with FTA suffered the most deleterious effects and contrasted with those measured in ramets surrounded by CCA. According to published studies and our observations, there could be at least six mechanisms associated to FTA in the stress caused to M. annularis by FTA. Owing to the high cover of FTA (in contrast to macroalgae and CCA) in the Caribbean, the chronic stress, the overgrowth and mortality that this functional algal group can cause on M. annularis species complex, a further decline of this important reef-building coral in the Caribbean is expected.

  2. Biological responses of the coral Montastraea annularis to the removal of filamentous turf algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidy P Cetz-Navarro

    Full Text Available Coral reef degradation increases coral interactions with filamentous turf algae (FTA and macroalgae, which may result in chronic stress for the corals. We evaluated the effects of short (2.5 month and long (10 month periods of FTA removal on tissue thickness (TT, zooxanthellae density (ZD, mitotic index (MI, and concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a in Montastraea annularis at the beginning and end of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes within a colony consistently surrounded by FTA and ramets surrounded by crustose coralline algae (CCA were used as controls. FTA removal reduced coral stress, indicated by increased TT and ZD and lower MI. The measured effects were similar in magnitude for the short and long periods of algal removal. Ramets were more stressed at the end of gametogenesis compared with the beginning, with lower ZD and Chl a cm(-2, and higher MI. However, it was not possible to distinguish the stress caused by the presence of FTA from that caused by seasonal changes in seawater temperature. Ramets surrounded by CCA showed less stress in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA: with higher TT, Chl a cm(-2 and ZD, and lower MI values. Coral responses indicated that ramets with FTA suffered the most deleterious effects and contrasted with those measured in ramets surrounded by CCA. According to published studies and our observations, there could be at least six mechanisms associated to FTA in the stress caused to M. annularis by FTA. Owing to the high cover of FTA (in contrast to macroalgae and CCA in the Caribbean, the chronic stress, the overgrowth and mortality that this functional algal group can cause on M. annularis species complex, a further decline of this important reef-building coral in the Caribbean is expected.

  3. The Effect of Varying Speed Release of Nutrients from Fertilizers on Growth-production Process of Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare the influence of fertilizers with different speed of nutrients release on growth–production indicators of turf under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried in warm and dry conditions in area Nitra (Slovak Republic. In the experiment were followed 5 treatments (1. without fertilization, 2. Nitre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer Travcerit®, 4. Slow release fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S, 5. Controlled release fertilizer Duslocote® NPK (S 13–9–18 (+6S. The highest gain of height reached variant fertilized by fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S. Comparison of the individual treatments for the whole period showed significantly lower average daily gains of height on control treatment compared to fertilizing treatments Nitre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S and Duslocote® NPK (S 13–9–18 (+6S. During the reported period the highest gain of weight reached treatment by application fertilizer Duslocote® NPK (S 13– 9–18 (+ 6S. Comparison of the individual treatments for the whole period, were found significantly lower average daily production of phytomass on control treatment in comparison with fertilization turfs by Travcerit® and Duslocote® NPK (S 13–9–18 (+6S.

  4. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  5. The effect of filamentous turf algal removal on the development of gametes of the coral Orbicella annularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidy P Cetz-Navarro

    Full Text Available Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7-10 months and short-term (2.5 months FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively at both the beginning (May and the end (August of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony surrounded by FTA (T3 or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4 were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August, most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost

  6. The effect of filamentous turf algal removal on the development of gametes of the coral Orbicella annularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7-10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete

  7. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Aćimović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.

  8. Use of high-stability composts in recreational areas: assays on cold season turf grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Barreda-Ferraz, D.; Albiach, M. R.; Pomares, F.; Ingelmo, F.; Canet, R.

    2009-01-01

    Recreational and sport areas, steadily increasing on number and occupied surface, show great interest as consumers of large amounts of organic products. High-quality composts could be used to improve soil properties, increasing its water-hold capacity and reducing the amounts of synthetic fertilizers needed to support the vegetal cover. (Author)

  9. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recommended sports ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark

    2015-02-01

    The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport

  11. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport psychology. Introduction. The Academy for Girls' Leadership and ..... context by means of age-appropriate stories and metaphors according to the Sport. Psychology principle of visualisation (cf.

  12. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  13. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl

    2002-01-01

    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  14. [Sport and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, D; Rehart, S

    2014-06-01

    Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.

  15. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  16. Current Concepts in Sports Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now

  17. Current Concepts in Sports Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now

  18. Current concepts in sports injury rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmat Dhillon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before

  19. An introduction to sports concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Christopher C; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    Concussions are a major public health issue, and particularly so in the setting of sports. Millions of athletes of all ages may face the risks of concussion and repeat concussion. This article introduces the terminology, epidemiology, and underlying pathophysiology associated with concussion, focused on sports-related injuries. Concussion is a clinical syndrome of symptoms and signs occurring after biomechanical force is imparted to the brain. Because of the subjective nature of symptom reporting, definitions of concussion differ slightly in different guidelines. Concussion nomenclature also includes mild traumatic brain injury, postconcussion symptoms, postconcussion syndrome, chronic neurocognitive impairment, subconcussive injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Between 1.6 and 3.8 million sports-related concussions are estimated in the United States annually, particularly in youth athletes. Rates of concussion are higher in sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, and wrestling in males, and soccer and basketball in females. The underlying pathophysiology of concussion centers on membrane leakage, ionic flux, indiscriminate glutamate release, and energy crisis. These initial events then trigger ongoing metabolic impairment, vulnerability to second injury, altered neural activation, and axonal dysfunction. While the linkage between acute neurobiology and chronic deficits remains to be elucidated, activation of cell death pathways, ongoing inflammation, persistent metabolic problems, and accumulation of abnormal or toxic proteins have all been implicated. Concussion is a biomechanically induced syndrome of neural dysfunction. Millions of concussions occur annually, many of them related to sports. Biologically, a complex sequence of events occurs from initial ionic flux, glutamate release, and axonal damage, resulting in vulnerability to second injury and possibly to longer-term neurodegeneration.

  20. PROMOTION OF MONTENEGRO THROUGH SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervis Selhanovic

    2011-03-01

    sports potentials in the affirmative sense. Naturally, this will be done through a methodology that will be specially adapted to the social and economic, political, and sports particularities of Montenegro.

  1. Compressive Review of Organizational Effectiveness in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EYDI HOSSEIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational effectiveness continues to be a popular topic in management settings, seminars, and research projects. Similar levels of attention prevail in area of sport management. This construct has been contested by theorists and researchers for many years. As the study of organizational effectiveness in profit organizations is complex and confused, studying the construct in nonprofit organizations like sporting organizations maybe even more troublesome due to their distinctive nature. This article draws from the general literature on organizational effectiveness and the specialized. Literature on organizational effectiveness in sport and nonprofit organizations (NPOs. Five major approaches to measuring organizational effectiveness, i.e., Goal attainment, systems of resources, internal procedure, multiple constituency and competing values framework have been reported in the literature. Review of literature showed that two approach of multiple constituency and competing values framework as a multi dimensionality had a most usage in sport environment.

  2. Organized sports for children and preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, R L; Bernhardt, D T; Gomez, J; Johnson, M D; Martin, T J; Rowland, T W; Small, E; LeBlanc, C; Krein, C; Malina, R; Young, J C; Reed, F E; Anderson, S; Bolduc, S; Bar-Or, O; Newland, H; Taras, H L; Cimino, D A; McGrath, J W; Murray, R D; Yankus, W A; Young, T L; Fleming, M; Glendon, M; Harrison-Jones, L; Newberry, J L; Pattishall, E; Vernon, M; Wolfe, L; Li, S

    2001-06-01

    Participation in organized sports provides an opportunity for young people to increase their physical activity and develop physical and social skills. However, when the demands and expectations of organized sports exceed the maturation and readiness of the participant, the positive aspects of participation can be negated. The nature of parental or adult involvement can also influence the degree to which participation in organized sports is a positive experience for preadolescents. This updates a previous policy statement on athletics for preadolescents and incorporates guidelines for sports participation for preschool children. Recommendations are offered on how pediatricians can help determine a child's readiness to participate, how risks can be minimized, and how child-oriented goals can be maximized.

  3. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID. However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athletes with ID. In this paper, we discuss the following: the problem of inclusion, some concerns that arise in the classification of paralympic athletes such as self-declaration and eligibility, the open nature of ID sports competition, and the sport offer available for these athletes.

  4. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  5. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  6. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  7. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  8. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.

  9. Sport accidents in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Y

    1990-01-01

    Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the injured were boys, and 47 per cent were girls. The boys sustained more severe injuries than the girls. Soccer c...

  10. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  11. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  12. SportOn

    OpenAIRE

    Lynghøj, Jesper Ebbesen; Holm, Emil Broo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than ever, it is possible for individuals to create or get involved in some kind of public debate on digital platforms. Whether it involves politics or sport events, people have the opportunity to comment on these events via social media platforms. Our thesis focus on creating a concept, where both journalists and users of sports journalistic can participate online, and share the sports stories they are passionated about. We look at the possibilities of making a sportssite, w...

  13. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  14. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  15. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  16. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  17. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-11-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links −2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1); Parkland − 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of −5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of −1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF VIOLENCE IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bećir Šabotić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today we are very often faced with the appearance of the violence in sport field and fighting places and for that reason there are some demands that it can be studied from a social aspect. This is not only a problem of a personal nature but also a problem of a wider social community. There are some firm attitudes that sport serves the man in many cases and it has a goal to increase the social aspect that means coming close to the people. However, attitudes like that have remained only in paper. The day that the professionalism has taken the domination in sport, everything went around in the opposite direction because the result is important in realization of planned professionalism. Going to that goal, trainers who are often autocratic, compel the sportsman on doing the task no matter what, taking him the possibility to freely express his individuality. The sport bureaucracy is being formed around the player, sportsman, who is than capable to manage even the managerial stuff. The even chase between the sport commercialization and professionalism has brought to that that it becomes very profitable job in which you can earn a lot. That is why we are more and more distanced from the real value of the sport. In return, we got sport competitions which are more presented with violence and brutality. The rules of behavior are being neglected which causes more violent behavior. Cruel behavior towards the athletes is more intensive and so it is one of the most shown sights of violence in sport which are shown through the training duration. We are often the witnesses that all the efforts overlook even the physiological bounds. Doping consumation has shown the brutal violence towards the athletes which hasn’t missed our country. One of the symptoms of violence in sport is connected with the trainings and competitions of the little children. Sport stadiums have, unfortunately, become the place of those people who, using the conditions and ambient, often

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking ...

  20. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...

  1. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female Athlete Triad Contact ...

  2. Sport students' perception of their learning experience: Amazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the perceived learning experience regarding academic content-specific outcomes and learning of life skills as identified by sport curriculum students competing in an on-campus Ama-zing Race activity. The study was qualitative in nature and involved the participation of 99 undergraduate sport ...

  3. Violence-related ambulance call-outs in the North West of England: a cross-sectional analysis of nature, extent and relationships to temporal, celebratory and sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; McGee, Ciara; Hughes, Karen; Russell, Simon; Bellis, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of ambulance call-out data in understanding violence to inform about prevention activity. This cross-sectional (2013-2015) study examined the nature, extent and characteristics of violence-related ambulance call-outs (n=15 687) across North West England and relationships with temporal, celebratory and sporting events. The majority of call-outs were for men, with a mean age of 33 years. Most call-outs were to deprived (64.4%) and urban (65.4%) areas and occurred at night (18:00-5:59; 75.2%). Three-quarters (77.3%) were recorded as assault/sexual assault and 22.7% stab/gunshot/penetrating trauma. Significant differences in call-out characteristics were identified between the two violence types. Generalised linear modelling found that call-outs significantly increased on weekends, New Year's Eve and weekday bank holiday eves (except for stab/gunshot/penetrating trauma). No significant associations between all violence call-outs, the two violence categories and sporting or celebration events were identified. Two-thirds (66.1%) of the call-outs were transferred to another health service for further assessment and/or treatment. The odds of being transferred were significantly higher among men (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.5, 95%CI 1.4 to 1.6), those aged 13-24 years (AOR 1.2, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.4), call-outs for stab/gunshot/penetrating trauma (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.3 to 1.5) and call-outs on Fridays/Saturdays (AOR 1.1, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.2) and lower for call-outs on New Year's Eve (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4 to 0.9). Ambulance call-out data can provide a wealth of information to understand violence and subsequently inform about violence prevention and response activity. Ambulance services and staff could play a key role in preventing violence through sharing data and identifying and supporting victims. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  4. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  5. Sports medicine in New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, C J

    1992-01-01

    Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...

  6. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...

  7. Genetic characterization of Kyrgyzstan fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca germplasm for use in semi-arid low-maintenance turf applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca Shleidcher ex. Gaudin (2n = 2x-4x) is native to heavily grazed, cold, semi-arid, Asian rangelands. However, its potential for low-maintenance turf applications in the semi-arid western United States and its relatedness to other agriculturally important Festuca species ...

  8. Athletes’ Selected Micro-Activities on Turf Fields: Utilizing Extant Videography for Quantification of Events During Soccer, American Football, and Field Hockey Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been recently raised about the potential exposures of athletes to chemicals when playing on synthetic turf fields. Previous research has shown that micro-activities (i.e., hand-to mouth and skin-to-surface contacts) are important factors in people’s exposures to che...

  9. Olympic Information in the SPORT Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belna, Alison M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…

  10. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvement of physical supervision mechanism and legal system, as well as personal humanistic quality. This article will provide available ideology resources for sustainable development of modern sports, aiming at settling the current problems therein.

  11. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemecourt P, Collins C, Comstock RD. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools. Am ... KE, Xu L, McGuire LC, Coronado VG. Nonfatal sports and recreation related traumatic brain injuries ... NT. Diagnosis and management of exercise-induced asthma. Physician Sportsmed. 1996;24( ...

  12. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  13. Sports: Art or Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The lesson plan for grades six through nine demonstrates an innovative way of analyzing student ideas and attitudes about sports activity. It includes readings, photographs, and teacher suggestions designed to generate ideas and reactions to personal and social aspects of sports. (Author/DB)

  14. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  15. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a sense of well-being. Almost any sport places some stress on your spine. That is why it's important to keep the muscles and ligaments that support your spine flexible ... many sports injuries. Getting these muscles to the point where ...

  16. Listening to Sports Idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob

    In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…

  17. Sport, Religion and Charisma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...

  18. Concussion in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACSM Information On… Concussion in Sports A concussion is an injury to the brain where force causes the brain to move within the skull. A person does ... deceleration force, and concussions occur in many different sports. While an athlete does not need to hit ...

  19. Sport and Social Inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Farquharson, K.; Marjoribanks, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on the relationship between sport and social inequalities, focusing on gender, race, nation and social mobility. Through an engagement with these areas of research, we highlight how sport reflects and reinforces broader hierarchical structures; how it serves as a

  20. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...

  1. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  2. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  3. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  4. Sport, mindfulness en boeddhisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2016-01-01

    Binnenkort gaat in Nederland een Academie voor Mindfulness in Sport (AMS) van start. Dat is een techniek die ingezet wordt voor bewustwording van eigen gevoelens en gedachten van het moment, zonder daar op te reageren. Een beroemdheid uit de wereld van de sport die zweert bij mindfulness is Phil

  5. Christianity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojković Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.

  6. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal stereotype of a mathematician is a highly nonathletic, myopic individual with his head buried in books. Reality, of course, is other- wise. One finds many who are proficient in both mathematics and sports, but even so, rarely there's someone who combines the two. Mathematics in sports? Certainly. Tendulkar does not ...

  7. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  9. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  10. Policy, Sport and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    2010-01-01

    in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance......Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  11. Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport tourists have preconceived expectations of the type and quality of services to be offered at a particular event. The extent to which these expectations are met will determine sport tourism satisfaction. For the purpose of this study the definition of a sport tourist was taken as any individual that facilitates or organise a sport ...

  12. Developing Sport Psychology in a Girls' Sport Academy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…

  13. Sports facilities: a problem of school sports in Nigeria | Olajide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...

  14. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What was gained during this process, as well as the associated challenges encountered, suggest possible areas for research as well as changes and adjustments which could be made in similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport ...

  15. Some Sports Managers' Views about Values Education through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç

    2017-01-01

    The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…

  16. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  17. Rethinking Giftedness and Talent in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranckle, Peter; Cushion, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how gifts are discovered and talents developed within sport. The current literature is critically discussed, highlighting contributions and gaps in current knowledge. Due to issues concerning terminology and the nature versus nurture debate, research on talent faces challenges relating to continuity and…

  18. Controlling factors of turf-banked solifluction lobe evolution in the Turtmann glacier forefield (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draebing, Daniel; Eichel, Jana

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure and moisture, thermal conditions and vegetation control solifluction movement, however, the spatial distribution of controlling factors and resultant spatial variability of movement are poorly understood. We use a (1) geomorphological and vegetation mapping of solifluction lobe properties, (2) temperature loggers to quantify thermal conditions, (3) 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Puerkhauer drilling and TDR measurements to evaluate material properties as well as (4) 3D Time-Lapse ERT to quantify spatial variability of material properties. Our results are used to (5) evaluate the influence of potential controlling factors on solifluction movement. Investigations took place on three turf-banked lobes (TBL) located at proximal and distal slopes of Little Ice Age and 1920s lateral moraines in the Turtmann glacier forefield, Swiss Alps. (1) Vegetation is spatially differentiated at TBLs. The treads are mostly covered by the ecosystem engineer Dryas octopetala, while other dwarf shrubs, shrubs and pioneer species were found at the high lobe risers (0.8-1.8 m). In contrast, less vegetated ridge-like features at the upper part of the treads are colonized by frost-tolerant species. Large blocks are located at the lobe fronts, probably impeding the lobe movement. (2) Temperature loggers show a lack of ground cooling due to snow isolation at the vegetated lower tread between 2014 and 2015. Thus, significant ground cooling in winter is reduced to the wind-exposed upper parts (ridges). (3) TBL material consists of sandy silt, thus, lobe material is much finer than subjacent moraine till and indicates former colluviation. As a consequence, 2D ERT demonstrates low-resistant areas until depths equal to riser height, thus, the finer TBL body is higher saturated than the coarser surrounding parent slope and more susceptible to gelifluction. On the contrary, risers show high resistivities indicating dry conditions which are supported by TDR results

  19. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  1. Aleatorism and Sporting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.

  2. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  3. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  5. Sport in the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2009-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports

  6. Artificial Turf: Contested Terrains for Precautionary Public Health with Particular Reference to Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a (e pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects. Small environmental monitoring and modelling studies, often with significant data gaps about exposure, range of substances monitored, occupational exposures, types of surfaces monitored and study length across seasons, indicated little risk to sports people and children but some risk to installation workers. A few, again often small, studies indicated potentially harmful human effects relating to skin, respiration and cancers. Only one widely cited biomonitoring study has been done and no rigorous cancer epidemiological studies exist. Unravelling exposures and uptake over decades may prove complex. European regulators have strengthened controls over crumb rubber chemicals, set different standards for toys and crumb rubber pitches. Bigger US studies now underway attempting to fill some of the data gaps will report between 2017 and 2019. Public health professionals in the meantime may draw on established principles to support greater caution in setting crumb rubber exposure limits and controls.

  7. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  8. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  9. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...

  10. Parenting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  12. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  13. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID

  14. Sports: Ice -Doping Time

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...

  15. Western Sport and Spiritualism

    OpenAIRE

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...

  16. SPORT I POLITIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensur Memić

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.

  17. MANAGEMENT AND SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”

  18. Sport Spaces for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...

  19. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...

  20. Sports during a crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in the economy immediately affected the sports industry, one of the largest expense items of the Belarusian budget. Investments in youth and mass sports, as well as in football declined significantly. The situation is aggravated by corruption, doping and other scandals and managerial confusion. The most positive outcomes are associated with the global leadership of Belarusian rowing and canoeing and a recovering athletics sector. Trends: • Organizational changes in athletics; • Deg...

  1. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  2. ORDER IN THE CHAOS IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarian Mehran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, scientists consider the world as a combination of some systems that work in a self -organizing way and the result of such a way is unpredictable and accidential states. Compulsory Natural rules are affective in such circumstances. Also it is known that systems work in a circular form in which order ends in disorder and vice versa. The idea of world as something simple has already replaced by a complicated and contradictory world. The study aim is to survey chaordic organizations characters of sport organizations. Materials and methods : For this purpose we used a standard questionnaire with appropriate reliability and validity. The statistical population of the study are whole staff of sport and youth head-quarter of west Azarbaijan province that are 89 (sample number is equal to the population's. We used Kolmogrov- Smirnov test to study data normal distribution, and in respect of normal distribution of data to test hypothesis we used sample t test and also descriptive statistical methods like mean and standard deviation, through SPSS 18. Questionnaires were filled out by whole staff of sport and youth head-quarters of west Azarbaijan province. Results: Results of this study, which have got through a single-sample t-test, show that sport organizations have six characteristics of welcoming to innovation, coherence, uncertainty, non-linearity, unpredictability, and ugly structure. It’s just the grade of the characteristic of recruiting competent staffs that is low in sport organizations; in fact they don’t enjoy it. But, within assessing the main hypothesis of the research that was around the feature of chaos-order, it was resulted that sport organizations have characteristics of a chaos-order organization and they can be considered as a chaos-order organization. Conclusions: According to the results of this study and t-table we can deduce that sport organizations are chaordic organization.

  3. PLACEBO EFFECTS IN COMPETITIVE SPORT: QUALITATIVE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Beedie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97% of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73% have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33% offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it

  4. State of development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tikhonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.

  5. Content Analyses of Scientific Articles from All Issues Published in Sport Mont Journal in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Dragutunovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport Mont Journal is a print and electronic scientific journal aims to present easy access to the scientific knowledge for sport-conscious individuals using contemporary methods. As one of the most prestigious scientific journals in Montenegro, is published three times a year. The aim of this paper was to classify the articles published in the 2009 journal, by scientific disciplines. On that occasion, we used the method of content analysis. During this period, 95 titles were published, which are classified according to the fields of sports science - biomechanics, physiology, sports medicine, anthropology, methodology, methodology, pedagogy, sociopsychology, anthropomotorics, anthropometry, research in sports and others. It has been found that the most numerous scientific research papers in sport and socio-psychology of sports (30, sport anthropology (25 and sports techniques (13. They show us that in this period a lot of attention was devoted to research in sport and sociopsychology of sports, where personalities, attitudes and characteristics were examined as important determinants of success in sports. In addition to these, there were still many scientific papers from other fields, which cover from social, humanistic and natural sciences. The integration of papers in all areas of sports science is not a simple task, even if we consider this one of the most prestigious journals in this region, the quality of the work itself is crucial.

  6. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  7. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  8. Epilepsy and sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gregory M; Radloff, Monika; Sevier, Thomas L

    2004-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting both young and old. Unfortunately, epileptics have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and epileptics continue to be less active than the general population. This results in increased body mass index, decreased aerobic endurance, poorer self-esteem, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychologic health. The majority of sports are safe for epileptics to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family, coaches, or trainers. Contact sports including football, hockey, and soccer have not been shown to induce seizures, and epileptics should not be precluded from participation. Water sports and swimming are felt to be safe if seizures are well controlled and direct supervision is present. Additional care must be taken in sports involving heights such as gymnastics, harnessed rock climbing, or horseback riding. Sports such as hang-gliding, scuba diving, or free climbing are not recommended, given the risk of severe injury or death, if a seizure were to occur during the activity. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in epileptics, discusses sports in which epileptics may participate, and addresses how to decrease possible risks for injury.

  9. Beyond ‘Moneyball’ to Analytics Leadership in Sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Felix Ter Chian; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Since Michael Lewis’ thesis on Oakland Athletics’ analytical approach to assemble a competitive baseball team and the release of the feature film “Moneyball”, the interest in sports analytics has grown rapidly. Existing research on sports analytics, though nascent and limited, paints a rather...... different picture compared to data analytics in the business context, mostly due to the nature of the sports industry and its organizations. Therefore, it is our focus in this study to further unpack such differences through a case study of FC Bayern Munich and its digital transformation to achieve...... analytics leadership. More specifically, we strive to understand 1) what analytics leadership entails for professional sports teams; and 2) what type of IT-enabled capabilities are required to realize such leadership position within a sporting and entertainment ecosystem. Our initial analysis identified...

  10. Analysis of lifestyle and physical culture and sports of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga P. Kokoulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewed the importance and necessity of sport and physical education at the present stage. The article describes the trend of health deterioration of young people as the consequence of a wrong lifestyle, alcohol, tobacco products, narcotic drugs‘use. The reasons of disregard for the healthy lifestyle and the consequences of misuse of the daily routine are presented.The reasons of the emergence and sport development and its history, the analysis of sport nature and physical education in the modern society were also considered in this article. It is shown the necessity and importance of sports and physical education at the present stage of the society development. Some factors that prevent globalization and widespread dissemination of sport and physical culture were introduced. Possible ways of solving these problems were put forward, motivational sphere for the formation of the active position in the field of healthy lifestyle was proposed in the research.

  11. Towards a Grand Unified Theory of sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul S

    2017-12-01

    Sports performance is generally considered to be governed by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and psychological variables, amongst others. Despite sports performance being multi-factorial, however, the majority of performance-oriented sports science research has predominantly been monodisciplinary in nature, presumably due, at least in part, to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework required to integrate the various subdisciplines of sports science. In this target article, I propose a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of sports performance-and, by elaboration, sports science-based around the constraints framework introduced originally by Newell (1986). A central tenet of this GUT is that, at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis, patterns of coordination and control, which directly determine the performance outcome, emerge from the confluence of interacting organismic, environmental, and task constraints via the formation and self-organisation of coordinative structures. It is suggested that this GUT could be used to: foster interdisciplinary research collaborations; break down the silos that have developed in sports science and restore greater disciplinary balance to the field; promote a more holistic understanding of sports performance across all levels of analysis; increase explanatory power of applied research work; provide stronger rationale for data collection and variable selection; and direct the development of integrated performance monitoring technologies. This GUT could also provide a scientifically rigorous basis for integrating the subdisciplines of sports science in applied sports science support programmes adopted by high-performance agencies and national governing bodies for various individual and team sports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Sports in postmodern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Miron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.

  14. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...

  15. Evaluation of Turf-Grass and Prairie-Vegetated Rain Gardens in a Clay and Sand Soil, Madison, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Balster, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with a consortium of 19 cities, towns, and villages in Dane County, Wis., undertook a study to compare the capability of rain gardens with different vegetative species and soil types to infiltrate stormwater runoff from the roof of an adjacent structure. Two rain gardens, one planted with turf grass and the other with native prairie species, were constructed side-by-side in 2003 at two locations with different dominant soil types, either sand or clay. Each rain garden was sized to a ratio of approximately 5:1 contributing area to receiving area and to a depth of 0.5 foot. Each rain garden, regardless of vegetation or soil type, was capable of storing and infiltrating most of the runoff over the 5-year study period. Both rain gardens in sand, as well as the prairie rain garden in clay, retained and infiltrated 100 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during water years 2004-07. The turf rain garden in clay occasionally had runoff exceed its confining boundaries, but was still able to retain 96 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during the same time period. Precipitation intensity and number of antecedent dry days were important variables that influenced when the storage capacity of underlying soils would become saturated, which resulted in pooled water in the rain gardens. Because the rooftop area that drained runoff to each rain garden was approximately five times larger than the area of the rain garden itself, evapotranspiration was a small percentage of the annual water budget. For example, during water year 2005, the maximum evapotranspiration of total influent volume ranged from 21 percent for the turf rain garden in clay to 25 percent for the turf rain garden in sand, and the minimum ranged from 12 percent for the prairie rain garden in clay to 19 percent for the prairie rain garden in sand. Little to no runoff left each rain garden as effluent and a small percentage of runoff returned to the

  16. Sport and the British upper classes c.1500–2000: a historiographic overview

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the main continuities and changes in upper-class sport, some foci of current research and gaps in current knowledge. It provides an overview of work carried out on individual sports such as hunting and shooting, and examines the upper-class contribution to sports patronage and rule codification in Britain, as well as the class's involvement in sport on a global scale. Upper-class sport has had a substantial impact on the rural landscape and natural environment, as well a...

  17. School sport and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the "Healthy Body, Healthy Mind" philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects. Research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However, there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This study investigated how participation in school sport influences the Leaving Certificate points score in an Irish secondary school. In particular, the study will investigate how the particular sport chosen by students participating in school sport during their Leaving Certificate years influences their Leaving Certificate results. We recorded the Leaving Certificate scores and sports participation from 402 boys graduating from a secondary school in the Ireland during 2008-2011. Sports participation was assigned 1 of 4 categories: rugby, rowing, soccer, and no sport. Participation in sports during the Leaving Certificate years conferred a 25.4-point benefit to the final Leaving Certificate score. However, participation in rowing, the only individual sport available in the study, resulted in significantly higher Leaving Certificate scores than rugby, soccer and no sport (p benefit over the next highest group, rugby. Promoting participation in school sport and providing access to a range of team and individual sports throughout the secondary school years may be a beneficial way to improve students' Leaving Certificate results. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  18. Sport's offer as an instrument of sports marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .

  19. Sporting embodiment: sports studies and the (continuing) promise of phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    Whilst in recent years sports studies have addressed the calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to theorisations of sport and physical activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ remains largely under-realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Relatively few accounts are grounded in the ‘flesh’ of the lived sporting body, and phenomenology offers a powerful framework for such analysis. A wide-ranging, multi-stranded, and interpretatively contested perspective, phenomenology in general has been take...

  20. Western Sport and Spiritualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.

  1. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  2. Commuting, Exercise and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....

  3. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether the application of Sport Psychology in the coaching of school sport is a necessity or a luxury. The study revealed that school athletes desire further information about Sport Psychology and want the services to be more available. Teacher coaches need some ...

  4. Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the economic and psychic income potential of the event. Sport event organisers should pursue multiple goals when designing the product and service parameters of a particular event. Keywords: Sport tourist, Expectations, Service experience, Satisfaction South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education ...

  5. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  6. STRESS FRACTURES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports

  7. Sports Medicine: A Functional Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerreis, Sam

    1981-01-01

    Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)

  8. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. ...

  11. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ...

  12. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / ...

  13. Grebet af sport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2017-01-01

    I sommeren 1936 blev de Olympiske Lege gennemført i Tyskland. Mediehistorisk var det en begivenhed, fordi det var de første tv-transmitterede Olympiske Lege. Selvom transmissionen kun nåede ud til små biografteatre i de tyske storbyer, så var det noget af en præstation. Over 70 timers sport med de...... fleste af de discipliner, vi kender fra Legene. (...) Uanset hvornår vi daterer sportens begyndelse, så har den haft en dobbelthed. Sport er ikke kun for dem på banen, men også dem på sidelinjerne....

  14. Nuclear medicine in sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph

  15. Sports and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474

  16. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Hannah J H; Howells, Karen L; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms.

  17. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Hannah J. H.; Howells, Karen L.; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms. PMID:27375544

  18. MARKETING STRATEGY IN SPORTS SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y

  19. THE HEURISTIC FUNCTION OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.

  20. Children's Reasons for Joining Sport Clubs and Staying in Them: A Case Study of a Sydney Soccer Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Curry, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Research on youth sport within the sport coaching and physical education literature has tended to overlook the nature of experience and the meanings that sport holds in the lives of children and young people. This paper makes a contribution toward redressing this imbalance by reporting on a close-focus case study on children's reasons for joining…

  1. SPORTS JOURNALISM AND MEDIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velizar Sredanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Communicology theoreticians, sociologists, and sports experts strive to explain significance of sport, power and influence of media (TV in particular and sports journalism through analysis of media and viewers. Phenomena observed on number of football (soccer and Olympic games through a prism of media research of the Television of Montenegro.

  2. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  3. The Sport-Stress Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomier, James

    1983-01-01

    This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…

  4. Opvoeding in en door sport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, Albert

    2005-01-01

    2004 is the European Year of Education through Sport. The European Commission believes that sport is a valuable instrument in creating more open and tolerant societies. Therefore it is necessary that sport and its values play a greater part in education. This article examines the relationship

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOAL-ORIENTATIONS AND SPORT COMMITMENT AMONG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Benar.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was exploring of relationship between goal-orientations and sport commitment among athletes and comparison of goal-orientations and sport commitment and their constructs based on gender and type of sports. Participants were 108 Iranian athlete (40 female and 68 male, who responded to Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q and Sport Commitment Model (SCM questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, Independent-Samples t-test, and One-way ANOVA at P=0.05. The findings indicated that there were positively and significantly association between constructs, including sport enjoyment, personal investment, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and social support, whereas, involvement alternatives and task-orientation had negatively and significantly association with sport commitment. Also, team and open-skilled sport athletes had sport commitment and ego-orientation more than individual and closed-skilled sport athletes. As well as, female's athletes had sport enjoyment and social support more than male's athletes. It is possible that task-oriented players are elite and expert athletes, because extend and develop their fundamental skills in one's sport by their task-orientate characteristic, and probably these players with these characteristics tendency to turnover until experience more situations. Thus, these players had a less sport commitment than amateur athletes. Also, gender and type of sport differences can be results of individual differences and nature of sports skills. Implications for goal-orientations and sport commitment and their impacts on athletes as well as future research directions are further discussed.

  6. Sports Journalism and the Quality of Sport and Sport Culture in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian GHENA

    2014-01-01

    The issue of recognition of a sports journalism as a quality component of social life that can positively influence the sports and its perception by the population is omnipresent in contemporary society in Romania.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS RECREATIONAL TOURISM IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Jovović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic for realization of tourist movements lays in meeting cultural and recreational needs of potential customers. If we know that largest number of tourists represents part of recreational ones, than is not hard to realize how large potential lays in that number of potential guests. On this fact should be built strategy of movement of tourist offer of Montenegro for it extreme potentials on which can be founded concrete project. In this work are given basic assumptions for development of sport recreational shapes of tourism with stress to natural potentials that directly determine shape of sport recreational activities that represent basis of tourist offer. Offer should be created in that way that it is adapted to wide segment of recreational guests and not professional sportsmen, although they also should not be underestimated but one should know that in order to create conditions for arrival of sports professionals offer has to be completely different and more specialized that requires creating of conditions of existence of highly developed sports infrastructure, while for amateurs a lot can be done in “system of improvising”, satisfying basic criteria – recreation in conditions of untouched and well preserved nature with securing maximal level of security and protection of guests, in order to prevent possible unwilling consequences that can lead to injury of guests and for development and realization of such project one need a much less funds than is building of facilities that should meet standards of professional sportsmen. The aim is to create good offer at good infrastructure, logistics and with good equipment with securing maximal security, adaptation to various wishes of guests, taking in consideration their structure is conditioned by age, health condition, physical fitness as personal wishes toward sports and recreational activities.

  8. The response of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and soil microbes to the crumb rubber material used in artificial turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon T; Fiorenza, Andrew; Sperl, Cassandra; Ledda, Brianne; Lawrence Patterson, Charles; Tucker, Clara C; Tucker, Wade; Ho, Yuwan Lisa; Panico, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber. We then characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published New York soil background levels and to levels set by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) as remediation goals. We found that: 1) contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates, 2) earthworm survivorship was not impacted by exposure to contaminated soil, 3) earthworms' ability to cope with heat and light stress remained unchanged after living in contaminated soil, but 4) earthworms living in contaminated soil gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil. We also found that, with the exception of zinc, heavy metals in our contaminated soil did not exceed the background levels found throughout New York State or the remediation targets set by the DEC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Reestablishing a spawning population of lake trout in Lake Superior with fertilized eggs in artificial turf incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    Fertilized eggs from lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were placed in artificial turf incubators and deployed on Devils Island Shoal, Lake Superior, in an attempt to reestablish a spawning population on this once important spawning area. Efficacy was measured by the changes in catch rates, age composition, and origin of adult lake trout returning to the shoal in the fall in subsequent years. The abundance of lake trout spawners without fin clips, which implies that these fish hatched in the lake, increased throughout the sampling period, whereas the abundance of hatchery-reared fish (indicated by one or more fin clips) stocked for restoration purposes remained low. Year-class-specific stock-recruitment analysis suggested that the recruitment of unclipped spawners was related to the number of eggs planted in previous years rather than to spawning by the few adult lake trout visiting the reef. Increases in adult fish at Devils Island Shoal were independent of trends at adjacent sites, where unclipped spawner abundances remained low. Enhanced survival to hatch and apparent site imprinting of young lake trout make this technique a viable alternative to stocking fingerling and yearling lake trout to reestablish spawning populations on specific sites in the Great Lakes.

  10. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA CILERDZIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  11. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  12. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  13. FUNDRAISING IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Radović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment

  14. Burnout in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Robert J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Burnout is a condition of withdrawal from participation in sports as a result of stress. The most significant advance in the study of burnout has been a cognitive-affective model that contains situational, cognitive appraisal, physiological, and behavioral components. Suggestions for preventing and treating burnout are presented. (BC)

  15. The Economics of Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, William S., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a picture of economic principles at work in the dynamic world of big-time sports. Papers were given at the 35th Annual Lecture-Seminar Series presented by the Department of Economics at Western Michigan University during the 1998-99 school year. After an "Introduction" (William S. Kern), the six papers…

  16. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…

  17. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 12. Mathematics and Sports. Vivek S Borkar. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 12 December 1999 pp 107-108. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/12/0107-0108. Author Affiliations.

  18. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  19. ABC of Sports Medicine*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overuse injuries, osteoporosis and exercise, infections, the overtraining syndrome, sudden death, assessment of physical performance, nutritional aids, drug use, and team medical care. Included in the section on general topics are chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, ...

  20. Doping in sport

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations. Methods. This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport academy ...

  1. Defending College Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1994-01-01

    A philosophy professor who supports college athletics battles to maintain credibility among his academic peers. His interest is in adding balance to criticism of college sports and calling attention to positive aspects such as teamwork and discipline. The professor also teaches a seminar in ethics for first-year athletes. (MSE)

  2. Simulation in Sport Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…

  3. Sport in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuttgen, Howard G., Ed.; And Others

    Part 1 of this book, "Evoluation and Organization of Physical Culture," examines the history and current organization of physical education and sport in the People's Republic of China. This part includes chapters on: the evolution and organization of physical culture; physical culture in China today; the organizational structure of…

  4. Rapportage sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, K.; Meulen, R. van der; Hildebrandt, V.; Harms, L.; Goossens, R.; Lucassen, J.; Ooijendijk, W.; Stiggelbout, M.; Poel, H. van der; Bottenburg, M. van

    2003-01-01

    De Rapportage Sport is een coproductie van het Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau, het Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek, NOC-NSF, TNO, de Universiteit van Tilburg en het W.J.H. Mulier Instituut. Het bestaat uit twee delen. In het eerste deel worden de ontwikkelingen beschreven op het terrein van het

  5. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  6. Drugs in sport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mottram, D. R. (David R.)

    2005-01-01

    ...-Doping Agency (WADA) Methods and advances in doping control, and the sanctions for testing positive The use of therapeutic drugs banned in sport Evaluation of the status of creatine as a legitimate nutritional supplement Ethical, political and administrative issues in monitoring drug use An assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sp...

  7. AI Sport Forecast Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.

  8. Sports-related injuries in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-02-01

    Sports activities play an important role in today's society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP.

  9. Sports-related injuries in primary health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Discussion. Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP. PMID:20923967

  10. Generalization of social anxiety to sporting and athletic situations: gender, sports involvement, and parental pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P J; Burns, J A; Hope, D A; Bauer, B K

    2000-01-01

    Although researchers have documented that social anxiety may occur in a wide range of interpersonal and performance situations, little attention has been paid to the potential influence of social anxiety on participation in athletics or physical activity. The performance demands of sport and potential social evaluative nature of exercise make it likely that social anxiety would generalize to these situations. Given the physical and psychological benefits of engaging in regular physical activity, avoidance of such activities by socially anxious individuals may have profound health consequences. One-hundred and eighty undergraduate university students completed a battery of standardized social anxiety measures, and a series of 5-point Likert-type questions examining fear and avoidance of sporting and athletic situations. Results indicated that social anxiety and fear of negative evaluation were generally related to social-evaluative fears in sporting or athletic situations, particularly for women. Furthermore, social anxiety was positively correlated with avoidance of individual sporting activities, but not with avoidance of team activities. Further analyses revealed social anxiety did not differ by competition level. However, for men, familial pressure to play sports during high school was associated with higher fear of negative evaluation. Implications for the assessment and treatment of social anxiety disorder are discussed.

  11. Algal turf scrubbing: cleaning surface waters with solar energy while producing a biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the long period of human expansion across the earth, the atmosphere and the earth’s natural waters have been used as low cost sinks or dumps for our human, agricultural and industrial wastes. Despite significant investment, the methods employed for the last half century have largely fail...

  12. SAFETY ASPECTS OF SPORTS COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport, as an activity of public interest in contemporary conditions of life,has an important role in almost every state. Financial and security of participation of the state in the sports field, through the budgets of all levels are important issues regardless of the status and relationships of government and non-governmental organizations and sports associations. Cooperation and clear definition of security responsibilities between public authorities and sports clubs is essential and widely accepted phenomenon. The causes of conflict in sport competitions are polyvalent. It affects the study of this type of security phenomena that must be approached from different aspects. The causes of conflict in sports competitions may be direct and indirect, structural, economic - social, political and cultural - perceptual. All together they contribute to the occurrence of conflict and measuring the occurrence and development of modern security phenomenon in sport competitions

  13. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Youth Sports Coaches Regarding Sport Volume Recommendations and Sport Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    2018-02-22

    Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.

  15. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  16. Marketing management of sport and tourism - Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro

    2003-01-01

    Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...

  17. Unhealthy product sponsorship of Australian national and state sports organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    Marketing of products harmful to the health of children has been found to be prolific, and occurs across multiple media platforms and in several settings, including organised sport, thus potentially undermining the health benefits inherent in sports participation. Through website audits, this study investigated the nature and extent of unhealthy food, beverage, alcohol and gambling sponsorship across peak Australian sporting organisations. A structured survey tool identified and assessed sponsoring companies and products displayed on the websites of the 53 national and state/territory sport governing bodies in Australia receiving government funding. Identified products were categorised as healthy or unhealthy, based on criteria developed by health experts. There was a total of 413 websites operated by the 53 sports, with 1975 company or product sponsors identified. Overall, 39 sports had at least one unhealthy sponsor, and 10% of all sponsors were rated as unhealthy. Cricket had the highest percent of unhealthy sponsors (27%) and the highest number of unhealthy food and beverage sponsors (n=19). Rugby Union (n=16) and Australian Football (n=4) had the highest numbers of alcohol and gambling sponsors respectively. Sponsorship of Australian sport governing bodies by companies promoting unhealthy food and beverage, alcohol and gambling products is prevalent at the state/territory and national level. SO WHAT?: Regulatory guidelines should be established to limit such sponsorship and ensure that it is not translated into promotions that may reach and influence children.

  18. Game on: do children absorb sports sponsorship messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    It is likely that there are substantial subconscious effects of organizations’ efforts to associate their products with sport via sponsorships, but most research methods are unable to capture these effects. The present study employed a novel projective technique to explore children's implicit associations between popular sports and a range of sports sponsors. Children participated in an activity using magnets bearing the logos of numerous sports and sponsors. They were invited to arrange the magnets on a whiteboard without being advised that the activity related to sponsorship. Perth, Western Australia. Children (n 164) aged 5–12 years. Three-quarters (76 %) of the children aligned at least one correct sponsor magnet with the relevant sport. Just over half the children (54 %) correctly matched the most popular sport (an Australian Football League team) with its relevant sponsor (a fast-food chain). Given the unstructured nature of the projective task, the results provide some support for the argument that sports sponsorship can effectively reach child audiences. This is of concern given the current extent of sponsorship by alcohol and fast-food companies.

  19. [Sports and osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Dreinhöfer, K

    2009-12-01

    Many risk factors for developing osteoarthrosis exist. Osteoarthrosis is the most common cause of chronic disability in middle-aged and older people. On the one hand, physical exercise can lead to arthrosis; on the other hand, physical exercise is commonly used in preventing and treating it. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that increased high-impact running or competitive sports result in a higher risk for osteoarthrosis than moderate low-impact running. In particular, sudden-impact loading and twisting movements of the joints can result in premature osteoarthrosis. Also, sports with a high risk for injuries can lead to secondary osteoarthrosis. Preventive exercises to strengthen the skeletal muscles seem to have a pivotal role. There are different therapeutic approaches to osteoarthrosis, which will be more important in the future. Exercise should be a core treatment for people with osteoarthritis, irrespective of age, comorbidity, pain severity, or disability. Exercise should include local muscle strengthening and general aerobic fitness.

  20. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes

  1. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  2. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  3. The neuropathology of sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Stein, Thor D.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional

  4. Diabetes in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Shugart, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Fields, Karl B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise is recommended for individuals with diabetes mellitus, and several facets of the disease must be considered when managing the diabetic athlete. The purpose of this article is to review diabetes care in the context of sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database, as well as manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Diabetics should be evaluated for complicat...

  5. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  6. The neuropathology of sport

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Stein, Thor D.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing deme...

  7. The neuropathology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional

  8. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  9. Conference on sports

    CERN Document Server

    Guenin

    1983-01-01

    Le Docteur Guenin, lui-même un grand sportif, qui exerce entre beaucoup d'autres activités la course à pieds et le ski de fond, est aussi sécrétaire médical du journal "Vie et Santé. Il nous parle de l'exercice du sport, gym aérobic, jogging etc. avec présention de quelques dias et d'un film du Dr.Kupper.

  10. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  11. Heat stress and strain in exercise and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherhood, John R

    2008-01-01

    Heat stress arising from the thermal environment is of concern to sports medicine and to sports administration because of the perceived risk of heat casualties, in particular heat stroke. Many sports organizations recommend environmental indices such as the WBGT for assessing risk and setting environmental limits for training and competition. But the limits are not justified by evidence. This article describes the nature of heat stress in sport and how it may be assessed objectively. Heat stress and the principal human responses to exercise heat stress are reviewed briefly. Metabolic heat production and the thermal environment provoke separate and largely independent physiological strains. Metabolic heat production drives body core temperature, and the thermal environment drives skin temperature; the combined stresses are integrated to drive sweat rate. Control of core temperature depends on adequate sweat production and the capacity of the environment to evaporate the sweat. The nature of exercise heat stress is demonstrated by rational analysis of the physical heat exchanges between the body and the environment. The principles of this analysis are applied to critical review of current practice in the assessment of heat stress in sport. The article concludes with discussion of research to establish methods for objective sport-specific assessment of heat stress.

  12. [Doping and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G

    1999-09-01

    Doping is widely known as the use of banned substances and practices by athletes in an attempt to improve sporting performances. The term doping likely derives from "dope", an ancient expression referred to a primitive alcoholic drink that was used as a stimulant in South African ceremonial dances; gradually, the term was extended and finally adopted his current significance. There are at least two essential reasons to support the fight against doping: the potential harmful effects on athletes and the depth corruption of the fair competition. An exhaustive list of banned substances and methods has been drawn by the International Olympic Committee and further accepted by other International Sport Authorities and Federations. This list, regularly updated, is basically divided into doping substances (stimulants, narcotic analgesics, anabolic agents, diuretics, peptide and glycoprotein hormones and analogues), doping methods (blood doping, pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation) and drugs subjected to certain restrictions (alcohol, marijuana, local anesthetics, corticosteroids and beta-blockers). Although there might be some medical conditions, which could legitimate the need of these substances or methods, there is no place for their use in sport. Thus, an athlete's consume of any of these substances or methods will result in disqualification. Aim of the present review is to provide a synthetic description of both the desirable effects and the potentially harmful consequences of the use of some of the major doping substances and methods.

  13. Sports and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H

    2010-03-01

    Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In-office management of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The field of sport-related concussion has grown exponentially over the past decade, with more concussion-specific clinics being identified in major hospital systems as well as independent practitioner's offices. To date, there is no standardized in-office protocol for managing ongoing symptoms. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Sports Concussion Program, established in 2000, is one of the largest programs in the USA, pioneering the way in clinical management, research, and education of sport-related concussion. This report will outline the essential components of a successful concussion clinic, using the UPMC Sports Concussion Program as a case example of best practice. We will share several case studies illustrating the individualized and complex nature of this injury, as well as review important rehabilitation components. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Eventqual: a measure of perceived quality of sporting event spectators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Calabuig Moreno, Javier Mundina Gómez, Josep Crespo Hervàs

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring the perceived quality of the spectators at sporting events. A consulting expert’s method, known as Delphi, was used in order to propose a first version of the scale. This preliminary scale was administered to a small sample and a few items were eliminated after its analysis leaving a smaller scale. This scale was administered to a sample of 2,111 spectators at a mega-sporting event of multi-sport nature. The scale, named EVENTQUAL, showed good levels of reliability and validity. It underwent an exploratory factor analysis which identified four dimensions of perceived quality of sporting event spectators, which are the tangibles, staff, complementary services and accessibility

  16. Analysis and comparison of modern methods of turf irrigation, verifying the capability of existing information systems through the use of numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Facoetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The automated irrigation of parks and gardens in public areas has become more and more a common practice due to the many benefits it brings in terms of improving the quality of urban green areas. Since this practice requires significant volumes of water, and this becomes increasingly scarce and expensive, it is necessary that the design criteria and use management aim at maximizing the irrigation efficiency. There are conflicting relationship and competition between trees and turf for several reasons. On one hand the different irrigation needs can cause excess water in the root zones of the trees, on the other hand the surface roots of trees and the shade created from the leaves by the dripline (projection line of the canopy) determine an unfavorable area to the growth of the turf because of light factor. It follows that for an optimal design of an irrigation system is necessary to separate the turf areas from trees, with the disadvantage of considerably complicate the geometries of the sprinklers. Each tree or group of trees need to be associated to a not irrigated area. This problem seems not to have a specifically bibliographical evidence, although there are operating standards primarily used to define buffer zones for trees from constructions (British Standard 5837:2005). Ideally, a high number of sprinklers is required to follow the shape of the areas perfectly. Hence, an additional step is necessary to simplify these geometries, identifying a correct scheme for the sprinkler spacing. Such a sequence of geometric operations has been tested on the "Indro Montanelli" park in Milan, obtaining a reduction of the irrigated area of 47% and a water saving of around 30%. We intend to continue the research applying the model to other parks, verifying its applicability in different situations.

  17. The Sports Participation: From Research to Sports Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Núria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are the following: 1. To provide an overview of the fundamental aspects to be taken into account when carrying out and interpreting sports participation surveys; 2. To put forward an explanation of sports behavior; and 3. To suggest how these results may be used in intervention programs. Having gone over the literature in this field, I shall go on to address the following points: the definition of sports; trend analysis or the illusion of transparency; analysis of inequalities; identifying difference and individualization; and examining typologies to better understand each social group. I shall conclude with suggestions for sports policies.

  18. SPORTS WATCHING CULTURE AMONG MALAYSIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathevan Elumalai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity

  19. Sudden Cardiac Arrest During Sports Activity in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijon, Eloi; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Reinier, Kyndaron; Teodorescu, Carmen; Narayanan, Kumar; Jouven, Xavier; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports-associated sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) occur mostly during middle age. We sought to determine burden, characteristics, and outcomes of SCA during sports among middle aged residents of a large US community. Methods and Results SCA cases aged 35–65 years were identified in a large, prospective, population-based study (2002–2013), with systematic and comprehensive assessment of their lifetime medical history. Of the 1,247 SCA cases, 63 (5%) occurred during sports activities at a mean age of 51.1±8.8 years, yielding an incidence of 21.7 (95%CI 8.1–35.4) per million per year. The incidence varied significantly based on sex, with a higher incidence among men (RR 18.68 95%CI 2.50–139.56) for sports SCA, as compared to all other SCA (RR 2.58, 95%CI 2.12–3.13). Sports SCA was also more likely to be a witnessed event (87 vs. 53%, Psports-associated SCA (23.2 vs. 13.6%, P=0.04). Sports SCA cases presented with known pre-existing cardiac disease in 16%, ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor in 56%, and overall, 36% of cases had typical cardiovascular symptoms during the week preceding SCA. Conclusions Sports-associated SCA in middle age represents a relatively small proportion of the overall SCA burden, reinforcing the idea of the high benefit-low risk nature of sports activity. Especially in light of current population aging trends, our findings emphasize that targeted education could maximize both safety and acceptance of sports activity in the older athlete. PMID:25847988

  20. Sport and ageing: a systematic review of the determinants and trends of participation in sport for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2017-12-22

    The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to

  1. Junior Sport as a Moral Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David

    2002-01-01

    Critiques Siedentop's keynote address, "Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures," reviewing and rationalizing Siedentop's four goals for junior sport (educative, public health, elite development, and preserving, protecting, and enhancing specific sport practices), discussing Siedentop's views on sport as a collective cultural…

  2. Rapid Development of Sport and Sport Management at the Beginning of the Third Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Durdová

    2012-01-01

    Most people know through experience and intuition what the word „sport“ means. Sport includes a combination of these configurations when it involves team competitions, tournaments, or matches in dual sports or individual sports. Sport management - it is an area of professional endeavor in which a variety of sport-related managerial careers exist and it is also an area of academic professional preparation. Exists three unique aspects of sport management: sport marketing, sport enterprise finan...

  3. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 reports...... about violations of the media freedom or personal safety of sports journalists. Threats to media freedom include being banned from press conferences or events, the seizure of passports or denial of accreditation.The personal safety of sports journalists is compromised through verbal abuse, assaults......, attacks, personal and social media harrassment, detention, legal pressure, and killings. The key perpetrators identified in the sample were fans, athletes and coaches, owners and officials of sports clubs and national associations, international sports federations, and authorities in authoritarian regimes...

  4. Ethical Climate and Sports Personship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASILIKI EFREMIDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.

  5. Recombinant human erythropoietin in sports: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maia de Almeida Bento

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin is an endogenous hormone of glicoproteic nature secreted by the kidneys and is the main regulator of the erythropoiesis. An alteration in its production generates a disturbance in the plasmatic concentration giving rise to several types of pathologies related to the hematopoietic system. The recombinant forms of erythropoietin have indiscriminately been used by athletes, mainly in endurance sports, by increasing the erythrocytes concentration, generating a better delivery of oxygen to the muscle tissue. The administration of recombinant erythropoietin was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and its use considered as doping. This review has the intention to describe the physical, biological and pharmacokinetic properties of the endogenous erythropoietin, as well as its recombinant form, describing also its use in sports and the process of searching methodologies for its detection in doping control.

  6. Sports competition Water rescue service.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnčířová, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Titles: Sport competitions of Water rescue service Objectives: The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarize and describe the historical process of Water rescue service and the formation of Water rescue sport. Furthermore, the thesis introduces the rules of this sport and it's disciplines competitions all over the world. Methods: The analyse of available sources was used for this work. Results: The Overview of Water rescue service history and it's competitions in Czech republic and the rest...

  7. Sports drinks and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Warden H; Donovan, Terence E; Geissberger, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Sports drinks were originally developed to improve hydration and performance in athletes taking part in intense or endurance sporting events. These drinks contain relatively high amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), salt, and citric acid. These ingredients create the potential for dental ramifications and overall public health consequences such as obesity and diabetes. High intake of sports drinks during exercise, coupled with xerostomia from dehydration, may lead to the possibility of erosive damage to teeth.

  8. SPORT NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE OF COACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vasiljević; Danilo Bojanić; Jovica Petković; Aldijana Muratović

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004).The aim...

  9. International Sport Events: Improving Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Kerzaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2014-01-01

    The report and the article will be a comprehensive analysis ofthe needs to improve the international sport events marketing.Highlighting the role of international sport events in contemporarysociety and the challenges in the context of globalization,comparing opinions of various authors about aspects of classificationand the benefits for host country. The article and the reportreveals the main existing problem encountered in organizinginternational sport events, estimated perspectives for sol...

  10. Neurosurgical Emergencies in Sports Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Vin Shen; Botros, James A.; Madden, Christopher J.; Batjer, H. Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Athletic neurosurgical emergencies are injuries that can lead to mortality or significant morbidity and require immediate recognition and treatment. This review article discusses the epidemiology of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) with an attempt to quantify the incidence of neurosurgical emergencies in sports. Emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage, second impact syndrome, vascular injuries, and seizures are discussed. Recent Findings The incidence of sport...

  11. ANTHROPOLOGICAL BASIS OF HUMAN DIMENSION IN SPORT AS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PERSON'S GENERIC ESSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ye. Bilogur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to make the theoretical framework of a sportsman dimension concept as the realization of a person's generic essence that is a basis of a new scientific direction formation of sports anthropology and philosophy of sport. Methodology. The understanding of human nature problems, human existence in the form of sports activity, the potential of anthropological picture of the sporting world. In this case sport is considered as a culture which gives a chance to define it as an activity which involves positive results aimed at the realization of human essence as well as destructive ones that are aimed at the destruction of a sportsman personality. Scientific novelty is in the research of insufficiently studied theme of sportsman-dimension from the anthropological point of view. Practical value of the work is in elaborating the theme in context of scientific research performance at the department of theory and physical training methods and sports and the disciplines of Melitopol state pedagogical university named after Bogdan Khmelnitskiy. Philosophy of sport is a new subject and a new scientific direction, in the context of which the problems of sport, development of sporting values and outlook of the youth, their socialization in the sports activity are explored. Conclusions the introduction of the anthropological basis of sportsman-dimension essence in sport promotes the possibility to show entire human nature, its creativity in sporting life, therefore it leads an individual to a self-formation. The anthropological basis of the sportsman-dimension is aimed at the realization of a person's generic essence for increasing the human potential, physical health of young generation due to physical training and sports.

  12. Virtual(ly) Athletes: Where eSports Fit within the Definition of "Sport"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth E.; Manning, R. Douglas; Keiper, Margaret C.; Olrich, Tracy W.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic sports, cybersports, gaming, competitive computer gaming, and virtual sports are all synonyms for the term eSports. Regardless of the term used, eSports is now becoming more accepted as a "sport" and gamers are being identified as "athletes" within society today. eSports has even infiltrated higher education in the…

  13. Comparative análisis between synthetic and natural grass for soccer, in terms of economy, social and sport rentability, in the university enviroment Estudio comparativo sobre los costes de mantenimiento y rentabilidad económica, social y deportiva entre camposde fútbol con pavimentos de césped natural y artificial en el ámbito universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    this flooring suppose depending on the management necessity we want to obtain. Also we analyse the characteristics of the elements that shape the surface : type of fibber, length, density, etc.., and also we make some suggestions for its maintenance, marking and watering. At last (at the conclusions we propose synthetic grass of last generation (sand-rubber as a very best alternative for the practice of soccer, with highs indexes of quality, that increase the economical and social rentability, due to the bigger number of uses, and that in many cases it offers a bigger technique quality because it’s difficult to arrange of natural grass fields in good conditions.
    KEY WORDS: Synthetic grass, economical, social and sport rentability.

  14. AMERICAN SPORT AND THE SPORTS HEROES OF THE ROARING TWENTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mazurkiewicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the role of sport in American society against the background of a very important—for many reasons—period of great social transformation in the United States, one which visibly gathered pace in the 1920s. The author presents different aspects of popular culture, which was in full bloom on account of the following factors: the joy after World War I, a sense of optimism, the development of the economy and industry, the growth of big cities, and the greater affluence of the citizens. The analysis of that unusual decade corroborates the role of sport and its great power of influence on society. In an age when technology and mass production had robbed experiences and objects of their uniqueness, sports provided some of the unpredictability and drama that people craved when looking for romance and adventure. The reasons for the popularity of sport in the USA are presented, as well as the major sports diciplines and heroes of American sport who, in a time when mass production seemed to be making individuals less significant, met with a favorable response—people clung to the heroic personalities of sports figures. The analysis of the beginnings of professionalism in sport, the beginnings of organized support, and sports broadcasting, leaves no doubt as to the significance of the period. As the article demonstrates, it was a time of rapid and profound transformation in the realm of sport. Every serious examination of phenomena in contemporary American sport—and this is also true in the case of other countries—without a knowledge of the specificity of sport in the 1920s, would be far from perfect.

  15. Women in Sport: Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Elizabeth A; Gregg, Vanessa H

    2017-10-01

    The history of women in sport in America was shaped by Victorian ideals and other belief systems prevalent during the nineteenth century. Medical experts of that era believed that intense exercise and competition could cause women to become masculine, threaten their ability to bear children, and create other reproductive health complications. Consequently, sport for women was reserved for upper-class women until the mid-twentieth century. Title IX of the Education Amendments had a significant and lasting impact on sport in America. Today, girls and women are enjoying sport at the interscholastic, intercollegiate, and professional levels comparable with their male counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. TOURISMOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTING EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporting events are programs, which are dominated by creative and complex facilities, primarily sports, but also recreation and entertainment. As such, they achieve tourism effects and goals and have a socio-economic importance for the city, region or state. Depending on the size and importance of sports event, sport has a different role in the context of promoting tourist destination, as well as different values. Each sport discipline has its own criteria by which athletes are ranked individually or as team. The subject of the research is to determine the criteria for the categorization of sporting events, in order to determine the importance of sporting events as an element of the tourist offer (individually or as part of a tourist destination. Also, this paper’s results present a comparative analysis of similar methodologies for the categorization of sporting events. Based on the research presented in the paper, there are four groups of criteria: economic, media, social and environmental. Together with this, paper gives the classification of traditional sporting events in the case of Serbia, dividing them in four groups.

  17. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    about violations of the media freedom or personal safety of sports journalists. Threats to media freedom include being banned from press conferences or events, the seizure of passports or denial of accreditation.The personal safety of sports journalists is compromised through verbal abuse, assaults......, attacks, personal and social media harrassment, detention, legal pressure, and killings. The key perpetrators identified in the sample were fans, athletes and coaches, owners and officials of sports clubs and national associations, international sports federations, and authorities in authoritarian regimes...

  18. Sport for All: Italian Model

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNANINI, Angela; TRULL, Pau Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The many fragmentation of the scientific research and the lack of dialogue between the disciplines that compose the Sport Sciences in Italy have weakened the scientific-epistemological sport aim. In this context, is necessary to clarify the meaning of the term “sport for all” because during the last thirty years it has been used with more emphasis suggesting different situations and conceptions.Does the sport for all really exist or it is just a regulative goal, an utopian ideal? Through this...

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ...

  20. Radiological imaging of sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.

    1998-01-01

    Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)

  1. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    policies that restrict sponsorship of sports by unhealthy food and beverage manufacturers may help limit children’s exposure to unhealthy food marketing within New Zealand sports settings. Given the global nature of the food industry, the findings of this New Zealand case study may be relevant elsewhere. PMID:23399019

  2. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Signal, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Maher, Anthony

    2013-02-11

    sports by unhealthy food and beverage manufacturers may help limit children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing within New Zealand sports settings. Given the global nature of the food industry, the findings of this New Zealand case study may be relevant elsewhere.

  3. Transforming communities through sport? : Critical pedagogy and sport for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Oxford, S.; Jeanes, R.

    2016-01-01

    The value of sport as a vehicle for social development and progressive social change has been much debated, yet what tends to get missed in this debate is the way education may foster, enable or impede the transformative action that underpins the social outcomes to which the ‘sport for development

  4. Grassroot Sports: Conveyor Belt for Sports Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... establishment of sports academies to train talented athletes from the primary schools and the introduction of compulsory physical education and sports in all educational institutions in order to attract more participants from where talents can be discovered and groomed. Keywords: Grass roots; Conveyor Belt; Numero uno; ...

  5. [Sport injuries during duty sport--a risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammito, S

    2011-03-01

    Daily physical activity ist a predictive factor for cardio-vascular disease and for obesity. In military, police and firefighter service duty sport is used to increase and to keep a work specifical physical fitness. Till today no study data with direct data acquisition exists for a risk assessment of the injury rates in duty sport. In this one-year study in a German Armed Forces armoured brigade with 22 companies, every sport-related injury on duty and the following sick days were recorded. Apart from the sport type, the duration of the athletic activity and the number of soldiers that took part in it were monitored. 275 sport injuries were recorded. Soccer was the sport with the highest risk of injuries. Team sports proved to be more dangerous than individual physical activity. The author has demonstrated a reduction of the total injury rate by 39 %, of sick days by 50 %, and of the days with partial unfitness for duty by 42 % when team sports are reduced in favour to other physical activities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Physical education and school sport: The International Sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Summit on Physical Education, held in Berlin in November 1999, called attention to the serious decline in the state and status of physical education and school sport, all over the world. This report outlines the methods of the Sport in Education Project (SpinEd), an international research project, funded by the ...

  7. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  8. Imaging of Muscle Injuries in Sports Medicine: Sports Imaging Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L.; Regatte, Ravindar R.; Crema, Michel D.

    2017-01-01

    In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to

  9. Sources of enjoyment in sport reported by South African sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of enjoyment in sport reported by South African sports participants with visual impairments. ... These themes are consistent with the sources of meaning identified through research on sportspersons without disabilities, which provides support for the growing recognition of the substantial similarities between ...

  10. Using Sport Education to Teach the Lifetime Sport of Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarboro, Shot; Pritchard, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Golf is a lifetime sport activity that can be taught in physical education classes. How one teaches golf in physical education could influence whether students will want to continue to participate outside of physical education. The sport education model (SEM) is an instructional model that promotes student learning in all three domains by ensuring…

  11. Striving for fairness in Paralympic sport - Support from applied sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1948, Sir Ludwig Guttmann organised a sports competition involving World War II veterans with spinal cord injuries in Stoke Mandeville, England. Dr Guttmann worked towards rehabilitating World War II soldiers by involving them in competitive sports. Four years later, competitors from the Netherlands joined the games ...

  12. Sports and Technology. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Fred W.

    1993-01-01

    Technology is making a significant impact in all areas of sports and recreation. New equipment and computer training methods in spectator sports have had a major social and economic impact, and individual sports have reaped the benefits of technology. (JOW)

  13. Sport promotion in USA and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenov Gajina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.

  14. What Is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Overuse injuries Cartilage injuries Exercise-induced asthma Concussions ... Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? Pediatric sports medicine specialists practice in ...

  15. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  16. Returning to sports after a back injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  17. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upcoming Meetings Online Education Archived Meetings Faculty Resources Sports Medicine Fellowships Traveling Fellowship Submit an Abstract Submit ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal ...

  18. Development of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Deeter, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, a multidimensional, sport-specific measure of individual differences in achievement orientation, indicates that it is a valid and reliable measure of individual sport achievement orientation. (JD)

  19. Sports Medicine and School Nurses: A Growing Need for Further Education and Appropriate Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Cynthia S.; Badros, Karen K.; Madden, Cynthia A.; Drewer, Nancy; Makuchai, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Sports medicine, as a discipline, can be traced back to primitive man. The use of exercise as a prerequisite for conditioning and proper treatment of injuries was first documented in early Greek civilization with the establishment of the Olympics. Today, sports by their very nature invite injury. In 2000, 2.5 million students participated in…

  20. Paddle-boarding: Fun, New Sport or an Accident Waiting to Happen?

    OpenAIRE

    Waydia, Shree-Eesh; Woodacre, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Stand-up paddle-boarding is an increasingly popular water sport; however no published data to our knowledge exists on the nature and type of injuries sustained in this sport. Objectives This study aims to describe the frequency, pattern, and mechanism of paddle-boarding injuries. Materials and Methods Descriptive data of paddle-boarding injuries were collected using an i...

  1. Applying a Conceptual Model in Sport Sector Work- Integrated Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Deborah; Pill, Shane; Orrell, Janice

    2017-01-01

    This paper applies a conceptual model for work-integrated learning (WIL) in a multidisciplinary sports degree program. Two examples of WIL in sport will be used to illustrate how the conceptual WIL model is being operationalized. The implications for practice are that curriculum design must recognize a highly flexible approach to the nature of…

  2. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  3. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  4. Physics of Sports: Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David

    2000-04-01

    When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

  5. Antidoping in paralympic sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study reports in detail on the antidoping program of the Paralympic Movement to improve knowledge and optimize intervention programs, including educational and awareness initiatives. Data retrieved from annual statistics reports and historical records are complemented with personal observations. An overall incidence proportion of powerlifting) since 2000. A critical analysis of these data allows for an assessment of risk factors by sport. An efficient transfer of knowledge indicates the need to strengthen educational awareness, preferably imbedded in a multidisciplinary approach toward athletes' health. The particular case of autonomic dysreflexia is addressed as a separate theme.

  6. Contemporary dimensions of sports sponsorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian DUMITRU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing developed close relation with sponsorship since the beginnings of the industrial era of sports. The relation has transformed in a stable relation, the two forces – the sponsor and the sponsored – transforming into two companions of journey. The effort undertaken in this work was focused on analyzing the modern aspects of the partnership generated through sports sponsorship.The current issue and sport sponsorship has come a long way since the first action of its kind until now. Based on the presentation of new concepts on the development efforts in sport sponsorship, content provides a detailed analysis of the actual specifics of this type of activity. Analysis of influence vectors sponsorship process gives us a picture of the forces that can act on this. At the end of our research we focused attention on elements that empowers sports portfolio in terms of corporate interest, the potentiation commercial message and image association. This technique of promotional community for and through sports is maybe the one that manifests the most “laic” status among the promotional forms. This epithet implies a metaphorical approach given by the possibility of accomplishing some objectives that can have some more obvious “corporality” than in the case of the other forms of promotion used in the sports industry. Sports sponsorship has been an early ally of sports, and has remained a basic communicational technique. This fact is due to some determination in double sense: on the one hand, sport has adapted permanently to the dynamics of the range of sponsorship techniques and, on the other hand, the sponsorship tried to use the chameleon-like offer of the sports potential.

  7. Sport või sportlikkus? / Jukka Antila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Antila, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    TM võrdleb 18tollised suverehve: Aptany Sport Macro RA301, Continental ContiSportContact 5, Delinte DH2, Dunlop SportMaxx RT2, Goodyear Eagle F1 Asymmetric 3, Hankook Ventus S1 Evo 2, Jinyu YU63, Maxxis Victra Sport Zero One, Michelin Pilot Sport 3, Nankang Sportnex AS-2+, Nokian Hakka Black, Pirelli Cinturato PZero, Toyo Proxes T1 Sport Plus

  8. Sports dance artistic expression culture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zegang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, form, music, shape of the expressive force. In this paper, the study will be more in-depth excavation of the cultural connotation of sports dance, and promote the development of sports dance can be more comprehensive. In 20s of last century, Chinese Sports Dance Association officially joined the International Sports Dance Association, which also makes our country’s sports dance and international exchange more frequent. However, due to China’s sports dance sports dance learning time is not long, while learning is influenced by Chinese traditional culture, the sports dance movements are too conservative, there is a very large gap and international enthusiasm, bold and unrestrained, the pursuit of individual sports dance in the dance style, music and performance hand. Sports dance originated from abroad, it is produced in the daily life of people in foreign countries. China’s domestic sports dance players in learning dance at the same time, the production and the connotation of dance is not very understanding, therefore, it is difficult to better reflect the emotional expression of sports dance. Although the sports dance is a kind of similar to the competitive projects, but it is also a kind of dance culture, and to constitute a force from the dance art show a detailed study, detailed mining playing officer of sports dance performance further, reducing China’s sports dance and international sports dance gap.

  9. Probe into the Elements of Leisure Sports Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaixian; Gao, Qun

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the basic elements of leisure sports practice by referencing literature materials and logic analyses. Studies show that leisure sports practice consists of six elements, including leisure sports ideas, leisure sports environment, leisure sports time, leisure sports activity, leisure sports skill, and leisure sports state.…

  10. Sports dance artistic expression culture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zegang

    2017-01-01

    At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, fo...

  11. ROLE AND PLACE OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL CULTURE IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga P. Kokoulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal connection of the emergence and development of sport and its history were considered in thisarticle, and the analysis of the nature of sport andphysical culture in the modern society was made. Substantiated the necessity and importance of sports andphysical education at the present stage of the societydevelopment. Some factors that prevent globalizationand widespread dissemination of sport and physicalculture were introduced. Possible ways of solvingthese problems were put forward, highlighted motivational sphere on the formation of the active positionin the field of healthy lifestyle. The author conducted the study, which analyzed the following factors: how often respondents are engaged in sports and physicalculture, and that gives them the sport in addition to thegood physical form - data systematized and presented.

  12. Conflict on the courts: a review of sports-related violence literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-10-01

    Sports-related violence is a form of interpersonal violence. Violence that occurs in and around the sporting world can have potentially severe physical and psychological repercussions for those involved. Although scholars in a wide range of disciplines have addressed three of the subsets of sports-related violence, they have done so without regard to the interconnected nature of the subsets, choosing instead to look at hazing, brawling, and foul play as independent problems. By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognize that their connection to sport connects them, scholars fail to see how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. This review describes some of the academic literature, primarily from the United States, and identifies similar themes and prevention suggestions that appear across disciplines. It also argues that the three subsets are an interconnected whole of sports-related violence that deserves more detailed study.

  13. Ethics in Sport: Socio - Political Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. S CHNEIDER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport is a natural medium for bringing together people of different backgrounds throughout the world. If grounded in ethics and if participants follow the rules and cooperate, sport can be a conduit for world harmony (Sport great for human bonding, 2010.A s international relationships are developed through sport, those relationships can help support larger global endeavors in pursuit of a better world. If international sport based relationships are grounded in Mill’s utilitarianism that calls for actions re sulting in the most long - term happiness for the most amount of people (Mill, 1863/1969 those relationships are well positioned to transition to the domain of governmental politics, where meaningful attempts to resolve large world issues can be addressed, under the same utilitarian premise. In pursuit of a better world, identifying common groundamong the many differences held by people throughout the world is a magnanimous challenge. Beauchamp’s (1982 practical suggestion that common sense, habits, and pas t experience are most helpful when attempting to select actions that will determine long - term happiness. Moving beyond sport and transferring the application of Beauchamp’s practical utilitarian approach to larger global conflicts, can help guide governmen ts as they engage in the necessary politics, to move toward improving global problems in the interest of world harmony.

  14. Measuring CMB polarization from ISS: the SPOrt experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, L.P.L.

    2004-01-01

    The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity τ and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z ∼ 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7 degrees will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far τ and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models

  15. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to ...

  16. Career Paths in Sport Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Keri A.; Legg, Eric; Tanner, Preston; Timmerman, Danielle; Dustin, Daniel; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.

    2015-01-01

    Sport management alumni (N = 268) from five universities that offer undergraduate programs with an emphasis in sport management within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism were sampled via an electronic survey. The survey sought to learn where alumni were working, and how they felt about their career choice and undergraduate professional…

  17. Sport Nationalism in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Tosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history and characteristics of sport nationalism in South Korea as a step toward a comparative study in East Asia, with special emphasis on media, postcolonial history of the policies, and the ritual dimension of sport. The Korean government has sought triumphalism embodied by a focused strategy of close collaboration at the state and local levels, elitist training method, special rewards for athletes’ distinguished results, and so on. Nationwide enthusiasm promoted by media creates nationalistic solidarity. In postcolonial South Korea, sport has been used as a special tool to achieve focused political aims, such as prevailing against the anti-communist and anti-Japanese competitions. But recently, as the Korean society becomes more affluent and matured, people begin to enjoy the appeal of sport per se. The mega sport events, including public viewing, present a typical scene of Korean nationalistic enthusiasm, but it is also a good example of ritual consumption and the development of sport as art. To understand the vitality of sport in East Asia, it is important to notice the coexistence of the non-utilitarian aspect of sports with their political and ritual use.

  18. Team Building for Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…

  19. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  20. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depends on the individual's age, size, level of physical activity, and environmental temperature. Experts recommend that athletes drink ... different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: ... Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins ...