WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural landscape assessment

  1. An Attempt at Assessing Preferences for Natural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, James S.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of ways in which man makes a psychological assessment of his environment. Concerned with variables in the environment itself, fifteen photographs of natural landscape scenes were rated on each of twenty-one semantic differential scales by college students. Two major dimensions emerged: natural scenic beauty and a natural force…

  2. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  3. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  4. Quantifying landscape pattern and assessing the land cover changes in Piatra Craiului National Park and Bucegi Natural Park, Romania, using satellite imagery and landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas of Romania have enjoyed particular importance after 1989, but, at the same time, they were subject to different anthropogenic and natural pressures which resulted in the occurrence of land cover changes. These changes have generally led to landscape degradation inside and at the borders of the protected areas. In this article, 12 landscape metrics were used in order to quantify landscape pattern and assess land cover changes in two protected areas, Piatra Craiului National Park (PCNP) and Bucegi Natural Park (BNP). The landscape metrics were obtained from land cover maps derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images from 1987, 1993, 2000, 2009 and 2010. Three land cover classes were analysed in PCNP and five land cover map classes in BNP. The results show a landscape fragmentation trend for both parks, affecting different types of land covers. Between 1987 and 2010, in PCNP fragmentation was, in principle, the result not only of anthropogenic activities such as forest cuttings and illegal logging but also of natural causes. In BNP, between 1987 and 2009, the fragmentation affected the pasture which resulted in the occurrence of bare land and rocky areas because of the erosion on the Bucegi Plateau.

  5. Assessing Restoration Potential of Semi-natural Grasslands by Landscape Change Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Timo P.; Mussaari, Maija; Käyhkö, Niina

    2014-04-01

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects.

  6. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  7. How does the selection of landscape classification schemes affect the spatial pattern of natural landscapes? An assessment on a coastal wetland site in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, V; Veronico, G; Sciandrello, S; Blonda, P

    2016-06-01

    It is widely known that thematic resolution affects spatial pattern and landscape metrics performances. In literature, data dealing with this issue usually refer to a specific class scheme with its thematic levels. In this paper, the effects of different land cover (LC) and habitat classification schemes on the spatial pattern of a coastal landscape were compared. One of the largest components of the Mediterranean wetland system was considered as the study site, and different schemes widely used in the EU were selected and harmonized with a common thematic resolution, suitable for habitat discrimination and monitoring. For each scheme, a thematic map was produced and, for each map, 28 landscape metrics were calculated. The landscape composition, already in terms of number of classes, class area, and number of patches, changes significantly among different classification schemes. Landscape complexity varies according to the class scheme considered and its underlying semantics, depending on how the different types aggregate or split when changing class scheme. Results confirm that the selection of a specific class scheme affects the spatial pattern of the derived landscapes and consequently the landscape metrics, especially at class level. Moreover, among the classification schemes considered, EUNIS seems to be the best choice for a comprehensive representation of both natural and anthropogenic classes.

  8. Towards integrated assessment of natural pest control as part of a set of ecosystem services: the Landscape IMAGES approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Groot, J.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural pest control is an ecosystem service that appears to be affected by ecosystem characteristics at spatial scales from field to landscape. Changes in land use and land management at the field level to enhance pest control depend on a small number of decision makers. In contrast, changes at the

  9. NATURE MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPE AND THE CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Floor M.; Godeschalk, Frans E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape concerns into the CAP. A broader use of the CAP instruments might help to achieve nature types in the Netherlands.

  10. Designing agricultural landscapes for natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingrover, E.G.; Geertsema, W.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The green–blue network of semi-natural non-crop landscape elements in agricultural landscapes has the potential to enhance natural pest control by providing various resources for the survival of beneficial insects that suppress crop pests. A study was done in the Hoeksche Waard to explore how

  11. People's perceptions of managed and natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1995-01-01

    Research was undertaken to identify the opinions of what people saw in slides of managed and unmanaged landscapes. Most people were attracted by natural landscape features. Clearcuts were reported less frequently than roads, but dislike of them was more than 30 percent greater. Natural openings, bare areas, and sparse tree cover also were disliked.

  12. Managed and natural landscapes: what do people like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1992-01-01

    Visitors to wildland areas of the United States see an untold variety of natural and manmade features that comprise our national landscape. Efforts to assess public perceptions and concerns about the land and its management led to development of sensitivity levels that were presumed to be a measure of viewer concern for what they saw in the landscape. Sensitivity...

  13. Evaluating the potential of multi-purpose nature based solutions in peri-urban landscapes - a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Guenther, Daniel; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality protection and improvement with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). Current mitigation solutions are typically based on isolated design strategies used at specific small scale sites and for storm water only. More holistic catchment scale approaches are urgently required to effectively manage the amount of water flows and protect the raw water quality in peri-urban landscapes. This project aims to provide a better understanding of the connectivity between natural and managed flow pathways, storage, and biogeochemical processes in the peri-urban landscape to eventually aid a more integrated water quantity and quality control design. For an actively urbanising catchment in NE Scotland we seek to understand the spatio-temporal character of the natural flow pathways and associated water quality, and how these may be used to support the design of nature based solutions during urbanisation. We present preliminary findings from a dense and multiscale monitoring network that includes hydrometric, tracer (stable water isotopes) and water quality (turbidity (sediment), nitrate, phosphate) data during a range of contrasting hydroclimatological conditions and at different stages of the development of urban infrastructure. These demonstrate a highly variable nature, both temporally and spatially, with water quality dynamics out of sync with storm responses and depending on management practices. This highlights potential difficulties for managing water quantity and quality simultaneously at the catchment scale, and suggests that a treatment train approach may be required. Well-designed nature based solutions that tackle both water quantity and quality issues will require adaptability and a

  14. Simulating natural selection in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman; N. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Linking landscape effects to key evolutionary processes through individual organism movement and natural selection is essential to provide a foundation for evolutionary landscape genetics. Of particular importance is determining how spatially- explicit, individual-based models differ from classic population genetics and evolutionary ecology models based on ideal...

  15. Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the introduction to the Ecology and Society special feature on "Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management". Primarily drawing upon examples from Australia, the nine papers in the feature illustrate how landscape science seeks to integrate information from diverse sources to generate management solutions for implementation by individual land managers, communities, and governments at different levels. This introduction refers to the genesis of the feature, briefly outlines the nature and content of landscape science, and then summarizes key features of the nine papers. These are organized into two sections: one deals with inputs from human agents in the landscape, and one with the development of models enabling different management scenarios and environmental changes to be envisaged, understood, and applied to policy development.

  16. Sediment composition for the assessment of water erosion and nonpoint source pollution in natural and fire-affected landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkovic, Athena B; Pastén, Pablo A; Bonilla, Carlos A

    2015-04-15

    Water erosion is a leading cause of soil degradation and a major nonpoint source pollution problem. Many efforts have been undertaken to estimate the amount and size distribution of the sediment leaving the field. Multi-size class water erosion models subdivide eroded soil into different sizes and estimate the aggregate's composition based on empirical equations derived from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate these equations on soil samples collected from natural landscapes (uncultivated) and fire-affected soils. Chemical, physical, and soil fractions and aggregate composition analyses were performed on samples collected in the Chilean Patagonia and later compared with the equations' estimates. The results showed that the empirical equations were not suitable for predicting the sediment fractions. Fine particles, including primary clay, primary silt, and small aggregates (53 μm) and primary sand were under-estimated. The uncultivated and fire-affected soils showed a reduced fraction of fine particles in the sediment, as clay and silt were mostly in the form of large aggregates. Thus, a new set of equations was developed for these soils, where small aggregates were defined as particles with sizes between 53 μm and 250 μm and large aggregates as particles>250 μm. With r(2) values between 0.47 and 0.98, the new equations provided better estimates for primary sand and large aggregates. The aggregate's composition was also well predicted, especially the silt and clay fractions in the large aggregates from uncultivated soils (r(2)=0.63 and 0.83, respectively) and the fractions of silt in the small aggregates (r(2)=0.84) and clay in the large aggregates (r(2)=0.78) from fire-affected soils. Overall, these new equations proved to be better predictors for the sediment and aggregate's composition in uncultivated and fire-affected soils, and they reduce the error when estimating soil loss in natural landscapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  17. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  18. Surface fluxes over natural landscapes using scintillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijninger, W.M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the demand for reliable area-averaged fluxes associated with natural landscapes this thesis investigates a relative new measurement technique known as the scintillation method. For homogeneous areas the surface fluxes can be derived with reasonable accuracy. However, fluxes

  19. Landscape assessment in New Zealand: background and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swaffield

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available One result of the growth in environmental awareness in the latter half of the twentieth century has been the recognition in New Zealand legislation of a public interest in landscape. The focus of environmental and landscape management in New Zealand is the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA91. The stated purpose of the RMA91 is the sustainable management of natural and physical resources, and this includes a concern for aspects of landscape quality. In particular, councils' preparation of district and regional plans under the RMA91 requires, amongst other things, protection of 'outstanding natural features and landscapes' from 'inappropriate subdivision, use and development' (RMA91 s 6(b. As a consequence, councils have commissioned a large number of regional and district landscape assessments over the past decade, the results of which are now being translated into policy. Significant criticism has been expressed by some stakeholders - specifically landowners - of the outcomes of this process. Assessment of the effects of development on the landscape is also an important part of the resource consent process, and landscape assessment reports are frequently used by the Environment Court in its adjudication of resource consent cases. As a consequence, the practice of landscape assessment has come under increasing public, professional and judicial scrutiny. This article reviews the background to and summarises a recent survey of current practice in New Zealand landscape assessment. Issues in landscape assessment practice are then discussed, drawing on three professional workshops held in late 1998.

  20. Landscape Design and the language of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Perry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognition that we need to live in a more ecologically sustainable way and that the physical forms of designed landscapes are an expression of the social values and cultural drivers of the time has underpinned the call by some landscape design professionals for a new design aesthetic - one that reflects modern ecological concerns. However, for an 'ecological aesthetic' to be accepted, it must be capable of generating landscape forms that are pleasurable to the general public, as it is the general public who will be responsible for delivering ecological sustainability in the long term. The growth in understanding of the mathematical properties of natural systems and processes has led some authors to suggest that fractal geometry, called the language of nature, could playa role in developing such an aesthetic. This is supported by recent research that suggests human perceptual systems have evolved to process fractal patterning and that we have a visual preference for images with certain fractal qualities. However, how fractal geometry can be used, and what form an aesthetic based on this geometry might take, remains elusive and undefined. To develop an aesthetic based on fractal geometry it is necessary to understand why fractal geometry should be considered as a potential tool and whether the application of fractal analysis can differentiate between the types of landscape forms encountered every day.

  1. [Aesthetics theory and method of landscape resource assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Baoming; He, Ping

    2006-09-01

    With the destruction of natural environment by human beings, scenic resources are no longer inexhaustible in supply and use. Human beings begin to lay the scenic resources on the same important strategic status as other natural resources, while landscape resources assessment is the prerequisite of their sustainable exploitation and conservation. This paper illustrated the psychological mechanisms of aesthetic and its approaches, compared with the methodologies of traditional and modem landscape aesthetic research, discussed the characteristics of important aesthetic theories (Platonism, Kant paradigm, Empathizing theory, Gestalt paradigm, Marxism aesthetics theory, and Appleton theory) and the landscape assessment theories of 4 paradigms (expert, psychological, cognitive, and empirical) and 2 groups (landscape environment science and landscape architecture culture), and summarized the important practices and successful examples at home and abroad. It was demonstrated that the historical development of landscape assessment had the feature of a contest between expert- and perception-based approaches, with the expert approach dominated in landscape management, while the perception-based approach dominated in landscape research. Both of these approaches generallty accepted that landscape quality was derived from the interaction between the biophysical features of landscape and the percepultual (judgmental) processes of human viewer. In the future, landscape quality assessment will evolve toward a shaky marriage, both expert- and perceptual approaches will be applied in parallel and merged in the final landscape management decision-making process in some but unspecified way, landscape information and complex geo-temporal dynamics representation central to scenic ecosystem management will present major challenges to the traditional landscape aesthetic assessment, and modem science and technology will continue to help meet these challenges. The main trends of landscape

  2. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  3. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR, two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW, Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%, 122.70 km2 (3.87%, and 195.40 km2 (6.16% of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed.

  4. Reading the landscape: citywide social assessment of New York City parks and natural areas in 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Novem Auyeung; Lindsay K. Campbell; Michelle Johnson; Nancy Falxa Sonti; Erika Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) Natural Resources Group created the Forever Wild Program to protect nearly 9,000 acres of forests, wetlands, and meadows citywide. Although these areas were set aside over a decade ago, we have little systematic evidence about how park visitors view, use, and value parks with these...

  5. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  6. Is Nigeria losing its natural vegetation and landscape? Assessing the landuse-landcover change trajectories and effects in Onitsha using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaogu, Chukwudi; Okeke, Onyedikachi J.; Fadipe, Olusola O.; Bashiru, Kehinde A.; Pechanec, Vilém

    2017-12-01

    Onitsha is one of the largest commercial cities in Africa with its population growth rate increasing arithmetically for the past two decades. This situation has direct and indirect effects on the natural resources including vegetation and water. The study aimed at assessing land use-land cover (LULC) change and its effects on the vegetation and landscape from 1987 to 2015 using geoinformatics. Supervised and unsupervised classifications including maximum likelihood algorithm were performed using ENVI 4.7 and ArcGIS 10.1 versions. The LULC was classified into 7 classes: built-up areas (settlement), waterbody, thick vegetation, light vegetation, riparian vegetation, sand deposit (bare soil) and floodplain. The result revealed that all the three vegetation types decreased in areas throughout the study period while, settlement, sand deposit and floodplain areas have remarkable increase of about 100% in 2015 when compared with the total in 1987. Number of dominant plant species decreased continuously during the study. The overall classification accuracies in 1987, 2002 and 2015 was 90.7%, 92.9% and 95.5% respectively. The overall kappa coefficient of the image classification for 1987, 2002 and 2015 was 0.98, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. In general, the average classification was above 90%, a proof that the classification was reliable and acceptable.

  7. Alexander von Humboldt's invention of the natural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape took on a new meaning through the new science of plant geography of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1857). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, "landscape" was foremost a painterly genre. Slowly, painted landscapes came to bear on natural surroundings, but by 1800 it was still not

  8. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-02

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions.

  9. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  10. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  11. Multi-sensory landscape assessment: the contribution of acoustic perception to landscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yonghong; Luo, Tao; Breitung, Werner; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Tianhai

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R(2 )= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice.

  12. Spatial assessment of landscape ecological connectivity in different urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient. A GIS-based landscape connectivity model which relies upon ecological connectivity index (ECI) was developed and applied to this region. A GIS-based concentric buffering technique was employed to delineate conceptual boundaries for urban, suburban, and rural zones. The research findings demonstrated that urban habitats and potential habitat patches would be significantly influenced by future urban development. Particularly, the largest loss of higher connectivity would likely to be anticipated in the "in-between areas" where urban, suburban, and rural zones overlap one another. The connectivity maps would be useful to provide spatial identification regarding connectivity patterns and vulnerability for urban and suburban activities in this area. This study provides planners and landscape architects with a spatial guidance to minimize ecological fragmentation, which ultimately leads to urban landscape sustainability. This study suggests that conventional planning practices which disregard the ecological processes in urban landscapes need to integrate landscape ecology into planning and design strategies.

  13. Bridging the gap between landscape ecologyand natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Thomas R. Crow; Jianguo Liu; Dale Rabe; Charles F. Rabeni; Patricia A. Soranno; William W. Taylor; Kristiina A. Vogt; John A. Wiens

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing natural resource managers occur over entire landscapes and involve landscape components at many scales. Many resource managers are shifting their approach from managing resources such as fish, wildlife, and water separately to managing for the integrity of entire ecosystems (Christensen et al., 1996). Indeed, nearly all resource...

  14. Classical Chinese Landscape Painting and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Recent theories of the aesthetic appreciation of nature or natural environments have done much to clarify what might be essential to such appreciation. Such accounts are incomplete, however, as they depend on a strict separation between works of art and nature itself. This paper shows how classical Chinese landscape painting offers a way to…

  15. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  16. Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E. Parece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known urban heat island (UHI effect recognizes prevailing patterns of warmer urban temperatures relative to surrounding rural landscapes. Although UHIs are often visualized as single features, internal variations within urban landscapes create distinctive microclimates. Evaluating intraurban microclimate variability presents an opportunity to assess spatial dimensions of urban environments and identify locations that heat or cool faster than other locales. Our study employs mobile weather units and fixed weather stations to collect air temperatures across Roanoke, Virginia, USA, on selected dates over a two-year interval. Using this temperature data, together with six landscape variables, we interpolated (using Kriging and Random Forest air temperatures across the city for each collection period. Our results estimated temperatures with small mean square errors (ranging from 0.03 to 0.14; landscape metrics explained between 60 and 91% of temperature variations (higher when the previous day’s average temperatures were included as a variable. For all days, similar spatial patterns appeared for cooler and warmer areas in mornings, with distinctive patterns as landscapes warmed during the day and over successive days. Our results revealed that the most potent landscape variables vary according to season and time of day. Our analysis contributes new dimensions and new levels of spatial and temporal detail to urban microclimate research.

  17. Landscape character assessment with GIS using map-based indicators and photographs in the relationship between landscape and roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Ortega, Emilio; Otero, Isabel; Arce, Rosa M

    2016-09-15

    Planning and monitoring of landscapes cannot be reduced to its outstanding features, but must take into account all its characteristics. In this context, the relationship of landscape with roads is of particular importance, because roads alter the territory's environmental resources but also constitute a resource through which the individual comes into contact with the landscape. The aim of this work is to design a methodology to evaluate both the character and the scenic quality of the landscape as viewed from motorways and to provide measures to assess whether the motorway conveys the character of the landscape of which it forms part. The main contribution of this research consists of assessing landscape character through a novel series of map-based indicators and combining the findings with a photo-based method of assessing visual landscape quality. The method has been applied to a case study around a motorway in Madrid Region (Spain). Landscape character values regarding coherence, complexity, naturalness, visual scale, disturbance, historicity, and ephemera are obtained using Geographic Information Systems. Additionally, the landscape quality results derived using photographs allow the incorporation of the user's perception at a local scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT): rapid assessment for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Ciecko; David Kimmett; Jesse Saunders; Rachael Katz; Kathleen L. Wolf; Oliver Bazinet; Jeffrey Richardson; Weston Brinkley; Dale J. Blahna

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT) is a set of procedures and tools used to rapidly determine forest ecological conditions and potential threats. FLAT enables planners and managers to understand baseline conditions, determine and prioritize restoration needs across a landscape system, and conduct ongoing monitoring to achieve land management goals. The rapid...

  19. Sustainable Landscapes Assessment for the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Agoncillo; Jennifer Conje; Susan Cordell; James Halperin; Roopa Karia; Beth. Lebow

    2011-01-01

    As part of their development of a new Country Development Strategy, and with potential for incoming Sustainable Landscapes funding, USAID/Philippines commissioned the U.S. Forest Service to work with them on an assessment of efforts aimed at Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) in the Philippines, including the role of conservation,...

  20. Landscape metrics as a tool for evaluating scenarios for flood prevention and nature conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianchin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the project „Flood Prevention and Nature Conservation in the Weisseritz area“ („HochNatur“, a method including landscape metrics was developed and applied to assess and to compare different land use scenarios with regard to flood prevention and nature conservation. For the analysis, two sub-catchments strongly differing in land use within the Weisseritz catchment (Eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany were selected. The first step of the evaluation procedure was a biotope assessment using three assessment criteria (naturalness, substitutability, rareness / endangerment. However, the biotope assessment did not yield any information about spatial distribution or the structural composition of the landscape. Therefore, landscape metrics were applied to analyse the structural and biotope type diversity at the landscape scale. Different landscape metrics (Shannon/Weaver diversity index, mean patch size index, Interdispersion/Juxtaposition index and a weighting system were used to compare the different land use scenarios and the current state. The analysed catchment areas differ substantially in terms of their current state and potential measures regarding flood prevention and nature conservation depending on the location and distribution of biotope types. It was demonstrated that this method can be used for small catchment areas regardless of their land use for assessing, analysing and comparing different land use scenarios for a specific area.

  1. The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape produced by irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabe, M.; Morrone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape are producing irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape. The changes take place mainly in: a) Depredation mining activity on the hills, b) Advance of the constructions on the hills. c) Superficial drainage changes by tubes and dike deficiencies) Stuffed of diggings with industrials solids remainders. The presence of System of Tandilia hills grants a high landscaping and economic value to the area. The mining activity and the related tourism constructions are in constant development. The mentioned activities are harnessed by the economic height of last five years, since Tandil is chosen as place of permanent residence by job and educational supply, and tourism by near accessibility from Buenos Aires city. Like consequence, it takes place great urban expansion where particular houses stand out, also districts, countries; and the related ones to the tourist activity like inns, that are located on the hills, generating changes in the landscape. The study area is located in the S-SW-SE sector of the city of Tandil, head of the party homonym of the Southeastern center of the province of Buenos Aires. The purpose of this paper aim to emphasize the anthropological action like main agent the natural landscape alteration, generating environmental problems. Aerial photography, and topographic maps to scale: 1:50000 were used. (author)

  2. Assessing landscape vulnerability to wildfire in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Vaillant; Crystal A. Kolden; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is an ever present, natural process shaping landscapes. Having the ability to accurately measure and predict wildfire occurrence and impacts to ecosystem goods and services, both retrospectively and prospectively, is critical for adaptive management of landscapes. Landscape vulnerability is a concept widely utilized in the ecosystem management literature that...

  3. Design-with-Nature for Multifunctional Landscapes: Environmental Benefits and Social Barriers in Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg’s design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg’s Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg’s approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents’ survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg’s approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg’s approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability. PMID:24169408

  4. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-10-28

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability.

  5. SUSTAINABLE URBAN LANDSCAPE: AN APPROACH FOR ASSESSING AND APPROPRIATING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Amin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of development on its context is considered a key issue that governs the discussion and understanding of sustainability. For the reason, that ethics of sustainability are based on developing with no or less negative impacts on the contextual environment despite its urban scale whether limited or extended. This describes types of development that increase the good impacts on the tangible and intangible aspects of the built environment. Thus, achieving sustainability is no more a choice but it is a must especially, in an environment suffering from a lot of threats and stresses that affect all aspects of life; socially, economically, environmentally and also affect the beauty and aesthetics of urban fabrics. Assessing sustainability, the applied indicators and ways of assessment are allimportant concerns for urban sustainability discourses. Especially in such sensitive interacting domains as landscape, that links nature with the built environment. Approaching these concerns has a great deal when enhancing our environment aiming at better urban life containers. This paper aims at investigating the issue of sustainable urban landscape assessment through discussing the hue of indicators, their ways of classification, the criteria of selection and stating the variety of methods in which they can be assessed. Finally, it appropriates an approach for stating and assessing urban landscape sustainability indicators, which evaluates their both qualitative and quantitative value upon performance scale.

  6. Human or Natural Disturbance: Landscape-Scale Dynamics of the Tropical Forests of Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, David Russell; Fluet, M.; Boose, E. R.

    1999-01-01

    Increasingly, ecologists are recognizing that human disturbance has played an important role in tropical forest history and that many assumptions concerning the relative importance of natural processes warrant re-examination. To assess the historical role of broad-scale human vs. natural disturbance on an intensively studied tropical forest we undertook a landscape-level analysis of forest dynamics in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF; 10 871 ha) in eastern Puerto Rico. Using aerial photo...

  7. A framework to assess landscape structural capacity to provide regulating ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Justice Nana; Frank, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Fürst, Christine

    2018-03-01

    The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment. We utilized Analytical Hierarchical Process and Likert scale for the expert weighting of landscape capacity. In total, 56 experts from several land use and landscape management related departments participated in the assessment. Further, we adapted the hemeroby concept to define areas of naturalness while landscape metrics including Patch Density, Shannon's Diversity, and Shape Index were utilized for structural assessment. Lastly, we tested the reliability of expert weighting using certainty measurement rated by experts themselves. Our study focused on four regulating ES including flood control, pest and disease control, climate control, and wind erosion control. Our assessment framework was tested on four selected sites in the Vea catchment area of Ghana. The outcome of our study revealed that highly heterogeneous landscapes have a higher capacity to provide pest and disease control, while less heterogeneous landscapes have a higher potential to provide climate control. Further, we could show that the potential capacities to provide ecosystem services are underestimated by 15% if landscape structural aspects assessed through landscape metrics are not considered. We conclude that the combination of adapted land use and an optimized land use pattern could contribute considerably to lower climate change impacts in West African agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. [Ressenya del llibre Landscape indicators: Assessing and monitoring landscape quality, de Claudia Cassatella, Attilia Peano (eds.)

    OpenAIRE

    Llausàs i Pascual, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Ressenya de 'Landscape indicators: assessing and monitoring landscape quality', un llibre que fa un repàs de l'estat de la qüestió dels indicadors del paisatge i formula propostes a partir d’experiències d’aplicació a la regió italiana del Piemonte

  9. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  10. Environmental planning and management of urban natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Sadeghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of urbanization such as access to clean water, health, and overall easier life in cities, as well as the disadvantages or its negative effects on environment cannot be ignored. Today, there are numerous environmental problems due to the reduction in ecologically valuable places within urban areas. Bringing nature to the cities appears to be essential to enhance urban environment and to reduce environmental problems in urban communities. In fact, issues resulting from the idea of "sustainability" as a policy-making goal require an integrated environmental policy-making approach. The innovations of new environmental policy-making require policy-making mechanisms that can deal with interdependent characteristics of environmental problems. To this end, new structures have emerged known as Environmental Planning and Management and Strategic Environmental planning and management. This analytical – descriptive article aims to re-examine the origins and concepts related to environmental planning using a field and desk study. With the introduction of urban natural landscape, Environmental planning considers such spaces within the city. In this regard, Khoshk River, Shiraz, Iran, as an urban natural landscape, was analyzed. Environmental planning-based polices were proposed to improve quality of the place under discussion.

  11. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip J; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Field, Rob H; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A; Bradbury, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being.

  12. Landscape analysis – Assessing countries' readiness to scale up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the Landscape Analysis to assess strengths and weaknesses in combating malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Landscape Analysis is an inter-agency initiative to assess gaps and constraints and to identify opportunities for effective nutrition actions in order to ...

  13. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  14. Landscape assessment method at a European level; a case study of polder landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.; Bethe, F.; Wijermans, M.; Ypma, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    International and national policies relating to landscape values rely on an adequate assessment method. The SWOT method (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) proposed here combines geographical data, valuation procedures, insight into trendsin land use, and identification of threats and

  15. Economic susceptibility of fire-prone landscapes in natural protected areas of the southern Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Moreno, Roberto; Castillo, Miguel; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence. Landscape susceptibility concept has been motivated by the need to assist fire prevention programs and environmental management. There was a remarkable variation in annual economic value attributed to each protected area based on the CVM scenario, ranging from 40,189-46,887$/year ("Tolhuaca National Park") to 241,000-341,953$/year ("Conguillio National Park"). We added landscape susceptibility using depreciation rates or tourist arrival decrease which varied from 2.04% (low fire intensity in "Tolhuaca National Park") to 76.67% (high fire intensity in "Conguillio National Park"). The integration of this approach and future studies about vegetation resilience should seek management strategies to increase economic efficiency in the fire prevention activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic breeding bird guilds using landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Friederike; Glemnitz, Michael; Schultz, Alfred; Stachow, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands. Five characteristic bird guilds, each with three characteristic species, are defined for the typical habitat types of that area: farmland, grassland, hedgerow, forest and settlement. The suitability of each sample plot for each guild is indicated by the level of persistence (LOP) of occurrence of three respective species. Thus, the sample plots can be classified as "preferred" or "less preferred" depending on the lower and upper quartiles of the LOP values. The landscape structure is characterized by 16 different landscape metrics expressing various aspects of landscape composition and configuration. For each guild, the three landscape metrics with the strongest rank correlation with the LOP values and that are not mutually dependent were identified. For four of the bird guilds, the classification success was better than 80%, compared with only 66% for the grassland bird guild. A subset of six landscape metrics proved to be the most meaningful and sufficiently classified the sample areas with respect to bird guild suitability. In addition, derived logistic functions allowed the production of guild-specific habitat suitability maps for the whole landscape. The analytical results show that the proposed approach is appropriate to assess the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic

  17. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  18. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  19. Nature-based solutions for resilient landscapes and cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortezza, Raffaele; Chen, Jiquan; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk; Randrup, Thomas B

    2017-12-04

    Nature-based solutions (NBS) are increasingly applied to guide the design of resilient landscapes and cities to enable them to reach economic development goals with beneficial outcomes for the environment and society. The NBS concept is closely related to other concepts including sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, coupled human and environment, and green (blue) infrastructure; however, NBS represent a more efficient and cost-effective approach to development than traditional approaches. The European Commission is actively engaged in investing in NBS as a driver in developing ecosystem services-based approaches throughout Europe and the world. The pool of knowledge and expertise presented in this Special Issue of Environmental Research highlights the applications of NBS as 'living' and adaptable tools to boost the capacity of landscapes and cities to face today's critical environmental, economic and societal challenges. Based on the literature and papers of this Special Issue, we propose five specific challenges for the future of NBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Higgs mass and natural supersymmetric spectrum from the landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Baer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In supersymmetric models where the superpotential μ term is generated with μ≪msoft (e.g. from radiative Peccei–Quinn symmetry breaking or compactified string models with sequestration and stabilized moduli, and where the string landscape 1. favors soft supersymmetry (SUSY breaking terms as large as possible and 2. where the anthropic condition that electroweak symmetry is properly broken with a weak scale mW,Z,h∼100 GeV (i.e. not too weak of weak interactions, then these combined landscape/anthropic requirements act as an attractor pulling the soft SUSY breaking terms towards values required by models with radiatively-driven naturalness: near the line of criticality where electroweak symmetry is barely broken and the Higgs mass is ∼125 GeV. The pull on the soft terms serves to ameliorate the SUSY flavor and CP problems. The resulting sparticle mass spectrum may barely be accessible at high-luminosity LHC while the required light higgsinos should be visible at a linear e+e− collider with s>2m(higgsino.

  1. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1 the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2 the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the

  2. Landscape machines: productive nature and the future sublime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncken, P.A.; Stremke, S.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Design and research in landscape design have yet to be balanced into a fine triad of theory, method and practice. Many practitioners worry that such academic seriousness may weaken the imaginative aspects of landscape design. Their trouble reveals a typical weakness in contemporary landscape

  3. Association between patterns in agricultural landscapes and the abundance of wheat aphids and their natural enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-He Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different landscape patterns on insect distribution and diversity was determined by studying wheat fields in complex and simple agricultural landscapes. We studied the influence of simple and complex agricultural landscapes on wheat aphids and their natural enemies in terms of the time of migration, abundance, population growth rate of the aphids and parasitoid abundance. The results indicate that the diversity of natural enemies is greater in the complex agricultural landscape and the effect of natural enemies on the abundance of wheat aphids was greater in the complex non-crop habitat. Wheat aphid hyperparasitoid populations differed in different agricultural landscapes with a greater number of parasites in complex agricultural landscapes. Resident times of predatory natural enemies differ in simple and complex agricultural landscapes. The number and types of predatory natural enemies are higher in complex than simple agricultural landscapes. Aphid population growth rates and the maximum population densities of wheat aphids differed significantly in simple and complex landscapes. Maximum population densities of different wheat aphids were very different in simple and complex landscape structures. The population growth rates and maximum population densities of the different predatory natural enemies and hyperparasitoids differed greatly.

  4. Integration of Bayesian analysis for eutrophication prediction and assessment in a landscape lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Zhou, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication models have been widely used to assess water quality in landscape lakes. Because flow rate in landscape lakes is relatively low and similar to that of natural lakes, eutrophication is more dominant in landscape lakes. To assess the risk of eutrophication in landscape lakes, a set of dynamic equations was developed to simulate lake water quality for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), dissolve oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chl a). Firstly, the Bayesian calibration results were described. Moreover, the ability of the model to reproduce adequately the observed mean patterns and major cause-effect relationships for water quality conditions in landscape lakes were presented. Two loading scenarios were used. A Monte Carlo algorithm was applied to calculate the predicated water quality distributions, which were used in the established hierarchical assessment system for lake water quality risk. The important factors affecting the lake water quality risk were defined using linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the variations in the landscape lake receiving recharge water quality caused considerable landscape lake water quality risk in the surrounding area. Moreover, the Chl a concentration in lake water was significantly affected by TP and TN concentrations; the lake TP concentration was the limiting factor for growth of plankton in lake water. The lake water TN concentration provided the basic nutritional requirements. Lastly, lower TN and TP concentrations in the receiving recharge water caused increased lake water quality risk.

  5. Geospatial tools for landscape character assessment in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, N. P.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.; Griffiths, G. H.; Warnock, S.; Vassou, V.; Zomeni, M.; Trigkas, V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of Landscape Typologies in Europe relies upon advances in geospatial tools and increasing availability of digital datasets. Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) is a technique used to classify, describe and understand the combined physical, ecological and cultural characteristics of a landscape. LCA uses a range of data sources to identify and describe areas of common character and can operate at a range of scales i.e.national and regional and local. The paper describes the steps taken to develop an island wide landscape typology for Cyprus, based on the use of GIS and remote sensing tools. The methodology involved integrating physiographical, ecological and cultural information about the Cypriot landscape. Datasets on the cultural attributes (e.g. settlement and field patterns) were not available, so they were created de novo based on information from topographical maps (for settlement dispersion and density) and medium resolution satellite imagery from Google Earth, from which a number of distinctive field patterns could be distinguished. The mapping work is carried out on two levels using a hierarchical approach. The first level at a 1:100, 000 scale has been completed resulting in a map with 17 distinct landscape types. The second level is under way with the view of producing a more detailed landscape typology at 1:50, 000 scale which will incorporate the cultural aspects of the island. This is the first time that such a typology has been produced for Cyprus and it is expected to provide an invaluable tool for landscape planning and management.

  6. A meta-analysis of crop pest and natural enemy response to landscape complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; O'Rourke, Megan E; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Kremen, Claire

    2011-09-01

    Many studies in recent years have investigated the relationship between landscape complexity and pests, natural enemies and/or pest control. However, no quantitative synthesis of this literature beyond simple vote-count methods yet exists. We conducted a meta-analysis of 46 landscape-level studies, and found that natural enemies have a strong positive response to landscape complexity. Generalist enemies show consistent positive responses to landscape complexity across all scales measured, while specialist enemies respond more strongly to landscape complexity at smaller scales. Generalist enemy response to natural habitat also tends to occur at larger spatial scales than for specialist enemies, suggesting that land management strategies to enhance natural pest control should differ depending on whether the dominant enemies are generalists or specialists. The positive response of natural enemies does not necessarily translate into pest control, since pest abundances show no significant response to landscape complexity. Very few landscape-scale studies have estimated enemy impact on pest populations, however, limiting our understanding of the effects of landscape on pest control. We suggest focusing future research efforts on measuring population dynamics rather than static counts to better characterise the relationship between landscape complexity and pest control services from natural enemies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  8. The appreciation of nature and landscape by tourism service providers and visitors in the Ore Mountains (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical studies on the appreciation of nature and landscape in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany by tourism service providers (TSP and visitors. Attractive landscape and experience of nature are the most important reasons to visit this region and to spend leisure time there. Particularly mountain meadows, raised bogs and mixed forests are highly appreciated. Deforestation, industrial development and the decline of biodiversity would reduce attractiveness for visitors. We also assessed whether the tourism sector is prepared to contribute to the funding of nature conservation and landscape management. Use of general tax revenues is favoured, but other modes would also be accepted, e.g. a nature tax. Willingness to pay (WTP is ranging between €0.75 and €1.36 per guest per night by TSP, or between €1.06 and €2.73 per day by visitors. With respect to landscape preference and WTP we found in some cases significant differences among visitors, depending on region of residence, age and education level. A major part of the annual costs for nature conservation and landscape could be covered by public funds (taxes, if the results of the WTP approach were understood as a sign of societal demand and a call to action.

  9. Naturalization of landscaped parkland at Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of a program for the naturalization of Nanticoke Park, a 30 hectare area located on the property of Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke Generating Station was discussed. The station, which is located in southern Ontario very near to noted wildlife areas, is the largest coal-fired generating station in North America. Naturalization of Nanticoke Park began with passive naturalization of interior areas. An active naturalization program involving four to five hectare size areas annually was begun in 1997, to be completed over a five -year period. This presentation described the site preparation, planting methods, post-planting tending methods, survival assessment of planted areas, and scientific research initiatives including mulch trials with zebra mussel shells to increase soil moisture. The lessons learned from the two year experiment in determining the optimum planting strategy and methods were described. 7 refs., 1 tab

  10. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  11. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme events due to natural hazards is difficult to predict. Extreme events are stochastic in nature, there is a lack of long term data on their occurrence, and there are still gaps in our understanding of their physical processes. This difficulty in prediction will be exacerbated by climate change and human activities. Yet traditional risk assessments measure risk as the probability of occurrence of a hazard, multiplied by the consequences of the hazard occurring, which ignores the recovery process. In light of the increasing concerns on disaster risks and the related system recovery, resilience assessments are being used as an approach which complements and builds on traditional risk assessments and management. In mechanical terms, resilience refers to the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb while maintaining its ability to return to its original shape. Resilience was first applied in the fields of psychology and ecology, and more recently has been used in areas such as social sciences, economics, and engineering. A common metaphor for understanding resilience is the stability landscape. The landscape consists of a surface of interconnected basins, where each basin represents different states of a system, which is a point on the stability landscape. The resilience of the system is its capacity and tendency to remain within a particular basin. This depends on the topology of the landscape, on the system's current position, and on its reaction to different shocks and stresses. In practical terms, resilience assessments have been conducted for various purposes in different sectors. These assessments vary in their required inputs, the methodologies applied, and the output they produce. Some measures used for resilience assessments are hazard independent. These focus on the intrinsic capabilities of a system, for example the insurance coverage of a community, or the buffer capacity of a water storage reservoir. Other

  12. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  13. Landscape ecological assessment of the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ted

    2004-06-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Watershed, located in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States, is experiencing rapid habitat loss and fragmentation from sprawling low-density development. The bay itself is heavily stressed by excess sediment and nutrient runoff. Three states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government signed an agreement in 2000 to address these problems. The commitments included an assessment of the watershed's resource lands, and targeting the most valued lands for protection. As part of this task, the Resource Lands Assessment identified an ecological network comprised of large contiguous blocks (hubs) of forests, wetlands, and streams, interconnected by corridors to allow animal and plant propagule dispersal and migration. Hubs were prioritized by ecoregion, by analyzing a variety of ecological parameters, including: rare species presence, rarity and population viability; vegetation and vertebrate richness; habitat area, condition, and diversity; intactness and remoteness; connectivity potential; and the nature of the surrounding landscape. I found that much of the watershed was still fairly intact, although this varied dramatically by ecoregion. Current protection also varied, and an assessment of vulnerability will help focus protection efforts among the most valuable hubs and corridors.

  14. Simple landscape modifications for pollinator and arthropod natural enemy enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneficial arthropods which play an important role in providing ecosystem services (pollination and pest control) have come under threat as a result of intensive agricultural practices and simplification of habitats. Ecological intensification in agricultural landscapes by diversifying the habitat r...

  15. Surface-water exposure to quinoxyfen: Assessment in landscape vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Annalisa; Reeves, Graham; Meregalli, Giovanna; Piccinini, Armando; Negri, Ilaria; Carmignano, Pasquale; Balderacchi, Matteo; Capri, Ettore

    2010-03-01

    SummaryProtection of surface- and ground-water quality is critical for economic viability, as well as for human health and the environment. Furthermore, maintenance of the biodiversity of natural aquatic ecosystems is very important. The objective of this paper is to report methodology developed for the assessment of the surface-water exposure to pesticide using as example the fungicide quinoxyfen because persistent, lipophylic and hazard for the aquatic organisms. Exposure monitoring was carried out over two years (2005 and 2006) following historical and subsequent applications in Italian vineyards and to investigate the presence of residue in non-target areas close to the crop receiving repeated applications. After development of the monitoring procedures, surface-water contamination and biota exposure were determined during and after field treatments. Very low concentrations were found in sediments, often in contradiction with model and laboratory results, leading to the conclusion that even the historical use of quinoxyfen in vineyards within the catchment was not contaminating sediment in water bodies, which was regarded as the natural sink for such a pesticide due to its strong sorptive properties. For biota, quinoxyfen residues in benthic macroinvertebrates and fish in the vast majority of the samples were below the corresponding limit of detection (LOD). Thus long-term accumulation of quinoxyfen in sediments and organisms of the aquatic ecosystems would not be expected due main to the environmental conditions of the landscape that mitigate the overall exposure.

  16. Assessment of N and P status at the landscape scale using environmental models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Vos, J.A. de; Kros, J.; Knotters, M.; Frumau, A.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, W. de

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the compliance of a Dutch landscape, dominated by dairy farming, with environmental quality standards using a combination of model calculations and measurements. The total ammonia emission of 2.4 kton NH 3 yr −1 does not exceed the environmental quality standard (2.6 kton NH 3 yr −1 ). Nevertheless, the total N deposition (on average 24.4 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ) is such that critical N loads are exceeded at 53% of the nature areas. The deposited N mainly results from non-agricultural sources and agricultural sources outside the area (72%). The calculated average NO 3 − concentration in the upper groundwater does not exceed the 50 mg l −1 threshold. Calculated annual average N-total and P-total concentrations in discharge water are relatively high but these cannot be directly compared with thresholds for surface water. The results suggest that compliance monitoring at the landscape scale needs to include source indicators and cannot be based on state indicators alone. - Highlights: ► There is scope for environmental monitoring programs at the landscape scale. ► Landscape assessment of state indicators for N and P require models and measurements. ► Monitoring at the landscape scale needs to consider farm management indicators. - The compliance of an agricultural landscape with quality standards is investigated using a combination of model calculations and measurements.

  17. Lost in Transition: Secondary School Students' Understanding of Landscapes and Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tarnya; Beilin, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a study titled "Living in the landscapes of the 21st century" was conducted in 11 high schools in metropolitan and rural Victoria. The research team investigated Year 10 students' conceptions of landscapes in order to explore their understandings of natural resource management (NRM), including agriculture, food, land and water…

  18. Relative importance of habitat area and isolation for bird occurrence patterns in a naturally patchy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Johnson, E.J.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    There is debate among ecologists about whether total habitat area or patch arrangement contributes most to population and/or community responses to fragmented or patchy landscapes. We tested the relative effects of patch area and isolation for predicting bird occurrence in a naturally patchy landscape in the Bear River Mountains of Northern Utah, USA. We selected focal patches (mountain meadows) ranging in elevation from 1,920 to 2,860 m and in size from 0.6 to 182 ha. Breeding birds were sampled in each focal meadow during the summers of 2003 and 2004 using variable-distance point transects. Logistic regression and likelihood-based model selection were used to determine the relationship between likelihood of occurrence of three bird species (Brewer's sparrow, vesper sparrow, and white-crowned sparrow) and area, isolation, and proximity metrics. We used model weights and model-averaged confidence intervals to assess the importance of each predictor variable. Plots of area versus isolation were used to evaluate complex relationships between the variables. We found that meadow area was the most important variable for explaining occurrence for two species, and that isolation was the most important for the other. We also found that the absolute distance was more appropriate for evaluating isolation responses than was the species-specific proximity metric. Our findings add clarity to the debate between ecologists regarding the relative importance of area and isolation in species responses to patchy landscapes.

  19. Geomorphology applied to landscape analysis for planning and management of natural spaces. Case study: Las Batuecas-S. de Francia and Quilamas natural parks, (Salamanca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Graña, A M; Silva, P G; Goy, J L; Elez, J; Valdés, V; Zazo, C

    2017-04-15

    Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique. This enabled the creation of intrinsic and extrinsic landscape quality maps showing sectors needing most preservation, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic landscape fragility maps (environment response capacity or vulnerability towards human actions). The resulting map shows absorption capacity for areas of maximum and/or minimum human intervention. Sectors of high absorption capacity (minimum need for preservation) are found where the incidence of human intervention is minimum: escarpment bottoms, fitted rivers, sinuous high lands with thick vegetation coverage and valley interiors, or those areas with high landscape quality, low fragility and high absorption capacity, whose average values are found across lower hillsides of some valleys, and sectors with low absorption capacity (areas needing most preservation) found mainly in the inner parts of natural spaces: peaks and upper hillsides, synclines flanks and scattered areas. For the integral analysis of landscape, a mapping methodology has been set. It comprises a valid criterion for rational and sustainable planning, management and protection of natural spaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. GenomeLandscaper: Landscape analysis of genome-fingerprints maps assessing chromosome architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hannan; Ai, Yuncan; Meng, Fanmei

    2018-01-18

    Assessing correctness of an assembled chromosome architecture is a central challenge. We create a geometric analysis method (called GenomeLandscaper) to conduct landscape analysis of genome-fingerprints maps (GFM), trace large-scale repetitive regions, and assess their impacts on the global architectures of assembled chromosomes. We develop an alignment-free method for phylogenetics analysis. The human Y chromosomes (GRCh.chrY, HuRef.chrY and YH.chrY) are analysed as a proof-of-concept study. We construct a galaxy of genome-fingerprints maps (GGFM) for them, and a landscape compatibility among relatives is observed. But a long sharp straight line on the GGFM breaks such a landscape compatibility, distinguishing GRCh38p1.chrY (and throughout GRCh38p7.chrY) from GRCh37p13.chrY, HuRef.chrY and YH.chrY. We delete a 1.30-Mbp target segment to rescue the landscape compatibility, matching the antecedent GRCh37p13.chrY. We re-locate it into the modelled centromeric and pericentromeric region of GRCh38p10.chrY, matching a gap placeholder of GRCh37p13.chrY. We decompose it into sub-constituents (such as BACs, interspersed repeats, and tandem repeats) and trace their homologues by phylogenetics analysis. We elucidate that most examined tandem repeats are of reasonable quality, but the BAC-sized repeats, 173U1020C (176.46 Kbp) and 5U41068C (205.34 Kbp), are likely over-repeated. These results offer unique insights into the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of the human Y chromosomes.

  1. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Change in landscape cover types and pattern within Nairobi city .... Rainfall pattern is bimodal with mean monthly rainfall peaks varying from a high of. 195 mm in April to a low of 15 mm in July (Kenya Meteorological .... Classification accuracy assessment report for Landsat satellite images of the year 1976, 1995 and 2000.

  2. Integrating urbanization into landscape-level ecological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Ralph J. Alig

    2001-01-01

    Economists and ecologists are often asked to collaborate on landscape-level analyses designed to jointly assess economic and ecological conditions resulting from environmental policy scenarios. This trend toward multidisciplinary projects, coupled with the growing use of geographic information systems, has led to the development policy scenarios. This trend toward...

  3. Improving landscape and nature values in organic agriculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.; Elsen, van T.

    1998-01-01

    Organic agriculture can show that the production of a healthy crop and environment for plant and animal can merge with an increase in abundance, diversity and quality of habitats on farms, and a high potential for showing spatial and temporal coherences and more landscape diversity. Therefore it is

  4. Nature Connectedness and Landscape Preferences of Turkish Preservice Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Simge; Olgan, Refika; Yilmaztekin, Elif Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had two aims, first to investigate Turkish pre-service preschool teachers' perceptions of different kinds of landscapes that can be used to achieve their educational goals, their ideas about the characteristics of these settings, and the contribution to children's education, the resource needs, motivations, and barriers they…

  5. Fitness landscapes in natural rocks system evolution: A conceptual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemical reactivity descriptors, such as electronegativity, hardness and electrophilicity of major oxides computed from density functional theory are reported in this paper. These parameters are plotted within a fitness landscape diagram, showing that the principles of minimum electrophilicity (MEP) and maximum ...

  6. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Booij, C.J.H.; Tscharntke, T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the

  7. Landscape impact assessment of wind farm development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Garrad, A.D.; Morgan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chris Blandford Associates, in association with Garrad Hassan and Partners, was commissioned to carry out a landscape impact assessment of wind turbine development in Dyfed. The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek either to exclude or encourage wind turbine development; provide guidelines to assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape; provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments, as set out in the ''non-fossil fuel obligation'' and the draft planning policy guidance note for renewable energy published last December. (author)

  8. A landscape character assessment of three terraced areas in Campania region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravagnuolo, Antonia; Ronza, Maria; Di Martino, Ferdinando; De Rosa, Fortuna

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces represent the territorial structure of many cultural landscapes in the Campania region, Italy. Historic urban/rural settlements and hydraulic-agrarian systems have been developed on mountains and hills, producing diverse cultural landscapes depending on the specific geological, pedological and geomorphological characteristics, which influenced the character and functions of terraces. These unique landscapes are multi-functional and provide many ecosystem services: provisioning (food, water retention, building materials); regulating and maintenance (hydrogeological stability, soil fertility, protection from soil erosion, maintenance of genetic diversity, habitat); cultural services (heritage and traditional knowledge conservation, tourism and recreation, spiritual experience, education, aesthetic quality). Three terraced landscapes in Campania are analysed, which present a rich diversity in the geological structure and formal/functional characteristics: the Roccamonfina vulcanic area, a highly fertile and lapillous soil; the Monte di Bulgheria, a clay-rich area; and finally the well-known UNESCO World Heritage site of the Amalfi Coast, a calcareous, steep rock faced area. A landscape character assessment of the three sites is processed, identifying the biophysical structure of the sites, natural systems and land use, and cultural and anthropic elements. Terraced landscapes in Campania can be regenerated, taking again an active social and economic role for the society, enhancing their multifunctionality as a key source of wellbeing. Ecosystem services are mapped and evaluated to assess benefits and costs in a multidimensional framework. Spatial analysis in GIS environment supports this process, providing a decision-support tool for mapping and assessment of terraced landscapes, to convert their actual and potential value into a resource of economic sustainable development.

  9. 'Natural experiment' demonstrates top-down control of spiders by birds on a landscape level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldre Rogers

    Full Text Available The combination of small-scale manipulative experiments and large-scale natural experiments provides a powerful approach for demonstrating the importance of top-down trophic control on the ecosystem scale. The most compelling natural experiments have come from studies examining the landscape-scale loss of apex predators like sea otters, wolves, fish and land crabs. Birds are dominant apex predators in terrestrial systems around the world, yet all studies on their role as predators have come from small-scale experiments; the top-down impact of bird loss on their arthropod prey has yet to be examined at a landscape scale. Here, we use a unique natural experiment, the extirpation of insectivorous birds from nearly all forests on the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake, to produce the first assessment of the impacts of bird loss on their prey. We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders. We conducted spider web surveys in native forest on Guam and three nearby islands with healthy bird populations. Spider web densities on the island of Guam were 40 times greater than densities on islands with birds during the wet season, and 2.3 times greater during the dry season. These results confirm the general trend from manipulative experiments conducted in other systems however, the effect size was much greater in this natural experiment than in most manipulative experiments. In addition, bird loss appears to have removed the seasonality of spider webs and led to larger webs in at least one spider species in the forests of Guam than on nearby islands with birds. We discuss several possible mechanisms for the observed changes. Overall, our results suggest that effect sizes from smaller-scale experimental studies may significantly underestimate the impact of bird loss on spider density as demonstrated by this large-scale natural experiment.

  10. Assessment of Tibetan grassland degeneration via landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Hou, Ge; Ma, Baibing; Zang, Wenqian

    2017-04-01

    Desertification as one of the most severity social-economic-environmental issues has been extensive researched, and the assessments of desertification can be implemented accurately and efficiently based on the landscape indicators of vegetation coverage. Consequently, we explored the relationships of the degeneration index of the grassland with climate factors (temperature and precipitation), and human disturbance factors (livestock quantity and animal husbandry output value) via a landscape assessment approach across Tibet. The results showed that the vegetation coverage presented an increase tendency in the central region of Tibet, but the adverse phenomenon was observed in the northwest region. Meanwhile, the correlation of vegetation coverage with precipitation presented as positive effect in most region of Tibet except some regions of the alpine steppe, and the positive correlation of vegetation coverage with temperature also was observed in the less northwest region of Tibet. In addition, we found that the livestock quantity play a key roles in regulating vegetation coverage of the central region. Furthermore, the landscape indexes [number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), contagion index (CONTAG), landscape shape index (LSI), aggregation index (AI)] of grasslands were analyzed, the results exposed that vegetation coverage (1%-20%) has the positive influences on CONTAG and AI, but negative affects LSI, PD and NP. Morreover, there are opposite correlations among vegetation coverage and landscape indexes when vegetation coverage is 21%-40%. We concluded that overgrazing is the main reason of grassland degradation in Tibet, especially the number of livestock aggravates the landscape fragmentation. The results highlighted the alpine grassland management in future.

  11. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E.D.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan P.; Grace, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural landscapes become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. In this study, we asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure-defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index)-had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities, and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  12. Natural Landscapes and Optimal Resource Use at the Rio Grande Drainage Basin, Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pablo Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation depends largely on the appropriate management and rational use of natural resources. The assessment of natural landscapes and their suitability for human occupation is key to ensure optimal resource use. The criteria for establishing land-use potentials vary according to the type of activity concerned. For example, in determining the most suitable areas for growing grapes in Cuyo, Argentina, Valpreda (2005 focused on topography, soil quality and water availability, whereas in their study on the oil-producing region of northern Chiapas, Mexico, Bollo et al. (2010 applied markedly different criteria. Soil components and their variability were key to the multi-purpose study of Ovalles and Núñez (1994, while morphometric criteria have been used by Bocco et al. (2010 on farming; for cattle raising, Travieso-Bello et al. (2013 added soil quality and moisture, similar to Rodríguez-Gallego, et al. (2012. In the state of Oaxaca, scientific studies on the feasibility of human activity in different natural landscapes are yet to be undertaken. This study assesses the natural landscapes and resources of the Río Grande drainage basin aimed at establishing optimal locations for agriculture, livestock farming, forestry, wildlife conservation and their combinations. Following the FAO studies (1976, 1993, geomorphological and morphoclimatic systems have been considered as landscape units for analysis. The methodology was adapted from the following studies: The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Ouyang, 2002; an estimate of soil pH based on Landsat imagery (López-Granados et al., 2005; a calculation of potential livestock carrying capacity (LCC (Semarnat, 2003; Vergara and Ortiz-Espinoza, 2010; and a land use and vegetation cover analysis for forestry  suitability and the potential distribution of two cat species (Lynx rufus and Panthera onca (Chávez y Ceballos, 2006; Medellín-Legorreta and Bárcenas, 2009; Semarnat 2010

  13. A pan-European model of landscape potential to support natural pest control services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rega, Carlo; Bartual, Agustín M.; Bocci, Gionata; Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Jeanneret, Philippe; Werf, van der Wopke; Pfister, Sonja C.; Holland, John M.; Paracchini, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Pest control by natural enemies (natural pest control) is an important regulating ecosystem service with significant implications for the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. The presence of semi-natural habitats and landscape heterogeneity are key determinants of the delivery of this service.

  14. Determination of landscape beauties through visual quality assessment method: a case study for Kemaliye (Erzincan/Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zohre; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2008-06-01

    Kemaliye (Erzincan/Turkey) is the member of European Association of Historic Towns and Regions. The aim of this study was to reveal the visual richness of the town; to identify the relationship between landscape spatial pattern and visual quality of the landscape and to offer some suggestions for the future planning in regarding to these visual beauties. The visual quality assessment method was used in this study. The results of the study revealed three landscape types that have the highest visual quality. Among those, the highest one is urban scenery 3 (US3; VQP = 5.9400), the second is geological structure scenery 5 (GSS 5; VQP = 5.9200) and the third natural scenery 3 (NS3; VQP = 5.9133). Visual quality assessment showed that urban pattern, geological structure and natural resources of the region also have visual value. The relationships between landscape spatial pattern and visual quality of landscape indicated that certain characteristics of landscape affected the quality. For instance, as the texture level decreased in natural landscapes and as the green areas increased in geological structure, visual preferences ratio increased. Some suggestions were also made regarding the visual resources use in the region.

  15. Urban Landscape Metrics for Climate and Sustainability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, F. V.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    To test metrics for rapid identification of urban classes and sustainable urban forms, we examine the configuration of urban landscapes using satellite remote sensing data. We adopt principles from landscape ecology and urban planning to evaluate urban heterogeneity and design themes that may constitute more sustainable urban forms, including compactness (connectivity), density, mixed land uses, diversity, and greening. Using 2-D wavelet and multi-resolution analysis, landscape metrics, and satellite-derived indices of vegetation fraction and impervious surface, the spatial variability of Landsat and MODIS data from metropolitan areas of Manaus and São Paulo, Brazil are investigated. Landscape metrics for density, connectivity, and diversity, like the Shannon Diversity Index, are used to assess the diversity of urban buildings, geographic extent, and connectedness. Rapid detection of urban classes for low density, medium density, high density, and tall building district at the 1-km scale are needed for use in climate models. If the complexity of finer-scale urban characteristics can be related to the neighborhood scale both climate and sustainability assessments may be more attainable across urban areas.

  16. Earth observation technologies in service to the cultural landscape of Cyprus: risk identification and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Branka; Tzouvaras, Marios; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    The Cultural landscapes are witnesses of "the creative genius, social development and the imaginative and spiritual vitality of humanity. They are part of our collective identity", as it is internationally defined and accepted (ICOMOSUNESCO). The need for their protection, management and inclusion in the territorial policies has already been widely accepted and pursued. There is a great number of risks to which the cultural landscapes are exposed, arising mainly from natural (both due to slow geo-physical phenomena as well as hazards) and anthropogenic causes (e.g. urbanisation pressure, agriculture, landscape fragmentation etc.). This paper explores to what extent Earth Observation (EO) technologies can contribute to identify and evaluate the risks to which Cultural Landscapes of Cyprus are exposed, taking into consideration specific phenomena, such as land movements and soil erosion. The research of the paper is illustrated as part of the activities carried out in the CLIMA project - "Cultural Landscape risk Identification, Management and Assessment". It aims to combine the fields of remote sensing technologies, including Sentinel data, and monitoring of cultural landscape for its improved protection and management. Part of this approach will be based on the use of InSAR techniques in order to monitor the temporal evolution of deformations through the detection and measurement of the effects of surface movements caused by various factors. The case study selected for Cyprus is the Nea Paphos archeological site and historical center of Paphos, which are listed as UNESCO World Heritage sites. The interdisciplinary approach adopted in this research was useful to identify major risks affecting the landscape of Cyprus and to classify the most suitable EO methods to assess and map such risks.

  17. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E D; Damschen, Ellen I; Harrison, Susan P; Grace, James B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural habitats become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. We asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, USA, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure, defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index), had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  18. Assessment of visual landscape quality using IKONOS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ulas Yunus

    2014-07-01

    The assessment of visual landscape quality is of importance to the management of urban woodlands. Satellite remote sensing may be used for this purpose as a substitute for traditional survey techniques that are both labour-intensive and time-consuming. This study examines the association between the quality of the perceived visual landscape in urban woodlands and texture measures extracted from IKONOS satellite data, which features 4-m spatial resolution and four spectral bands. The study was conducted in the woodlands of Istanbul (the most important element of urban mosaic) lying along both shores of the Bosporus Strait. The visual quality assessment applied in this study is based on the perceptual approach and was performed via a survey of expressed preferences. For this purpose, representative photographs of real scenery were used to elicit observers' preferences. A slide show comprising 33 images was presented to a group of 153 volunteers (all undergraduate students), and they were asked to rate the visual quality of each on a 10-point scale (1 for very low visual quality, 10 for very high). Average visual quality scores were calculated for landscape. Texture measures were acquired using the two methods: pixel-based and object-based. Pixel-based texture measures were extracted from the first principle component (PC1) image. Object-based texture measures were extracted by using the original four bands. The association between image texture measures and perceived visual landscape quality was tested via Pearson's correlation coefficient. The analysis found a strong linear association between image texture measures and visual quality. The highest correlation coefficient was calculated between standard deviation of gray levels (SDGL) (one of the pixel-based texture measures) and visual quality (r = 0.82, P quality of urban woodland landscapes can be estimated by using texture measures extracted from satellite data in combination with appropriate modelling

  19. Relationship between the abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in cereal fields and landscape composition

    OpenAIRE

    Diab Al Hassan; Nicolas Parisey; Françoise Burel; Manuel Plantegenest; Pavel Kindlmann; Alain Butet

    2013-01-01

    We investigated, over the course of two years, the association between the abundance of aphids and their natural carabid enemies and landscape, which may help in the development of effective strategies for reducing the incidence of aphid outbreaks in agricultural crops. This was undertaken in 12 wheat and 12 maize fields each year in an agricultural landscape in western France. Our study area was characterized by hedgerows surrounding arable fields and permanent grassland. Some areas have not...

  20. Integrating shotcrete walls into the natural landscape by application of 'Green Walls'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medl, Alexandra; Kikuta, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    Steep slopes resulting from major road infrastructure constructions are increasingly perceived as disagreeable disturbance in the landscape. Thus, a tool to consider landscape aspects and integrate these slopes into the natural environment is required. The challenge is to establish a sustainable vegetation layer despite of adverse circumstances such as inclinations of almost 90⁰, exposed position of slopes near streets and lack of soil and water supply. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of an innovative greening technology for vertical structures (shotcrete wall) in terms of vegetation development on varying plant substrates and geotextiles. The field experiment in Steinach am Brenner, Tyrol, Austria, included testing three plant substrates on basis of nearby rocky excavation material ('Innsbrucker Quarzphyllit', 'Bündnerschiefer' and 'Zentralgneis') combined with compost. Additionally, five geotextiles (geogrid (3x4 mm), geogrid (9x10 mm), coir net, coir mat, geo mat) were applied for evaluation. All test combinations were evaluated regarding vegetation cover and biomass production from 2015 to 2016. Analyses of chemical properties were conducted for all plant substrates. Results showed highest vegetation cover ratio on 'Bündnerschiefer' and 'Innsbrucker Quarzphyllit', which can be explained by the favorable mineral composition (nutrient storage capacity) and chemical properties of compost (lower values of electrical conductivity and C/N ratio). In conclusion, the use of 'Green Walls' filled with 'Bündnerschiefer' or 'Innsbrucker Quarzphyllit' plant substrate in combination with netlike geotextiles proved best, since geo grid and coir net turned out as most successful one year after installation. 'Green Walls' are promising in terms of establishing an optimal vegetation cover on vertical structures and are well suited for integrating shotcrete walls into the landscape. The use of local excavation material for greening purposes can be

  1. The Art in Visualizing Natural Landscapes from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Shipman, J. S.; Adams, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing data can capture the changing Earth at cm resolution, across hundreds of spectral channels, and multiple times per hour. There is an art in combining these datasets together to fully capture the beauty of our planet. The resulting artistic piece can be further transformed by building in an accompanying musical score, allowing for a deeper emotional connection with the public. We make use of visible, near, middle and long wave infrared and radar data as well as different remote sensing techniques to uniquely capture our changing landscape in the spaceborne data. We will generate visually compelling imagery and videos that represent hazardous events from dust storms to landslides and from volcanic eruptions to forest fires. We will demonstrate how specific features of the Earth's landscape can be emphasized through the use of different datasets and color combinations and how, by adding a musical score, we can directly connect with the viewer and heighten their experience. We will also discuss our process to integrate the different aspects of our project together and how it could be developed to capture the beauty of other planets across the solar system using spaceborne imagery and data. Bringing together experts in art installations, composing musical scores, and remote sensing image visualization can lead to new and exciting artistic representations of geoscience data. The resulting product demonstrates there is an art to visualizing remote sensing data to capture the beauty of our planet and that incorporating a musical score can take us all to new places and emotions to enhance our experience.

  2. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  3. Assessment of the suitability of trees for brownfields reuse in the post-mining landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mec, J.; Lokajickova, B.; Sotkova, N.; Svehlakova, H.; Stalmachova, B.

    2017-10-01

    The post-mining landscape of Upper Silesian is deterioration of the original landscape caused by underground coal mining. There are huge ecosystems changes, which have been reclaimed by nature-friendly procedures. The aim of the work is to evaluate the suitability of selected trees for reuse of brownfields in this landscape and proposals for reclamation in the interest areas of Upper Silesian.

  4. Military land use and the impact on nature and landscape a study of Danish military areas 1900 - 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Levin, Gregor; Perner, Mads Linnet

    sites larger than 10 hectares (N=113) covering a total of 38.576 hectares. For each military site, land use trajectories were identified based on interpretation of historical topographic maps. Additional spatial data were applied to assess the present land use and land cover composition as well...... as the content of biological diversity. Results suggest, that military activities, in general, generate landscapes with a land cover and land use composition different from the Danish landscape in general, which is dominated by agriculture and urban land use. This difference is also reflected by a relatively...... marginal lands; (4) permanent and continues forest cover; (5) change from arable land or nature to build environment and (6) development into recreational land. Interestingly, results also indicated that high nature quality and biodiversity on military sites, which originated from arable land...

  5. Ecosystem Health Assessment of Mining Cities Based on Landscape Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, M.; Fang, F.; Xiao, R.

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystem health assessment (EHA) is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR) model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005-2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.

  6. Cultural landscapes and attributes of "culturalness" in protected areas: An exploratory assessment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlami, Vassiliki; Kokkoris, Ioannis P; Zogaris, Stamatis; Cartalis, Constantinos; Kehayias, George; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2017-10-01

    Cultural landscapes are poorly inventoried and evaluated in protected natural areas. This study presents a novel procedure to assess cultural landscape features and their cultural values in the major protected areas of Greece. After identifying a set of culturally modified land cover types and habitat types the GIS-based survey of the entire Natura 2000 protected area network in Greece (419 sites) shows that roughly 67% of protected area land cover consists of cultural landscape features. This was corroborated by the distribution of culturally modified habitat types which take up approximately 50% of the areal cover in a subset of the nation's Natura 2000 network (241 Special Areas for Conservation). Moreover, a set of 12 cultural attributes involving cultural heritage values, traditional land uses and aesthetic quality indicators were scored to assess these "cultural values" in each site. Gradient maps were produced to express an initial nation-wide site ranking profile. Heatmaps help link instead of solely rank culturally valuable sites that are in proximity to each other, showcasing site clusters of outstanding value. These analyses help define the level of "culturalness" of each site based on human-modified landscape and habitat types and provide a baseline review of cultural values in protected natural areas. This screening-level survey identifies the protected areas that may require special attention for managing cultural elements-of-diversity. Difficulties with data availability and uncertainties are reviewed. This procedure supports a paradigm shift that promotes a more holistic evaluation and management of biodiversity-centered protected areas, where until recently cultural landscapes were rarely appreciated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival of Adult Songbirds in Boreal Forest Landscapes Fragmented by Clearcuts and Natural Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darroch M. Whitaker

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists little information on demographic responses of boreal songbirds to logging. We conducted a 4-yr (2003-2006 songbird mark-recapture study in western Newfoundland, where land cover is a naturally heterogeneous mosaic of productive spruce-fir forest, stunted taiga, and openings such as bogs, fens, and riparian zones. We compared apparent survival and rate of transience for adults of 14 species between areas having forests fragmented primarily by either natural openings or 3-7 yr-old clearcuts. Data were collected on three landscape pairs, with birds being marked on three 4-6 ha netting sites on each landscape (total = 18 netting sites. Survival rates were estimated using multi-strata mark-recapture models with landscape types specified as model strata. Landscape type was retained in the best model for only two species, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Yellow-rumped Warbler, in both cases indicating lower apparent survival in landscapes having clearcuts. Though parameter estimates suggested lower survival in clearcut landscapes for several species, meta-analysis across all species detected no general difference between landscape types. Further, we did not detect any relation between landscape differences in survival and a species' habitat affinity, migratory strategy, or the proportion of transients in its population. Although sensitivity to logging was limited, we observed high interspecific variation in rates of breeding season apparent survival (48% [Dark-eyed Junco] to 100% [several species], overwinter apparent survival (0.3% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet] to 86.5% [Gray Jay], and transience (≈0% [several species] to 61% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet in clearcut landscapes]. For Lincoln's and White-throated Sparrows, over-winter apparent survival was >2× higher for males than females, and rate of transience was > 8× higher for White-throated Sparrow males than females. Moderately male-biased sex ratios suggested that both lower mortality and higher

  8. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Beaver and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Slonecker, E. Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Beaver County and Butler County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  9. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Armstrong and Indiana Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Armstrong County and Indiana County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  10. Outdoor recreation in shifting societal and natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; J. M.  Bowker; Katherine  Smith; Cindi  West

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation contributes to public health, supports hundreds of thousands of jobs, and  provides billions of dollars annually to rural economies. Visitors to federal lands alone spent $51  billion in 2012 in nearby communities during their trips to recreate on public lands and waters  (Forest Service National Center for Natural Resources Economic Research 2014)....

  11. Relationships between migration rates and landscape resistance assessed using individual-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman; M. A. Murphy; G. Luikart

    2010-01-01

    Linking landscape effects on gene flow to processes such as dispersal and mating is essential to provide a conceptual foundation for landscape genetics. It is particularly important to determine how classical population genetic models relate to recent individual-based landscape genetic models when assessing individual movement and its influence on population genetic...

  12. NatureLinks: Protected areas, wilderness, and landscape connectivity in South Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Stokes; Greg Leaman

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Government has recognized that, despite an extensive protected area system (26 percent of the State), Statewide ecological goals will not be achieved on protected areas alone. The NatureLinks model promotes protected areas acting as “ecological cores” in landscapes managed with conservation objectives. To implement this model, partnerships with...

  13. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  14. Relationship between the abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in cereal fields and landscape composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, D. A.; Parisey, N.; Burel, F.; Plantegenest, M.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Butet, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 89-101 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : agroecosystems * landscape structure * crop pests * aphids * biological control * semi-natural habitats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  16. A landscape ecology approach to assessing development impacts in the tropics: A geothermal energy example in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Trettin, C.C.; O'Neill, R. V.

    2002-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in environmental impact assessments (EIA) because GIS is useful for analysing spatial impacts of various development scenarios. Spatially representing these impacts provides another tool for landscape ecology in environmental and geographical investigations by facilitating analysis of the effects of landscape patterns on ecological processes and examining change over time. Landscape ecological principles are applied in this study to a hypothetical geothermal development project on the Island of Hawaii. Some common landscape pattern metrics were used to analyse dispersed versus condensed development scenarios and their effect on landscape pattern. Indices of fragmentation and patch shape did not appreciably change with additional development. The amount of forest to open edge, however, greatly increased with the dispersed development scenario. In addition, landscape metrics showed that a human disturbance had a greater simplifying effect on patch shape and also increased fragmentation than a natural disturbance. The use of these landscape pattern metrics can advance the methodology of applying GIS to EIA.

  17. Design Transformation based on Nature and Identity Formation in the Design of Landscape Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of initiative from the designers to integrate the environmental resources in the material and design production of local urban landscape elements that reflects human culture and lifestyle. Based on criteria and principles of symbol design and transformation process, this paper describes the symbiotic relationship between local plants (flower and designs of landscape elements. Using visual analysis, the researcher manipulated shapes and forms of local plant images in producing possible shapes and forms for a design of landscape element (lamp post. The results indicate that the design transformation is a systematic process that allows for variations in design without losing the core characteristics and identity of the basic elements of nature.

  18. Beyond theories of plant invasions: Lessons from natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    There are a growing number of contrasting theories about plant invasions, but most are only weakly supported by small-scale field experiments, observational studies, and mathematical models. Among the most contentious theories is that species-rich habitats should be less vulnerable to plant invasion than species-poor sites, stemming from earlier theories that competition is a major force in structuring plant communities. Early ecologists such as Charles Darwin (1859) and Charles Elton (1958) suggested that a lack of intense interspecific competition on islands made these low-diversity habitats vulnerable to invasion. Small-scale field experiments have supported and contradicted this theory, as have various mathematical models. In contrast, many large-scale observational studies and detailed vegetation surveys in continental areas often report that species-rich areas are more heavily invaded than species-poor areas, but there are exceptions here as well. In this article, I show how these seemingly contrasting patterns converge once appropriate spatial and temporal scales are considered in complex natural environments. I suggest ways in which small-scale experiments, mathematical models, and large- scale observational studies can be improved and better integrated to advance a theoretically based understanding of plant invasions.

  19. Uncertainty analysis as a tool for refining land dynamics modelling on changing landscapes: a case study in a Spanish Natural Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez-Martínez, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Suárez-Seoane, S.; Luis Calabuig, de E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we developed a methodology aimed at improving the assessment of inter-annual land cover dynamics from hard classified remotely sensed data in heterogeneous and resilient landscapes. The methodology is implemented for the Spanish Natural Park of Sierra de Ancares, where human

  20. Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (ATtILA) for landscape metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATtILA is easy to use ArcView extension that calculates many commonly used landscape metrics. By providing an intuitive interface, the extension provides the ability to generate landscape metrics to a wide audience regardless of their GIS knowledge level.

  1. Assessment of wind turbines impact on landscape character and landscape planning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cetkovský, Stanislav; Nováková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2009), s. 28-34 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : landscape character * wind turbines * landscape planning * GIS * visualisation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-70449368205&origin

  2. Landscape Classifications for Landscape Metrics-based Assessment of Urban Heat Island: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X F; Deng, L; Wang, H N; Chen, F; Hua, L Z

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, some studies have been carried out on the landscape analysis of urban thermal patterns. With the prevalence of thermal landscape, a key problem has come forth, which is how to classify thermal landscape into thermal patches. Current researches used different methods of thermal landscape classification such as standard deviation method (SD) and R method. To find out the differences, a comparative study was carried out in Xiamen using a 20-year winter time-serial Landsat images. After the retrieval of land surface temperature (LST), the thermal landscape was classified using the two methods separately. Then landscape metrics, 6 at class level and 14 at landscape level, were calculated and analyzed using Fragstats 3.3. We found that: (1) at the class level, all the metrics with SD method were evened and did not show an obvious trend along with the process of urbanization, while the R method could. (2) While at the landscape level, 6 of the 14 metrics remains the similar trends, 5 were different at local turn points of the curve, 3 of them differed completely in the shape of curves. (3) When examined with visual interpretation, SD method tended to exaggerate urban heat island effects than the R method

  3. Time-lagged response of carabid species richness and composition to past management practices and landscape context of semi-natural field margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alignier, Audrey; Aviron, Stéphanie

    2017-12-15

    Field margins are key features for the maintenance of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. Little is known about the effects of management practices of old semi-natural field margins, and their historical dimension regarding past management practices and landscape context is rarely considered. In this paper, the relative influence of recent and past management practices and landscape context (during the last five years) were assessed on the local biodiversity (species richness and composition) of carabid assemblages of field margins in agricultural landscapes of northwestern France. The results showed that recent patterns of carabid species richness and composition were best explained by management practices and landscape context measured four or five years ago. It suggests the existence of a time lag in the response of carabid assemblages to past environmental conditions of field margins. The relative contribution of past management practices and past landscape context varied depending on the spatial scale at which landscape context was taken into account. Carabid species richness was higher in grazed or sprayed field margins probably due to increased heterogeneity in habitat conditions. Field margins surrounded by grasslands and crops harbored species associated with open habitats whilst forest species dominated field margins surrounded by woodland. Landscape effect was higher at fine spatial scale, within 50 m around field margins. The present study highlights the importance of considering time-lagged responses of biodiversity when managing environment. It also suggests that old semi-natural field margins should not be considered as undisturbed habitats but more as management units being part of farming activities in agricultural landscapes, as for arable fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Landscape Load Caused by Mining Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csüllög Gábor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, not only the aftermath of the extraction in the past nearly 150 years, but also the economic changes taking place in the past two decades have had significant environmental consequences manifested, above all, in the landscape. It is, however, not sufficient to investigate the landscape components separately; it is necessary to explore connections within the landscape. Accordingly, the chief aim of this presentation has been, on the one hand, to work out the method of landscape load index, based on a quantitative database of mining claims and deposits of mining waste, which has revealed their impacts on the landscape as well. On the other hand, we have also aimed at developing the method of the mining load index of certain geographical landscape units. By calculating and analysing the indices, we have intended to build a quantitative database suitable for investigating the impacts of mining activities on the landscape. On the basis of the indices, the impacts and consequences could be ranked, and it was also possible to compare the impacts of different mining claims and waste deposits in three different landscape categories. With the main result of our examination, this will make it possible to investigate concrete problems and landscape conflicts caused by the landscape use of mining or its aftermath in different landscape units with a high load index.

  6. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California, USA, as assessed through carnivore habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2003-01-01

    Although the fragmentation of the natural landscape of coastal southern California, USA, is accelerating, large-scale assessments of regional connectivity are lacking. Because of their large area requirements and long dispersal movements, mammalian carnivores can be effective focal species to use when evaluating landscape-level connectivity. Our goal was to make an initial assessment of the extent of landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California using mountain lions (Felis concolor [Linnaeus]) and bobcats (Felis rufus [Shreber]) as focal species. We first characterized habitat preferences for mountain lions and bobcats from previously derived habitat relationship models for these species; the resulting maps provided a coarse view of habitat preferences for use at regional scales. We then constructed GIS models to evaluate the disturbance impact of roadways and development, major determinants of carnivore distribution and abundance in the south coast region. Finally, we combined the habitat relationship models with the disturbance impact models to characterize habitat connectivity for mountain lions and bobcats in the ecoregion. Habitat connectivity in the ecoregion appeared higher for bobcats than for mountain lions due in part to higher habitat suitability for bobcats in coastal lowland areas. Our models suggest that much of the key carnivore habitat in the coastal southern California is at risk; over 80% of high suitability habitat and over 90% of medium suitability habitat for carnivores is found in the least protected land management classes. Overall, these models allow for (1) identification of core habitat blocks for carnivores and key landscape connections between core areas, (2) evaluation of the level of protection of these areas, and (3) a regional framework within which to develop and coordinate local management and conservation plans.

  8. Natural and artificial reforestation in the mining landscapes of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ivakina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The area of technogenic territories in the Russian Far East and Siberia continues to increase. The aim of this article is show the degree of reforestation processes scrutiny in mining landscapes of the Russian Far Eastern region. The results of technogenic landscapes research of the Russian Far East are represented by extensive set of knowledge, accumulated over half a century, and highly of disparate in resent time. They are not extensive as the results of studies of natural landscapes, but have important practical importance. Time of mining influence in the landscapes of the Far Eastern region is relatively small, and makes some decades in most cases. Therefore, the results of most studies belong to early, at least middle stages of ecological successions. Floral features of mining areas are thoroughly characterized. Many papers are devoted to the regularities of self-healing vegetation. Questions of recultivation are considered for each site individually. It is recommended to provide forestry, recreation, sanitation and meliorative restoration that assume different recultivation schemes. The selection of wood species is commonly recommended from the number of native species, because they are better adapted for local growing conditions. Compiled the lists of tree species, most successfully surviving on the dumps. In the presence of fairly extensive scientific literature, detailed studies of the structure and dynamics of disturbed areas are few in number. In particular, the facies structure of technogenic territories have not been studied, the recovery process of vegetation differentiated for different types of habitats were not considered and there are no detailed landscape and geobotanical maps of disturbed areas. Unfortunately, monitoring studies of natural and artificial reforestation are not developed.

  9. Relationship between the abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in cereal fields and landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diab Al Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated, over the course of two years, the association between the abundance of aphids and their natural carabid enemies and landscape, which may help in the development of effective strategies for reducing the incidence of aphid outbreaks in agricultural crops. This was undertaken in 12 wheat and 12 maize fields each year in an agricultural landscape in western France. Our study area was characterized by hedgerows surrounding arable fields and permanent grassland. Some areas have not changed much for several decades, while field enlargement and removal of hedges occurred in some areas following agricultural intensification. This paper aims to determine if the abundance of aphids in crops (either directly, or indirectly via their natural enemies is associated with the landscape around fields and if so, is it dependent on the landscape scale considered. We observed that the abundance of aphids in fields was associated with landscape composition at a large scale (500 m and 800 m. There was a positive correlation between the abundance of aphids and the proportion of the area under woodland and grassland at these scales. There was a negative correlation between the abundance of carabids and the proportion of grassland and hedgerow around crop fields. The species richness of carabids was positively correlated with the proportion of hedgerows. We found that the abundance of aphids in wheat fields was negatively and in maize fields positively associated with the proportion under grass strips. At a large scale carabid abundance in both types of culture was positively correlated with the proportion under grass strips.

  10. Focal species and landscape "naturalness" corridor models offer complementary approaches for connectivity conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade Krosby; Ian Breckheimer; D. John Pierce; Peter H. Singleton; Sonia A. Hall; Karl C. Halupka; William L. Gaines; Robert A. Long; Brad H. McRae; Brian L. Cosentino; Joanne P. Schuett-Hames

    2015-01-01

    Context   The dual threats of habitat fragmentation and climate change have led to a proliferation of approaches for connectivity conservation planning. Corridor analyses have traditionally taken a focal species approach, but the landscape ‘‘naturalness’’ approach of modeling connectivity among areas of low human modification has gained popularity...

  11. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, U M; Balfors, B; Knol, W C

    2007-03-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape ecology can provide a conceptual framework for the assessment of consequences of long-term development processes like urbanisation on biodiversity components, and for evaluating and visualising the impacts of alternative planning scenarios. The aim of this paper was to develop methods for integrating biodiversity issues in planning and strategic environmental assessment in an urbanising environment, on landscape and regional levels. In order to test developed methods, a case study was conducted in the region of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, and the study area embraced the city centre, suburbs and peri-urban areas. Focal species were tested as indicators of habitat quality, quantity and connectivity in the landscape. Predictive modelling of habitat distribution in geographic information systems involved the modelling of focal species occurrences based on empirical data, incorporated in a landscape ecological decision support system. When habitat models were retrieved, they were applied on future planning scenarios in order to predict and assess the impacts on focal species. The scenario involving a diffuse exploitation pattern had the greatest negative impacts on the habitat networks of focal species. The scenarios with concentrated exploitation also had negative impacts, although they were possible to mitigate quite easily. The predictions of the impacts on habitats networks of focal species made it possible to quantify, integrate and visualise the effects of urbanisation scenarios on aspects of biodiversity on a landscape level.

  12. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  13. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M; Miteva, Daniela A; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development.

  14. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L.; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R.; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M.; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development. PMID:27419225

  15. Untangling natural seascape variation from marine reserve effects using a landscape approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Huntington

    Full Text Available Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5x and commercially important biomass (1.75x inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design.

  16. Assessing landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in public infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Lindhjem, Henrik; Magnussen, Kristin

    people’s preferences and the value of landscape impacts in policy assessments and decision-making. The project aims to explore how the ecosystem service approach and values of landscape experiences can be better incorporated in actual cases. The project developed a two-step approach to assess, value...... and incorporate landscape impacts and tested these in case studies based on EIA documentation. We found that despite the lack of information generated in the EIAs, the step-wise method significantly improved upon evidence and conclusions of how people are impacted due to landscape changes....

  17. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  18. Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Lazdāne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­dies of landscape identification at the local planning level. The duration of the research was from 2010 to 2012. The research includes 42 territories starting with the three most densely developed areas in Latvia: in Latgale, Kurzeme and Vidzeme uplands distribution ranges. The research results reflect tendencies of the landscape features assessed according to the previously developed criteria of ecological aspects.

  19. Assessing landscape change and processes of recurrence, replacement, and recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Stier, Michael P.; Auch, Roger F.; Taylor, Janis L.; Griffith, Glenn E.; Hester, David J.; Riegle, Jodi L.; Soulard, Christopher E.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8 % of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15 % of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83 %. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3 % of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  20. Assessing Landscape Change and Processes of Recurrence, Replacement, and Recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A; Stier, Michael P; Auch, Roger F; Taylor, Janis L; Griffith, Glenn E; Riegle, Jodi L; Hester, David J; Soulard, Christopher E; McBeth, Jamie L

    2015-11-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8% of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15% of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83%. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3% of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  1. Designing a graph-based approach to landscape ecological assessment of linear infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.girardet@univ-fcomte.fr; Foltête, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.foltete@univ-fcomte.fr; Clauzel, Céline, E-mail: celine.clauzel@univ-fcomte.fr

    2013-09-15

    The development of major linear infrastructures contributes to landscape fragmentation and impacts natural habitats and biodiversity in various ways. To anticipate and minimize such impacts, landscape planning needs to be capable of effective strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and of supporting environmental impact assessment (EIA) decisions. To this end, species distribution models (SDMs) are an effective way of making predictive maps of the presence of a given species. In this paper, we propose to combine SDMs and graph-based representation of landscape networks to integrate the potential long-distance effect of infrastructures on species distribution. A diachronic approach, comparing distribution before and after the linear infrastructure is constructed, leads to the design of a species distribution assessment (SDA), taking into account population isolation. The SDA makes it possible (1) to estimate the local variation in probability of presence and (2) to characterize the impact of the infrastructure in terms of global variation in presence and of distance of disturbance. The method is illustrated by assessing the impact of the construction of a high-speed railway line on the distribution of several virtual species in Franche-Comté (France). The study shows the capacity of the SDA to characterize the impact of a linear infrastructure either as a research concern or as a spatial planning challenge. SDAs could be helpful in deciding among several scenarios for linear infrastructure routes or for the location of mitigation measures. -- Highlights: • Graph connectivity metrics were integrated into a species distribution model. • SDM was performed before and after the implementation of linear infrastructure. • The local variation of presence provides spatial indicators of the impact.

  2. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the southern watershed zones. Monitoring land cover change at the watershed scale is more indicative of impact level and where efforts for managing and conserving the urban landscape should be prioritized. Key words: Urban expansion, land cover type, remote sensing, watershed units, urban landscape conservation.

  3. Cogent Confabulation based Expert System for Segmentation and Classification of Natural Landscape Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAOVIC, M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since there has been an increase in the number of automatic wildfire monitoring and surveillance systems in the last few years, natural landscape images have been of great importance. In this paper we propose an expert system for fast segmentation and classification of regions on natural landscape images that is suitable for real-time applications. We focus primarily on Mediterranean landscape images since the Mediterranean area and areas with similar climate are the ones most associated with high wildfire risk. The proposed expert system is based on cogent confabulation theory and knowledge bases that contain information about local and global features, optimal color spaces suitable for classification of certain regions, and context of each class. The obtained results indicate that the proposed expert system significantly outperforms well-known classifiers that it was compared against in both accuracy and speed, and that it is effective and efficient for real-time applications. Additionally, we present a FESB MLID dataset on which we conducted our research and that we made publicly available.

  4. Nature conditionings of the cultural landscape in the area between the Ropa and Wisłok rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyński, Dawid

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of the dissertation was to analyze the influence of natural environment components on main elements of the cultural landscape. The characteristics of each component were presented separately for the three main types of physiographic regions: mountains, foothills and depressions. Additionally, in selected cases, the analyses of cultural landscape evolution during the last centuries were presented. The research area is located between the Ropa and the Wisłok rivers in Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie - two regions in SE part of Poland. Besides, three small drainage basins were chosen for detailed investigation. The main method applied in dissertation, especially in spatial landscape structure research, was a cartographic analysis in GIS system. The elements of the cultural landscape described in this paper were: main communication routes, settlement patterns and dwellings (including spatial settlement distribution, country buildings, sacral landscape, industrial buildings) as well as land use. According to the research carried out in this work, the component of the natural environment which has had the most significant influence on the cultural landscape is land relief, especially land slopes. The impact of this factor is leading on all elements of the cultural landscape. The other factors (surface and ground waters, climate, soils, natural resources) have had a significant influence only on some of the analyzed elements. The elements of the cultural landscape which are most dependent on natural factors are spatial settlement distribution and the pattern of land use. In case of other cultural landscape elements, natural factors play less important but still significant role. The research proved that natural conditionings of the cultural landscape are less clear in the depression area and most clear within foothills and mountain areas, depending on analyzed cultural elements. A decrease of correlation intensity between natural and cultural

  5. Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, G.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Edwards, P.J.; Szerencsits, E.; Wagner, H.H.; Herzog, F.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between plant diversity and topographic variability in agricultural landscapes was investigated, with the aim of determining whether sampling landscape units of 1 km(2) (LUs) across a gradient of topographic variability is more efficient than a random design for assessing the range

  6. A Bayesian approach to landscape ecological risk assessment applied to the upper Grande Ronde watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberley K. Ayre; Wayne G. Landis

    2012-01-01

    We present a Bayesian network model based on the ecological risk assessment framework to evaluate potential impacts to habitats and resources resulting from wildfire, grazing, forest management activities, and insect outbreaks in a forested landscape in northeastern Oregon. The Bayesian network structure consisted of three tiers of nodes: landscape disturbances,...

  7. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  8. Iterative Digital Photo-based Assessment for Rural Landscape Perception: A Small Experiment from County Wicklow, Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Martínez, Nieves; Bevk, Tadej; Brereton, Patrick; Lalošević, Marija; Perič, Milica

    2017-01-01

    Photography – a simulation of the landscape – is often used to assess visual qualities of landscapes, silently implying there is consensus around what remains the best representation of a given landscape. In this study we examine if such a consensus in visually experiencing a landscape truly exists and what the main differences in visual perceptions of landscape are. To gather participant’s visual experiences, a participant generated image (PGI) method was used. Each participant took a photo,...

  9. Literary Routes: Contributions to Natural/Cultural Heritage Tourism. How landscape transforms literature and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Ruiz Scarfuto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literary routes inspired by landscapes is a topic where cultural and natural routes merge to form an added value of heritage that is greater than either one standing alone.  Landscape is traditionally defined as a consequence of transformations by humans, and its scope rarely takes into account how nature has inspired literature to advance the “intellectual development of humankind,” hence transforming heritage.  Literary routes paralleling transhumance routes embraced by the Sami, First Nations, or Spanish shepherds (full of landscapes, seascapes, and riverscapes, can actively transmit traditional technologies, biodiversity, and cosmic philosophy for the betterment of humankind; for example, the depth of literary heritage inspired by landscapes enhances our collective memory through a network of archives (libraries, collections.  The continuous dissemination of this literature traversing borders, language barriers, and time periods has stimulated literary routes to emerge as a function of moving the experience from an intangible heritage based on imaginary landscapes to a tangible sensory experience in situ following a plot, author’s life, or a myth. Literary routes respond to the demand of the growing target travellers, who are more literate and active today than in the past. They are excited followers of their favourite writers, and seek ways to be in contact with them. Now it is time to rekindle the collective memory, expand the literary dimension, and offer a sensorial in situ experience by adding a literary link. For instance, myths of the Ohlone Nation based near a California wetlands use the symbolic coyote as the intermediary to teach humans how to live in harmony with their ecosystem; or in Spain, Arcipreste de Hita’s novel El Libro de Buen Amor (1330 describes traditions and gastronomy as it criss-crosses the Guadarrama mountains, alongside the Poets’ Route that includes international Nobel prize winners in literature

  10. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    conditions, by providing base flows during drought conditions. Ongoing research using hydrological datasets aims to assess how these features function during low flow conditions and how storage ponds could be used as irrigation ponds in arable areas. To allow for effective implementation and upkeep of NFM measures on the ground, demonstration sites have been developed through a process of iterative stakeholder engagement. Coupled with the use of novel visualisation techniques, results are currently being communicated to a wider community of local landowners and catchment managers. The approach of using networks of interception bunds and offline storage areas in the rural landscape could potentially provide a cost effective means to reduce flood risk in small responsive catchments across Europe. As such it could provide an alternative or addition to traditional engineering techniques, while also effectively managing catchments to achieve multiple environmental objectives.

  11. ABSCISSA ASSESSMENT WITH ALGAE: A COMPARISON OF LOCAL AND LANDSCAPE IMPAIRMENT MEASURES FOR BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT USING BENTHIC DIATOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of rigorous biological assessments is dependent upon well-constructed abscissa, and various methods, both subjective and objective, exist to measure expected impairment at both the landscape and local scale. A new, landscape-scale method has recently been offered...

  12. Control landscapes are almost always trap free: a geometric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Benjamin; Rabitz, Herschel; Wu, Re-Bing

    2017-01-01

    A proof is presented that almost all closed, finite dimensional quantum systems have trap free (i.e. free from local optima) landscapes for a large and physically general class of circumstances, which includes qubit evolutions in quantum computing. This result offers an explanation for why gradient-based methods succeed so frequently in quantum control. The role of singular controls is analyzed using geometric tools in the case of the control of the propagator, and thus in the case of observables as well. Singular controls have been implicated as a source of landscape traps. The conditions under which singular controls can introduce traps, and thus interrupt the progress of a control optimization, are discussed and a geometrical characterization of the issue is presented. It is shown that a control being singular is not sufficient to cause control optimization progress to halt, and sufficient conditions for a trap free landscape are presented. It is further shown that the local surjectivity (full rank) assumption of landscape analysis can be refined to the condition that the end-point map is transverse to each of the level sets of the fidelity function. This mild condition is shown to be sufficient for a quantum system’s landscape to be trap free. The control landscape is shown to be trap free for all but a null set of Hamiltonians using a geometric technique based on the parametric transversality theorem. Numerical evidence confirming this analysis is also presented. This new result is the analogue of the work of Altifini, wherein it was shown that controllability holds for all but a null set of quantum systems in the dipole approximation. These collective results indicate that the availability of adequate control resources remains the most physically relevant issue for achieving high fidelity control performance while also avoiding landscape traps. (paper)

  13. Use of ethnographic approaches to the study of health experiences in relation to natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Liz; Varley, Pete

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of ethnographic approaches to explore how engagement with natural landscapes might benefit people's health. Drawing on a selected review of empirical research we identified 30 relevant research papers that utilised qualitative methods to explore health issues and engagement with nature. Three examples of 'alternative' - i.e. non-mainstream qualitative approaches - are used to illustrate how different methods can be used to explore people's experiences of engaging with nature for health. While quantitative methods are dominant in health research, qualitative approaches are becoming more widely used. Approaches such as autoethnography can add value to nature and health studies by providing opportunities for researchers to be self-critical of their role as a researcher. Accompanied visits and visual ethnography can afford the researcher rich data about bodily movement, facial expressions and journeys, as well as dialogues associated with the meanings of nature for health. The paper concludes by suggesting that ethnographic methods can provide useful and important insights into why people engage with the natural environment and the range of health benefits they may gain from contact with nature.

  14. Prospective aquatic risk assessment for chemical mixtures in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin D.; Hamer, Mick; Jones, Russell; Maltby, Lorraine; Posthuma, Leo; Silberhorn, Eric; Teeter, Jerold Scott; Warne, Michael St J; Weltje, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures is challenging because of the multitude of possible combinations that may occur. Aquatic risk from chemical mixtures in an agricultural landscape was evaluated prospectively in 2 exposure scenario case studies: at field scale for a program of 13 plant‐protection products applied annually for 20 yr and at a watershed scale for a mixed land‐use scenario over 30 yr with 12 plant‐protection products and 2 veterinary pharmaceuticals used for beef cattle. Risk quotients were calculated from regulatory exposure models with typical real‐world use patterns and regulatory acceptable concentrations for individual chemicals. The results could differentiate situations when there was concern associated with single chemicals from those when concern was associated with a mixture (based on concentration addition) with no single chemical triggering concern. Potential mixture risk was identified on 0.02 to 7.07% of the total days modeled, depending on the scenario, the taxa, and whether considering acute or chronic risk. Taxa at risk were influenced by receiving water body characteristics along with chemical use profiles and associated properties. The present study demonstrates that a scenario‐based approach can be used to determine whether mixtures of chemicals pose risks over and above any identified using existing approaches for single chemicals, how often and to what magnitude, and ultimately which mixtures (and dominant chemicals) cause greatest concern. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:674–689. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:29193235

  15. Scenario Methodology for Modelling of Future Landscape Developments as Basis for Assessing Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of our intensively used European landscapes produce a variety of natural goods and services for the benefit of humankind, and secure the basics and quality of life. Because these ecosystems are still undergoing fundamental changes, the interest of the society is to know more about future developments and their ecological impacts. To describe and analyze these changes, scenarios can be developed and an assessment of the ecological changes can be carried out subsequently. In the project „Landscape Saxony 2050“; a methodology for the construction of exploratory scenarios was worked out. The presented methodology provides a possibility to identify the driving forces (socio-cultural, economic and ecological conditions of the landscape development. It allows to indicate possible future paths which lead to a change of structures and processes in the landscape and can influence the capability to provide ecosystem services. One essential component of the applied technique is that an approach for the assessment of the effects of the landscape changes on ecosystem services is integrated into the developed scenario methodology. Another is, that the methodology is strong designed as participatory, i.e. stakeholders are integrated actively. The method is a seven phase model which provides the option for the integration of the stakeholders‘ participation at all levels of scenario development. The scenario framework was applied to the district of Görlitz, an area of 2100 sq km located at the eastern border of Germany. The region is affected by strong demographic as well as economic changes. The core issue focused on the examination of landscape change in terms of biodiversity. Together with stakeholders, a trend scenario and two alternative scenarios were developed. The changes of the landscape structure are represented in story lines, maps and tables. On basis of the driving forces of the issue areas „cultural / social values“ and

  16. Managing Nature–Business as Usual: Resource Extraction Companies and Their Representations of Natural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to knowledge of how one category of business organization, very large, British-based, natural resource extraction corporations, has begun to manage its operations for sustainability. The object of study is a large volume of texts that make representations of the managing-for-sustainability practices of these multinational corporations (MNCs. The macro-level textual analysis identifies patterns in the wording of the representations of practice. Hajer’s understanding of discourse, in which ideas are contextualized within social processes of practice, provides the theoretical approach for discourse analysis that gives an insight into how they understand and practice sustainability. Through this large-scale discourse analysis, illustrated in the article with specific textual examples, one can see that these natural resource MNCs are developing a vocabulary and a “grammar” which enables them to manage natural spaces in the same way that they are able to manage their own far-flung business operations. They make simplified representations of the much more complex natural landscapes in which their operations are sited and these models of nature can then be incorporated into the corporations’ operational management processes. Their journey towards sustainability delivers, in practice, the management of nature as business continues as usual.

  17. Chapter 4: Overview of the vegetation management treatment economic analysis module in the integrated landscape assessment project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    Forest land provides various ecosystem services, including timber, biomass, and carbon sequestration. Estimating trends in these ecosystem services is essential for assessing potential outcomes of landscape management scenarios. However, the state-and transition models used in the Integrated Landscape Assessment Project for simulating landscape changes over time do not...

  18. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  19. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant–pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  20. Scale-dependent effects of landscape composition and configuration on natural enemy diversity, crop herbivory, and yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Seo, Bumsuk; Park, Chan-Ryul; Reineking, Björn; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-03-01

    (1) Land-use intensification in agricultural landscapes has led to changes in the way habitats and resources are distributed in space. Pests and their natural enemies are influenced by these changes, and by the farming intensity of crop fields. However, it is unknown whether the composition of landscapes (amount and diversity of land cover types) or their configuration (spatial arrangement of cover types) are more important for natural enemy diversity, and how they impact crop damage and yields. In addition, effects of interactions between local farming practices (organic vs. conventional) and landscape variables are unclear. (2) Here, we make use of a data set where landscape composition and configuration were uncorrelated across multiple spatial scales. Natural enemies, crop damage, and yields were sampled in 35 organic and conventional crop fields. Out of seven broad natural enemy taxa, five were positively affected by a complex landscape configuration. In contrast, only carabids were positively affected by the amount of seminatural habitat around fields. Increasing diversity of land cover types had positive effects on some, but negative effects on other taxa. Effect sizes varied among taxa but increased with increasing spatial scale, defined by circular areas of increasing radius around fields. (3) The diversity of aerial, but not of ground-dwelling enemies was higher in fields under organic than conventional management. Interactions of local and landscape variables were important for birds, but not other enemies. Bird richness was higher in organic fields in simple landscapes, but not in landscapes with complex configuration or high land cover diversity. (4) Crop damage decreased with landscape diversity, but increased in conventional fields with complex configuration. Yields increased with both parameters in conventional fields only, and were higher on average in organic compared to conventional fields. Enemy diversity was positively related to crop damage

  1. Transferring Landscape Character Assessment from the UK to the Eastern Mediterranean: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Griffiths

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape character assessment (LCA has a significant contribution to make as a spatial framework for the emerging concept of ‘multi-functional landscapes’, a landscape providing a range of functions, services, and human-derived benefits. The paper reviews the development of LCA in Northwest Europe with a brief description of more recent LCA projects in a Mediterranean context. This is followed by a comparative description of the Living Landscapes approach developed in the UK as applied to Cyprus. The focus is upon the challenges, and limitations, of transferring a method developed in one context to the different physical and cultural setting of the island of Cyprus examining differences in the definition of landscapes, the availability of information on the cultural landscape, the importance of incorporating a strong element of ‘time-depth’, and the potential of LCA for enhancing land use policy at a time of increased land pressures in the Mediterranean.

  2. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  3. Forest landscape assessment: the effects of pre-experience education on public perception of scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad D. Pierskalla; Kevin E. Saunders; David W. McGill; David A. Smaldone

    2008-01-01

    Aldo Leopold argued for a type of "ecological aesthetic," where perceptions of natural landscape beauty are tied to an understanding of the natural process of forests. The purpose of this study is to examine how education affects perceptions of scenic beauty. Thirty-two students were assigned to four groups, with each group participating in a different...

  4. Integrated assessment of silvoarable agroforestry at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    InEurope, agroforestry systems have been used mainly in traditional agriculture toprovide a variety of agricultural and tree products. However, during the last three centuries, the agricultural landscape

  5. Assessing soil erosion risk in the Tillabery landscape, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that soil erosion output scenarios predict greater soil erosion in the study area from 2070 onwards. They suggest that human disturbance and topographic factors are the main impact factors in the affected areas. Key words: Tillabéry landscape (Niger), sheet and rill erosion modelling, data mining.

  6. The dynamics of land cover change pattern and landscape fragmentation in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yunqing; Wang, Jinxi; Jiang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    Nature reserves are facing a very challenging conflict between conservation and development today. The protection effect of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve has received considerable attention, especially in view of its stimulating tourism after the 1990s. Remote sensing data from 1974, 1994 and 2002 were chosen for the analysis of this reserve, since they closely represented the vegetation situation before and after felling, as well as the disturbance from the flush of tourism. We find that the quality and quantity of the forest in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve continues to decline, owing to the conifer area and whole forest area constantly shrinking, as well as the landscape fragmentation increasing. The rate of loss of forest in the second period (1994-2002) had showed down much than that in the first period (1974-1994), due to nature protection. Shrubland area continued to increase throughout the two periods, with an increased speed in the second period which was about 3.5 times that in the first period. The treeline was consistently retreating, contributing a total of 467.96 ha of conifer forest lost. However, the causes involved in tree mortality and the resulting regression of the treeline are not clear. In any case, under the general background of global warming, human impact undoubtedly should have direct or indirect cause dramatic consequences for the forest in this very sensitive zone, while there are many uncertainties in the behaviour of high mountain ecosystems. Keywords: Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, Vegetation, Habitats fragment,

  7. An Assessment of Psychological Noise Reduction by Landscape Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis in the term ‘Green Transportation’ is on the word ‘green’. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG. Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants’ actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects’ emotional processing, which we term ‘psychological noise reduction’.

  8. An Assessment of Psychological Noise Reduction by Landscape Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bao, Zhi Yi; Zhu, Zhu Jun

    2011-01-01

    The emphasis in the term ‘Green Transportation’ is on the word ‘green’. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire) with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG). Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants’ actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene) were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects’ emotional processing, which we term ‘psychological noise reduction’. PMID:21695027

  9. Tackling the Issues of Landscape Characterisation for Natural Resource Management in Urban and Peri-urban Western Sydney, Australia: Application of the Hydro-Geologic Landscapes Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. L.; Harvey, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dryland salinity is a natural resource management issue and a planning hazard in urban/peri-urban Western Sydney, where there is enormous development pressure. The level of detail available on local geological, hydrogeologic and soils maps commonly does not provide sufficient detail for sub-catchment scale urban development planning and natural resource management (NRM) decision-making. The dominant lithologies for the area are relatively thick (up to 300m), flat-lying, Triassic fluvial and shallow marine siliciclastic sediments of the Sydney Basin. Localised areas of Cainozoic gravels cover the palaeo-landscapes developed on older rocks, and modern fluvial processes along the Hawkesbury River and tributaries continue to modify the landscape. Salt is concentrated in this landscape through aeolian accession and deposition from oceanic aerosols, but almost never as fossil (connate) salts. The redistribution of salts by the process of aeolian accession typically takes place when the salts are coupled with windblown dust known as parna. For south-eastern NSW, this dust originates from areas which are more arid, such as the western regions of the NSW and Victorian states. Aerosols from the ocean can be responsible for the deposition of salts up to a few hundred kilometres from their source. This process is responsible for a significant contribution of salt in the Sydney area. Field observations have shown that salt outbreaks are more dominant on some Sydney Basin units, specifically the Wianamatta Group sediments, some Cainozoic units, and along many active drainage systems. The Wianamatta Group sediments comprise three sub-groups; the Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale. The Cainozoic sediments comprise at least three units; the Saint Mary's Formation, Rickaby's Creek Gravels and Londonderry Clay. In Western Sydney these successions form an east-west oriented, tear-drop-shaped sub-basin, the Cumberland Basin, that narrows and thins to the east. In

  10. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, Jill S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B.; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have

  11. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...

  12. Social-Natural Landscape Reorganised: Swedish Forest-edge Farmers and Wolf Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander-Lindqvist Annelie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The politics and the underlying reasons behind the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population are increasingly contested. According to official policy, wolves should be guaranteed a place in the Swedish natural world. However, the conflict over whether Sweden should host a wolf population sets views on biodiversity and sustainable development against the perspective that local traditions and livelihoods are threatened by the return of wolves. These diverging environmental visions can be seen as competing interests and understandings of nature and wildlife. The desire of the state and nature conservation organisations to implement measures to provide conditions fostering wolf survival are counterbalanced by local action groups and community residents struggling to maintain conditions for conserving summer pastures, opportunities for hunting with sporting dogs, and other recreational activities such as mushroom- and berry-picking. Not only are these activities considered to have high natural and cultural value, the European Union (EU has stated that small-scale farming is important for maintaining the landscape and safeguarding the survival of values associated with ′agri-environmental′ habitats. The conflict between the interest groups is essentially about the access to and use of environmental resources. Squeezed between policies safeguarding wolf populations, preventing cruelty to animals and implementing activities required by the EU agricultural programme, farmers in areas with resident wolf populations have come to take part in processes that may reinforce rural identity.

  13. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.; Burlington, L.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  14. San Luis Valley - Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, Jeff [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Cantwell, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dicks, Merrill [Bureau of Land Management, Taos, NM (United States); Fredericks, Brian [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Krall, Angie [US Forest Service, Creede, CO (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Valdez, Arnie [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verhaaren, Bruce [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vieira, Joseph [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Walston, Lee [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The San Luis Valley – Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment (hereafter referred to as cultural assessment) is a BLM pilot project designed to see whether the Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) framework (already established and implemented throughout many ecoregions in the West) can be applied to the cultural environment.

  15. EnviSAT ASAR Monitoring Of The Natural And Archaeological Landscape Of Nasca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We exploit the 4year-long archive of ENVISAT ASAR IS2 C-band imagery available through ESA Cat-1 project id.11073 over Nasca (Southern Peru), to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its impacts on the natural and cultural heritage preserved within this region, well- known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations who flourished between the 4th century BC and the 6th century AD. Inferences about the recent changes of the cultural landscapes and the main landforms in 2003-2007 were retrieved based on SAR backscattering (σ0) time series. Ancient aqueduct systems (the so-called puquios) and the famous geoglyphs ('Nasca Lines') were detected, even at a medium-resolution scale provided by ENVISAT images.

  16. Analytical tool for risk assessment of landscape and urban planning: Spatial development impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, David; Senovsky, Michail; Balog, Karol; Dvorak, Jiri

    2011-06-01

    This article covers the issue of preventive protection of population, technical infrastructure, and the environment against adverse impacts of careless spatial development. In the first section, we describe the relationship between sustainable development and spatial development. This discussion is followed by a review of the current state of spatial development security, primarily at a national level in the Czech Republic. The remainder of the paper features our original contribution which is a tool for risk assessment in landscape and urban planning, the Spatial Development Impact Assessment (SDIA) tool. We briefly review the most significant semi-quantitative methods of risk analysis that were used as a starting point in implementing the tool, and we discuss several of SDIA's salient features, namely, the assessment process algorithm, the catalogue of hazard and asset groups, and the spatial development impact matrix.

  17. Classic metapopulations are rare among common beetle species from a naturally fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; McQuillan, Peter B; Bonham, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    1. The general importance of metacommunity and metapopulation theories is poorly understood because few studies have examined responses of the suite of species that occupy the same fragmented landscape. In this study, we examined the importance of spatial ecological theories using a large-scale, naturally fragmented landscape. 2. We measured the occurrence and abundance of 44 common beetle species in 31 natural rainforest fragments in Tasmania, Australia. We tested for an effect on beetle distribution of geographic variables (patch area, patch isolation and amount of surrounding habitat) and of environmental variables based on plant species, after first accounting for spatial autocorrelation using principal coordinates of neighbour matrices. The environmental variables described a productivity gradient and a post-fire succession from eucalypt-dominated forest to late-successional rainforest. 3. Few species had distributions consistent with a metapopulation. However, the amount of surrounding habitat and patch isolation influenced the occurrence or abundance of 30% of beetle species, implying that dispersal into or out of patches was an important process. 4. Three species showed a distribution that could arise by interactions with dominant competitors or predators with higher occurrence in small patches. 5. Environmental effects were more commonly observed than spatial effects. Twenty-three per cent of species showed evidence of habitat-driven, deterministic metapopulations. Furthermore, almost half of the species were influenced by the plant succession or productivity gradient, including effects at the within-patch, patch and regional scales. The beetle succession involved an increase in the frequency of many species, and the addition of new species, with little evidence of species turnover. Niche-related ecological theory such as the species-sorting metacommunity theory was therefore the most broadly applicable concept. 6. We conclude that classic and source

  18. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  19. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Joye

    Full Text Available In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1, (b the dot probe paradigm (Study 2 and (c a cognitively effortful task (Study 3. These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban environments (cfr., attentional dimension. The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  20. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual’s mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an “attentional”, an “affective” and an “effort” dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  1. Framework and tools for agricultural landscape assessment relating to water quality protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Massa, Florence; Durand, Patrick; Merot, Philippe; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Thenail, Claudine

    2009-05-01

    While many scientific studies show the influence of agricultural landscape patterns on water cycle and water quality, only a few of these have proposed scientifically based and operational methods to improve water management. Territ'eau is a framework developed to adapt agricultural landscapes to water quality protection, using components such as farmers' fields, seminatural areas, and human infrastructures, which can act as sources, sinks, or buffers on water quality. This framework allows us to delimit active areas contributing to water quality, defined by the following three characteristics: (i) the dominant hydrological processes and their flow pathways, (ii) the characteristics of each considered pollutant, and (iii) the main landscape features. These areas are delineated by analyzing the flow connectivity from the stream to the croplands, by assessing the buffer functions of seminatural areas according to their flow pathways. Hence, this framework allows us to identify functional seminatural areas in terms of water quality and assess their limits and functions; it helps in proposing different approaches for changing agricultural landscape, acting on agricultural practices or systems, and/or conserving or rebuilding seminatural areas in controversial landscapes. Finally, it allows us to objectivize the functions of the landscape components, for adapting these components to new environmental constraints.

  2. Factors Affecting Water Dynamics and Their Assessment in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakadevan, K.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks

  3. Natural self-reclamation of soils and landscapes affected by agriculture and mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Bech, Jaume; Alekseenko, Alexey; Shvydkaya, Natalya; Puzanov, Alexander; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    Processes of possible self-restoration of technogenically disturbed soils are studied in Central and Southern European Russia. Reclamation procedures are mainly not implemented in this vast region, and the natural soil restoration is supposed. Heaps overlaying the former steppe and cropland landscapes are created in the course of rock waste stacking after preparative and cleaning mining works during the underground coal extraction. Approximately 1 500 heaps occupying over 8 000 ha were formed in the area of the Donets Coal Basin. Soils are destroyed under heaps, land subsidence occurs in coal mining areas and acid lakes are usually formed in these ground depressions. Spontaneous combustions happen often and can continue for decades. In order to prevent them, heap surfaces are in some cases levelled and filled with water, forming peculiar ponds. After 70 years of heaps existence and ca. 50 years after their ignition, soil formation is just in the early stages. Heap surface differs a lot in geochemical and mineralogical characteristics from those of surrounding steppe soils that suffered substantial changes at distances up to 1 km. Development of plant communities in areas near coal dumps and heaps is one of the indicators of landscape-geochemical changes. Formation of ruderal phytocenoses with 10-15 % of local flora, as well as invasive and introduced plants occurred under the complex impact of ecological conditions. Communities formed by them are distinguished by the structure simplicity, low species diversity, and plant growth anomalies. Quarries and dumps are formed during underground and open-cast mining of ore deposits. During the last 50 years after abandoning mines in forest areas, the 30 m deep quarries have filled with the creep material less for 0.5 m, and sediments from water streams have added 1-3 cm. Thickness of argillaceous layers does not exceed 1-2 cm at small rock chips of the dumps that measures up to 70 km in length. The dumps are partially

  4. Dysphagia: its nature, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, John

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia impacts on the health and quality of life of individuals and contributes to the cost of health care. This paper summarises current literature regarding the nature, assessment and management of acquired oro-pharyngeal dysphagia in older adults. It examines the aetiology, prevalence and consequences of dysphagia, as well as issues regarding medication administration. Assessment of dysphagia is explored in terms of multidisciplinary screening, speech and language therapist clinical swallowing evaluation and instrumental assessment.

  5. Assessing accuracy of point fire intervals across landscapes with simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Robert E. Keane; Brigitte Dorner; Joseph Fall

    2007-01-01

    We assessed accuracy in point fire intervals using a simulation model that sampled four spatially explicit simulated fire histories. These histories varied in fire frequency and size and were simulated on a flat landscape with two forest types (dry versus mesic). We used three sampling designs (random, systematic grids, and stratified). We assessed the sensitivity of...

  6. Using hydrologic landscape classification to assess streamflow vulnerability to changes in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying regions with similar hydrology is useful for assessing water quality and quantity across the U.S., especially areas that are difficult or costly to monitor. For example, hydrologic landscapes (HLs) have been used to map streamflow variability and assess the spatial di...

  7. Methods to assess landscape-scale risk of bark beetle infestation to support forest management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. L. Shore; A. Fall; W. G. Riel; J. Hughes; M. Eng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to provide practitioners with suggestions on how to select appropriate methods for risk assessment of bark beetle infestations at the landscape scale in order to support their particular management decisions and to motivate researchers to refine novel risk assessment methods. Methods developed to assist and inform management decisions for...

  8. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  9. Drivers for differences in dairy farmers perceptions of farm development strategies in an area with nature and landscape as protected public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verhees, F.; Verstegen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Nature and landscape are increasingly appreciated as public goods and community assets in need of protection. Policy schemes aiming to protect vulnerable nature and landscape assets affect options for farm development and thus the opportunities for farm income strategies. Farmers as small business

  10. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  11. Assessment of ecological values of greening landscape elements in the Great Hungarian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Klaudia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research examines the effects of agricultural subsidies on the landscape structure. According to the hypothesis, greening – which has been introduced as part of the European Union’s Common Agriculture Policy (EU CAP reform –, if it is properly controlled and applied, can be a suitable tool for habitat network development. Landscape elements eligible for greening can function as significant landscape structural elements, and can promote the achievement of goals e.g. in the preservation of biodiversity. As part of this research, field surveys were performed in 2016 and 2017 in the Great Hungarian Plain, where significant landscape elements were assessed and documented in the sample area. During the research, Shape Index and Fractal Dimension Index values for polygonal elements were calculated based on their current extensions in 2016 and in 2017. In line with my basic hypothesis, eligible landscape elements (such as hedgerows, stonewalls, shadoofs and infield trees do not possess extraordinary ecological values, nor can their persistence be guaranteed solely with greening subsidies. Therefore, they may also not be able to fill their role in the protection of landscape structure and biodiversity in the long term.

  12. Landscape Transformation in Tropical Latin America: Assessing Trends and Policy Implications for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Vera Diaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Important transformations are underway in tropical landscapes in Latin America with implications for economic development and climate change. Landscape transformation is driven not only by national policies and markets, but also by global market dynamics associated with an increased role for transnational traders and investors. National and global trends affect a disparate number of social, political and economic interactions taking place at the local level, which ultimately shapes land-use and socio-economic change. This paper reviews five different trajectories of landscape change in tropical Latin America, and discusses their implications for development and conservation: (1 Market-driven growth of agribusiness; (2 expansion and modernization of traditional cattle ranching; (3 slow growth of peasant agriculture; (4 logging in production forest frontiers; and (5 resurgence of agro-extractive economies. Contrasting trade-offs between economic development and forest conservation emerge across these landscapes, calling for nuanced policy responses to manage them in the context of climate change. This discussion sets the background to assess how reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+ aims should be better aligned with current landscape trajectories and associated actors to better address climate-change mitigation in forest landscapes with effective and equitable outcomes.

  13. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  14. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being sh...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  15. Evaluating the placement and performance of nature based measures for managing flood runoff in intensively farmed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Hewett, Caspar; Stutter, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade economic losses from fluvial floods have greatly increased and it is becoming less viable to use traditional measures for managing flooding solely. This has given rise to increasing interest in alternative, nature based solutions (NBS) for reducing flood risk that aim to manage runoff at the catchment source and deliver multiple benefits. In many cases these measures need to work with current agricultural practices. Intensive agriculture often results in increases in local runoff rates, water quality issues, soil erosion/loss and local flooding problems. However, there is potential for agriculture to play a part in reducing flood risk. This requires knowledge on the effectiveness of NBS at varying scales and tools to communicate the risk of runoff associated with farming. This paper assesses the placement, management and effectiveness of a selection of nature-based measures in the rural landscape. Measures which disconnect overland flow pathways and improve soil infiltration are discussed. Case study examples are presented from the UK where a large number of nature-based measures have been constructed as part of flood protection schemes in catchment scales varying from 50 ha to 25 km2. Practical tools to help locate measures in agricultural landscapes are highlighted including the Floods and Agriculture Risk Matrix (FARM), an interactive communication/visualization tool and FARMPLOT, a GIS mapping tool. These have been used to promote such measures, by showing how and where temporary ponded areas can be located to reduce flood and erosion risk whilst minimising disruption to farming practices. In most cases land managers prefer small ( 100-1000m3) temporary ponding areas which fill during moderate to large storm events since they incur minimal loss of land. They also provide greater resillience to multi-day storm events, as they are designed to drain over 1-2 days and therefore allow for storage capacity for proceeding events. However, the

  16. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Sarah Haas; Tomáš Václavík

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales while pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macro-scale lens...

  17. Landscape modeling for dose calculations in the safety assessment of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik; Brydsten, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,(SKB), pursues site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at two sites in the south eastern part of Sweden, the Forsmark- and the Laxemar site. Data from the two site investigations are used to build site descriptive models of the areas. These models describe the bedrock and surface system properties important for designing the repository, the environmental impact assessment, and the long-term safety, i.e. up to 100,000 years, in a safety assessment. In this paper we discuss the methodology, and the interim results for, the landscape model, used in the safety assessment to populate the Forsmark site in the numerical dose models. The landscape model is built upon ecosystem types, e.g. a lake or a mire, (Biosphere Objects) that are connected in the landscape via surface hydrology. Each of the objects have a unique set of properties derived from the site description. The objects are identified by flow transport modeling, giving discharge points at the surface for all possible flow paths from the hypothetical repository in the bedrock. The landscape development is followed through time by using long-term processes e.g. shoreline displacement and sedimentation. The final landscape model consists of a number of maps for each chosen time period and a table of properties that describe the individual objects which constitutes the landscape. The results show a landscape that change over time during 20,000 years. The time period used in the model equals the present interglacial and can be used as an analogue for a future interglacial. Historically, the model area was covered by sea, and then gradually changes into a coastal area and, in the future, into a terrestrial inland landscape. Different ecosystem types are present during the landscape development, e.g. sea, lakes, agricultural areas, forest and wetlands (mire). The biosphere objects may switch from one ecosystem type to another during the

  18. Nature-based solutions for urban landscapes under post-industrialization and globalization: Barcelona versus Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Ouyang, Zutao; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Park, Hogeun; Chen, Jiquan

    2017-07-01

    Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix. The relationships between economic development, globalization, and environmental quality were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling based on secondary statistical data. Both Barcelona and Shanghai have undergone rapid urbanization, with urban expansion in Barcelona beginning in the 1960s-1970s and in Shanghai in the last decade. While Barcelona's urban green space and green space per capita began declining between the 1950s and 1990s, they increased slightly over the past two decades. Shanghai, however, has consistently and significantly improved urban green space and green space per capita over the past six decades, especially since the economic reform in 1978. Economic development has a direct and significant influence on urban green space for both cities and post-industrialization had served as the main driving force for urban landscape change in Barcelona and Shanghai. Based on secondary statistical and qualitative data from on-site observations and interviews with local experts, we highlighted the institution's role in NBS planning. Furthermore, aspiration to become a global or globalizing city motivated both cities to use NBS planning as a place-making tool to attract global investment, which is reflected in various governing policies and regulations. The cities' effort to achieve a

  19. Assessing the Fragile X Syndrome Newborn Screening Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Catharine; Wheeler, Anne

    2017-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability. Early identification is an important step in linking FXS individuals with appropriate and timely medical and social services. Newborn screening (NBS) is 1 approach that has been used for other conditions to facilitate early identification. A literature review was conducted to identify issues, barriers, challenges, and approaches to addressing challenges related to NBS for FXS. Search terms included: fragile X syndrome, FMR1, newborn screening, screening, and genetic testing. To supplement the literature review, 9 key informant interviews were conducted. Information gathered through these interviews supplemented what was identified in the literature. Information from both the literature review and supplemental interviews was reviewed by 3 researchers who discussed and came to consensus on thematic areas and categorization of issues. The barriers and challenges related to NBS for FXS identified in the literature and by experts and stakeholders are categorized into 5 thematic areas: public health burden, treatment, timing, screening/testing methodologies, and translating results. Summaries of these issues and barriers are provided, along with potential approaches to addressing them. The issues and barriers described in this article highlight limited areas of knowledge that need be addressed to improve our understanding of FXS and the potential benefit of NBS. The landscape of NBS for FXS could be influenced by a series of research findings over time or a larger breakthrough that demonstrates an effective targeted treatment that has to be implemented early in life. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Function analysis and valuation as a tool to assess land use conflicts in planning for sustainable, multi-functional landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to reconcile landscape conservation with changing demands on land use and natural resources, it is essential that the ecological, socio-cultural and economic values of the landscape be fully taken into account in planning and decision-making. This paper presents a comprehensive framework

  1. Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yumin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Yingbi; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Xian; Li, Yangfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty.

  2. [Assessing dynamic patterns of forest fragmentation based on a landscape mosaic indicator: a case study of Oregon State, USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin-Yu; Lü, Ying-Ying; Li, Ming-Shi

    2014-08-01

    Effectively assessing landscape pattern characteristics and predicting their dynamics have been a basic prerequisite for more reasonably regulating and managing forest landscape, and maintaining landscape security patterns. In this study, based on three U. S. National Land Cover Databases (1992, 2001 and 2006), the landscape mosaic indicator in combination with the Markov model was adopted to analyze forest fragmentation patterns and changes in the characteristics of spatial interactions between forests and other land use types in Oregon State, USA. The results showed that conversion from the development-dominated type D to the single development type DD in landscape mosaic model had the highest transition probability 0.319, indicating that urbanization has been the major force responsible for the change of regional landscape patterns. In the forest security model, the highest rates of forest loss occurred in agriculture and the developed landscape mosaic type (ad), showing that in the development and agriculture dominated landscapes, encroaching upon forests was at the highest likelihood. The areal percentage of forest over the total study area was less than 50% when reaching a steady-state distribution, with an accelerating rate of forest fragmentation, and the landscape spatial distribution tended to be a mixed landscape pattern. The Kappa coefficient between the simulated values and the observed values from the 2006 landscape mosaic model was estimated at 0.82, indicating this model had a high precision. However, the accuracy of the forest security model was poor, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.21.

  3. Tree number estimation with the use of VHR natural colour orthophotos over a heterogeneous landscape in northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stournara, P.; Tsakiri-Strati, M.; Siachalou, S.; Doxani, G.; Mallinis, G.; Tsioukas, V.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial explicit knowledge regarding the quantity and the spatial distribution of forest parameters is crucial for sustainable forest management, as well as in fulfilling national reporting needs in the framework of international treaties (i.e. Kyoto Protocol, FAO, EFFIS etc). Especially, tree number which can be used for assessing forest tree density (tree number/ha), is among the most important and laboursome parameters to be measured in the field. The aim of this study is to estimate tree number based on the use of nationwide, freely available, very high spatial resolution orthophotos acquired from Greek National Cadastre and Mapping Agency during the 2007-2009 period. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Halkidiki, Northern Greece. The dominant species of the forest includes both broadleaves (oak, beech) and coniferous species (Black pine, Calabrian pine), which are found in both pure and mixed stands. Tree crown detection was tested on natural color orthophoto bands in several plots. The principal components and intensity-hue-saturation transformations were also applied in order to enhance tree detection accuracy. Local maxima technique was utilized for tree crown detection. Accuracy results were evaluated based on field plot data available from the official forest management plan of the area completed in 2011. Overall, the detection accuracy exceeded 50% which is deemed satisfactory considering also the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean landscape and the limited spectral resolution of the remote sensing data available.

  4. Landscape Scenarios and Multifunctionality: Making Land Use Impact Assessment Operational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, K.; Perez-Soba, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ex ante impact assessment can help in structuring the analysis of human-environment interactions thereby supporting land use decision making for sustainable development. The contributions to this special feature focus on some of the challenges of making land use impact assessment operational for

  5. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lated patches. This isolation of the forest patches leads to the negative impact on regeneration of plant species and badly affects the survival of species. 6. Conclusions. From this study, it has been observed that the rem- nant natural vegetation of Lakshadweep is under high anthropogenic stress. The spatial database.

  6. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vegetation patches belongs to the patch-size class of <5 ha. The remnant natural vegetation surviving with patches of less ... studies documenting 146 edge effects found that disturbances penetrated to an average distance of ... The livestock population as per census. 2003 is 52,000, which has nearly tripled since 1992.

  7. Combined use of SAR and optical data for environmental assessments around refugee camps in semiarid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Hochschild, V.

    2015-04-01

    Over 15 million people were officially considered as refugees in the year 2012 and another 28 million as internally displaced people (IDPs). Natural disasters, climatic and environmental changes, violent regional conflicts and population growth force people to migrate in all parts of this world. This trend is likely to continue in the near future, as political instabilities increase and land degradation progresses. EO4HumEn aims at developing operational services to support humanitarian operations during crisis situations by means of dedicated geo-spatial information products derived from Earth observation and GIS data. The goal is to develop robust, automated methods of image analysis routines for population estimation, identification of potential groundwater extraction sites and monitoring the environmental impact of refugee/IDP camps. This study investigates the combination of satellite SAR data with optical sensors and elevation information for the assessment of the environmental conditions around refugee camps. In order to estimate their impact on land degradation, land cover classifications are required which target dynamic landscapes. We performed a land use / land cover classification based on a random forest algorithm and 39 input prediction rasters based on Landsat 8 data and additional layers generated from radar texture and elevation information. The overall accuracy was 92.9 %, while optical data had the highest impact on the final classification. By analysing all combinations of the three input datasets we additionally estimated their impact on single classification outcomes and land cover classes.

  8. Landscape ecological assessment and eco-tourism development in the South Dongting Lake Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Bao-zhong

    2003-03-01

    As an important resource and the living environment of mankind, wetland has become gradually a highlight, strongly concerned and intensively studied by scientists and sociologists. The governments in the world and the whole society have been paying more and more attention on it. The Dongting Lake of China is regarded as an internationally important wetland. For a rational development and protection of the wetland, an investigation and studied on its resources and its value to tourism in the South Dongting Lake was conducted, to create an assessment system of the ecological landscapes, and to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the value of wetland landscape to the ecotourism. The results showed that the scenic value of the South Dongting Lake Wetland satisfied the criterion of AAAA grade of China national scenic attraction. The eco-tourism value of the landscape cultures in the South Dongting Lake Wetland was discussed with emphasis. It were formulated that a principle and frame of sustainable exploitation of the wetland landscapes and it was proposed as well that establishing a Wetland Park and developing eco-tourism in the South Dongting Lake Wetland is a fragile ecosystem with low resistance to the impact of the exploitation. Thus, we must pay intensively attention to the influence of exploitation on the landscape, take the ecological risk in account to employ a right countermeasure and avoid the negative affection.

  9. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mörtberg, U.M.; Balfors, B.; Knol, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape

  10. Proposal for a system of indicators to assess the visual quality of the urban landscape in informal settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Andrea Mesa-Carranza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Propuesta de un sistema de indicadores para evaluar la calidad visual del paisaje urbano en asentamientos informalesResumenLos asentamientos informales son producto de procesos espontáneos de urbanización y se conforman sin ninguna planificación oficial, generando exclusión social y marginalidad, las cuales repercuten negativamente en el aspecto físico del entorno urbano y en la calidad de vida de los habitantes. Este texto se enfoca en la construcción de los lineamientos de confort ambiental orientados a la calidad visual del paisaje urbano; a partir de una revisión bibliográfica descriptiva se presentan los diferentes autores y conceptos que definen al paisaje urbano; se identifican los principales componentes que lo conforman y, a partir de estos, se propone un sistema de indicadores para valorar su calidad visual, bajo la integración de factores inherentes a las dimensiones ecológica, estética y cultural, los cuales contribuyen a definir el diagnóstico de cada componente propuesto, además de establecer un sistema de evaluación que favorezca el mejoramiento de la calidad visual del paisaje urbano informal, proporcionando resultados que ayuden al proceso de diseño y a la preservación o el mejoramiento del mismo.Palabras clave: diseño del paisaje, diseño urbano, paisaje cultural, paisaje natural, protección del paisaje. Proposal for a system of indicators to assess the visual quality of the urban landscape in informal settlementsAbstractInformal settlements are the result of spontaneous processes of urbanization and are formed without any official planning, generating social exclusion and marginalization, which adversely affect the physical appearance of the urban environment and quality of life of the inhabitants. This text focuses on building environmental guidelines comfort-oriented visual quality of the urban landscape; from a descriptive literature review, there is a presentation of different authors and concepts that

  11. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal heat can be used directly in many applications (agro-industrial processes, sanitary hot water production, heating/cooling systems, etc.). These applications respond to energetic and environmental sustainability criteria, ensuring substantial energy savings with low environmental impacts. In particular, in Mediterranean cultural landscapes the exploitation of geothermal energy offers a valuable alternative compared to other exploitation systems more land-consuming and visual-impact. However, low enthalpy geothermal energy applications at regional scale, require careful design and planning to fully exploit benefits and reduce drawbacks. We propose a first example of application of a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for the modeling of geothermal potential in the Apulia Region (South Italy) by integrating hydrological (e.g. depth to water table, water speed and temperature), geological-geotechnical (e.g. lithology, thermal conductivity) parameters and land-use indicators. The GWR model can effectively cope with data quality, spatial anisotropy, lack of stationarity and presence of discontinuities in the underlying data maps. The geothermal potential assessment required a good knowledge of the space-time variation of the numerous parameters related to the status of geothermal resource, a contextual analysis of spatial and environmental features, as well as the presence and nature of regulations or infrastructures constraints. We create an ad hoc geodatabase within ArcGIS 10 collecting relevant data and performing a quality assessment. Cross-validation shows high level of consistency of the spatial local models, as well as error maps can depict areas of lower reliability. Based on low enthalpy geothermal potential map created, a first zoning of the study area is proposed, considering four level of possible exploitation. Such zoning is linked and refined by the actual legal constraints acting at regional or province level as enforced by the regional

  12. Assessing How Water Type, Climate, and Landscape Position Correlate with Variability of Methane in Shallow Groundwater in the Marcellus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Lautz, L.; Hoke, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Prior work shows that spatial differences in naturally-occurring methane concentrations in shallow groundwater in the Marcellus Shale region are correlated with water type (e.g. Ca-HCO3 vs Na-HCO3) and landscape position (e.g. valley vs upland). However, little is known about how naturally-occurring methane in groundwater varies through time, particularly on a seasonal or monthly time scale, and how temporal variability is related to seasonal changes in climate. Extensive development of the Marcellus shale gas play in northeastern Pennsylvania limits opportunities for measuring baseline water quality through time. In contrast, a ban on hydraulic fracturing in NY affords an opportunity for characterizing baseline temporal variability in methane concentrations. The objective of this study is to characterize temporal variability of naturally-occurring methane in shallow groundwater in the Marcellus region, and how such temporal variability is correlated to other well characteristics, such as water type, landscape position, and climatic conditions. We worked with homeowners to sample 11 domestic wells monthly in the Marcellus Shale region of NY for methane concentrations and major ions for a full year. Wells were grouped according to the primary source of methane (e.g. thermogenic vs microbial) based upon δ13C-DIC, δ13C-CH4, and δD-CH4 isotopes. The full dataset and the grouped data were analyzed to assess how well climatic conditions, water type, and landscape position correlate with variability of methane concentrations through time. These data provide information on within year and between year variability of methane, as well as spatial variability between wells, which fills a data gap and can be used to inform policy regulations.

  13. Adding biological realism to assessments of landscape connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have long appreciated the practical value of connectivity and source-sink analyses. The importance of these assessments for conservation, planning, and reserve design has motivated many empirical and simulation studies. But there are few modeling tools available that ...

  14. Functional responses of plant communities to management, landscape and historical factors in semi-natural grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandewalle, M.; Pursche, O.; de Bello, Francesco; Reitalu, T.; Prentice, H. C.; Lavorel, S.; Johansson, L. J.; Sykes, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2014), s. 750-759 ISSN 1100-9233 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity loss * grazing management * landscape history Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  15. Natural-technological risk assessment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    EM-DAT statistical data on human impact and economic damages in the 1st semester 2015 are the highest since 2011: 41% of disasters were floods, responsible for 39% of economic damage and 7% of events were earthquakes responsible for 59% of total death toll. This suggests that disaster risk assessment and management still need to be improved and stay the principle issue in national and international related programs. The paper investigates the risk assessment and management practice in the Russian Federation at different levels. The method is proposed to identify the territories characterized by integrated natural-technological hazard. The maps of the Russian Federation zoning according to the integrated natural-technological hazard level are presented, as well as the procedure of updating the integrated hazard level taking into account the activity of separate processes. Special attention is paid to data bases on past natural and technological processes consequences, which are used for verification of current hazard estimation. The examples of natural-technological risk zoning for the country and some regions territory are presented. Different output risk indexes: both social and economic, are estimated taking into account requirements of end-users. In order to increase the safety of population of the Russian Federation the trans-boundaries hazards are also taken into account.

  16. MULTI-SCALE LANDSCAPE MAPPING OF THE TYUMEN REGION AS A GEOINFORMATION BASE FOR ORGANIZATION OF LANDSCAPE PLANNING, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Idrisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is considered with the following items: 1 a synthetic layer integral physiographic information about the natural environment; 2 an information basis for mapping and evaluation components of landscapes; 3 a basis for the assessment of natural resource potential; 4 a tool for assessment of landscape-ecological potential (functions, services, values, stability; 5 a tool for identifying ecological network. The procedure of landscape analysis and structure of landscape information system for sustainable development is considered. The major methods is landscape classification and mapping. The classification of typological landscape complexes represents their typology based on the most important and common for this level of dimension features. The basic units of landscape mapping in mesoscale are the type of terrain (mesochores and the type of urochishche (microchores. These landscape complexes were characterized based on collection of signs (geology, relief, permafrost, soil, vegetation etc. using GIS. The evaluation of a landscape based on the concepts of landscape functions and services. The landscapes carry out resource functions (tree-resource, mushrooms, hunting-trade, pascual et al. defining an economic value. The landscapes also fulfil nature protection (ecological functions: habitat (biotop, climate protecting, water protecting, water storage, runoff regulative, permafrost-stabilizing etc. The assessment of landscapes stability is carried out. Integral assessment of ecological characteristics (landscape functions and services, nature protection value, resource value, stability is the base for environmental constraints map.

  17. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  18. Highly variable recombinational landscape modulates efficacy of natural selection in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, Toni I; Santure, Anna W; Sheldon, Ben C; Slate, Jon; Zeng, Kai

    2014-08-01

    Determining the rate of protein evolution and identifying the causes of its variation across the genome are powerful ways to understand forces that are important for genome evolution. By using a multitissue transcriptome data set from great tit (Parus major), we analyzed patterns of molecular evolution between two passerine birds, great tit and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), using the chicken genome (Gallus gallus) as an outgroup. We investigated whether a special feature of avian genomes, the highly variable recombinational landscape, modulates the efficacy of natural selection through the effects of Hill-Robertson interference, which predicts that selection should be more effective in removing deleterious mutations and incorporating beneficial mutations in high-recombination regions than in low-recombination regions. In agreement with these predictions, genes located in low-recombination regions tend to have a high proportion of neutrally evolving sites and relaxed selective constraint on sites subject to purifying selection, whereas genes that show strong support for past episodes of positive selection appear disproportionally in high-recombination regions. There is also evidence that genes located in high-recombination regions tend to have higher gene expression specificity than those located in low-recombination regions. Furthermore, more compact genes (i.e., those with fewer/shorter introns or shorter proteins) evolve faster than less compact ones. In sum, our results demonstrate that transcriptome sequencing is a powerful method to answer fundamental questions about genome evolution in nonmodel organisms. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Assessing naturalness in northern great lakes forests based on historical land-cover and vegetation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmi, Urs; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-08-01

    The concept of naturalness was developed to assess to what degree landscapes represent a natural state. Protected areas are often regarded as the remnants of untouched landscapes although many landscapes commonly perceived as pristine have a long history of human impact. Here, we introduced a historical perspective into the concept of naturalness and the analysis of the effectiveness of protected areas by analyzing historical trajectories in land-cover and forest communities for the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore on Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA). Distribution of land-cover and forest community types was reconstructed for pre-settlement time (around 1850), the height of agricultural expansion (1928), and modern conditions (2000). Naturalness of the landscape was assessed by analyzing similarity between pre-settlement and current conditions and by assessing landscape continuity (1850-1928-2000). We compared changes in the strictly protected park core zone with those in the inland buffer zone with ongoing sustainable logging, and a not protected area adjacent to the park. Forest was the dominant land-cover type over the entire study period. We detected a gradient in land-cover continuity from the core zone (81 % continuity) to the inland buffer zone (74 %) and the area outside the park (66 %). Northern hardwood was the dominating forest type in all time points with high continuity (76 %). In contrast, pine forests show a more dynamic pattern with more than 50 % of the initial forests switching to non-forest or early succession forest types by 1928. More than half of the study area was considered as "natural virgin" (no changes in land-cover and forest community type) with a higher portion within the park than in the adjacent area. In contrast, areas with low naturalness are more abundant outside the park. Our study demonstrates the value of integrating historical information into naturalness assessments and the results provide useful information for future

  20. Assessment of LES quality measures using the error landscape approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Markus; Meyers, Johan; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    A large-eddy simulation database of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence is used to assess four different LES quality measures that have been proposed in the literature. The Smagorinsky subgrid model was adopted and the eddy-viscosity `parameter' CS and the grid spacing h were varied

  1. Radiological Assessments and Enhanced Natural Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmaercke, H.; Paridaens, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of the environmental impact assessment models performed the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to apply new techniques for retrospective radon measurements and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques; and (5) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised

  2. Towards ecologically scaled landscape indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.; Verboom, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of

  3. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Rica) and .83 (Colombia). The tree cover mapping developed here supports two distinct projects on sustaining biodiversity and natural and human capital: in Costa Rica the tree canopy cover map is utilized to predict bird community composition; and in Colombia the mapping is performed for two time periods and used to assess the impact of coffee eco-certification programs on the landscape. This research identifies ways to leverage readily available, high quality, and cost-free Landsat data or other medium resolution satellite data sources in combination with high resolution data, such as that frequently available through Google Earth, to monitor and support sustainability efforts in fragmented and heterogeneous landscapes.

  4. Assessment of antioxidant activity of natural extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Prost

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate and compare the antioxidant activity of extracts from Labiatae and Oleaceae cell cultures and a natural Verbenaceae extract on pig whole blood. The antioxidant activitiy was assessed using the KRL biological test. Extract obtained from Ajuga reptans (Labiatae cell cultures and titrated at 50% of phenylpropanoids expressed as teupolioside (T, extract obtained from Siringa vulgaris (Oleaceae cell cultures and titrated at 50% of phenylpropanoids expressed as verbascoside (V, V and T 50/50 mixture and a natural Verbenaceae extract (NE titrated at 5% of phenylpropanoids, expressed as verbascoside, were tested for their ability to protects pig red blood cells from 2,2’azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH induced hemolysis. The protective effect of the compounds was dose-dependent at concentrations of 0.1 to 1g/L. The active principle in the NE shows an antioxidant activity 2.27 times higher (P<0.01 than the cell culture extract V and 5.11 times higher (P<0.01 than the cell culture extract T. Taking into account the total phenylpropanoids content of cell cultures and natural extract, these results clearly indicate a greater antioxidant activity for the natural Verbaneceae extract.

  5. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...... of the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl....

  6. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  7. Towards a virtual hub approach for landscape assessment and multimedia ecomuseum using multitemporal-maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumana, R.; Santana Quintero, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.; Banfi, F.; Oreni, D.; Roels, D.; Roncoroni, F.

    2015-08-01

    Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting or impeding this way interoperability and their integration. Indeed, nowadays the development of websites targeted to landscape assessment and touristic purposes requires many resources in terms of time, cost and IT skills to be implemented at different scales. For this reason these applications are limited to few cases mainly focusing on worldwide known touristic sites. The capability to spread the development of web-based multimedia virtual museum based on geospatial data relies for the future being on the possibility to discover the needed geo-spatial data through a single point of access in an homogenous way. In this paper the proposed innovative approach may facilitate the access to open data in a homogeneous way by means of specific components (the brokers) performing interoperability actions required to interconnect heterogeneous data sources. In the specific case study here analysed it has been implemented an interface to migrate a geo-swat chart based on local and regional geographic information into an user friendly Google Earth©-based infrastructure, integrating ancient cadastres and modern cartography, accessible by professionals and tourists via web and also via portable devices like tables and smartphones. The general aim of this work on the case study on the Lake of Como (Tremezzina municipality), is to boost the integration of assessment methodologies with digital geo-based technologies of map correlation for the multimedia ecomuseum system accessible via web. The developed WebGIS system integrates multi-scale and multi-temporal maps with different information (cultural, historical, landscape levels

  8. Towards a virtual hub approach for landscape assessment and multimedia ecomuseum using multitemporal-maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brumana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting or impeding this way interoperability and their integration. Indeed, nowadays the development of websites targeted to landscape assessment and touristic purposes requires many resources in terms of time, cost and IT skills to be implemented at different scales. For this reason these applications are limited to few cases mainly focusing on worldwide known touristic sites. The capability to spread the development of web-based multimedia virtual museum based on geospatial data relies for the future being on the possibility to discover the needed geo-spatial data through a single point of access in an homogenous way. In this paper the proposed innovative approach may facilitate the access to open data in a homogeneous way by means of specific components (the brokers performing interoperability actions required to interconnect heterogeneous data sources. In the specific case study here analysed it has been implemented an interface to migrate a geo-swat chart based on local and regional geographic information into an user friendly Google Earth©-based infrastructure, integrating ancient cadastres and modern cartography, accessible by professionals and tourists via web and also via portable devices like tables and smartphones. The general aim of this work on the case study on the Lake of Como (Tremezzina municipality, is to boost the integration of assessment methodologies with digital geo-based technologies of map correlation for the multimedia ecomuseum system accessible via web. The developed WebGIS system integrates multi-scale and multi-temporal maps with different information (cultural, historical

  9. Map of Natural (Landscape) and Permafrost Zones and the Net of Soil Temperature Meteorological Stations in Russia and Middle Asian Mountains, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a vector coverage of the Map of Natural Landscape and Permafrost Zones and the Net of Soil Temperature Meteorological Stations in Russia and Middle...

  10. Assessing the costs of hazard mitigation through landscape interventions in the urban structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Aldea Mendes, Diana; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we look at an issue rarely approached, the economic efficiency of natural hazard risk mitigation. The urban scale at which a natural hazard can impact leads to the importance of urban planning strategy in risk management. However, usually natural, engineering, and social sciences deal with it, and the role of architecture and urban planning is neglected. Climate change can lead to risks related to increased floods, desertification, sea level rise among others. Reducing the sealed surfaces in cities through green spaces in the crowded centres can mitigate them, and can be foreseen in restructuration plans in presence or absence of disasters. For this purpose we reviewed the role of green spaces and community centres such as churches in games, which can build the core for restructuration efforts, as also field and archive studies show. We look at the way ICT can contribute to organize the information from the building survey to economic computations in direct modeling or through games. The roles of game theory, agent based modeling and networks and urban public policies in designing decision systems for risk management are discussed. Games rules are at the same time supported by our field and archive studies, as well as research by design. Also we take into consideration at a rare element, which is the role of landscape planning, through the inclusion of green elements in reconstruction after the natural and man-made disasters, or in restructuration efforts to mitigate climate change. Apart of existing old city tissue also landscape can be endangered by speculation and therefore it is vital to highlight its high economic value, also in this particular case. As ICOMOS highlights for the 2014 congress, heritage and landscape are two sides of the same coin. Landscape can become or be connected to a community centre, the first being necessary for building a settlement, the second raising its value, or can build connections between landmarks in urban routes

  11. Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

    2013-12-01

    deformation and human-landscape modifications. A key goal of this model is to explain the wide-scale distribution of coarse-grained river-borne sediment (predominantly sand) that forms the underlying architecture of the GBMD, with only localized preservation of fine-grained (silt and clay) deposits. Finally, analysis of the channel networks in the tidal delta plain reveal that constructed embankments have significantly decreased the density of naturally functioning tidal channels, inducing locally rapid bank migration and affiliated changes in sinuosity. These rapid landscape changes suggest that there has been a resultant change in hydrodynamics of the tidal delta plain following widespread construction of the embankments. With concern to assess landscape vulnerabilities to environmental change and renewed efforts to rehabilitate and stabilize the embankments, this information is needed to support the successful outcome of coastal defense initiatives.

  12. ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRAGILITY USING MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCE FOR INTEGRATED LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael Cereda Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geographic Information Systems brought greater possibilitie s to the representation and interpretation of the landscap e as well as the integrated a nalysis. However, this approach does not dispense technical and methodological substan tiation for achieving the computational universe. This work is grounded in ecodynamic s and empirical analysis of natural and anthr opogenic environmental Fragility a nd aims to propose and present an integrated paradigm of Multi-criteria Analysis and F uzzy Logic Model of Environmental Fragility, taking as a case study of the Basin of Monjolinho Stream in São Carlos-SP. The use of this methodology allowed for a reduct ion in the subjectivism influences of decision criteria, which factors might have its cartographic expression, respecting the complex integrated landscape.

  13. Comparing Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Three Residential Landscapes under Different Management Schemes Following Natural Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultural lawn management practices that produce aesthetically appealing landscapes may also create environmental conditions that stimulate soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of lawn management practices on N2O fluxes from ...

  14. Nature in the metropolis : Mapping biodiversity using metropolitan landscape characterization tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tisma, A.; van der Velde, J.R.T.; Nijhuis, S.; Pouderoijen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cities can be planned and designed to reduce their effect on biodiversity loss and may even be able to sustain biodiversity levels in some instances, due to ‘beta-diversity’. The heterogeneity of metropolitan regions can be expected to have a strong impact on beta-diversity. Tools such as landscape

  15. Revealing Campus Nature: The Lessons of the Native Landscape for Campus Heritage Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    As American settlement spread to the Midwest, college and university campuses came to symbolize some of the greatest achievements of public policy and private philanthropy. However, the expansion westward often ignored the cultural precedents of Native Americans and the diversity of the varied native landscapes. Today, campus planners and historic…

  16. The Co-Influence of the Natural, Built, and Linguistic Landscape: Indexing Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Lindfelt, Christopher; Greer, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    This study examines physical aspects of place and how such visible aspects work to index a discourse of insecurity, including an insider-outsider binary, particularly through security signs in the linguistic landscape (LL). Our main focus is the relationship between policy and the uses of written language that appear in the LL in different census…

  17. Explaining spatial variability in stream habitats using both natural and management-influenced landscape predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Anlauf; D.W. Jensen; K.M. Burnett; E.A. Steel; K. Christiansen; J.C. Firman; B.E. Feist; D.P. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    1. The distribution and composition of in-stream habitats are reflections of landscape scale geomorphic and climatic controls. Correspondingly, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are largely adapted to and constrained by the quality and complexity of those in-stream habitat conditions. The degree to which lands have been fragmented and managed can...

  18. Book Review: Landscape Ecological Applications in Man-Influenced Areas: Linking Man and Nature Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thirty papers collected in this volume edited by Hong and others focus on multi-scale ecological issues involving human impacts, such as resource management, land use policy and ecosystem restoration. The majority of the articles address Asian landscapes and ecological concerns. Some of these – ...

  19. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of

  20. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.

  1. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  2. Relation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and the Importance of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Landscape Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem CENGİZ GÖKÇE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in the countries which have not completed their development progress is industrialization and development just as soon as possible. Therefore, negative effects of industrialization and development on envi ronment and/or nature cannot be mostly discussed adequately. One of the planning approach instruments that targets sustainability, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is used in many countries effectively. But in recent years, that has understood; EIA is an impact assessment instrument that contains defensive preventions only on the basis of projects and this situation has caused some concerns against EIA. In this direction, Strategical Environmental Assessment (SEA exists as the final point of the instruments which are formed to provide sustainable development . In this study; the importance and the requirement of effectively taking a role of landscape architectures that have ecological based job, in the SEA workings which isn’t have got a legal status in Turkey yet, are emphasized by reviewing the relations between EIA and SEA concepts.

  3. Effects of Natural and Human-Assisted Regeneration on Landscape Dynamics in a Korean Pine Forest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Improper forest harvesting can potentially degrade forest ecosystem functions and services. Human-assisted regeneration (e.g., planting) is often used to increase the rate of forest recovery and thereby reduce regeneration failure. Seed dispersal is a fundamental ecological process that can also influence spatio-temporal patterns of forest regeneration. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of planting and seed dispersal on forest regeneration at landscape scales. Because such influences can be further complicated by timber harvest intensity and seed availability within and around harvested area, we also evaluated the effects of those factors on forest landscape dynamics. We used the forest landscape model LANDIS to simulate the dynamics of Korean pine-broadleaf mixed forests in Northeast China. We considered three factors: timber harvest intensity (3 levels), seed dispersal and whether or not planting was used. The results showed that planting was more important in maintaining the abundance of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), a climax keystone species in this region, under the high-intensity harvesting option during early succession. In contrast, seed dispersal was more important during late succession. Korean pine can be successfully regenerated through seed dispersal under low and medium harvest intensities. Our results also indicated that effective natural regeneration will require protecting seed-production trees (seed rain). This study results provide a basis for more effectively managing Chinese temperate forests and possibly other similar ecosystems. PMID:24324785

  4. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...

  5. Unnameable landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stuart-Murray

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the key concepts of opacity, back formation and toponymic activity used by place name historians, and relates them to the naming of contemporary artefacts in the cultural landscape. It categorises place names according to a three-layered analytical model of landscape and argues that place naming is now carried out largely within a cultural framework. Exceptions are names given by modern recreationalists who have regained something of the intimate relationship with the land possessed by earlier agricultural societies. This view is supported by findings that students of landscape architecture have difficulty in naming and describing character where landscapes have been shaped largely by physical and biological processes. It is also consistent with the increasing articulation of landscapes at the cultural level independent of physical and natural process, allowed by the sophistication of modern technology.

  6. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  7. Landscape Dynamics in Northwestern Amazonia: An Assessment of Pastures, Fire and Illicit Crops as Drivers of Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies. PMID:23382890

  8. Assessing the Reliability of Land-Use Data in Slovenia: A Case Study of Terraced Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ažman Momirski, Lucija

    2017-10-01

    Land use relates to the exploitation of land through human activity in the landscape. Land use is also one of the best indicators of a landscape’s structure and processes. Land cover comprises manmade surfaces, agricultural areas, forest and semi-natural areas, wetlands, and bodies of water. In Slovenia more than half of the land (63%) is forested. Manmade surfaces represent less than 5%. A large proportion of relatively inaccessible forest is the main reason why society had a less critical impact on forests in the past in Slovenia in comparison to the majority of central European countries. Regarding the high-quality landscape in the country, Slovenia’s natural features are characterized by a mix of forest and farmland. These land categories (i.e., complex cultivation patterns and land principally used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation) cover 23% of Slovenia. Land-use data for farmland are gathered and provided to the relevant institutions by landowners, who are not specialists in land-use data. In addition, land use is only a two-dimensional tool, which does not recognize elevation differences and terraced slopes. Terraced areas are either omitted from the inventory of land-use data because landowners do not report them, or they are included in the inventory because landowners do not realize that their land is not terraced. Consequently, the differences between the official data on vineyards, orchards, and olive groves on terraces and actual terraced slopes with such land use may differ significantly.

  9. Assessing the effects of management alternatives on habitat suitability in a forested landscape of northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longru, Jin; He, Hong S; Yufei, Zhou; Rencang, Bu; Keping, Sun

    2010-05-01

    Forest management often has cumulative, long-lasting effects on wildlife habitat suitability and the effects may be impractical to evaluate using landscape-scale field experiments. To understand such effects, we linked a spatially explicit landscape disturbance and succession model (LANDIS) with habitat suitability index (HSI) models to assess the effects of management alternatives on habitat suitability in a forested landscape of northeastern China. LANDIS was applied to simulate future forest landscape changes under four management alternatives (no cutting, clearcutting, selective cutting I and II) over a 200-year horizon. The simulation outputs were linked with HSI models for three wildlife species, the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), the red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia). These species are chosen because they represent numerous species that have distinct habitat requirements in our study area. We assessed their habitat suitability based on the mean HSI values, which is a measure of the average habitat quality. Our simulation results showed that no one management scenario was the best for all species and various forest management scenarios would lead to conflicting wildlife habitat outcomes. How to choose a scenario is dependent on the trade-off of economical, ecological and social goals. Our modeling effort could provide decision makers with relative comparisons among management scenarios from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. The general simulation results were expected based on our knowledge of forest management and habitat relationships of the species, which confirmed that the coupled modeling approach correctly simulated the assumed relationships between the wildlife, forest composition, age structure, and spatial configuration of habitat. However, several emergent results revealed the unexpected outcomes that a management scenario may lead to.

  10. Assessing the Effects of Management Alternatives on Habitat Suitability in a Forested Landscape of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longru, Jin; He, Hong S.; Yufei, Zhou; Rencang, Bu; Keping, Sun

    2010-05-01

    Forest management often has cumulative, long-lasting effects on wildlife habitat suitability and the effects may be impractical to evaluate using landscape-scale field experiments. To understand such effects, we linked a spatially explicit landscape disturbance and succession model (LANDIS) with habitat suitability index (HSI) models to assess the effects of management alternatives on habitat suitability in a forested landscape of northeastern China. LANDIS was applied to simulate future forest landscape changes under four management alternatives (no cutting, clearcutting, selective cutting I and II) over a 200-year horizon. The simulation outputs were linked with HSI models for three wildlife species, the red squirrel ( Sciurus vulgaris), the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) and the hazel grouse ( Bonasa bonasia). These species are chosen because they represent numerous species that have distinct habitat requirements in our study area. We assessed their habitat suitability based on the mean HSI values, which is a measure of the average habitat quality. Our simulation results showed that no one management scenario was the best for all species and various forest management scenarios would lead to conflicting wildlife habitat outcomes. How to choose a scenario is dependent on the trade-off of economical, ecological and social goals. Our modeling effort could provide decision makers with relative comparisons among management scenarios from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. The general simulation results were expected based on our knowledge of forest management and habitat relationships of the species, which confirmed that the coupled modeling approach correctly simulated the assumed relationships between the wildlife, forest composition, age structure, and spatial configuration of habitat. However, several emergent results revealed the unexpected outcomes that a management scenario may lead to.

  11. Changing human landscapes under a changing climate: considerations for climate assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdinan; Winkler, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a fundamental aspect of the Anthropocene. Climate assessments are frequently undertaken to evaluate climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity. Assessments are complex endeavors with numerous challenges. Five aspects of a climate assessment that can be particularly challenging are highlighted: choice of assessment strategy, incorporation of spatial linkages and interactions, the constraints of climate observations, interpretation of a climate projection ensemble, uncertainty associated with weather/climate dependency models, and consideration of landscape-climate influences. In addition, a climate assessment strategy that incorporates both traditional "top-down" and "bottom-up" methods is proposed for assessments of adaptation options at the local/regional scale. Uncertainties associated with climate observations and projections and with weather/climate dependency (i.e., response) models are incorporated into the assessment through the "top-down" component, and stakeholder knowledge and experience are included through the "bottom-up" component. Considerable further research is required to improve assessment strategies and the usefulness and usability of assessment findings. In particular, new methods are needed which better incorporate spatial linkages and interactions, yet maintain the fine grain detail needed for decision making at the local and regional scales. Also, new methods are needed which go beyond sensitivity analyses of the relative contribution of land use and land cover changes on local/regional climate to more explicitly consider landscape-climate interactions in the context of uncertain future climates. Assessment teams must clearly communicate the choices made when designing an assessment and recognize the implications of these choices on the interpretation and application of the assessment findings.

  12. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Leong and Roderick. Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and ...

  13. The benefits of hedgerows for pollinators and natural enemies depends on hedge quality and landscape context

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, Michael P. D.; Senapathi, Deepa; Coston, Duncan J.; Mortimer, Simon R.; Potts, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological intensification advocates the harnessing of regulating and supporting ecosystem services to promote more sustainable food production, and this relies on effective management of non-cropped habitats. Hedgerows are an important component of the landscape in many farming systems across the world, management of which provides a potential mechanism to enhance ecological intensification. Here we investigate the value of hedgerows in Southern England as a source of functionally important ...

  14. Nature in the metropolis: Mapping biodiversity using metropolitan landscape characterization tools

    OpenAIRE

    Tisma, A.; van der Velde, J.R.T.; Nijhuis, S.; Pouderoijen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cities can be planned and designed to reduce their effect on biodiversity loss and may even be able to sustain biodiversity levels in some instances, due to ‘beta-diversity’. The heterogeneity of metropolitan regions can be expected to have a strong impact on beta-diversity. Tools such as landscape characterization can assist in the understanding of betadiversity in metropolitan regions by mapping the extent and configuration of beta-diversity conditions, in particular microhabitats and habit...

  15. Land valuation and marginalization processes in cultural landscapes - a comparative study of valuation systems related to natural and semi-natural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    awareness that the behavior of rural landscape managers reflect culture, and that cultural valuation systems need to be included in research addressing such themes as sustainability and multifunctionality which is often difficult to regulate effectively and depend directly on local decision behavior. Two...... in 2008 - 2010 in the Maribo Lakes Nature Park, which is a Natura-2000 protected area situated on the island of Lolland in Southern Denmark. The major land owners, leaders in the tourism industry and leaders of local recreational associations in the area were interviewed about their land use practices...

  16. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  17. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  18. Software applications to three-dimensional visualization of forest landscapes -- A case study demontrating the use of visual nature studio (VNS) in visualizing fire spread in forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Williams; Bo Song; Chou Chiao-Ying; Thomas M. Williams; John. Hom

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a useful tool that depicts virtual forest landscapes on computer. Previous studies in visualization have required high end computer hardware and specialized technical skills. A virtual forest landscape can be used to show different effects of disturbances and management scenarios on a computer, which allows observation of forest...

  19. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...

  20. Assessing the Use of Sunken Lanes for Water Retention in a Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatuška, Karel

    2012-12-01

    Newly-designed structures and landscaping elements are often used for flood protection. This article assesses the use of existing sunken lanes for retaining water in a landscape and the sedimentation of washed-off soil. The article also describes ways how to preserve or, at least minimally disrupt, existing biotopes and landscape segments. Geodetic data from one specific sunken lane in South Moravia in the Czech Republic were transferred to a digital terrain model; 9 models were subsequently generated, each with a different longitudinal sunken lane bed slope. Retention dams consisting of gabions were placed in them. The number of dams, the volume of structures made of steel gabions, and the retention area volume behind the dams were determined for each model specifically. It was determined that the number of dams, as well as their total volume, increased with the average longitudinal slope of the sunken lane bed. It was also discovered that the retention volume remained almost the same, as it only very slightly decreases with an increasing longitudinal slope.

  1. Alternative future analysis for assessing the potential impact of climate change on urban landscape dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qingxu; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Da

    2015-11-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on urban landscape dynamics (ULD) is the foundation for adapting to climate change and maintaining urban landscape sustainability. This paper demonstrates an alternative future analysis by coupling a system dynamics (SD) and a cellular automata (CA) model. The potential impact of different climate change scenarios on ULD from 2009 to 2030 was simulated and evaluated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan megalopolis cluster area (BTT-MCA). The results suggested that the integrated model, which combines the advantages of the SD and CA model, has the strengths of spatial quantification and flexibility. Meanwhile, the results showed that the influence of climate change would become more severe over time. In 2030, the potential urban area affected by climate change will be 343.60-1260.66 km(2) (5.55 -20.37 % of the total urban area, projected by the no-climate-change-effect scenario). Therefore, the effects of climate change should not be neglected when designing and managing urban landscape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART 5 for Modeling Airborne and Satellite Spectroradiometer and LIDAR Acquisitions of Natural and Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and airborne optical sensors are increasingly used by scientists, and policy makers, and managers for studying and managing forests, agriculture crops, and urban areas. Their data acquired with given instrumental specifications (spectral resolution, viewing direction, sensor field-of-view, etc. and for a specific experimental configuration (surface and atmosphere conditions, sun direction, etc. are commonly translated into qualitative and quantitative Earth surface parameters. However, atmosphere properties and Earth surface 3D architecture often confound their interpretation. Radiative transfer models capable of simulating the Earth and atmosphere complexity are, therefore, ideal tools for linking remotely sensed data to the surface parameters. Still, many existing models are oversimplifying the Earth-atmosphere system interactions and their parameterization of sensor specifications is often neglected or poorly considered. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model is one of the most comprehensive physically based 3D models simulating the Earth-atmosphere radiation interaction from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. It has been developed since 1992. It models optical signals at the entrance of imaging radiometers and laser scanners on board of satellites and airplanes, as well as the 3D radiative budget, of urban and natural landscapes for any experimental configuration and instrumental specification. It is freely distributed for research and teaching activities. This paper presents DART physical bases and its latest functionality for simulating imaging spectroscopy of natural and urban landscapes with atmosphere, including the perspective projection of airborne acquisitions and LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR waveform and photon counting signals.

  3. Land Use and Landscape Pattern In Mesoscale Watersheds: Analysis and Assessment of Their Interactions and Impacts On Processes With Regard To The Eu Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, M.; Steinhardt, U.; Lausch, A.

    The implementation of the EU water framework directive requires the comprehensive consideration of environmental impacts within whole watersheds during the next 9 years in order to ensure a sound quality and availability of both surface and groundwater. Especially the change of landscape pattern caused by land use alterations has strong impacts on the water balance and the waterbound fluxes within landscapes. Thus, land use systems and cultivation practices unadapted to the natural conditions of the landscapes can lead to environmental impairments of water and soil affecting the regulation functions. In order to develop concepts for adapted land use systems with respect to the goals of the EU water framework directive, integrated investigation and assessment approaches on different spatio-temporal scales have to be developed. The authors suggest a hierachical nested approach applied on the example of the Saale watershed (ca. 23.000 km2) and some of its subbasins of different sizes (8 km2, 360km2, 5.000 km2). The approach is structured into four main steps: · Investigation and assessment of the effects of actual and future trends of regional, national and european land use changes for the study areas (probability according to the landscape conditions) · Investigation of the effects of these land use changes on the landscape structure · Investigation of the impact respectively the interactions between the (resulted) changes of the landscape structure and fluxes of water and material (retention capability, intensity, duration and range of processes, etc.) · Development of a multiscalar parameter system in order to assess the impact of land use changes on the regulation functions (with particular view on water quantity and quality) and to derive adapted land use systems for their protection (suitability and sensitivity of landscapes for land use types). The approach requires the development and coupling of "classic" methods of landscape analysis with innovative GIS

  4. [Developmental instability of the organism as a result of pessimization of environment under anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrina, E G; Vol'pert, Ia L

    2014-01-01

    The value of fluctuating asymmetry is considered to be an indicator of the developmental instability of the organism. The consequences of activities of the mining industry plants, which are characterized by alienation and transformation of large areas of natural landscapes, are analyzed as an anthropogenic factor. The objects of study were small mammals (northern red-backed (Clethrionomys rutilus) and gray red-backed (Clethrionomys rufocanus) voles, tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus), Laxmann's (Sorex caecutiens) and tundra (S. tundrensis) shrews) and trees (Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla), Betula divaricate, Betula exilis, Duschekiafruticosa, and common osier (Salix viminalis)). In total, 3500 skulls and approximately 30000 leaves collected in the taiga zone of Yakutia were studied. The index offluctuating asymmetry, as well as population parameters and composition of small mammal communities, were analyzed. The data on the value of the fluctuating asymmetry in the studied species in natural habitats are given. It is shown that, in natural conditions, this parameter can rise with deterioration in living conditions, particularly at the ecological periphery of the range. Anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes creates an "anthropogenic periphery" and causes changes similar to the adaptive responses at the northern limit of the distribution of species. It was found that, through pollution and disruption of ecosystems, the mining industry affects all levels of organization of the living matter, but the population and cenotic parameters give an unambiguous response only at macroanthropogenic transformations. Increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry is the most sensitive indicator of anthropogenic impact and it should also be taken into account that disruptions in the developmental stability of an organism reflect the destructive processes occurring in the population and community.

  5. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  6. Assessing The Impact of Personality Characteristics on Students’ Visual Perception for Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Alizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As landscape plays a crucial role in people’s lives, it is of great importance that landscape is designed based on people’s interest. Therefore, identification of the landscapes that people prefer and the factors that influence their perception are imperative. This research attempts to investigate the contribution of personality characteristics towards students’ landscape perception in Isfahan, Iran. In this aspect, students’ characteristics of extroversion/ introversion, intelligence, and creativity were measured by using Cattell’s 16PF Questionnaire. Also, the respondents were asked to express their feeling of satisfaction and happiness towards six common landscape types of Iran, by rating 30 images of mountainous, urban, forest, desert, water, and farmland landscapes. The results of Pearson Correlation Coefficient indicated that extroverted students have a greater feeling for both mountainous and urban landscapes than introverts. Also, less creative students preferred mountainous, urban, and farmland landscapes. Moreover, perception for farmland landscape was negatively correlated with intelligence among students.

  7. Movements of four native Hawaiian birds across a naturally fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Jessie L.; Flaspohler, David J.; Paxton, Eben H.; Fukami, Tadashi; Giardina, Christian P.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Wilson Rankin, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often increase their fitness by moving across space in response to temporal variation in habitat quality and resource availability, and as a result of intra and inter-specific interactions. The long-term persistence of populations and even whole species depends on the collective patterns of individual movements, yet animal movements have been poorly studied at the landscape level. We quantified movement behavior within four native species of Hawaiian forest birds in a complex lava-fragmented landscape: Hawai‛i ‘amakihi Chlorodrepanis virens, ‘oma‘o Myadestes obscurus, ‘apapane Himatione sanguinea, and ‘i‘iwi Drepanis coccinea. We evaluated the relative importance of six potential intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of movement behavior and patch fidelity: 1) forest fragment size, 2) the presence or absence of invasive rats (Rattus sp.), 3) season, 4) species, 5) age, and 6) sex. The study was conducted across a landscape of 34 forest fragments varying in size from 0.07 to 12.37 ha, of which 16 had rats removed using a treatment-control design. We found the largest movements in the nectivorous ‘apapane and ‘i‘iwi, intermediate levels in the generalist Hawai‛i ‘amakihi, and shortest average movement for the ‘oma‘o, a frugivore. We found evidence for larger patch sizes increasing patch fidelity only in the ‘oma‘o, and an effect of rat-removal increasing patch fidelity of Hawai‛i ‘amakihi only after two years of rat-removal. Greater movement during the non-breeding season was observed in all species, and season was an important factor in explaining higher patch fidelity in the breeding season for ‘apapane and ‘i‘iwi. Sex was important in explaining patch fidelity in ‘oma‘o only, with males showing higher patch fidelity. Our results provide new insights into how these native Hawaiian species will respond to a changing environment, including habitat fragmentation and changing distribution of threats from climate

  8. Influence of climate on landscape characteristics in safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J K; Lindborg, T; Thorne, M C

    2014-12-01

    In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine the erosional regime (which may also be conditioned by the vegetation characteristics adopted, based both on climatic and other considerations). However, geomorphological changes may be governed by regional rather than local considerations, e.g. alteration of river base levels, river capture and drainage network reorganisation, or the progression of an ice sheet or valley glacier across the site. The regional climate is in turn governed by the global climate. In this work, a commentary is presented on the types of climate models that can be used to develop projections of climate change for use in post-closure radiological impact assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes. These models include both Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity. The relevant outputs available from these models are identified and consideration is given to how these outputs may be used to inform projections of landscape development. Issues of spatial and temporal downscaling of climate model outputs to meet the requirements of local-scale landscape development modelling are also addressed. An example is given of how climate change and landscape development influence the radiological impact of radionuclides potentially released from the deep geological disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel that SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) proposes to construct at Forsmark, Sweden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of principal component analysis to ecodiversity assessment of postglacial landscape (on the example of Debnica Kaszubska commune, Middle Pomerania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Adam

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess ecodiversity understood as a comprehensive natural landscape factor (Jedicke 2001), it is necessary to apply research methods which recognize the environment in a holistic way. Principal component analysis may be considered as one of such methods as it allows to distinguish the main factors determining landscape diversity on the one hand, and enables to discover regularities shaping the relationships between various elements of the environment under study on the other hand. The procedure adopted to assess ecodiversity with the use of principal component analysis involves: a) determining and selecting appropriate factors of the assessed environment qualities (hypsometric, geological, hydrographic, plant, and others); b) calculating the absolute value of individual qualities for the basic areas under analysis (e.g. river length, forest area, altitude differences, etc.); c) principal components analysis and obtaining factor maps (maps of selected components); d) generating a resultant, detailed map and isolating several classes of ecodiversity. An assessment of ecodiversity with the use of principal component analysis was conducted in the test area of 299,67 km2 in Debnica Kaszubska commune. The whole commune is situated in the Weichselian glaciation area of high hypsometric and morphological diversity as well as high geo- and biodiversity. The analysis was based on topographical maps of the commune area in scale 1:25000 and maps of forest habitats. Consequently, nine factors reflecting basic environment elements were calculated: maximum height (m), minimum height (m), average height (m), the length of watercourses (km), the area of water reservoirs (m2), total forest area (ha), coniferous forests habitats area (ha), deciduous forest habitats area (ha), alder habitats area (ha). The values for individual factors were analysed for 358 grid cells of 1 km2. Based on the principal components analysis, four major factors affecting commune ecodiversity

  10. Conservation planning in agricultural landscapes: hotspots of conflict between agriculture and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Gorm E; Steward, Peter R; German, Richard N; Sait, Steven M; Benton, Tim G

    2015-03-01

    Conservation conflict takes place where food production imposes a cost on wildlife conservation and vice versa. Where does conservation impose the maximum cost on production, by opposing the intensification and expansion of farmland? Where does conservation confer the maximum benefit on wildlife, by buffering and connecting protected areas with a habitable and permeable matrix of crop and non-crop habitat? Our aim was to map the costs and benefits of conservation versus production and thus to propose a conceptual framework for systematic conservation planning in agricultural landscapes. World-wide. To quantify these costs and benefits, we used a geographic information system to sample the cropland of the world and map the proportion of non-crop habitat surrounding the cropland, the number of threatened vertebrates with potential to live in or move through the matrix and the yield gap of the cropland. We defined the potential for different types of conservation conflict in terms of interactions between habitat and yield (potential for expansion, intensification, both or neither). We used spatial scan statistics to find 'hotspots' of conservation conflict. All of the 'hottest' hotspots of conservation conflict were in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have impacts on sustainable intensification in this region. Systematic conservation planning could and should be used to identify hotspots of conservation conflict in agricultural landscapes, at multiple scales. The debate between 'land sharing' (extensive agriculture that is wildlife friendly) and 'land sparing' (intensive agriculture that is less wildlife friendly but also less extensive) could be resolved if sharing and sparing were used as different types of tool for resolving different types of conservation conflict (buffering and connecting protected areas by maintaining matrix quality, in different types of matrix). Therefore, both sharing and sparing should be prioritized in hotspots of conflict, in the context of

  11. Assessing knowledge ambiguity in the creation of a model based on expert knowledge and comparison with the results of a landscape succession model in central Labrador. Chapter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederik Doyon; Brian Sturtevant; Michael J. Papaik; Andrew Fall; Brian Miranda; Daniel D. Kneeshaw; Christian Messier; Marie-Josee. Fortin; Patrick M.A. James

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable forest management (SFM) recognizes that the spatial and temporal patterns generated at different scales by natural landscape and stand dynamics processes should serve as a guide for managing the forest within its range of natural variability. Landscape simulation modeling is a powerful tool that can help encompass such complexity and support SFM planning....

  12. [Urban habitants' attitudes toward nature-approximating landscape architecture: taking Hongshan District of Wuhan City, China as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-ping; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Cai, Shao-ping; Gao, Kai; Jia, Ruo

    2011-07-01

    Nature-approximating landscape architecture (NALA) is a concept of sustainable development as applied to landscape architecture, while the urban habitants' awareness and acceptance of NALA idea is the key for the successful application of NALA. Through semi-structured interview, this paper explored the attitudes of the habitants in Hongshan District of Wuhan City toward the NALA design and management, and the influence of the social-economic characteristics of the responders on their attitudes toward the NALA. A fairly low percentage of the responders approved of the NALA design (10.3% - 46.9%) and management (7.4% - 34.9%). The attitudes towards NALA design were mainly affected by the responders' age, and the attitudes toward NALA management were significantly correlated with the responders' age, educational level, and profession. The efficient cause why a large number of responders did not support the NALA was that these responders attached importance to the aesthetic effect of green space, and preferred cleanliness and order. The lack of related ecological knowledge and environmental awareness was the root cause of the lesser support towards NALA. To establish NALA demonstration bases and to intensify the publicity and education of NALA idea and related ecological knowledge could promote an increasing number of urban habitants actively participating in NALA construction.

  13. Symbolic Representation and Protection of the Marine Landscape in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería- Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gaona Pisonero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This case study article centered on the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería-España on the correspondence or mismatch between the virtual landscape representations and the socio-cultural reality of the protected natural space. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the reconstruction of the natural market of Cabo de Gata Níjar in some sectors of the Spanish public sphere. The reflection focuses on the visibility of the virtual symbolic representative plains of space. The analysis of the results detects the virtual emic representations a reframing of the Park characterized by an on-line spectacular landscape. A dreamy exaltation in the emic representations virtual which practically invisibilizan real problems attacking against the coasts and reserve marine of this area. On the contrary, the media representation reflects with greater correspondence the dialectical reality of the landscape.

  14. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  15. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  16. Combining Aesthetic with Ecological Values for Landscape Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Luo, Tao; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quanyi; Luo, Yunjian

    2014-01-01

    Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. water body and forest) contributed positively more to both aesthetic and ecological values than semi-natural and human-dominated landscapes (i.e. farmland and non-ecological land). The distribution maps of landscape values indicated that the aesthetic, ecological and integrated landscape values were significantly associated with landscape attributes and human activity intensity. To combine aesthetic preferences with ecological services, the methods (i.e. field survey, landscape value coefficients, normalized method, a two-dimensional coordinate system, and landscape value distribution maps) were employed in landscape assessment. Our results could facilitate to identify the underlying structure-function-value chain, and also improve the understanding of multiple functions in landscape planning. The situation context could also be emphasized to bring ecological and aesthetic goals into better alignment. PMID:25050886

  17. Appreciation of landscape aesthetic values in Slovakia assessed by social media photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieskovský Juraj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Geolocated photos from google Panoramio are used as a proxy for evaluation of aesthetic values appreciation of different landscape types in Slovakia. We collected the photo’s metadata from years 2005 - 2014 and calculated the density of photos uploaded by unique user per square kilometre. Then we compared the photos density in different landscape types. The most appreciated are subalpine and alpine landscape types. The high photo density was also found in urban landscapes where most of the population live. Outside the urban area, we found that less intensive type of landscapes are visually more attractive. From the abiotic landscape categories the most aesthetically valuable are landscapes in giant highlands and glacial giant highlands. The lowland landscape used intensively for agricultural production is less attractive.

  18. Appreciation of landscape aesthetic values in Slovakia assessed by social media photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieskovský, Juraj; Rusňák, Tomáš; Klimantová, Alexandra; Izsóff, Martin; Gašparovičová, Petra

    2017-11-01

    Geolocated photos from google Panoramio are used as a proxy for evaluation of aesthetic values appreciation of different landscape types in Slovakia. We collected the photo's metadata from years 2005 - 2014 and calculated the density of photos uploaded by unique user per square kilometre. Then we compared the photos density in different landscape types. The most appreciated are subalpine and alpine landscape types. The high photo density was also found in urban landscapes where most of the population live. Outside the urban area, we found that less intensive type of landscapes are visually more attractive. From the abiotic landscape categories the most aesthetically valuable are landscapes in giant highlands and glacial giant highlands. The lowland landscape used intensively for agricultural production is less attractive.

  19. Determinants of a traditional agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Borysiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to define the landscape determinants as certificates of natural and cultural heritage which identify the young glacial landscape under traditional agricultural management. These studies were conducted in the upper Parsęta basin (Pomerania, Poland covered by the many annual environmental monitoring programs since 1994. The aim of this monitoring is to observe changes in geoecosystems of the temperate climate zone. The parameters of the abiotic landscape subsystem have been monitored in a wide range of terms, whereas biotic elements and cultural resources only in a very limited way. This was the reason for undertaking complementary studies. The paper presents the so-called “zero-state” for 2014, which will be a reference point from which to track the direction of landscape changes in the future. The abiotic, geobotanical, and cultural determinants of this state chosen have been characterized on the basis of field mapping data and the available literature. They were chosen based on the methodology of landscape audit to define the specificity of the traditional agricultural landscape. They were selected on the basis of assessment criteria for landscape structure: complexity (diversification of land use and cover, naturalness (syngenesis of plant communities, hydrochemical properties of surface waters, coherence of composition with natural conditions, stewardship (intensity of use, crop weeds, ecological succession, fallows, anthropogenic denudation, aesthetic and visual perception, historicity (continuity of natural landscape elements, continuation of traditional agricultural use, architectural objects, and disharmonious elements.

  20. [Bird biodiversity in natural and modified habitats in a landscape of the Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2010-03-01

    In many parts of the neotropics, the original habitats are rapidly changing because of excessive logging, agriculture and livestock activity, with an often negative impact on bird communities. I present an analysis of the diversity and richness of birds in a fragmented landscape of the Central Chiapas Depression. Fieldwork was conducted from February 2003 to January 2004. Using point counts, a total of 35 families and 225 bird species were registered (164 residents and 61 migratory); 3% are abundant and 30% rare. Diversity, species richness and number of individuals were significantly higher in tropical deciduous forest (H'=3.41, 178 species ANOVA p<0.0001), which also had the greatest number of species restricted to a single vegetation type (39 species). The incorporation and maintenance of natural and modified habitats are necessary for the survival and reproduction of many birds species in the study area.

  1. An Expression of Multiple Values: The Relationship Between Community, Landscape and Natural Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To aid political and institutional decision making in the sustainable use of natural resources the value of ecological, socio-cultural and economic assets has increasingly been communicated in terms of monetary units. Despite reliance upon natural resources, the impact of human activities has now reached a stage where cumulative losses are forcing society to re-appraise the evaluation process and how to better incorporate these values in to the decision-making process. This paper examines the attributes of value held by natural resources within ecological, socio-cultural and economic value domains from the perspective of a rural UK community. Here we reflect upon the continued primacy of monetary valuation of natural resource using two approaches, a scaled preference-based value typology and a place-based map measure. We demonstrate that the societal relationships which inform the evaluation of natural resources are both multi-faceted and hierarchical. Moreover, whilst aware of the utilitarian character of society’s relationship with natural resource, the societal value-for-natural-resource relationship is primarily expressed using social-ecological qualities. These results add weight to the call for a new approach towards natural resource evaluation and how these values contribute to the sustainability agenda. New methods of evaluation must adopt multiple values that extend beyond a solely economic-based commodification concern to encompass the human relationship with the resource itself. Wherein, a multi-faceted approach to attributing value to natural resource, set within an experiential framework, can provide a focal point for discussion and the decision-making process.

  2. Climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessment of solid radioactive waste disposal: Results of an initiative of the IAEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, T; Thorne, M; Andersson, E; Becker, J; Brandefelt, J; Cabianca, T; Gunia, M; Ikonen, A T K; Johansson, E; Kangasniemi, V; Kautsky, U; Kirchner, G; Klos, R; Kowe, R; Kontula, A; Kupiainen, P; Lahdenperä, A-M; Lord, N S; Lunt, D J; Näslund, J-O; Nordén, M; Norris, S; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Proverbio, A; Riekki, K; Rübel, A; Sweeck, L; Walke, R; Xu, S; Smith, G; Pröhl, G

    2018-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The work has been supported by results of parallel on-going research that has been published in a variety of reports and peer reviewed journal articles. The project is due to be described in detail in a forthcoming IAEA report. Noting the multi-disciplinary nature of post-closure safety assessments, here, an overview of the work is given to provide researchers in the broader fields of radioecology and radiological safety assessment with a review of the work that has been undertaken. It is hoped that such dissemination will support and promote integrated understanding and coherent treatment of climate change and landscape development within an overall assessment process. The key activities undertaken in the project were: identification of the key processes that drive environmental change (mainly those associated with climate and climate change), and description of how a relevant future may develop on a global scale; development of a methodology for characterising environmental change that is valid on a global scale, showing how modelled global changes in climate can be downscaled to provide information that may be needed for characterising environmental change in site-specific assessments, and illustrating different aspects of the methodology in a number of case studies that show the evolution of site characteristics and the implications for the dose assessment models. Overall, the study has shown that quantitative climate and landscape modelling has now developed to the stage that it can be used to define an envelope of climate and landscape change scenarios at specific sites and under specific greenhouse-gas emissions assumptions that is suitable for use in quantitative post-closure performance assessments. These scenarios are not predictions of the future, but

  3. Effects of humans on behaviour of wildlife exceed those of natural predators in a landscape of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuti, Simone; Northrup, Joseph M; Muhly, Tyler B; Simi, Silvia; Musiani, Marco; Pitt, Justin A; Boyce, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Human disturbance can influence wildlife behaviour, which can have implications for wildlife populations. For example, wildlife may be more vigilant near human disturbance, resulting in decreased forage intake and reduced reproductive success. We measured the effects of human activities compared to predator and other environmental factors on the behaviour of elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758) in a human-dominated landscape in Alberta, Canada. We collected year-round behavioural data of elk across a range of human disturbances. We estimated linear mixed models of elk behaviour and found that human factors (land-use type, traffic and distance from roads) and elk herd size accounted for more than 80% of variability in elk vigilance. Elk decreased their feeding time when closer to roads, and road traffic volumes of at least 1 vehicle every 2 hours induced elk to switch into a more vigilant behavioural mode with a subsequent loss in feeding time. Other environmental factors, thought crucial in shaping vigilance behaviour in elk (natural predators, reproductive status of females), were not important. The highest levels of vigilance were recorded on public lands where hunting and motorized recreational activities were cumulative compared to the national park during summer, which had the lowest levels of vigilance. In a human-dominated landscape, effects of human disturbance on elk behaviour exceed those of habitat and natural predators. Humans trigger increased vigilance and decreased foraging in elk. However, it is not just the number of people but also the type of human activity that influences elk behaviour (e.g. hiking vs. hunting). Quantifying the actual fitness costs of human disturbance remains a challenge in field studies but should be a primary focus for future researches. Some species are much more likely to be disturbed by humans than by non-human predators: for these species, quantifying human disturbance may be the highest priority for conservation.

  4. Landscape genomics: natural selection drives the evolution of mitogenome in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Barbara; González-Acuña, Daniel; Loyola, David E; Johnson, Warren E; Parker, Patricia G; Massaro, Melanie; Dantas, Gisele P M; Miranda, Marcelo D; Vianna, Juliana A

    2018-01-16

    Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin species distributed from the equator to Antarctica. Signatures of selection of 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were evaluated by comparing among species within and among genera (Spheniscus, Pygoscelis, Eudyptula, Eudyptes and Aptenodytes). The genetic data were correlated with environmental data obtained through remote sensing (sea surface temperature [SST], chlorophyll levels [Chl] and a combination of SST and Chl [COM]) through the distribution of these species. We identified the complete mtDNA genomes of several penguin species, including ND6 and 8 tRNAs on the light strand and 12 protein coding genes, 14 tRNAs and two rRNAs positioned on the heavy strand. The highest diversity was found in NADH dehydrogenase genes and the lowest in COX genes. The lowest evolutionary divergence among species was between Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) and Galapagos (S. mendiculus) penguins (0.004), while the highest was observed between little penguin (Eudyptula minor) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) (0.097). We identified a signature of purifying selection (Ka/Ks selection is constraining mitogenome evolution to maintain Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and functionality. Pairwise species maximum-likelihood analyses of selection at codon sites suggest positive selection has occurred on ATP8 (Fixed-Effects Likelihood, FEL) and ND4 (Single Likelihood Ancestral Counting, SLAC) in all penguins. In contrast, COX1 had a signature of strong negative selection. ND4 Ka/Ks ratios

  5. Capturing the view : a GIS based procedure to assess perceived landscape openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitkamp, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The landscape is an important contributor to quality of life. People identify with landscapes and landscapes contribute to a sense of place and wellbeing. Changes in land use activities, such as agriculture, and in current spatial planning policies and practice accelerate the transformation of

  6. LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources by combining the advanced technologies of remote sensing, geograph...

  7. Landscape dose conversion factors used in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Aastrand, Per-Gustav

    2010-12-01

    In this report two types of Dose Conversion Factors have been derived: i) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor (LDF) that is applicable to continuous long-term releases to the biosphere at a constant rate, and ii) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor for pulse releases (LDF pulse) that is applicable to a radionuclide release that reaches the biosphere in a pulse within years to hundreds of years. In SR-Site these Dose Factors are multiplied with modelled release rates or pulse releases from the geosphere to obtain dose estimates used in assessment of compliance with the regulatory risk criterion. The LDFs were calculated for three different periods of the reference glacial cycle; a period of submerged conditions following the deglaciation, the temperate period, and a prolonged period of periglacial conditions. Additionally, LDFs were calculated for the global warming climate case. The LDF pulse was calculated only for temperate climate conditions. The LDF and LDF pulse can be considered as Best Estimate values, which can be used in calculations of Best Estimate values of doses to a representative individual of the most exposed group from potential releases from a future repository. A systematic analysis of the effects of system, model and parameter uncertainties on the LDFs has been carried out. This analysis has shown that the use of the derived LDF would lead to cautious or realistic dose estimates. The models and methods that were used for derivation of the LDFs and LDF pulse are also described in this report

  8. Landscape dose conversion factors used in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Aastrand, Per-Gustav (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report two types of Dose Conversion Factors have been derived: i) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor (LDF) that is applicable to continuous long-term releases to the biosphere at a constant rate, and ii) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor for pulse releases (LDF pulse) that is applicable to a radionuclide release that reaches the biosphere in a pulse within years to hundreds of years. In SR-Site these Dose Factors are multiplied with modelled release rates or pulse releases from the geosphere to obtain dose estimates used in assessment of compliance with the regulatory risk criterion. The LDFs were calculated for three different periods of the reference glacial cycle; a period of submerged conditions following the deglaciation, the temperate period, and a prolonged period of periglacial conditions. Additionally, LDFs were calculated for the global warming climate case. The LDF pulse was calculated only for temperate climate conditions. The LDF and LDF pulse can be considered as Best Estimate values, which can be used in calculations of Best Estimate values of doses to a representative individual of the most exposed group from potential releases from a future repository. A systematic analysis of the effects of system, model and parameter uncertainties on the LDFs has been carried out. This analysis has shown that the use of the derived LDF would lead to cautious or realistic dose estimates. The models and methods that were used for derivation of the LDFs and LDF pulse are also described in this report

  9. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  10. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  11. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the pharmaceutical and scientific communities and various publications have documented the therapeutic value of natural compounds in a bid to validate claims of their biological activity. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of plants and their ...

  12. Urban expansion dynamics and natural habitat loss in China: a multiscale landscape perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Liu, Zhifeng; Tian, Jie; Ma, Qun

    2014-09-01

    China's extensive urbanization has resulted in a massive loss of natural habitat, which is threatening the nation's biodiversity and socioeconomic sustainability. A timely and accurate understanding of natural habitat loss caused by urban expansion will allow more informed and effective measures to be taken for the conservation of biodiversity. However, the impact of urban expansion on natural habitats is not well-understood, primarily due to the lack of accurate spatial information regarding urban expansion across China. In this study, we proposed an approach that can be used to accurately summarize the dynamics of urban expansion in China over two recent decades (1992-2012), by integrating data on nighttime light levels, a vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The natural habitat loss during the time period was evaluated at the national, ecoregional, and local scales. The results revealed that China had experienced extremely rapid urban growth from 1992 to 2012 with an average annual growth rate of 8.74%, in contrast with the global average of 3.20%. The massive urban expansion has resulted in significant natural habitat loss in some areas in China. Special attention needs to be paid to the Pearl River Delta, where 25.79% or 1518 km(2) of the natural habitat and 41.99% or 760 km(2) of the local wetlands were lost during 1992-2012. This raises serious concerns about species viability and biodiversity. Effective policies and regulations must be implemented and enforced to sustain regional and national development in the context of rapid urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: Challenges in European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomba, A.; Guerra, C.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.P.; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of low intensity farming for the conservation of biodiversity throughout Europe was acknowledged early in the 1990s when the concept of ‘High Nature Value farmlands’ (HNVf) was devised. HNVf has subsequently been given high priority within the EU Rural Development Programme. This puts

  15. Urban Perceptions of the Natural Landscape: Implications for Public Awareness of Wilderness as a Distinct Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    George W. Duffy

    1992-01-01

    As more and more of our population move from rural to suburban to urban to metropolitan settings, the connections between people and the land of which they are a part become less obvious, less immediately important and less clearly understood. The contrast between a complex, highly structured social and cultural urban environment and the natural world seems bipolar....

  16. From landscapes to soundscapes: understanding and managing natural quiet in the national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Manning; William Valliere; Jeffery Hallo; Peter Newman; Ericka Pilcher; Michael Savidge; Dan Dugan

    2007-01-01

    Research at Muir Woods Natural Monument suggests that soundscapes are an important component of parks and outdoor recreation, that human-caused noise is a potentially important indicator of quality for park soundscapes, and that visitors have normative standards for the maximum acceptable level of human-caused noise in parks. Formulating indicators and standards of...

  17. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  18. Configuration and Evolution of the Landscape from the Geomorphological Map in the Natural Parks Batuecas-Quilamas (Central System, SW Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Martínez-Graña

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work performs a geomorphological mapping procedure applied to the evolutionary analysis of the landscape, such that it groups different geomorphological units photointerpreted in large geomorphological domains. This allows greater utility and ease of identification and application in the different multidisciplinary studies of environmental geology and the evolution of the landscape. Geomorphological analysis allows the investigation of the reconstruction of the relief from the processes that have shaped the landscape over time. This work is a tool for the analysis of palaeolandscapes and palaeoreliefs applied to correct environmental and sustainable planning of the territory. The process starts from a morphostructural zoning in which they are grouped according to their erosive and depositional forms and the morphogenetic system to which they belong: structural, fluvial, gravitational, and polygenic. The procedure is applied to two natural parks: Batuecas and Quilamas, differentiating 18 geomorphological domains. The 2D and 3D cartographies have been implemented in virtual 3D balloons allowing a greater ease of landscape analysis in the spatial distribution of the different units over orthophotographs. The morphological and chronological evolution of the evolution of the landscape is established from the relative age of the lithological units and the geomorphological domains, as well as by their geospatial position. Georeferenced digital mapping complies with the Inspire directive for these natural spaces.

  19. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  20. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  1. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    David Reinstein; Daniel A. Benítez Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  2. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  3. Assessing and Managing Natural Resource Damages: Continuing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Stahl, Ralph G.

    2017-05-01

    In a 2002 paper, we discussed the technical challenges associated with quantifying natural resource injuries, service losses and damages, and suggested some actions that might help to overcome them. An important suggestion was to consider using some of the approaches in ecological risk assessment to help evaluate potential natural resource injuries, and ultimately in some cases to help translate those injuries into natural resource service loss. This was based on the observation that ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments use much of the same types of data, but at that time the experience base with ecological risk assessment was greater than for natural resource damage assessments. We also discussed some of the issues in applying the then current Department of Interior natural resource damage assessments regulations. Since our 2002 publication the scientific literature, relevant regulations, the global context and more have changed. In the current paper we focus on the technical and regulatory changes in natural resource damage assessments practice since 2002, and use recent reports and publications to illustrate those changes and identify new directions in natural resource damage assessments.

  4. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A: Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Book cover Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A: Guidelines for an Ethnographic. Auteur(s) : L. Blum, P.J. Pelto, G.H. Pelto, and H.V. Kuhnlein. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997.

  5. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 1997 ... Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A : Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Couverture du livre Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A : Guidelines for an. Auteur(s):. L. Blum, P.J. Pelto, G.H. Pelto et H.V. Kuhnlein. Maison(s) d'édition: INFDC, CRDI.

  6. The second generation of natural resource damage assessments: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.B.; Burlington, L.B.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), under the Office of General Counsel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has centered its efforts on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures will likely lower the costs associated with damage assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments and simplify most assessments. The DART team of NOAA is developing new regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration, and economic valuation. Various methods are currently being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources. The proposed means include: compensation tables for spills under 50,000 gallons, Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive procedures. They are being developed to provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages for each oil spill

  7. Infrared thermal remote sensing for soil salinity assessment on landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivushkin, Konstantin; Bartholomeus, Harm; Bregt, Arnold K.; Pulatov, Alim; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Wilford, John

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is considered as one of the most severe land degradation aspects. An increased soil salt level inhibits growth and development of crops. Therefore, up to date soil salinity information is vital for appropriate management practices and reclamation strategies. This information is required at increasing spatial and temporal resolution for appropriate management adaptations. Conventional soil sampling and associated laboratory analyses are slow, expensive, and often cannot deliver the temporal and spatial resolution required. The change of canopy temperature is one of the stress indicators in plants. Its behaviour in response to salt stress on individual plant level is well studied in laboratory and greenhouse experiments, but its potential for landscape scale studies using remote sensing techniques is not investigated yet. In our study, possibilities of satellite thermography for landscape scale soil salinity assessment of cropped areas were studied. The performance of satellite thermography is compared with other approaches that have been used before, like Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The study areas were Syrdarya province of Uzbekistan and four study areas in four Australian states namely, Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales. The diversity of the study areas allowed us to analyse behaviour of canopy temperature of different crops (wheat, cotton, barley) and different agriculture practices (rain fed and irrigated). MODIS and Landsat TM multiannual satellite images were used to measure canopy temperature. As ground truth for Uzbekistan study area we used a provincial soil salinity map. For the Australian study areas we used the EC map for the whole country. ANOVA was used to analyse relations between the soil salinity maps and canopy temperature, NDVI, EVI. Time series graphs were created to analyse the dynamics of the indicators during the growing season. The results

  8. "In a country every way by nature favourable to health": Landscape and Public Health in Victorian Rural Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Keir

    2014-01-01

    Rather than seeing landscape as an invisible backdrop to sanitary reform, this article offers another context through which to consider the problems facing local authorities and sanitary officials in identifying and tackling sanitary problems. Using Wales as a case study, this article first addresses how rural landscapes were imagined and second how as "environments" and "territories" they influenced patterns of sanitary reform. If underlying ideological meanings were attached to the landscape, as this article suggests, the rural landscape was a plural one in that it also acted as a barrier to sanitary reform.

  9. Hydrological resiliency in the Western Boreal Plains: classification of hydrological responses using wavelet analysis to assess landscape resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Samantha; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hannah, David; Parkin, Geoff

    2017-04-01

    The Boreal represents a system of substantial resilience to climate change, with minimal ecological change over the past 6000 years. However, unprecedented climatic warming, coupled with catchment disturbances could exceed thresholds of hydrological function in the Western Boreal Plains. Knowledge of ecohydrological and climatic feedbacks that shape the resilience of boreal forests has advanced significantly in recent years, but this knowledge is yet to be applied and understood at landscape scales. Hydrological modelling at the landscape scale is challenging in the WBP due to diverse, non-topographically driven hydrology across the mosaic of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study functionally divides the geologic and ecological components of the landscape into Hydrologic Response Areas (HRAs) and wetland, forestland, interface and pond Hydrologic Units (HUs) to accurately characterise water storage and infer transmission at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Wavelet analysis is applied to pond and groundwater levels to describe the patterns of water storage in response to climate signals; to isolate dominant controls on hydrological responses and to assess the relative importance of physical controls between wet and dry climates. This identifies which components of the landscape exhibit greater magnitude and frequency of variability to wetting and drying trends, further to testing the hierarchical framework for hydrological storage controls of: climate, bedrock geology, surficial geology, soil, vegetation, and topography. Classifying HRA and HU hydrological function is essential to understand and predict water storage and redistribution through drought cycles and wet periods. This work recognises which landscape components are most sensitive under climate change and disturbance and also creates scope for hydrological resiliency research in Boreal systems by recognising critical landscape components and their role in landscape collapse or catastrophic

  10. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  11. Natural risks assessment and management (project of monograph)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozin, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: large-scale theoretic and practical works on the issue of natural risk assessment and management started in Russia in the end of the 80's. By now there has been made a considerable progress, which allowed for the preparation of a collective monograph on the subject mentioned in the title of this abstract. It is supposed to be published in 1999 in order to become a Russian contribution to the International Decade of Natural Disasters Reduction. The monograph included 6 chapters with the following titles: 1. Methodological foundations of natural risk analysis and assessment. 2. Investigating and forecasting natural hazards for the purpose of risk assessment. 3. Assessment of economic, social and ecological damage from natural hazards. 4, Theory of natural risk assessment. 5. Examples of natural risk assessment and mapping. 6. Natural risk management. In the report there is described the content of the monograph and unsolved questions are discussed. Executive editor offers all international experts to cooperate in the compilation of this monograph, which is to be completed by the end of 1998, especially of chapter 5 and 6. (author)

  12. Assessing large spatial scale landscape change effects on water quality and quantity response in the lower Athabasca River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Nicole E; Westbrook, Cherie J; Dubé, Monique G; Squires, Allison J

    2013-07-01

    Increased land use intensity has been shown to adversely affect aquatic ecosystems. Multiple landscape stressors interact over space and time, producing cumulative effects. Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is the process of evaluating the impact a development project may have on the ecological surroundings, but several challenges exist that make current approaches to cumulative effects assessment ineffective. The main objective of this study was to compare results of different methods used to link landscape stressors with stream responses in a highly developed watershed, where past work has shown that the river has experienced significant water quality and quantity changes to improve approaches to CEA. The study site was the lower reaches of the Athabasca River, Canada that have been subjected to a diverse range of intense anthropogenic developments since the late 1960s. Linkages between landscape change and river response were evaluated using correlation analyses, stepwise, multiple regression, and regression trees. Notable landscape changes include increased industrial development and forest cut-blocks, made evident from satellite imagery and supporting ancillary data sets. Simple regression analyses showed water use was closely associated with total phosphorus (TP) and Na(+) concentrations, as well as specific conductance. The regression trees for total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and Na(+) showed that the landscape variables that appear as the first characteristic were the same variables that showed significant relations for their respective simple regression models. Simple, stepwise, and multiple regressions in conjunction with regression trees were useful in this study for capturing the strongest associations between landscape stressors and river response variables. The results highlight the need for improved scaling methods and monitoring strategies crucial to managing cumulative effects to river systems. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Assessing landscape and contaminant point-sources as spatial determinants of water quality in the Vermilion River System, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, Carrie; Bowman, Michelle F; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2017-10-01

    The Vermilion River and major tributaries (VRMT) are located in the Vermilion watershed (4272 km 2 ) in north-central Ontario, Canada. This watershed not only is dominated by natural land-cover but also has a legacy of mining and other development activities. The VRMT receive various point (e.g., sewage effluent) and non-point (e.g., mining activity runoff) inputs, in addition to flow regulation features. Further development in the Vermilion watershed has been proposed, raising concerns about cumulative impacts to ecosystem health in the VRMT. Due to the lack of historical assessments on riverine-health in the VRMT, a comprehensive suite of water quality parameters was collected monthly at 28 sites during the ice-free period of 2013 and 2014. Canadian water quality guidelines and objectives were not met by an assortment of water quality parameters, including nutrients and metals. This demonstrates that the VRMT is an impacted system with several pollution hotspots, particularly downstream of wastewater treatment facilities. Water quality throughout the river system appeared to be influenced by three distinct land-cover categories: forest, barren, and agriculture. Three spatial pathway models (geographical, topographical, and river network) were employed to assess the complex interactions between spatial pathways, stressors, and water quality condition. Topographical landscape analyses were performed at five different scales, where the strongest relationships between water quality and land-use occurred at the catchment scale. Sites on the main stem of Junction Creek, a tributary impacted by industrial and urban development, had above average concentrations for the majority of water quality parameters measured, including metals and nitrogen. The river network pathway (i.e., asymmetric eigenvector map (AEM)) and topographical feature (i.e., catchment land-use) models explained most of the variation in water quality (62.2%), indicating that they may be useful tools in

  14. Untangling human development and natural gradients: implications of underlying correlation structure for linking landscapes and riverine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Lucero; E. Ashley Steel; Kelly M. Burnett; Kelly. Christiansen

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, ecologists seek to identify and quantify relationships between landscape gradients and aquatic ecosystems. Considerable statistical challenges emerge in this effort, some of which are attributable to multicollinearity between human development and landscape gradients. In this paper, we measure the covariation between human development—such as agriculture...

  15. Variability in vegetation and surface fuels across mixed-conifer-dominated landscapes with over 40 years of natural fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins; Jamie M. Lydersen; Danny L. Fry; Katherine Wilkin; Tadashi Moody; Scott L. Stephens

    2016-01-01

    Studies of historical fire and vegetation conditions in dry conifer forests have demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity across landscapes. However, there is a limit to the amount of inference that can be drawn from historical fire reconstructions. Contemporary "reference" landscapes may be able to provide information that is not available from historical...

  16. Assessment of Landscape Changes: Theoretical Starting Points for Study and the Research Reality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Trnka, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2008), s. 2-15 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : criteria of landscape changes * landscape structures * space- time - dynamics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. A new algorithm for least-cost path analysis by correcting digital elevation models of natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jieun; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-04-01

    Most algorithms for least-cost path analysis usually calculate the slope gradient between the source cell and the adjacent cells to reflect the weights for terrain slope into the calculation of travel costs. However, these algorithms have limitations that they cannot analyze the least-cost path between two cells when obstacle cells with very high or low terrain elevation exist between the source cell and the target cell. This study presents a new algorithm for least-cost path analysis by correcting digital elevation models of natural landscapes to find possible paths satisfying the constraint of maximum or minimum slope gradient. The new algorithm calculates the slope gradient between the center cell and non-adjacent cells using the concept of extended move-sets. If the algorithm finds possible paths between the center cell and non-adjacent cells with satisfying the constraint of slope condition, terrain elevation of obstacle cells existing between two cells is corrected from the digital elevation model. After calculating the cumulative travel costs to the destination by reflecting the weight of the difference between the original and corrected elevations, the algorithm analyzes the least-cost path. The results of applying the proposed algorithm to the synthetic data sets and the real-world data sets provide proof that the new algorithm can provide more accurate least-cost paths than other conventional algorithms implemented in commercial GIS software such as ArcGIS.

  18. Application and comparative analysis of three rapid assessment protocols to characterize fluvial landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimara Andreza Rigotti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial systems are endowed with features such as heterogeneity and variability which allow the classification of a fluvial landscape. Rapid assessment protocols have been useful tools for the characterization of integrity, especially in river segment scale. The objective of this paper was to apply three protocols in order to evaluate their performance in comparison with each other and with the results obtained by analytical methods of water quality assessment and an evaluation of the aquatic macro-invertebrate community. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS was applied using water quality parameters, trophic state index (IET, and abundance data of benthic macro-invertebrates. In addition, the study determined correlations between the index and the protocols’ final scores. The protocols’ feasibility for habitat characterization was confirmed, since the results were compatible for all procedures applied. Despite some particularities, each protocol offered a particular description of general aspects that affect river integrity, indicating which habitat conditions best support aquatic biodiversity in urban rivers.

  19. Land valuation and marginalization processes in cultural landscapes - a comparative study of valuation systems related to natural and semi-natural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming an increasingly important research topic in landscape ecology and related fields to develop spatially explicit valuation procedures for cultural landscapes. This is the case for example of research on ecosystem services where aesthetic, recreational, identity-related and other...... awareness that the behavior of rural landscape managers reflect culture, and that cultural valuation systems need to be included in research addressing such themes as sustainability and multifunctionality which is often difficult to regulate effectively and depend directly on local decision behavior. Two...... parallel approaches to how such valuations are developed and transformed into policy seems to exist: (1) A "bottom-up" approach, in which collaborative and locally experienced perspectives on the landscape are considered primary, and (2) A "top-down" approach relying on biological, landscape ecological...

  20. Natural vegetation cover in the landscape and edge effects: differential responses of insect orders in a fragmented forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    Human activities have led to global simplification of ecosystems, among which Neotropical dry forests are some of the most threatened. Habitat loss as well as edge effects may affect insect communities. Here, we analyzed insects sampled with pan traps in 9 landscapes (at 5 scales, in 100-500 m diameter circles) comprising cultivated fields and Chaco Serrano forests, at overall community and taxonomic order level. In total 7043 specimens and 456 species of hexapods were captured, with abundance and richness being directly related to forest cover at 500 m and higher at edges in comparison with forest interior. Community composition also varied with forest cover and edge/interior location. Different responses were detected among the 8 dominant orders. Collembola, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera richness and/or abundance were positively related to forest cover at the larger scale, while Thysanoptera abundance increased with forest cover only at the edge. Hymenoptera abundance and richness were negatively related to forest cover at 100 m. Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera were more diverse and abundant at the forest edge. The generally negative influence of forest loss on insect communities could have functional consequences for both natural and cultivated systems, and highlights the relevance of forest conservation. Higher diversity at the edges could result from the simultaneous presence of forest and matrix species, although "resource mapping" might be involved for orders that were richer and more abundant at edges. Adjacent crops could benefit from forest proximity since natural enemies and pollinators are well represented in the orders showing positive edge effects. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  2. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  3. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Cameron, Clarion, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, L. E.; Slonecker, E. T.; Roig-Silva, C. M.; Winters, S. G.; Ballew, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract unconventional natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique for extraction, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Cameron, Clarion, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication. In this region, natural gas and oil development disturbed

  4. The US Natural Gas Exports: New Rules on the European Gas Landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the consequences of US Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) exports towards Europe, in particular on the strategy of Russia, the EU's main gas supplier. The shale gas revolution has profoundly changed the US gas scene and the competitiveness of gas on the US market. The abundant resources and sharp rise in production have resulted in surplus production and have driven the US gas prices down. The price spread between regional markets (United States, Europe, and Asia) has led US producers to look for new export opportunities. After a lively debate between advocates of exports, mainly gas producers, and their critics, mainly the major industrial users who were worried about a price increase, US LNG exports started in late February 2016 with the first cargo from the Sabine Pass (Cheniere) liquefaction plant exported to Brazil. Four other liquefaction plants are currently under construction. In 2020, the United States could become the third largest exporter in the world after Australia and Qatar. The US LNG exports will revolutionise international trade in LNG. Their contract structure (linked to the US gas spot price, no destination clauses, and tolling agreements) and the projected volumes will enable greater flexibility in the international LNG market and facilitate price convergence between regional markets. However, the US exports are starting in a market very different from that envisioned at the start of the 2010's when the export projects were launched. The drop in oil prices, the entry into production of new liquefaction capacities since 2014, and the slowdown in demand growth in Asia have driven LNG prices down on import markets. After four years of tight supply, the market is now in a surplus situation which should continue until the turn of the decade. These new conditions are profoundly changing the economics of US LNG export projects, which is questioned in the short term: the current prices are insufficient to cover the full cost of

  5. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... This manual presents a practical step-by-step guide for assessing various aspects of natural food sources of vitamin A within a community and is essential for any research program involved in alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

  6. The Changing Midwest Assessment: land cover, natural resources, and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Potts; Eric Gustafson; Susan I. Stewart; Frank R. Thompson; Kathleen Bergen; Daniel G. Brown; Roger Hammer; Volker Radeloff; David Bengston; John Sauer; Brian Sturtevant

    2004-01-01

    Documents changes in land cover, forests, selected natural resources, and human demographics and attitudes across the Midwest from roughly 1980 to 2000. The changing Midwest assessment: data and shapefiles are available from the Forest Service Research Data Archive....

  7. Landscape function analysis as a base of rural development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filepné Kovács Krisztina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on ecosystem services and landscape functions are highly important in landscape ecology, landscape planning and open space design. The terms of ecosystem service and landscape function have been evolved parallel to each other in the scientific literature but have different focus. The term of landscape functions evolved from the scientific field of landscape ecology; it reflects the goods and services provided by regions, landscapes where the cultural, economic factors are important as well. As a framework assessment method with additional economic assessment, a landscape function analysis could be an additional tool of rural development, as it gives a complex analysis of multiple aspects, thus it is highly appropriate to explore, analyze the potentials, resources and limits of landscapes and land use systems. In the current research a landscape function analysis was compared with the rural development strategies in Hungarian micro-regions. We focused on the level of landscape functions and the objectives of the rural development strategies of the study areas. The local development strategies do not focus on territorial differences nor potentials evolving from natural, cultural resources or local constrains. The only exception is tourism development, where in some cases there is a holistic spatial approach which intends to develop the region as a whole.

  8. [Ecological risk assessment and its management of Bailongjiang watershed, southern Gansu based on landscape pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhao, Cai-Xia; Xie, Yu-Chu; Gao, Yan-Jing

    2014-07-01

    Watershed ecological risk assessment is an important research subject of watershed ecological protection and environmental management. Research on the ecological risk focuses on addressing the influence of human activities and its spatial variation at watershed scale is vital to policy-making to control the impact of human activity and protocols for sustainable economic and societal development. A comprehensive ecological environment index, incorporating a landscape index and an assessment of ecological vulnerability, was put forward to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics of ecological risk of the Bailongjiang watershed, southern Gansu Province, Northwest China. Using ArcGIS and Fragstats software and a land use map of 2010, an ecological risk map was obtained through spatial sampling and disjunctive Kriging interpolation. The results indicated that there were some obvious spatial differences of ecological risk levels in the watershed. The ecological risk level of the north and northwest of the Bailongjiang was higher than that of the western and southern extremities of the watershed. Ecological risk index (ERI) of Wudu and Tanchang was higher than that of Wenxian and Diebu. Some measures for ecological risk management were put forward on the basis of ERI of Bailongjiang watershed. To strengthen the integrated management of human activities and land use in the watershed, to carry out the vegetation restoration and ecological reconstruction, and to reduce the ecological risks and hazards of irrational human disturbance, are vital to the realization 'multiple-win' of the economic, social and ecological protection and for the sustainable development in the hilly area in southern Gansu.

  9. Integrating forest ecosystem services into the farming landscape: A stochastic economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Juan J; Parker, Warren J; Richardson, James W

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how payments for ecosystem services could assist plantation forestry's integration into pastoral dairy farming in order to improve environmental outcomes and increase business resilience to both price uncertainty and production limits imposed by environmental policies. Stochastic Dominance (SD) criteria and portfolio analysis, accounting for farmers' risk aversion levels, were used to rank different land-use alternatives and landscapes with different levels of plantation forestry integration. The study was focused on a modal 200-ha dairy farm in the Lake Rotorua Catchment of the Central North Island region of New Zealand, where national environmental policies are being implemented to improve water quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Nitrogen and carbon payments would help farmers improve early cash flows for forestry, provide financial leverage to undertake afforestation projects and contribute to improved environmental outcomes for the catchment. The SD criteria demonstrated that although dairy farming generates the highest returns, plantation forestry with nitrogen and carbon payments would be a preferred alternative for landowners with relatively low risk aversion levels who consider return volatility and environmental limits within their land-use change criteria. Using the confidence premium concept, environmental payments to encourage plantation forestry into the landscape were shown to be lower when the majority of landowners are risk averse. The certainty equivalence approach helped to identify the optimal dairy-forestry portfolio arrangements for landowners of different levels of risk aversion, intensities of dairy farming (status quo and intensified) and nitrogen prices. At low nitrogen prices, risk neutral farmers would choose to afforest less than half of the farm and operate at the maximum nitrogen allowance, because dairy farming at both intensities provides the highest return among the different land

  10. Landscape planning as a contribution to the assessment and finding of sites for energy facilities from an ecological and creative point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental agreeability examination through landscape planning in connection with the finding of sites for power stations and their integration into area planning is explained. The procedure of landscape planning for the assessment of power station sites is also presented. (RW) [de

  11. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. A large body of current literature suggests that human land-use practice is the most important factor influencing natural resource management and environmental condition...

  12. PLANTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE KURSK ROOT MONASTERY AND ITS LANDSCAPE AS A NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kotova

    2014-01-01

    accreted into one. So there are all prerequisites to name oak and elm symbolic trees of the Kursk region. Kursk Root hermitage was developed as a big monastery with unique architecture harmoniously blended in the surrounding landscape. The monastery placed on a hilltop has a picturesque descent to the river Tuskar which in the valley Kursk icon was found. Holy source streams in the place of finding of the icon. Сovered descents to the source are unique. They haven’t analogue in the monastery architecture. A Forest of Virgin was existеd near the monastery. Many of old valuable trees grew there, but the forest was destroyed after the revolution of the 1917. 537 Currently the forest recovers, holy sources of the healing water run out roots of trees. Some few chapels built near sources. Monastery buildings and living restore. Many pilgrims arrive to the monastery. The miracle of finding of the icon is immortalized in the monument on the principal source and in other monuments. In the monastery as in the Kursk region on the whole the memory of Great Russian Saint Serafim Sarovsky who born in Kursk is carefully honored. Kursk Root monastery with its landscape and surrounding vegetation is an integral harmonious complex which may be proposed for consideration to the inclusion of this territory in the list of monuments not only cultural, but natural-cultural heritage of Kursk region and all Russian Federation.

  13. The Ancient Maya Landscape: Facing the Challenges and Embracing the Promise of Integrating Archaeology, Remote Sensing, Soil Science and Hydrologic Modeling for Coupled Natural and Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Duffy, C.; Cook, B. D.; Schroder, W.; Webster, D.; French, K. D.; Alcover, O.; Golden, C.; Balzotti, C.; Shaffer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on a niche inheritance perspective, this paper discusses the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land-use management, agricultural decision making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. We introduce and describe ongoing research that addresses a series of long standing questions about coupled natural and human history dynamics in the Central Maya lowlands, emphasizing the role of landscape and region to address these questions. First, we summarize the results of a CNH pilot study focused on the evolution of the regional landscape of Tikal, Guatemala. Particular attention is centered on how we integrated landscape survey, traditional archaeology and soil studies to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and intensification over a two thousand period. Additionally, we discuss how these results were integrated into remote sensing, hydrological and erosion models to better understand how past changes in available water and productive land compare to what we know about settlement patterns in the Tikal Region over that same time period. We not only describe how the Maya transformed this landscape, but also how the region influenced changing patterns of settlement and land use. We finish this section with a discussion of some of the unique challenges integrating archaeological information to study CNH dynamics during this pilot study. Second, we introduce a new project designed to `scale up' the pilot study for a macro-regional analysis of the lowland Maya landscape. The new project leverages a uniquely sampled LIDAR data set designed to refine measurements of above ground carbon storage. Our new project quantitatively examines these data for evidence for past human activity. Preliminary results offer a promising path for tightly integrating archaeology, natural science, remote sensing and modeling for studying CNH dynamics in the deep and recent past.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Landscape Development on Ecosystem Services Value in Tropical Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Y. S.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    As development increases with demand, more forest lands are replaced with cropland, commercial plantation, and infrastructures for being able to accommodate the excessive growth in world's population. Environments were destroyed without considering their values in sustaining life on Earth.This phenomenon is still an ongoing scenario in most of the developing countries in the tropical region including Malaysia. Such unrestricted conversion may cause food or water crisis along with irreparable consequences to local and regional climate as the natural ecosystem is not only the main resources generator but also the climate stabilizer. Contrary to this, a study was conducted in Pahang Watershed, the largest watershed in Peninsular Malaysia with forest as the dominant land cover, to investigate the effect of landscape development on the ecosystem in terms of the erosion and ecosystem service value. Results of soil loss based on USLE indicated a direct relationship between development and total soil loss where total annual soil loss in year 2005 and 2010 showed a significant increase compare to year 2000. Meanwhile, developed and agricultural lands were discovered to be the main contributor whereas forest land produce the least soil loss (oil palm had become the main commercial plantation in current years, the commercial profit brought by oil palm still insufficient to cover losses referring to overall estimated ESVG due to the forest clearance and soil degradation. In addition, for a destroyed ecosystem to be equilibrium again requires years. Therefore, ESVG of the tropical forest are expected to increase continuously in future which mean that the roles of the forest in conserving the environment stabilization and sustainability of life are getting more critical.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Landscape Development on Ecosystem Services Value in Tropical Watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, Y S; Hashim, M

    2014-01-01

    As development increases with demand, more forest lands are replaced with cropland, commercial plantation, and infrastructures for being able to accommodate the excessive growth in world's population. Environments were destroyed without considering their values in sustaining life on Earth.This phenomenon is still an ongoing scenario in most of the developing countries in the tropical region including Malaysia. Such unrestricted conversion may cause food or water crisis along with irreparable consequences to local and regional climate as the natural ecosystem is not only the main resources generator but also the climate stabilizer. Contrary to this, a study was conducted in Pahang Watershed, the largest watershed in Peninsular Malaysia with forest as the dominant land cover, to investigate the effect of landscape development on the ecosystem in terms of the erosion and ecosystem service value. Results of soil loss based on USLE indicated a direct relationship between development and total soil loss where total annual soil loss in year 2005 and 2010 showed a significant increase compare to year 2000. Meanwhile, developed and agricultural lands were discovered to be the main contributor whereas forest land produce the least soil loss (<10ton/ ha/yr). Apart from this, this study also reports a degrading trend in the overall ecological service value and goods (ESVG). Although oil palm had become the main commercial plantation in current years, the commercial profit brought by oil palm still insufficient to cover losses referring to overall estimated ESVG due to the forest clearance and soil degradation. In addition, for a destroyed ecosystem to be equilibrium again requires years. Therefore, ESVG of the tropical forest are expected to increase continuously in future which mean that the roles of the forest in conserving the environment stabilization and sustainability of life are getting more critical

  16. Assessing the relationship between surface urban heat islands and landscape patterns across climatic zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiquan; Huang, Xin; Li, Jiayi

    2017-08-24

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect exerts a great influence on the Earth's environment and human health and has been the subject of considerable attention. Landscape patterns are among the most important factors relevant to surface UHIs (SUHIs); however, the relationship between SUHIs and landscape patterns is poorly understood over large areas. In this study, the surface UHI intensity (SUHII) is defined as the temperature difference between urban and suburban areas, and the landscape patterns are quantified by the urban-suburban differences in several typical landscape metrics (ΔLMs). Temperature and land-cover classification datasets based on satellite observations were applied to analyze the relationship between SUHII and ΔLMs in 332 cities/city agglomerations distributed in different climatic zones of China. The results indicate that SUHII and its correlations with ΔLMs are profoundly influenced by seasonal, diurnal, and climatic factors. The impacts of different land-cover types on SUHIs are different, and the landscape patterns of the built-up and vegetation (including forest, grassland, and cultivated land) classes have the most significant effects on SUHIs. The results of this study will help us to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the SUHI effect and landscape patterns.

  17. The role of natural analogues in safety assessment and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Toenis

    1987-01-01

    The safety assessment must evaluate the level of safety for a repository, the confidence that can be placed on the assessment and how well the repository can meet the acceptance criteria of the society. Many of the processes and phenomena that govern the long term performance of a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste also take place in nature. To investigate these natural analogues and try to validate the models on which the safety assessment are based is a main task in the effort to build of confidence in the safety assessments. The assessment of the safety of a repository can, however, not only be based on good models. The possible role of natural analogues or natural evidence in other parts of the safety assessment is discussed. Specially with regard to - the need to demonstrate that all relevant processes have been taken into account, and that the important ones have been validated to an acceptable level for relevant parameters spans, -the definition and analysis of external scenarios for the safety assessment and for the claim that all reasonable scenarios have been addressed, - the public confidence in the long-term relevance of the acceptance criteria. (author)

  18. Modern parameters of caesium-137 root uptake in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems of contaminated post-Chernobyl landscape, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paramonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of modern parameters of 137Cs root uptake was conducted in natural meadow and agricultural ecosystems of post-Chernobyl landscapes of Tula region. The agrosystems with main crops of field rotation (barley, potatoes, rape, maize occupying watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems are contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (4.7-6.0 Ci/km2; natural meadow ecosystems occupying lower parts of slopes and floodplains are contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (5.8-7.6 Ci/km2. In the arable soils 137Cs uniformly distributed to a depth of Ap horizon (20-30 cm of thickness, while in meadow soils 70-80% of the radionuclide is concentrated within the top Ad horizon (9-13 cm of thickness. These topsoil layer accords with rhizosphere zone, where >80-90% of plant roots are concentrated, and from which 137Cs is mostly consumed by vegetation. Total amount of 137Cs root uptake depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.61. So 137Cs activity in meadow vegetation (103-160 Bq/kg is generally more than one in agricultural vegetation (9-92 Bq/kg. The values of 137Cs transfer factor in the studied ecosystems vary from 0.01 (rape to 0.20 (wet meadow, that confirms the discrimination of the radionuclide’s root uptake. The larger are the volume of roots and their absorbing surface, the higher are the values of transfer factor from soil to plant (correlation coefficients 0.71 and 0.64 respectively. 137Cs translocation from roots to shoots is also determined by biological features of plants. At the same level of soil contamination above-ground parts of meadow herbs accumulate more 137Cs than Gramineae species, and in agrosystems above-ground parts of weeds concentrate more 137Cs than cultivated cereals. Thus, the level of soil radioactive pollution and biological features of plants are determinants in the process of 137Cs root uptake and translocation and should be considered in land use policy.

  19. Derivation of two well-behaved theoretical contagion indices and their sampling properties and application for assessing forest landscape diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial patterns of landscapes are useful to quantify human impact, predict wildlife effects, or describe variability of landscape features. A common approach to identify and quantify landscape structure is with a landscape scale model known as a contagion index. A contagion index quantifies two distinct components of landscape diversity: composition and...

  20. Investigating the Diversity and Variability of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes

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    Ioannis N. Vogiatzakis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the variability of eastern Mediterranean landscapes using a common mapping framework relying on Landscape Character Mapping (LCM. LCM was adapted to the region’s specificities placing emphasis on the area’s coastal nature, landform variation, land use, in particular pastoral tradition, and settlement patterns, an important output of this study. We selected six study areas, in four countries namely Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon, based on their rich cultural and natural heritage, covering a NW to SE gradient of both environmental and cultural settings. We used commonly employed landscape metrics to quantify landscape diversity in the study areas. Similarity in landscape types among study area was measured using Sørensen similarity index. The Kruskall–Walis test was used to test the variability among countries in terms of landscape character variation due to physical and cultural factors. Linear regression was used to assess whether landscape diversity increases with area size. The work has identified and mapped a total of 69 landscape types, of which 18 are rare. Rare landscape types were related to specific geomorphology or intensive anthropogenic activities, which do not occur elsewhere in the East Mediterranean region. The highest similarity was recorded between islands and between mountainous areas. The larger the area the higher is its landscape diversity. This works fills a gap in Mediterranean and sets a benchmark standard for landscape characterization work in the East Mediterranean, so as to enable much greater consistency between countries in future landscape mapping exercises and, ultimately, facilitate trans-boundary cooperation in landscape-scale nature and culture conservation.

  1. Delaware's natural resource damage assessment of the Presidente Rivera spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Saturday, June 24, 1989 the motor tanker (M/T) Presidente Rivera ran aground in the Delaware River. Because natural resources in the States of Delaware, New Jersey and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania were impacted, the formulation of a natural resource damage assessment of the incident involving resources under the jurisdiction of multi-State as well as multi-Federal natural resource trustee agencies was initiated. This paper reports that specifically, the State of Delaware began development of a preassessment screen in August 1989 in order to make a determination as to whether a natural resource damage assessment of the incident was warranted. Preliminary findings presented in the screen allowed the State of Delaware and appropriate Federal trustee representatives to conclude a formal damage assessment was warranted. In October 1989, the State of Delaware hired a consultant to perform a two-phase assessment of the incident to determine the value of the injuries experienced by the natural resources within the State's boundaries. Efforts on the completion of the assessment are ongoing

  2. Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of ecosystem services, such as carbon (C storage, can demonstrate the benefits of managing for both production and habitat conservation in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we evaluated C stocks and woody plant diversity across vineyard blocks and adjoining woodland ecosystems (wildlands for an organic vineyard in northern California. Carbon was measured in soil from 44 one m deep pits, and in aboveground woody biomass from 93 vegetation plots. These data were combined with physical landscape variables to model C stocks using a geographic information system and multivariate linear regression. Results Field data showed wildlands to be heterogeneous in both C stocks and woody tree diversity, reflecting the mosaic of several different vegetation types, and storing on average 36.8 Mg C/ha in aboveground woody biomass and 89.3 Mg C/ha in soil. Not surprisingly, vineyard blocks showed less variation in above- and belowground C, with an average of 3.0 and 84.1 Mg C/ha, respectively. Conclusions This research demonstrates that vineyards managed with practices that conserve some fraction of adjoining wildlands yield benefits for increasing overall C stocks and species and habitat diversity in integrated agricultural landscapes. For such complex landscapes, high resolution spatial modeling is challenging and requires accurate characterization of the landscape by vegetation type, physical structure, sufficient sampling, and allometric equations that relate tree species to each landscape. Geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques are useful for integrating the above variables into an analysis platform to estimate C stocks in these working landscapes, thereby helping land managers qualify for greenhouse gas mitigation credits. Carbon policy in California, however, shows a lack of focus on C stocks compared to emissions, and on agriculture compared to other sectors. Correcting these policy

  3. Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of ecosystem services, such as carbon (C) storage, can demonstrate the benefits of managing for both production and habitat conservation in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we evaluated C stocks and woody plant diversity across vineyard blocks and adjoining woodland ecosystems (wildlands) for an organic vineyard in northern California. Carbon was measured in soil from 44 one m deep pits, and in aboveground woody biomass from 93 vegetation plots. These data were combined with physical landscape variables to model C stocks using a geographic information system and multivariate linear regression. Results Field data showed wildlands to be heterogeneous in both C stocks and woody tree diversity, reflecting the mosaic of several different vegetation types, and storing on average 36.8 Mg C/ha in aboveground woody biomass and 89.3 Mg C/ha in soil. Not surprisingly, vineyard blocks showed less variation in above- and belowground C, with an average of 3.0 and 84.1 Mg C/ha, respectively. Conclusions This research demonstrates that vineyards managed with practices that conserve some fraction of adjoining wildlands yield benefits for increasing overall C stocks and species and habitat diversity in integrated agricultural landscapes. For such complex landscapes, high resolution spatial modeling is challenging and requires accurate characterization of the landscape by vegetation type, physical structure, sufficient sampling, and allometric equations that relate tree species to each landscape. Geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques are useful for integrating the above variables into an analysis platform to estimate C stocks in these working landscapes, thereby helping land managers qualify for greenhouse gas mitigation credits. Carbon policy in California, however, shows a lack of focus on C stocks compared to emissions, and on agriculture compared to other sectors. Correcting these policy shortcomings could create incentives

  4. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its

  5. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  6. An energetics-based honeybee nectar-foraging model used to assess the potential for landscape-level pesticide exposure dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveco, Johannes M; Focks, Andreas; Belgers, Dick; van der Steen, Jozef J M; Boesten, Jos J T I; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of honeybees to pesticides on a landscape scale requires models of their spatial foraging behaviour. For this purpose, we developed a mechanistic, energetics-based model for a single day of nectar foraging in complex landscape mosaics. Net energetic efficiency determined resource patch choice. In one version of the model a single optimal patch was selected each hour. In another version, recruitment of foragers was simulated and several patches could be exploited simultaneously. Resource availability changed during the day due to depletion and/or intrinsic properties of the resource (anthesis). The model accounted for the impact of patch distance and size, resource depletion and replenishment, competition with other nectar foragers, and seasonal and diurnal patterns in availability of nectar-providing crops and wild flowers. From the model we derived simple rules for resource patch selection, e.g., for landscapes with mass-flowering crops only, net energetic efficiency would be proportional to the ratio of the energetic content of the nectar divided by distance to the hive. We also determined maximum distances at which resources like oilseed rape and clover were still energetically attractive. We used the model to assess the potential for pesticide exposure dilution in landscapes of different composition and complexity. Dilution means a lower concentration in nectar arriving at the hive compared to the concentration in nectar at a treated field and can result from foraging effort being diverted away from treated fields. Applying the model for all possible hive locations over a large area, distributions of dilution factors were obtained that were characterised by their 90-percentile value. For an area for which detailed spatial data on crops and off-field semi-natural habitats were available, we tested three landscape management scenarios that were expected to lead to exposure dilution: providing alternative resources than the target crop

  7. An energetics-based honeybee nectar-foraging model used to assess the potential for landscape-level pesticide exposure dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes M. Baveco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the exposure of honeybees to pesticides on a landscape scale requires models of their spatial foraging behaviour. For this purpose, we developed a mechanistic, energetics-based model for a single day of nectar foraging in complex landscape mosaics. Net energetic efficiency determined resource patch choice. In one version of the model a single optimal patch was selected each hour. In another version, recruitment of foragers was simulated and several patches could be exploited simultaneously. Resource availability changed during the day due to depletion and/or intrinsic properties of the resource (anthesis. The model accounted for the impact of patch distance and size, resource depletion and replenishment, competition with other nectar foragers, and seasonal and diurnal patterns in availability of nectar-providing crops and wild flowers. From the model we derived simple rules for resource patch selection, e.g., for landscapes with mass-flowering crops only, net energetic efficiency would be proportional to the ratio of the energetic content of the nectar divided by distance to the hive. We also determined maximum distances at which resources like oilseed rape and clover were still energetically attractive. We used the model to assess the potential for pesticide exposure dilution in landscapes of different composition and complexity. Dilution means a lower concentration in nectar arriving at the hive compared to the concentration in nectar at a treated field and can result from foraging effort being diverted away from treated fields. Applying the model for all possible hive locations over a large area, distributions of dilution factors were obtained that were characterised by their 90-percentile value. For an area for which detailed spatial data on crops and off-field semi-natural habitats were available, we tested three landscape management scenarios that were expected to lead to exposure dilution: providing alternative resources than

  8. Rapid Assessment of Distribution of Wildlife and Human Activities for Prioritizing Conservation Actions in a Patagonian Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Lorena F; Novaro, Andrés J; Funes, Martín C; Walker, R Susan

    2015-01-01

    Large landscapes encompassing reserves and areas with other human uses are necessary for conservation of many species. Generating information for conservation planning over such landscapes may be expensive and time-consuming, though resources for conservation are generally limited and conservation is often urgent. We developed a sign-based occupancy survey to help prioritize conservation interventions by simultaneously assessing the distribution of 3 species, the lesser rhea, guanaco, and mara, and their association with human activities in a 20,000-km2 landscape in the northern Patagonian steppe. We used a single-season occupancy model with spatial rather than temporal replication of surveys in order to reduce costs of multiple visits to sites. We used covariates related to detectability, environmental factors, and different human activities to identify the most plausible models of occupancy, and calculated importance weights of covariates from these models to evaluate relative impacts of human activities on each species. Abundance of goats had the strongest negative association with lesser rheas and guanacos, and road density with maras. With six months of fieldwork, our results provided initial hypotheses for adaptive conservation interventions for each species. Addressing high livestock densities for rheas and guanacos, poaching by urban hunters for all three species, and hunting by rural people for rheas are priorities for conservation in this landscape. Our methodology provided new insights into the responses of these species, although low detection probabilities for maras indicate that the sampling scheme should be altered for future monitoring of this species. This method may be adapted for any large landscape where a rapid, objective means for prioritizing conservation actions on multiple species is needed and data are scarce.

  9. Evaluation of the changes of landscape types of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita IZAKOVIČOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last period landscape protection, its representative types more and more comes to the limelight. In October 2000 the European Landscape Convention - also known as the Florence Convention was adopted. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organise European co-operation on landscape issues.  Contracting states ought to analyse the landscape types on the whole area of their countries, to analyse their features, record their changes, specify motive power and pressure forming them and assess selected types with respect to special values attributed by engaged participants and inhabitants. Knowledge and identification of single landscape types enable the intensification of care of diversity of single landscape types and landscape biodiversity. It is an unavoidable condition in the strategic planning process and effective protection of regionally special landscape.Slovakia signed ELC in 2005 and became an active participant in its implementation. The Institute of the Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences elaborated methodology for specification and evaluation of the representative landscape types of Slovakia (RLTS.RLTS are defined as homogeneous units considering the landscape character, functions and current land-use. GIS (Geographical Information Systems tool was used to create RLTS, in particular by overlaying of abiotic landscape structure (type of relief, quaternary deposits, climatic regions, and soil types and land-cover map (CORINE Land Cover 2006 - CLC at national scale. This process yielded to a patched map of homogeneous areas, which were further interpreted, generalized, and regionalized to a final map of RLTS.Landscape types of Slovakia were defined by the synthesis of the mentioned maps. Totally there were identified 126 basic landscape types. Each landscape type represents unique combination of land-use in different abiotic conditions and gives the unique

  10. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  11. Assessing Landscape-Scale Soil Moisture Distribution Using Auxiliary Sensing Technologies and Multivariate Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, C.; Castrignanò, A.; Mueller, T.; Zourarakis, D.; Zhu, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess soil moisture to develop strategies to better manage its availability and use. At the landscape scale, soil moisture distribution derives from an integration of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes that cause soil moisture variability (SMV) to be time, space, and scale-dependent. Traditional methods to assess SMV at this scale are often costly, labor intensive, and invasive, which can lead to inadequate sampling density and spatial coverage. Fusing traditional sampling techniques with georeferenced auxiliary sensing technologies, such as geoelectric sensing and LiDAR, provide an alternative approach. Because geoelectric and LiDAR measurements are sensitive to soil properties and terrain features that affect soil moisture variation, they are often employed as auxiliary measures to support less dense direct sampling. Georeferenced proximal sensing acquires rapid, real-time, high resolution data over large spatial extents that is enriched with spatial, temporal and scale-dependent information. Data fusion becomes important when proximal sensing is used in tandem with more sparse direct sampling. Multicollocated factorial cokriging (MFC) is one technique of multivariate geostatistics to fuse multiple data sources collected at different sampling scales to study the spatial characteristics of environmental properties. With MFC sparse soil observations are supported by more densely sampled auxiliary attributes to produce more consistent spatial descriptions of scale-dependent parameters affecting SMV. This study uses high resolution geoelectric and LiDAR data as auxiliary measures to support direct soil sampling (n=127) over a 40 hectare Central Kentucky (USA) landscape. Shallow and deep apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) were measured using a Veris 3100 in tandem with soil moisture sampling on three separate dates with ascending soil moisture contents ranging from plant wilting point to field capacity. Terrain features were produced

  12. Assessment of thermal environment landscape over five megacities in China based on Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dan; Yang, Siyao; Gong, Huili; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The urban thermal environment is an important element for the urban ecological environment and climate. As megacities are affected by severe thermal environment, this paper selected Landsat 8 to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) studying the thermal environment of five megacities in China including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Tianjin, and Chengdu. Three methods have been applied, quantifying the surface urban heat island intensity, landscape pattern metrics, and spatial autocorrelation. Three main conclusions have been drawn as follows. First, high-LST area is located in the central urban area. Second, the medium-temperature region is the most prevalent. The class-based and the landscape-based metrics can detect the pattern of thermal landscape. The fragmentation is low both in low and high temperature level classes. Third, global Moran's I suggests there is spatial clustering of thermal landscape. Local Moran's I map was able to detect several high-high and low-low clusters, which are the main types of thermal landscape.

  13. Rooting strategies in a subtropical savanna: a landscape-scale three-dimensional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Boutton, Thomas W; Wu, X Ben; Wright, Cynthia L; Dion, Anais L

    2018-04-01

    In resource-limited savannas, the distribution and abundance of fine roots play an important role in acquiring essential resources and structuring vegetation patterns and dynamics. However, little is known regarding the three-dimensional distribution of fine roots in savanna ecosystems at the landscape scale. We quantified spatial patterns of fine root density to a depth of 1.2 m in a subtropical savanna landscape using spatially specific sampling. Kriged maps revealed that fine root density was highest at the centers of woody patches, decreased towards the canopy edges, and reached lowest values within the grassland matrix throughout the entire soil profile. Lacunarity analyses indicated that spatial heterogeneities of fine root density decreased continuously to a depth of 50 cm and then increased in deeper portions of the soil profile across this landscape. This vertical pattern might be related to inherent differences in root distribution between trees/shrubs and herbaceous species, and the presence/absence of an argillic horizon across this landscape. The greater density of fine roots beneath woody patches in both upper and lower portions of the soil profile suggests an ability to acquire disproportionately more resources than herbaceous species, which may facilitate the development and persistence of woody patches across this landscape.

  14. Assessing the drivers shaping global patterns of urban vegetation landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C; Nitschke, C; Kendal, D

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude). The data revealed that the best descriptors of landscape structure were amount, fragmentation and spatial distribution of vegetation. Populated cities tend to have less, more fragmented, less connected vegetation with a centre of the city with low vegetation cover. Results also provided insights on the influence of socioeconomics at a global scale, as landscape structure was more fragmented in areas that are economically unequal and coming from emergent economies. This study shows the effects of the social system and climate on urban landscape patterns that gives useful insights for the distribution in the provision of ecosystem services in urban areas and therefore the maintenance of human well-being. This information can support local and global policy and planning which is committing our cities to provide accessible and inclusive green space for all urban inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can landscape-level ecological restoration influence fire risk? A spatially-explicit assessment of a northern temperate-southern boreal forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Brian J. Palik; Meredith W. Cornett

    2012-01-01

    Management strategies to restore forest landscapes are often designed to concurrently reduce fire risk. However, the compatibility of these two objectives is not always clear, and uncoordinated management among landowners may have unintended consequences. We used a forest landscape simulation model to compare the effects of contemporary management and hypothetical...

  16. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  17. Assessment of landscape change associated with tropical cyclone phenomena in Baja California Sur, Mexico, using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Genaro

    Baja California Sur (Mexico), as well as mainland Mexico, is affected by tropical cyclone storms, which originate in the eastern north Pacific. Historical records show that Baja has been damaged by intense summer storms. An arid to semiarid climate characterizes the study area, where precipitation mainly occurs during the summer and winter seasons. Natural and anthropogenic changes have impacted the landscape of southern Baja. The present research documents the effects of tropical storms over the southern region of Baja California for a period of approximately twenty-six years. The goal of the research is to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to detect the important effects of tropical storms including: (a) evaluation of change detection algorithms, and (b) delineating changes to the landscape including coastal modification, fluvial erosion and deposition, vegetation change, river avulsion using change detection algorithms. Digital image processing methods with temporal Landsat satellite remotely sensed data from the North America Landscape Characterization archive (NALC), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images were used to document the landscape change. Two image processing methods were tested including Image differencing (ID), and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Landscape changes identified with the NALC archive and TM images showed that the major changes included a rapid change of land use in the towns of San Jose del Cabo and Cabo San Lucas between 1973 and 1986. The features detected using the algorithms included flood deposits within the channels of active streams, erosion banks, and new channels caused by channel avulsion. Despite the 19 year period covered by the NALC data and approximately 10 year intervals between acquisition dates, there were changed features that could be identified in the images. The TM images showed that flooding from Hurricane Isis (1998) produced new large deposits within the stream channels

  18. Assessing the role of landscape connectivity on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Yuen, Roy; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kim, Ick-Hoi

    2017-08-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is one of the most important human parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia. Although the concept of connectivity is widely used to comprehend disease dispersal, knowledge of the influences of landscape connectivity on Ov transmission is still rudimentary. This study aimed to investigate the role of landscape connectivity in Ov transmission between the human and the first intermediate snail hosts. Fieldwork was conducted in three villages respectively in Kamalasai District, Kalasin Province, Phu Wiang District, Khon Kaen Province, and Nong Saeng District, Udon Thani Province. Bithynia snails were collected to examine parasitic infections, water samples were analyzed for fecal contamination, and locations of septic tanks and connections between habitat patches with observable water movement were surveyed. Euclidean distance, topological link and distance, and graph measures were employed to quantify the connectivity between human and snail habitats. The findings showed that snail patches with higher fecal contents were generally located nearer to septic tanks. The statistically significant results for the topological link and distance measures highlighted the importance of water in functionally facilitating Ov transmission. Graph measures revealed differences in landscape connectivity across the sites. The site with the largest landscape component size and the most mutually connected snail patches coincided with the presence of Ov parasite, reinforcing its higher risk for human to snail transmission. The site with the dissected landscape structure potentially limited the transmission. This study underscored the potential effect of landscape connectivity on Ov transmission, contributing to the understanding of the spatial variation of Ov infection risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing landscape constraints on species abundance: Does the neighborhood limit species response to local habitat conservation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Powell, Larkin A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants.

  20. A Landscape Approach for Detecting and Assessing Changes in an Area Prone to Desertification in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giordano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification processes represent a serious problem in many areas of Sardinia (Italy, as in the Nurra region where urbanization, overgrazing, and fires have induced environmental degradation and rapid land-use change. In this study, using satellite remote sensing and geographical information system, landcover and landscape change dynamics were investigated. Comparing two Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper, it was possible to assess landcover transformations, and with the FRAGSTATS software it was possible to quantify the changes of landscape characteristics in the Nurra region over a 10-years period. The images were classified into seven landcover types, and a stepwise indicator approach was adopted. The results show a decrease in cropland and an increase of forestland and urban areas. The overall change was estimated to be about 2.5% of the total study area, with two most frequent landcover conversion types: cropland to urban areas and cropland to forestland.

  1. Incorporating the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI in Ecological Impacts Assessment of Roads at Landscape Scale (Case study: Eastern Part of Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Nematollahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of roads can have deleterious effects on natural habitats containing species of conservation concern. Fragmentation of habitat into small, non-contiguous patches may result in dramatic population declines. Thus appropriate studies quantifying ecological impacts of roads at landscape scale are essential. In this study, the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI was applied for the ecological impact assessment of the roads network in Eastern part of Isfahan Province, including Abassabad wildlife refuge and Siahkouh National park, which are among the most important habitats for Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus classified as Critically Endangered (CR on the IUCN Red List. This new landscape index uses three sub-indices including traffic intensity, vicinity impact and fragmentation grade to calculate the ecological impacts of roads network. Results obtained through quantifying the Spatial Road Disturbance Index showed that the degree of disturbance by roads network is between 0 and 54.53. Our results also revealed that 12 percent of Abassabad wildlife refuge and wide range of suitable habitats for Asiatic Cheetah were affected by roads network, which presents a conservation concern for this critically endangered species.

  2. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  3. Landscape Aesthetics and the Scenic Drivers of Amenity Migration in the New West: Naturalness, Visual Scale, and Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Values associated with scenic beauty are common “pull factors” for amenity migrants, however the specific landscape features that attract amenity migration are poorly understood. In this study we focused on three visual quality metrics of the intermountain West (USA, with the objective of exploring the relationship between the location of exurban homes and aesthetic landscape preference, as exemplified through greenness, viewshed size, and terrain ruggedness. Using viewshed analysis, we compared the viewsheds of actual exurban houses to the viewsheds of randomly-distributed simulated (validation houses. We found that the actual exurban households can see significantly more vegetation and a more rugged (complex terrain than simulated houses. Actual exurban homes see a more rugged terrain, but do not necessarily see the highest peaks, suggesting that visual complexity throughout the viewshed may be more important. The viewsheds visible from the actual exurban houses were significantly larger than those visible from the simulated houses, indicating that visual scale is important to the general aesthetic experiences of exurbanites. The differences in visual quality metric values between actual exurban and simulated viewsheds call into question the use of county-level scales of analysis for the study of landscape preferences, which may miss key landscape aesthetic drivers of preference.

  4. Movement of people across the landscape: a blurring of distinctions between areas, interests, and issues affecting natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Gina Childs

    2004-01-01

    The spread of development from cities into surrounding forests and farms continues to receive a great deal of attention from the media and resource managers in the US and other countries. However, suburban sprawl is just one of many interlinked components of the movement of people across the landscape that influence resource management. Substantial changes are taking...

  5. Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Philip A. Townsend; John E. Gross; Warren B. Cohen; Paul Bolstad; Wang Y. Q.; Phyllis Adams

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing provides a broad view of landscapes and can be consistent through time, making it an important tool for monitoring and managing protected areas. An impediment to broader use of remote sensing science for monitoring has been the need for resource managers to understand the specialized capabilities of an ever-expanding array of image sources and analysis...

  6. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  7. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  8. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...

  9. Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural radioactivity and its overall health detriments. ... No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. The projected ... However, the chances of radiological hazard to the health of human from radioactivity in the soil were generally low.

  10. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups

  11. Landscape fragmentation for flood prevention: GIS and hydrological modelling approach assessing forested labscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heřman, Michal; Zemek, František

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, Supplement 3 (2001), s. 149-157 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/99/1470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : landscape pattern * shape index * rainfall-runoff Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  12. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas James Brandeis

    2006-01-01

    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico’s highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with Coccoloba diversifolia, Licaria parvifolia, and Drypetes...

  13. Assessing the healthcare landscape within developing nations: impact on design reality gaps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ouma, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available result avoid design reality gaps. Therefore in this paper we provide information flow in a simple graphical form using the landscape methodology and multiple case studies that were carried out in Nyanza province in Kenya. From the methodology the results...

  14. Downscaling of land use change scenarios to assess the dynamics of European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Schulp, C.J.E.; Witte, N.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Europe's rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian structure are likely to have a large impact on landscape quality

  15. Downscaling of land use change scenarios to assess the dynamics of European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, C. J E; De Witte, N.A.J.; Veldkamp, A.

    Europe's rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian structure are likely to have a large impact on landscape quality

  16. Assessing the Effect of Supplemental Web-based Learning in Two Landscape Construction Courses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Li

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of supplemental web-based learning in an undergraduate and a graduate landscape architecture construction studio taught by the same instructors. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a total of 32 participating students. These data included surveys of students' perceived satisfaction of the course and preferences on eight different learning vehicles, as well as tracked online course visits of each student. More than two-thirds of students responded that their learning benefited from use of the WebCT (and online education and training software and that they were satisfied with the courses. This indicates that online delivery of course materials could enhance landscape architecture studio learning, which also implies that off-campus study, study abroad, or internship study, typically required in landscape architecture curricula, can also benefit from the use of WebCT or the like. With the Internet, students scattered globally for off-campus or internship study can be brought back to a local or virtual classroom for monitoring of their learning progress and quality. Therefore, the fine line between global and local classrooms becomes fuzzy and indistinguishable. For those who are interested in developing online landscape architecture courses, interactive student-to-teacher and student-to-student activities, such as chat rooms, online discussions, or white board demonstrations are recommended to encourage participation and, in turn, ensure learning effectiveness.

  17. Success stories in landscape management for functional biodiversity: an assessment from 5 west-European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Burgio, G.; Eggenschwiler, L.; Gerowitt, B.; Mante, J.; Powell, W.; Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Kragten, S.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Within IOBC, a small scale inventory was made to collect success stories in landscape management for functional biodiversity. Five projects from different European countries were analysed to define the indicators in the people, planet and profit domains being seen as important for success. Projects

  18. Assessing Vulnerability of Lake Erie Landscapes to Soil Erosion: Modelled and Measured Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, P.; Laamrani, A.; Feisthauer, N.; Li, S.

    2017-12-01

    Loss of soil from agricultural landscapes to Lake Erie via water erosion is a key transport mechanism for phosphorus bound to soil particles. Agriculture is the dominant land use in the Canadian side of the Lake Erie basin with approximately 75% of the 2.3 million hectares under crop or livestock production. The variable geography and diversity of agricultural production systems and management practices makes estimating risk of soil erosion from agricultural landscapes in the Canadian Lake Erie basin challenging. Risk of soil erosion depends on a combination of factors including the extent to which soil remains bare, which differs with crop type and management. Two different approaches of estimating the vulnerability of landscapes to soil erosion will be compared among Soil Landscapes of Canada in the Lake Erie basin: a modelling approach incorporating farm census and soil survey data, represented by the 2011 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agri-Environmental Indicator for Soil Erosion Risk; and, a measured approach using remotely sensed data that quantifies the magnitude of bare and covered soil across the basin. Results from both approaches will be compared by scaling the national level (1:1 million) Soil Erosion Risk Indicator and the remotely sensed data (30x30 m resolution) to the quaternary watershed level.

  19. Landscape transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2014-01-01

    In my work, titled Landscape transformation, in the first theoretical-art part, I focus on a landscape painting style in fifteen exposed works, done by different authors. While analyzing depictions of the landscape I establish how the development of photography has in any way affected the transformation of the landscape. In the practical part I describe my work, soft ground graphics with the motive of the landscape, mountain landscape and caves. I devoted the last chapter of my thesis to the ...

  20. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  1. [Assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on water environment based on the integration of soil erosion process and landscape pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing-Fang; Zeng, Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    The integration of the effects of landscape pattern to the assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on eco-environmental is of practical significance in methodological prospect, being able to provide an approach for identifying water body's sediment source area, assessing the potential risks of sediment export of on-site soil erosion to the target water body, and evaluating the capacity of regional landscape pattern in preventing soil loss. In this paper, the RUSLE model was applied to simulate the on-site soil erosion rate. With the consideration of the soil retention potential of vegetation cover and topography, a quantitative assessment was conducted on the impacts of soil erosion in the water source region of the middle route for South-to-North Water Transfer Project on rivers and reservoirs by delineating landscape pattern at point (or cell) scale and sub-watershed level. At point (or grid cell) scale, the index of soil erosion impact intensity (I) was developed as an indicator of the potential risk of sediment export to the water bodies. At sub-watershed level, the landscape leakiness index (LI) was employed to indicate the sediment retention capacity of a given landscape pattern. The results revealed that integrating the information of landscape pattern and the indices of soil erosion process could spatially effectively reflect the impact intensity of in situ soil erosion on water bodies. The LI was significantly exponentially correlated to the mean sediment retention capacity of landscape and the mean vegetation coverage of watershed, and the sediment yield at sub-watershed scale was significantly correlated to the LI in an exponential regression. It could be concluded that the approach of delineating landscape pattern based on soil erosion process and the integration of the information of landscape pattern with its soil retention potential could provide a new approach for the risk evaluation of soil erosion.

  2. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  3. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  4. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C. [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B.; Iason, G. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R.; Nylen, T. [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T.; White, N. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H.; Aro, L.; Kaunisto, S. [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O. [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  5. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L.; Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C.; Mayes, B.; Iason, G.; Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V.; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T.; White, N.; Guillitte, O.

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, 134 Cs, 137 Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work

  6. Maritimes natural gas market : an overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) adopted a market-based procedure (MBP) to assess long-term gas exports. The MPB included monitoring and assessment of Maritimes natural gas markets. The NEB is responsible for interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines as well as tolls and tariffs on NEB-regulated pipelines. The NEB is also responsible for electricity and natural gas exports and exploration programs on federally regulated lands not covered by an Accord agreement. The province of New Brunswick requested a new set of rules for the export of natural gas from the Maritimes to ensure competitiveness with other jurisdictions. The NEB decided that the public interest is best served by allowing the market to work. It also decided that the developing Maritimes market faces several challenges not faced by buyers in the export market. It was concluded that the market is working reasonably well to meet the needs of domestic consumers. 20 per cent of Scotian gas is being used in the Maritimes and many laterals have been constructed to extend service. Most major population centres have natural gas. However, there is no residential or commercial natural gas service in Nova Scotia, and only limited penetration of natural gas in residential and commercial markets in New Brunswick. Maritimers have a long history of using other fuel options and must make capital investment to switch to natural gas. They must, therefore, be convinced that investment will pay off in fuel savings and other benefits. The NEB will have to improve price transparency and strive for regulatory efficiency and cooperation with other jurisdictions. 2 figs

  7. ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL APPROACH TO INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in Russia, much attention is given to research and practical identification of the cultural landscape (CL stability parameters that define its dependency on the character of the territorial land use. As a rule, these are projects of territorial and landscape planning (LP aimed at assessment of stability of the CL depending on the conditions of the social and natural environment, on the level of changes of its components, and on the direct relation with the nature and the type of natural resources management. This approach defines most fully conditions and the level of impact on the landscape.The paper discusses the main types of natural resource management of the CL. Residential areas are the most complex and multifunctional types of natural resource management. They are of the greatest interest to the research as an object of “co-creation of man and nature” [Sochava, 1978]. This is determined by an important role of residential areas with their infrastructure as a landscape reshaping element that influences the functioning and structure of the CL. Cities, suburbs and towns, as human environment, require a special attention in order to achieve an environmentally friendly and sustainable landscape.In the concept of LP, much attention is given to assessment of the natural components of the CL. As a rule, assessment of soil, climate (atmosphere, water, and landscape sensitivity and significance is conducted [Drozdov, 2006]. The selection of assessment criteria varies depending on the natural resource management type. Obtained results are compared with parameters that are indicative for or specific to naturally occurring landscape. The crisis of environmental components makes LP the vitally necessary management instrument. The goals of landscape planning are broadly formulated—landscape planning should cover the entire territory of the country, should consider both natural and socio-economic factors, and should develop measures to

  8. Recreational Activities, Practices and Attitudes of Visitors to the Protected Landscape Areas as a Basis for Resolving Conflicts of Recreation and Nature Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Schneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the views and needs of visitors on a model example of a protected landscape area Moravian Karst. It analyses their view of nature conservation as a factor in the development of tourism and recreation. The results also present the habits and activities of visitors in relation to potential and actual impacts of recreation on protected areas and ecosystems. Methodology of the work is based on a standard questionnaire survey, conducted in the summer and autumn of 2013. Together with the management of the Moravian Karst locations with intense traffic were selected. These locations were then analysed by visible manifestations and impacts of recreational activities on the site.

  9. LiDAR Individual Tree Detection for Assessing Structurally Diverse Forest Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Sean

    Contemporary forest management on public land incorporates a focus on restoration and maintenance of ecological functions through silvicultural manipulation of forest structure on a landscape scale. Incorporating reference conditions into restoration treatment planning and monitoring can improve treatment efficacy, but the typical ground-based methods of quantifying reference condition data---and comparing it to pre- and post-treatment stands---are expensive, time-consuming, and limited in scale. Airborne LiDAR may be part of the solution to this problem, since LiDAR acquisitions have both broad coverage and high resolution. I evaluated the ability of LiDAR Individual Tree Detection (ITD) to describe forest structure across a structurally variable landscape in support of large-scale forest restoration. I installed nineteen 0.25 ha stem map plots across a range of structural conditions in potential reference areas (Yosemite National Park) and potential restoration treatment areas (Sierra National Forest) in the Sierra Nevada of California. I used the plots to evaluate a common ITD algorithm, the watershed transform, compare it to past uses of ITD, and determine which aspects of forest structure contributed to errors in ITD. I found that ITD across this structurally diverse landscape was generally less accurate than across the smaller and less diverse areas over which it has previously been studied. However, the pattern of tree recognition is consistent: regardless of forest structure, canopy dominants are almost always detected and relatively shorter trees are almost never detected. Correspondingly, metrics dominated by large trees, such as biomass, basal area, and spatial heterogeneity, can be measured using ITD, while metrics dominated by smaller trees, such as stand density, cannot. Bearing these limitations in mind, ITD can be a powerful tool for describing forest structure across heterogeneous landscape restoration project areas.

  10. Environmental impact assessment methodological framework for liquefied natural gas terminal and transport network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, Maria P.; Antoniou, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of significant offshore natural gas reserves in the Aphrodite field, south of the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea, changes the energy landscape in the greater Mediterranean-Middle East-Caucasian Region. In this paper, different alternative locations for the construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal station in Cyprus were evaluated, explicitly considering also their connection to the power generation station of Mari and the country's gateway. The problem of determining the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus has been approached using multiple methodological components, which consider environmental and transportation issues, both technocratic in nature, as well as more subjective and based on expert opinion. The first step was a REGIME multi-criteria decision analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. Then, multiple modes (railroad and pipeline) of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed, considering a multitude of restrictions. Finally an environmental impact assessment based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel was conducted to validate and assess the impact of the alternative options (combination of location and transportation mode and route). During the evaluation process parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered. - Highlights: • Determined the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus. • REGIME multi-criteria analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. • Multiple modes of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed. • Environmental impact assessment and validation was undertaken based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel. • Parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered

  11. The assessment of the visual perception in viewshed analysis for the landscape settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visibility studies for rural and forest landscape are well established and conducted by means of standard GIS tools that compute the viewshed (a binary representation of the visibility of a location from a certain viewpoint and cumulative viewsheds (integer representations of the visibility of a location from more viewpoints obtained with raster algebra. However, in order to go beyond the sole geometric information if a cell is visible or not, some authors have introduced various concepts that are based on the visual magnitude or visual exposure. These concepts also take into account the target magnitude, the atmospheric extinction, the colour difference to the background and the visual acuity. These calculations may be complex, extremely time consuming and not affordable with standard GIS tools, because they require specific programming tools. Besides, depending on the application, the factor that affects the visibility may be the distance, the atmospheric extinction, the contrast, etc. In this work, we concentrate on the problem of the calculation of the landscape sensitivity, which defines the degree to which a given landscape is potentially affected by possible changes by means of viewsheds analyses. An example in rural settings is presented in order to demonstrate the problems that arise in real applications and the possible solutions.

  12. Mapping landscape units in Galicia (Spain: A first step for assessment and management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbelle-Rico Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of 2015, the Regional Administration of Galicia (NW Spain set the requirements for a map of landscape units: it had to be produced in less than 3 months, it should cover the whole territory of the region (29,574 km², and it should be useful for management at a scale of 1:25,000. With these objectives in mind, we pro- posed a semiautomatic mapping methodology entirely based on the use of free software (GRASS GIS and already available cartographic information. Semi-automatic classification of different land-use patterns was at the heart of the proposed process. Consultation with experts of different academic background took place along the project. This consultation process allowed to identify both problems and opportunities. As it could be expected, the diverse epistemic community represented by the expert panel implied that one of the main challenges was to reach consensus on the understanding of the concept of landscape and the decisions leading to the mapping methodology proposed in this paper. This initiated a very interesting debate that, in our view, was centred around three main issues: the approach to the landscape, the purpose of the mapping exercise, and the ability to include subjectivity into the analysis.

  13. Assessing sustainable biophysical human-nature connectedness at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, Christian; Abson, David J.; Fischer, Joern; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Humans are biophysically connected to the biosphere through the flows of materials and energy appropriated from ecosystems. While this connection is fundamental for human well-being, many modern societies have—for better or worse—disconnected themselves from the natural productivity of their immediate regional environment. In this paper, we conceptualize the biophysical human-nature connectedness of land use systems at regional scales. We distinguish two mechanisms by which primordial connectedness of people to regional ecosystems has been circumvented via the use of external inputs. First, ‘biospheric disconnection’ refers to people drawing on non-renewable minerals from outside the biosphere (e.g. fossils, metals and other minerals). Second, ‘spatial disconnection’ arises from the imports and exports of biomass products and imported mineral resources used to extract and process ecological goods. Both mechanisms allow for greater regional resource use than would be possible otherwise, but both pose challenges for sustainability, for example, through waste generation, depletion of non-renewable resources and environmental burden shifting to distant regions. In contrast, biophysically reconnected land use systems may provide renewed opportunities for inhabitants to develop an awareness of their impacts and fundamental reliance on ecosystems. To better understand the causes, consequences, and possible remedies related to biophysical disconnectedness, new quantitative methods to assess the extent of regional biophysical human-nature connectedness are needed. To this end, we propose a new methodological framework that can be applied to assess biophysical human-nature connectedness in any region of the world.

  14. Natural gas market assessment ten years after deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Changes which have taken place in the Canadian natural gas market in the ten years since the gas market was de-regulated, were reviewed. A 1985 agreement created conditions for a competitive natural gas market. However, the National Energy Board ensured that the pipeline transmission sector of the gas industry would continue to be regulated because of its natural monopoly characteristics. Open non-discriminatory access was to be provided to all shippers on inter-provincial gas pipelines. One objective of this report was to provide the Board with the means of assuring itself that the market was operating in such a way that Canadian requirements for natural gas were being met at fair market prices. The report also provided a review of the major changes in the gas producing and transmission sector, and reviewed developments in gas markets and sales practices. The overall assessment was that the natural gas industry was efficient and responsive to the demands of the marketplace. 5 tabs., 30 figs

  15. Assessing the potential threat landscape of a proposed reintroduction site for carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Page

    Full Text Available This study provides a framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing carnivores into an area, using African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus as an example. The Great Fish River Nature Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, has been identified as a potential reserve to reintroduce wild dogs, and we applied this framework to provide a threat assessment of the surrounding area to determine potential levels of human-wildlife conflict. Although 56% of neighbouring landowners and local communities were positive about a wild dog reintroduction, data collected from questionnaire surveys revealed that human-wild dog conflict is a potential threat to wild dog survival in the area. Additional potential threats include diseases, snaring, poaching and hunting wild dogs for the use of traditional medicine. A threat index was developed to establish which properties harboured the greatest threats to wild dogs. This index was significantly influenced by the respondent's first language (isiXhosa had more positive indices, education level (poorer education was synonymous with more positive threat indices, land use (wildlife ranching being the most negative and land tenure (community respondents had more positive indices than private landowners. Although threats are present, they can be effectively mitigated through strategies such as carnivore education programs, vaccination campaigns and anti-snare patrols to promote a successful reintroduction of this endangered canid.

  16. Benefits and limitations of using decision analytic tools to assess uncertainty and prioritize Landscape Conservation Cooperative information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nelson, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of partnerships throughout North America that are tasked with integrating science and management to support more effective delivery of conservation at a landscape scale. In order to achieve this integration, some LCCs have adopted the approach of providing their partners with better scientific information in an effort to facilitate more effective and coordinated conservation decisions. Taking this approach has led many LCCs to begin funding research to provide the information for improved decision making. To ensure that funding goes to research projects with the highest likelihood of leading to more integrated broad scale conservation, some LCCs have also developed approaches for prioritizing which information needs will be of most benefit to their partnerships. We describe two case studies in which decision analytic tools were used to quantitatively assess the relative importance of information for decisions made by partners in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. The results of the case studies point toward a few valuable lessons in terms of using these tools with LCCs. Decision analytic tools tend to help shift focus away from research oriented discussions and toward discussions about how information is used in making better decisions. However, many technical experts do not have enough knowledge about decision making contexts to fully inform the latter type of discussion. When assessed in the right decision context, however, decision analyses can point out where uncertainties actually affect optimal decisions and where they do not. This helps technical experts understand that not all research is valuable in improving decision making. But perhaps most importantly, our results suggest that decision analytic tools may be more useful for LCCs as way of developing integrated objectives for coordinating partner decisions across the landscape, rather than simply ranking research priorities.

  17. A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Urbanization and Population Pressure on Garo Hills Landscape of North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar YADAV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum, which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years’ time (Jhum cycle. But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya.

  18. Landscape evaluation in industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luud, A.; Liblik, V.; Sepp, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the North-East of Estonia, the landscape is contrasting: different natural and man-made landforms exist together. In this area, oil shale mining and processing have essentially changed the landscape, and as a result, different man-made industrial landscape forms have come into being. The attitude of local inhabitants towards the heritage of oil shale industry has been traditionally negative. Nevertheless, the artificial 'mountainous' and 'hilly' relief offers also a positive effect, having some expressive image in the background of the natural plain landscape forms. For protection of cultural landscapes from damages, 32 landscapes that are more valuable were selected, whereat the historical, cultural, natural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific, etc. factors were taken into account. In the future the status of industrial landscapes needs a more exact defining,and special means must be worked out to protect and manage those valuable cultural areas. (author)

  19. 5. The Basic Principles of The Working Process From Nature and the Role of Composition in Creating Landscape in Terms of Plein-Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savițkaia-Baraghin Iarîna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Principles of possession of the landscape painting, applied by masters of the past, as well as theoretical elaborations of scientists in the field of chromatics, psychology and pedagogy of arts, become important components in improving training methods of artists in plein-air in contemporary conditions. The skills and knowledge gained in the process of pleinair studies form professional skills and improve the properties of painting and composition within the workshop. This studying outlines the stringency of training and development methods of creative individuality, especially in plein-air, where the principal teacher is the nature. The plein-air enriches color perception of the real world, located in the air, and mutual relationship of landscape with architecture and space determines knowledge of the issues of proportionality and subordination in compositions, educates sense of proportion and artistic taste. Improving visual mastery into the natural environment contributes to the formation to painters of the necessity to create outside the workshop, which is a necessary condition for the development of individuality and professional skills of the painter.

  20. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galanaki Antonia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas, such as cereal cultivations, that support species of European and/or national conservation concern are considered as ‘High Nature Value’ farmlands (HNVf and are very important for the preservation of biodiversity in Europe. The lesser kestrel Falco naumanni is a migratory falcon breeding largely in the HNVf of the Mediterranean basin. The main cause of its decline in Europe has been habitat loss and degradation as a result of agricultural intensification driven largely by the EU Common Agricultural Policies (CAP. In Greece, its population dropped by about 50% since the 1970s and its preferred habitats have shrunk. The aim of this study was to assess habitat preferences of breeding Lesser Kestrels in agro-ecosystems of Greece and relate these habitats to HNVf for conservation purposes. The study area is located in the plain of Thessaly, Central Greece, holding the main lesser kestrel breeding populations in the country, where dry cereal crops have been significantly depleted over the past decades. Species distribution models were developed with generalised additive models for the analyses. Predicted probability of lesser kestrel occurrence was found to be positively associated with farmed landscapes of dry cereal cultivations. Other important predictors were cultivated irrigated farmland and landscape heterogeneity. Main results of the statistical models agree with the findings of other habitatbased studies that highlight the importance of low-input farming systems, that is, HNVf, for safeguarding vital Lesser Kestrels habitats in their breeding grounds in the Mediterranean. A key conservation priority for conserving species dependant on HNVf is the maintenance of those low-input farming systems and the implementation of a greener CAP that would promote environmental-friendly farming practices to preserve and enhance biodiversity in the agro-ecosystems of Europe.

  2. AnnAGNPS Model Application for Nitrogen Loading Assessment for the Future Midwest Landscape Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Future Midwest Landscape (FML project is part of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s new Ecosystem Services Research Program, undertaken to examine the variety of ways in which landscapes that include crop lands, conservation areas, wetlands, lakes, and streams affect human well-being. The goal of the FML project is to quantify current and future ecosystem services across the region and to examine changes expected to occur as a result of the growing demand for biofuels. This study is one of several pilots taking place under the umbrella of the FML research project. In this study, the USDA Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS model was applied to the East Fork Kaskaskia River watershed (289.3 km2 located in the Kaskaskia River Basin within the Upper Mississippi River Basin in Illinois. The effect of different spatial resolutions on model performance was investigated by comparing the observed runoff with the AnnAGNPS simulated results. Alternative future scenarios such as meeting future biofuel target were also simulated and analyzed. All delineations of the study area (coarser to finer produced satisfactory results in simulating monthly and annual runoff. However, the size of the delineation does impact the simulation results. Finer delineations better represented the actual landscape and captured small critical areas that would be homogenized in coarser delineation. Those small critical areas are important to target to achieve maximum environment benefit. Simulations of alternative future scenarios showed that as corn production increases to meet future biofuel needs, total nitrogen loss increases. For this watershed, total N loss would be more than doubled if converting all corn/soybean rotation (15,871.2 ha to continuous corn comparing with the base year total N loss which is 11.2 kg/ha. Conservation practices are needed to reduce total nitrogen loss from the watershed. This study provides an important

  3. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.

    1995-11-01

    The report provides practical information needed for evaluating the radiation dose to the general public and workers caused by materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides. The report presents criteria, exposure scenarios and calculations used to assess dose with respect to the safety requirements set for construction materials in accordance with the Finnish Radiation Act. A method for calculating external gamma exposure from building materials is presented in detail. The results for most typical cases are given as specific dose rates in table form to enable doses to be assessed without computer calculation. A number of such dose assessments is presented, as is the corresponding computer code. Practical investigation levels for the radioactivity of materials are defined. (23 refs.).

  4. Species mobility and landscape context determine the importance of local and landscape-level attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Watts, Kevin; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Lopez-Gallego, Zeltia; J Park, Kirsty

    2017-07-01

    Conservation strategies to tackle habitat loss and fragmentation require actions at the local (e.g., improving/expanding existing habitat patches) and landscape level (e.g., creating new habitat in the matrix). However, the relative importance of these actions for biodiversity is still poorly understood, leading to debate on how to prioritize conservation activities. Here, we assess the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes in determining the use of woodlands by bats in fragmented landscapes; we also compare the role of habitat amount in the surrounding landscape per se vs. a combination of both habitat amount and configuration and explore whether the relative importance of these attributes varies with species mobility and landscape context. We conducted acoustic surveys in 102 woodland patches in the UK that form part of the WrEN project (www.wren-project.com), a large-scale natural experiment designed to study the effects of 160 yr of woodland creation on biodiversity and inform landscape-scale conservation. We used multivariate analysis and a model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of local (e.g., vegetation structure) and landscape-level (e.g., amount/configuration of surrounding land types) attributes on bat occurrence and activity levels. Species mobility was an important trait determining the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes for different bat species. Lower mobility species were most strongly influenced by local habitat quality; the landscape became increasingly important for higher mobility species. At the landscape-scale, a combination of habitat amount and configuration appeared more important than habitat amount alone for lower mobility species, while the opposite was observed for higher mobility species. Regardless of species mobility, landscape-level attributes appeared more important for bats in a more homogeneous and intensively farmed landscape. Conservation strategies involving

  5. Boundary conditions under nature conservation and mining regulations for subsequent landscapes in the mining industry; Naturschutz- und bergrechtliche Rahmenbedingungen fuer Bergbaufolgelandschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Berg- und Umweltrecht

    2010-03-15

    Section 4, para. 4 of the Federal Mining Act contain a wide-ranging recultivation concept highly dependent on evaluation. The public interest to be taken into account includes nature conservation requirements, which are implemented regularly. However, the prime concern of safty may require the destruction of biotopes, if there is a risk of landslides such as that in Nachterstedt. The contribution is based on a paper given by the author at the 2009 international conference ''Chance: subsequent landscape in the mining industry'' on 16 September 2009 in Grossraeschen at the International Construction Exhibition. The principles described in the paper are still relevant since the amended Federal Nature Conservation Act came into force on 1 March 2010. (orig.)

  6. Natural resource damage assessments: Linking injury to restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, M.; Collinson-Kahl, C.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), natural resource trustees have the authority to act on behalf of the public to file claims for damages against potentially responsible parties for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources and related human services caused by releases of hazardous substances or discharges of oil. Damages recovered must be used to restore, replace, or acquire the equivalent of such resources. Therefore, to adequately restore an injured resource and the services it provides, a natural resource restoration proposal should address, as directly as possible, the injuries caused by a hazardous substance release. In other words, the resources restored and services generated by the restoration activities should be commensurate in type and amount with the reduction in services caused by the release. More specifically, the natural resource damage assessment regulations indicate that services should be used as the common currency for linking injury to restoration. The following conceptual steps may be followed to develop a primary restoration program that is linked to the injuries: Define the resources that were injured, and identify the services provided by those resources that were reduced by the injury. Define the baseline levels of the quantity of the resource, and the quantity of the services that would have been provided by the resource if the injury had not occurred. Quantify the interim lost value, which represents the reduction in services (compared to a baseline) from the time of the injury through the time of full recovery of the resources, assuming natural recovery. Evaluate the potential restoration projects for inclusion in the primary restoration program, which is designed to accelerate and enhance natural recovery of the resources and the flow of services from the resources

  7. The efficacy of landscape-level conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Fangzheng; Cui, Guofa

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was established in 1960 as a "flagship" protected area in China. Based on analyses of high-resolution satellite images and data of forest inventory, field survey and interview, we developed two new indexes to assess the efficacy of landscape conservation, i.e. the quality index of protected landscape and the interference index of anthropogenic landscape. From 1993 to 2012, the quality index increased from 74.48 to 75.50, and the interference index decreased from 0.49 to 0.06, suggesting that the overall quality of protected landscape improved and the degree of anthropogenic interference decreased in CMBR. The increase in landscape quality was mainly due to the progressive vegetation recovery of previous cutover land in the windthrow area, the cease of the use of the cultivated land, and the amelioration of spatial pattern of protected landscape. We conclude that the current landscape conservation methods used in CMBR are effective, and the method we developed has the potential to be used to assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation in nature reserves worldwide.

  8. The Efficacy of Landscape-Level Conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Fangzheng; Cui, Guofa

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was established in 1960 as a “flagship” protected area in China. Based on analyses of high-resolution satellite images and data of forest inventory, field survey and interview, we developed two new indexes to assess the efficacy of landscape conservation, i.e. the quality index of protected landscape and the interference index of anthropogenic landscape. From 1993 to 2012, the quality index increased from 74.48 to 75.50, and the interference index decreased from 0.49 to 0.06, suggesting that the overall quality of protected landscape improved and the degree of anthropogenic interference decreased in CMBR. The increase in landscape quality was mainly due to the progressive vegetation recovery of previous cutover land in the windthrow area, the cease of the use of the cultivated land, and the amelioration of spatial pattern of protected landscape. We conclude that the current landscape conservation methods used in CMBR are effective, and the method we developed has the potential to be used to assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation in nature reserves worldwide. PMID:24743693

  9. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  10. Assessing common birds' ecological requirements to address nature conservation in permanent crops: Lessons from Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assandri, Giacomo; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia

    2017-04-15

    Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables. In the majority of species (7), abundance was primarily or considerably affected by landscape attributes. However, an additional 5 species were largely affected by management practices, often with conspicuous seasonal differences. Overall, landscape and management heterogeneity positively affected the abundance of 6 species. Vineyard cover (and in particular the new spalliera trellising system) was negatively related with the abundance of 6 species, with the strongest impacts occurring in winter. On the contrary, the cover of marginal habitats had major positive effects over 8 species. Hedgerows, tree rows, and dry stone walls, as well as traditional pergola vineyards and landscape and management heterogeneity should be conserved or restored in viticultural landscapes to promote the abundance of common bird species. This strategy would ensure the maintenance of the ecosystem services they provide, while promoting the general sustainability of the agroecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple approach for a spatial terrestrial exposure assessment of the insecticide fenoxycarb, based on a high-resolution landscape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kai; Resseler, Herbert; Spatz, Robert; Hendley, Paul; Sweeney, Paul; Urban, Martin; Kubiak, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to refine the standard regulatory exposure scenario used in plant protection product authorisations by developing a more realistic landscape-related GIS-based exposure assessment for terrestrial non-target arthropods. We quantified the proportion of adjacent off-target area in agricultural landscapes potentially exposed to insecticide drift from applications of the active substance fenoxycarb. High-resolution imagery, landscape classification and subsequent stepwise analysis of a whole landscape using drift and interception functions were applied to selected areas in representative fruit-producing regions in Germany. Even under worst-case assumptions regarding treated area, use rate and drift, less than 12% of the non-agricultural habitat area would potentially be exposed to fenoxycarb drift above regulatory acceptable concentrations. Additionally, if the filtering effect of tall vegetation were taken into account, this number would decrease to 6.6%. Further refinements to landscape elements and application conditions indicate that less than 5% of the habitat area might be exposed above regulatory acceptable concentrations, meaning that 95% of the non-agricultural habitat area will be unimpacted (i.e. no unacceptable effects) and can serve as refuge for recolonisation. Approaches and tools are proposed for standardisable and transparent refinements in regulatory risk assessments on the landscape level. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Recharge in karst and dune elements of a semi-arid landscape as indicated by natural isotopes and chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, G. B.; Stone, W. J.; Hughes, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The rates and mechanisms of local recharge in a semi-arid environment have been investigated beneath two major landscape settings in the Murray Basin in South Australia; these were calcrete flats with sinkholes and sand dunes in adjacent landscape settings. Five minor settings were investigated and identified as undisturbed calcrete, primary (older) sinkholes, secondary (younger) sinkholes, sand dunes with native vegetation and sand dunes with introduced pasture. Data from a limited series of boreholes were interpreted to suggest that recharge varied from in excess of 100 mm yr. -1 for secondary sinkholes to less than 0.1 mm yr. -1 beneath sand dunes with native vegetation. The data suggest that recharge under sand dunes has increased by more than two orders of magnitude following clearing of the native vegetation ˜ 50 yr. ago. As ˜ 90% of an area of 10,000 km 2 has been cleared, this clearing has ensured that inflow of saline groundwater to the adjacent River Murray will increase and, in view of the amount of salt stored in both the unsaturated and saturated zones, will continue for a very long time. At sites where the inferred recharge is lowest, profiles of the chloride concentration of soil water are consistent with the hypothesis that there is in excess of 50,000-yr. recharge stored in the thick unsaturated zone. Some evidence for changes in recharge rate over this time scale is seen.

  13. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, drought hazard is becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and human activities. It is crucial to monitor and assess drought conditions, especially for decision making support in agriculture sector. The vegetation index (VI) decreases, and the land surface temperature (LST) increases when the vegetation is under drought stress. Therefore both of these remotely sensed indices are widely used in drought monitoring and assessment. Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) is obtained by establishing the feature space of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST, which reflects agriculture dry situation by inverting soil moisture. However, these indices only concern the natural hazard-causing factors. Our society is a complex large-scale system with various natural and social elements. The drought risk is the joint consequence of hazard-causing factors and hazard-affected bodies. For example, as the population increases, the exposure of the hazard-affected bodies also tends to increase. The high GDP enhances the response ability of government, and the irrigation and water conservancy reduces the vulnerability. Such characteristics of hazard-affected bodies should be coupled with natural factors. In this study, the 16-day moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LST data are combined to establish NDVI-Ts space according to different land use types in Yunnan Province, China. And then, TVDIs are calculated through dry and wet edges modeled as a linear fit to data for each land cover type. Next, the efforts are turned to establish an integrated drought assessment index of social factors and TVDI through ascertaining attribute weight based on rough sets theory. Thus, the new CDI (comprehensive drought index) recorded during spring of 2010 and the spatial variations in drought are analyzed and compared with TVDI dataset. Moreover, actual drought risk situation in the study area is given to

  14. Application of landscape epidemiology to assess potential public health risk due to poor sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilami, Kaveh; Hayes, John F; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-05-01

    Clear identification of areas vulnerable to waterborne diseases is essential for protecting community health. This is particularly important in developing countries where unsafe disposal of domestic wastewater and limited potable water supply pose potential public health risks. However, data paucity can be a compounding issue. Under these circumstances, landscape epidemiology can be applied as a resource efficient approach for mapping potential disease risk areas associated with poor sanitation. However, in order to realise the full potential offered by this approach, an in-depth understanding of the impact of different classes of an explanatory variable on a target disease and the validity of hotspot analysis using limited datasets is needed. Accordingly, this research study focused on typhoid and diarrhoea incidence with respect to different classes of elevation, flood inundation, land use, soil permeability, population density and rainfall as explanatory variables. An integrated methodology consisting of hot spot analysis and Poisson regression was employed to map potential disease risk areas. The study findings confirmed the significant differences in the influence exerted by the various classes of an explanatory variable in relation to a target disease. The results also confirmed the feasibility of the hotspot analysis for identifying areas vulnerable to the target diseases using a limited dataset. The study outcomes are expected to contribute to creating an in-depth understanding of the relationship between disease prevalence and associated landscape factors for the delineation of disease risk zones in the context of data paucity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban growth and landscape connectivity threats assessment at Saguaro National Park, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkl, Ryan; Norman, Laura M.; Mitchell, David; Feller, Mark R.; Smith, Garrett; Wilson, Natalie R.

    2018-01-01

    Urban and exurban expansion results in habitat and biodiversity loss globally. We hypothesize that a coupled-model approach could connect urban planning for future cities with landscape ecology to consider wildland habitat connectivity. Our work combines urban growth simulations with models of wildlife corridors to examine how species will be impacted by development to test this hypothesis. We leverage a land use change model (SLEUTH) with structural and functional landscape-connectivity modeling techniques to ascertain the spatial extent and locations of connectivity related threats to a national park in southern Arizona, USA, and describe how protected areas might be impacted by urban expansion. Results of projected growth significantly altered structural connectivity (80%) when compared to current (baseline) corridor conditions. Moreover, projected growth impacted functional connectivity differently amongst species, indicating resilience of some species and near-complete displacement of others. We propose that implementing a geospatial-design-based model will allow for a better understanding of the impacts management decisions have on wildlife populations. The application provides the potential to understand both human and environmental impacts of land-system dynamics, critical for long-term sustainability.

  16. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Natural gas market assessment: Price convergence in North American natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The extent to which Canadian and U.S. natural gas markets have become integrated in the post-deregulation era was assessed. This assessment was accomplished through a statistical analysis of the price movements in Canadian and U.S. gas markets. The analysis pointed to three broad conclusions: (1) on the whole, there has been an increasing degree of integration among North American natural gas markets since price deregulation and the introduction of open access, (2) there is somewhat of a split between eastern and western markets, (3) Alberta's links are stronger with the western U.S. natural gas market than with the market in the eastern U.S. Several factors were cited as contributing to the general increase in market integration, including: (1) increased pipeline capacity and additional pipeline interconnections, coupled with the development of market hubs, (2) improved flexibility of access to pipeline transportation services, (3) improved access to market information and greater trading flexibility which has been facilitated by growing use of electronic bulletin boards and electronic trading systems. The increased market integration was claimed to have benefited both consumers and producers, and to have increased competition in both countries.. 28 refs., 14 figs

  18. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  19. Natural gas vehicles: Technical assessment and overview of world situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    In evaluating commercialization prospects for natural gas fuelled vehicles, this paper compares the performance and emission quality of these innovative vehicles with those using conventional fuels - gasoline and diesel fuels. Assessments are made of the state-of-the-art of current technology relative to fuel storage, air/fuel mixture preparation, in cylinder combustion processes and pollution control. The analysis evidences that while natural gas is an excellent fuel for spark ignition engines, in transport applications its use is hampered by large storage volume requirements and weight. Moreover, the air/fuel mixture preparation, combustion process and exhaust-gas cleaning require a greater research and development effort to make this alternative fuel economically and environmentally competitive with conventional fuels

  20. DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF ABIOTIC STRESS OF CONIFEROUS LANDSCAPES CAUSED BY URANIUM MINING (USING MULTITEMPORAL HIGH RESOLUTION LANDSAT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Filchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing have become one of decisive technologies for detection and assessment of abiotic stress situations, such as snowstorms, forest fires, drought, frost, technogenic pollution etc. Present work is aiming at detection and assessment of abiotic stress of coniferous landscapes caused by uranium mining using high resolution satellite data from Landsat. To achieve the aim, ground-based geochemical data and were coupled with the satellite data for two periods, i.e. prior and after uranium mining decommissioning, into a file geodatabase in ArcGIS/ArcInfo 9.2, where spatial analyses were carried out. As a result, weak and very weak relationships were found between the factor of technogenic pollution—Zc and vegetation indices NDVI, NDWI, MSAVI, TVI, and VCI. The TVI performs better compared to other indices in terms of separability among classes, whereas the NDVI and VCI correlate well than other indices with Zc.

  1. Assessment of the foraging and nesting conditions for solitary bees and bumblebees, and their distribution in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    In a survey April through November 1997, a total of 72 solitary bee species and 19 bumblebee species were recorded in the semi-natural habitats of a Danish conventional agricultural landscape. The majority of the solitary non-inquiline bee species (59) were polylectic, but four oligoleges of Salix...... all ones that may sustain a species rich but polylecticly dominated bee fauna. Abundance of solitary bees and bumblebees were correlated with mellitophilous plant coverage in south-facing areas, whereas no correlation was found for honeybees. Furthermore, abundance of honeybees was not correlated...... with abundance of other bees. Bee species richness could not be explained by plant species richness or coverage in a multiple regression. Habitat parameters in a generalised linear model were able to predict abundance of males and inquilines, a measure of nest abundances in the habitats....

  2. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  3. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  4. Assessing the global warming potential of human settlement expansion in a mesic temperate landscape from 2005 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, Andrew B; Hutyra, Lucy R; Trlica, Andrew; Olofsson, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    Expansion of human settlements is an important driver of global environmental change that causes land use and land cover change (LULCC) and alters the biophysical nature of the landscape and climate. We use the state of Massachusetts, United States (U.S.) to present a novel approach to quantifying the effects of projected expansion of human settlements on the biophysical nature of the landscape. We integrate nationally available datasets with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios model to model albedo and C storage and uptake by forests and vegetation within human settlements. Our results indicate a 4.4 to 14% decline in forest cover and a 35 to 40% increase in developed land between 2005 and 2050, with large spatial variability. LULCC is projected to reduce rates of forest C sequestration, but our results suggest that vegetation within human settlements has the potential to offset a substantial proportion of the decline in the forest C sink and may comprise up to 35% of the terrestrial C sink by 2050. Changes in albedo and terrestrial C fluxes are expected to result in a global warming potential (GWP) of +0.13 Mg CO2-C-equivalence ha(-1)year(-1) under the baseline trajectory, which is equivalent to 17% of the projected increase in fossil fuel emissions. Changes in terrestrial C fluxes are generally the most important driver of the increase in GWP, but albedo change becomes an increasingly important component where housing densities are higher. Expansion of human settlements is the new face of LULCC and our results indicate that when quantifying the biophysical response it is essential to consider C uptake by vegetation within human settlements and the spatial variability in the influence of C fluxes and albedo on changes in GWP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluación del paisaje visual en humedales del río Cruces, sitio Ramsar de Chile Assessment of wetland visual landscape in the Cruces River, Ramsar site of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS MUÑOZ-PEDREROS

    2012-03-01

    valoración de los paisajes se relacionan más fuertemente con las características de la línea y de la textura como grano y densidad y su valoración es dependiente de su componente primario, los de VP alto se relacionan con cortina densa de Salix spp. con vegetación palustre y paisajes con vegetación boscosa.Landscape is an environmental heritage, which includes cultural and natural values, a resource that represents the appearance of an area and reflects its nature and history. Thus, this heritage resource should be assessed and managed rationally, especially since there is an increasing demand for areas of high landscape value for ecotourism activities. Regarding the study of visual landscape, it was not considered as a measurable element until the mid-twentieth century and considerable progress has been made in assessing the quality, the fragility and capacity for use as a direct assessment of the landscape. Still pending is the indirect analysis which includes its basic visual features such as line, color, texture, spatial configuration and relief, and their components, both primary and secondary. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the visual landscape (direct analysis of the Cruces River and surrounding area, its fragility and capacity for use, analyzing the relationship between the value of these landscapes with their visual characteristics and primary components (indirect analysis. The visual landscape quality was assessed using a mixed method with direct assessment of representative subjectivity and subsequent indirect analysis of its components, using a standardized panel of assessors. We also determined the fragility of the landscape, which was integrated with the visual quality and spatialized in a GIS. Thus categories of landscape use in the study area were created. The landscape quality average value (± SD was VP = 16.86 ± 1.99. Recommended uses are in category 3 (high landscape quality and low fragility that is tourism and recreation

  6. The Assessment of Alumina Production Waste Impact on Natural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the issue of assessment of alumina (red mud production waste on natural water. The growth of the number of aluminium-producing facilities leads to the expansion of exclusion areas to store the production waste – sludge dumps. A considerable part of research on red mud utilisation is focused on its use in the iron-and-steel industry. Furthermore, the technologies of red mud usage in the construction industry gain substantial significance for land reclamation, isolation of polluted industrial and agricultural lands as well as the effluent and industrial emissions treatment.

  7. State-and-transition simulation modeling to compare outcomes of alternative management scenarios under two natural disturbance regimes in a forested landscape in northeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Swearingen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the potential outcomes of multiple land management strategies and an understanding of the influence of potential increases in climate-related disturbances on these outcomes are essential for long term land management and conservation planning. To provide these insights, we developed an approach that uses collaborative scenario development and state-and-transition simulation modeling to provide land managers and conservation practitioners with a comparison of potential landscapes resulting from alternative management scenarios and climate conditions, and we have applied this approach in the Wild Rivers Legacy Forest (WRLF area in northeastern Wisconsin. Three management scenarios were developed with input from local land managers, scientists, and conservation practitioners: 1 continuation of current management, 2 expanded working forest conservation easements, and 3 cooperative ecological forestry. Scenarios were modeled under current climate with contemporary probabilities of natural disturbance and under increased probability of windthrow and wildfire that may result from climate change in this region. All scenarios were modeled for 100 years using the VDDT/TELSA modeling suite. Results showed that landscape composition and configuration were relatively similar among scenarios, and that management had a stronger effect than increased probability of windthrow and wildfire. These findings suggest that the scale of the landscape analysis used here and the lack of differences in predominant management strategies between ownerships in this region play significant roles in scenario outcomes. The approach used here does not rely on complex mechanistic modeling of uncertain dynamics and can therefore be used as starting point for planning and further analysis.

  8. Contrast in edge vegetation structure modifies the predation risk of natural ground nests in an agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Schneider

    Full Text Available Nest predation risk generally increases nearer forest-field edges in agricultural landscapes. However, few studies test whether differences in edge contrast (i.e. hard versus soft edges based on vegetation structure and height affect edge-related predation patterns and if such patterns are related to changes in nest conspicuousness between incubation and nestling feeding. Using data on 923 nesting attempts we analyse factors influencing nest predation risk at different edge types in an agricultural landscape of a ground-cavity breeding bird species, the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe. As for many other bird species, nest predation is a major determinant of reproductive success in this migratory passerine. Nest predation risk was higher closer to woodland and crop field edges, but only when these were hard edges in terms of ground vegetation structure (clear contrast between tall vs short ground vegetation. No such edge effect was observed at soft edges where adjacent habitats had tall ground vegetation (crop, ungrazed grassland. This edge effect on nest predation risk was evident during the incubation stage but not the nestling feeding stage. Since wheatear nests are depredated by ground-living animals our results demonstrate: (i that edge effects depend on edge contrast, (ii that edge-related nest predation patterns vary across the breeding period probably resulting from changes in parental activity at the nest between the incubation and nestling feeding stage. Edge effects should be put in the context of the nest predator community as illustrated by the elevated nest predation risk at hard but not soft habitat edges when an edge is defined in terms of ground vegetation. These results thus can potentially explain previously observed variations in edge-related nest predation risk.

  9. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken lek density relative to landscape characteristics in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmer, Jennifer; Butler, Matthew; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint; Whitlaw, Heather

    2012-08-31

    My 2.5-yr Master's project accomplished the objectives of estimating lesser prairie-chicken (LPC) lek density and abundance in the Texas occupied range and modeling anthropogenic and landscape features associated with lek density by flying helicopter lek surveys for 2 field seasons and employing a line-transect distance sampling method. This project was important for several reasons. Firstly, wildlife managers and biologists have traditionally monitored LPC populations with road-based surveys that may result in biased estimates and do not provide access to privately-owned or remote property. From my aerial surveys and distance sampling, I was able to provide accurate density and abundance estimates, as well as new leks and I detected LPCs outside the occupied range. Secondly, recent research has indicated that energy development has the potential to impact LPCs through avoidance of tall structures, increased mortality from raptors perching on transmission lines, disturbance to nesting hens, and habitat loss/fragmentation. Given the potential wind energy development in the Texas Panhandle, spatial models of current anthropogenic and vegetative features (such as transmission lines, roads, and percent native grassland) influencing lek density were needed. This information provided wildlife managers and wind energy developers in Texas with guidelines for how change in landscape features could impact LPCs. Lastly, LPC populations have faced range-wide declines over the last century and they are currently listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. I was able to provide timely information on LPC populations in Texas that will be used during the listing process.

  10. Ecological risk assessment of toxic organic pollutant and heavy metals in water and sediment from a landscape lake in Tianjin City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yuanyuan; Niu, Zhiguang; Jin, Shaopei

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the ecological risk of toxic organic pollutant (formaldehyde) and heavy metals (mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)) in water and sediment from a landscape Lake in Tianjin City, an ecological risk assessment was performed. The risk quotient (RQ) method and the AQUATOX model were used to assess the ecological risk of formaldehyde in landscape water. Meanwhile, the RQ method and the potential ecological risk index method were used to assess the ecological risk of four heavy metals in water and sediment from the studied landscape lake, respectively. The results revealed that the maximum concentration of formaldehyde in landscape water was lower than the environmental quality standards of surface water in China. The maximum simulated concentrations of formaldehyde in phytoplankton and invertebrates were 3.15 and 22.91 μg/L, respectively, which were far less than its toxicity data values (1000 and 510 μg/L, respectively), suggesting that formaldehyde in landscape water was at a safe level for aquatic organisms. The RQ model indicated that the risks of phytoplankton and invertebrates were higher than that of fish posed by Hg and Cd in landscape water, and the risks from As and Cr were acceptable for all test organisms. Cd is the most important pollution factor among all heavy metals in sediment from studied landscape lake, and the pollution factor sequence of heavy metals was Hg > As > Cr > Cd. The values of risk index (RI) for four heavy metals in samples a and b were 43.48 and 72.66, which were much lower than the threshold value (150), suggesting that the ecological risk posed by heavy metals in sediment was negligible.

  11. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  12. Correlating regional natural hazards for global reinsurance risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Hamish; Maynard, Trevor; Economou, Theo; Fox, Helen; Wallace, Emily; Maisey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Concurrent natural hazards represent an uncertainty in assessing exposure for the insurance industry. The recently implemented Solvency II Directive requires EU insurance companies to fully understand and justify their capital reserving and portfolio decisions. Lloyd's, the London insurance and reinsurance market, commissioned the Met Office to investigate the dependencies between different global extreme weather events (known to the industry as perils), and the mechanisms for these dependencies, with the aim of helping them assess their compound risk to the exposure of multiple simultaneous hazards. In this work, we base the analysis of hazard-to-hazard dependency on the interaction of different modes of global and regional climate variability. Lloyd's defined 16 key hazard regions, including Australian wildfires, flooding in China and EU windstorms, and we investigate the impact of 10 key climate modes on these areas. We develop a statistical model that facilitates rapid risk assessment whilst allowing for both temporal auto-correlation and, crucially, interdependencies between drivers. The simulator itself is built conditionally using autoregressive regression models for each driver conditional on the others. Whilst the baseline assumption within the (re)insurance industry is that different natural hazards are independent of each other, the assumption of independence of meteorological risks requires greater justification. Although our results suggest that most of the 120 hazard-hazard connections considered are likely to be independent of each other, 13 have significant dependence arising from one or more global modes of climate variability. This allows us to create a matrix of linkages describing the hazard dependency structure that Lloyd's can use to inform their understanding of risk.

  13. Representativeness assessment of research natural areas on National Forest System lands in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven K. Rust

    2000-01-01

    A representativeness assessment of National Forest System (NFS) Research Natural Areas in Idaho summarizes information on the status of the natural area network and priorities for identification of new Research Natural Areas. Natural distribution and abundance of plant associations is compared to the representation of plant associations within natural areas. Natural...

  14. Assessing parent material uniformity of Phaeozems in the Azul Sierras landscape: preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Núria; Rodríguez, Javier; Pazos, Mabel Susana

    2014-05-01

    South of Azul Co. (Argentina) there is an area with Precambrian and Paleozoic gneiss and migmatite outcrops that conform the wider system of Pampian Sierras, with slopes and intermountain areas covered by loess. The Phaeozems distribution in the Azul Sierras is complex and their genesis either being derived from a uniform parent material or a lithologic discontinuity is not known. The objective of this study was to confirm whether pedological processes or a lithologic discontinuity may be responsible for the textural contrast within soil profiles. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to determine elemental concentrations in various soil fractions. Three landscape units were defined: a) rocky, b) side slope and c) intermountain plain. Rocky area: 8-10 % slope, soils develop in between rock outcrops, are rather shallow with high organic matter content, coarse texture and gravely. They include: Endoleptic Phaeozems, Haplic Phaeozems (Pachic) and (Pachic Arenic). Sideslope: coarse textured soils with abundant gravels and lime free close to the rocky area; OC is high up to 50 cm depth; incipient clay illuviation is observed as coatings on pebbles. Half slope a petrocalcic horizon (tosca) appears at variable depth, coarse fragments diminish with increasing distance from the rock outcrops, OC remains high in the first 50 cm. All soil profiles have mollic horizon and argic horizon less than 20 cm thick. The petrocalcic horizon has a minimum depth of 50 cm. Soils classify as Luvic Phaeozem (Skeletic), Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem (Endoskeletic) and Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem. Intermountain plains: soils are deep, with clay accumulation, no coarse fragments nor rock outcrops, and gentle sloping. The mollic horizon reaches 53 cm thick and there is a well developed argic horizon. These soils classify as Luvic Phaeozems. Results showed that all indicators of parent material uniformity, i.e., depth distribution curves of Zr and Y in various fractions and Y:Zr ratio showed

  15. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 ± 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory analysis

  16. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  17. Assessment of geostatistical features for object-based image classification of contrasted landscape vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silveira, Eduarda Martiniano; de Menezes, Michele Duarte; Acerbi Júnior, Fausto Weimar; Castro Nunes Santos Terra, Marcela; de Mello, José Márcio

    2017-07-01

    Accurate mapping and monitoring of savanna and semiarid woodland biomes are needed to support the selection of areas of conservation, to provide sustainable land use, and to improve the understanding of vegetation. The potential of geostatistical features, derived from medium spatial resolution satellite imagery, to characterize contrasted landscape vegetation cover and improve object-based image classification is studied. The study site in Brazil includes cerrado sensu stricto, deciduous forest, and palm swamp vegetation cover. Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8 images were acquired and divided into objects, for each of which a semivariogram was calculated using near-infrared (NIR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to extract the set of geostatistical features. The features selected by principal component analysis were used as input data to train a random forest algorithm. Tests were conducted, combining spectral and geostatistical features. Change detection evaluation was performed using a confusion matrix and its accuracies. The semivariogram curves were efficient to characterize spatial heterogeneity, with similar results using NIR and NDVI from Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8. Accuracy was significantly greater when combining geostatistical features with spectral data, suggesting that this method can improve image classification results.

  18. DIGITAL HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE METHODOLOGY FOR HERITAGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SINGAPORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Widodo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the case study of Singapore’s existing heritage websites, this research will probe the circumstances of the emerging technology and practice of consuming heritage architecture on a digital platform. Despite the diverse objectives, technology is assumed to help deliver greater interpretation through the use of new and high technology emphasising experience and provide visual fidelity. However, the success is limited as technology is insufficient to provide the past from multiple perspectives. Currently, existing projects provide linear narratives developed through a top-down approach that assumes the end-users as an individual entity and limits heritage as a consumable product. Through this research, we hope to uncover for better experience of digital heritage architecture where interpretation is an evolving ‘process’ that is participatory and contributory that allows public participation, together with effective presentation, cultural learning and embodiment, to enhance the end-users’ interpretation of digital heritage architecture. Additionally, this research seeks to establish an inventory in the form of a digital platform that adopts the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL into the Singapore context to better and deepen the understandings of the public towards architectural as well as cultural heritage through an intercultural and intergenerational dialogue. Through HUL, this research hopes that it will better shape conservation strategies and urban planning.

  19. Digital Historic Urban Landscape Methodology for Heritage Impact Assessment of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, J.; Wong, Y. C.; Ismail, F.

    2017-08-01

    Using the case study of Singapore's existing heritage websites, this research will probe the circumstances of the emerging technology and practice of consuming heritage architecture on a digital platform. Despite the diverse objectives, technology is assumed to help deliver greater interpretation through the use of new and high technology emphasising experience and provide visual fidelity. However, the success is limited as technology is insufficient to provide the past from multiple perspectives. Currently, existing projects provide linear narratives developed through a top-down approach that assumes the end-users as an individual entity and limits heritage as a consumable product. Through this research, we hope to uncover for better experience of digital heritage architecture where interpretation is an evolving `process' that is participatory and contributory that allows public participation, together with effective presentation, cultural learning and embodiment, to enhance the end-users' interpretation of digital heritage architecture. Additionally, this research seeks to establish an inventory in the form of a digital platform that adopts the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) into the Singapore context to better and deepen the understandings of the public towards architectural as well as cultural heritage through an intercultural and intergenerational dialogue. Through HUL, this research hopes that it will better shape conservation strategies and urban planning.

  20. Landscape Analysis to Assess the Impact of Development Projects on Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The consistent demand for development of forest lands in South Korea has resulted in the need for a new approach to estimate environmental impacts in order to sustainably manage forests. In this study, two types of development were selected: golf courses and industrial complexes. Using FRAGSTATS ver. 4.2 (University of Massachussetts, Amherst, MA, USA, the fragmentation effects of each development type were analyzed based on forest area within project sites and buffer zones ranging up to 2000 m. Each type had representative landscape metrics reflecting the average impact ranges by forest area: “Number of Patches”, “Patch Density” and “Total Edge Length” for golf courses; “Number of Patches”, “Patch Density” and “Connectance Index” for industrial complexes. Golf courses with the smallest forest area had a larger impact range than those with larger forest areas. For industrial complexes, the impact range increased with forest area. Although individual sites exhibited some variation in impact range, they were generally consistent with the overall patterns observed. Investigating tree growth by buffer zone showed the ecological effect of development. To comprehensively manage development of forest lands, further research on other development types is needed. These results could be useful for creating a decision-making system with regard to development on forest lands.

  1. Integrated Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards in Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated risk assessment includes the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such as baseline study, hazard identification and categorization, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values. Thus, social vulnerability is a pre-existing condition that affects a society's ability to prepare for and recover from a disruptive event. Risk is the probability of a loss, and this loss depends on three elements: hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Thus, risk is the estimated impact that a hazard event would have on people, services, facilities, structures and assets in a community. In this work we assess the risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37N, 92.25W) with a population of about 20 000 habitants. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed to many different natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods). To determine the level of exposure of the community to natural hazards, we developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic microzonation, landslide and flood susceptibility as well as volcanic impact using standard methodologies. Social vulnerability was quantified from data obtained from local families interviews. Five variables were considered: household structure quality and design, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing family plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception.The number of families surveyed was determined considering a sample statistically significant. The families that were interviewed were selected using the simple random sampling technique with replacement. With these

  2. Afghanistan Multi-Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diermanse, Ferdinand; Daniell, James; Pollino, Maurizio; Glover, James; Bouwer, Laurens; de Bel, Mark; Schaefer, Andreas; Puglisi, Claudio; Winsemius, Hessel; Burzel, Andreas; Ammann, Walter; Aliparast, Mojtaba; Jongman, Brenden; Ranghieri, Federica; Fallesen, Ditte

    2017-04-01

    The geographical location of Afghanistan and years of environmental degradation in the country make Afghanistan highly prone to intense and recurring natural hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, snow avalanches, landslides, and droughts. These occur in addition to man-made disasters resulting in the frequent loss of live, livelihoods, and property. Since 1980, disasters caused by natural hazards have affected 9 million people and caused over 20,000 fatalities in Afghanistan. The creation, understanding and accessibility of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk information is key for effective management of disaster risk. This is especially true in Afghanistan, where reconstruction after recent natural disasters and military conflicts is on-going and will continue over the coming years. So far, there has been limited disaster risk information produced in Afghanistan, and information that does exist typically lacks standard methodology and does not have uniform geo-spatial coverage. There are currently no available risk assessment studies that cover all major natural hazards in Afghanistan, which can be used to assess the costs and benefits of different resilient reconstruction and disaster risk reduction strategies. As a result, the Government of Afghanistan has limited information regarding current and future disaster risk and the effectiveness of policy options on which to base their reconstruction and risk reduction decisions. To better understand natural hazard and disaster risk, the World Bank and Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) are supporting the development of new fluvial flood, flash flood, drought, landslide, avalanche and seismic risk information in Afghanistan, as well as a first-order analysis of the costs and benefits of resilient reconstruction and risk reduction strategies undertaken by the authors. The hazard component is the combination of probability and magnitude of natural hazards. Hazard analyses were carried out

  3. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able......Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...

  4. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  5. Wicked Problems in Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Steckler, M. S.; Rundle, J. B.; Dixon, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Social scientists have defined "wicked" problems that are "messy, ill-defined, more complex than we fully grasp, and open to multiple interpretations based on one's point of view... No solution to a wicked problem is permanent or wholly satisfying, which leaves every solution open to easy polemical attack." These contrast with "tame" problems in which necessary information is available and solutions - even if difficult and expensive - are straightforward to identify and execute. Updating the U.S.'s aging infrastructure is a tame problem, because what is wrong and how to fix it are clear. In contrast, addressing climate change is a wicked problem because its effects are uncertain and the best strategies to address them are unclear. An analogous approach can be taken to natural hazard problems. In tame problems, we have a good model of the process, good information about past events, and data implying that the model should predict future events. In such cases, we can make a reasonable assessment of the hazard that can be used to develop mitigation strategies. Earthquake hazard mitigation for San Francisco is a relatively tame problem. We understand how the earthquakes result from known plate motions, have information about past earthquakes, and have geodetic data implying that future similar earthquakes will occur. As a result, it is straightforward to develop and implement mitigation strategies. However, in many cases, hazard assessment and mitigation is a wicked problem. How should we prepare for a great earthquake on plate boundaries where tectonics favor such events but we have no evidence that they have occurred and hence how large they may be or how often to expect them? How should we assess the hazard within plates, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone, where large earthquakes have occurred but we do not understand their causes and geodetic data show no strain accumulating? How can we assess the hazard and make sensible policy when the recurrence of

  6. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  7. Decoupling habitat fragmentation from habitat loss: butterfly species mobility obscures fragmentation effects in a naturally fragmented landscape of lake islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Zachary G; Anderson, Iraleigh D; Acorn, John H; Nielsen, Scott E

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the theory of island biogeography, ecologists have postulated that fragmentation of continuous habitat presents a prominent threat to species diversity. However, negative fragmentation effects may be artifacts; the result of species diversity declining with habitat loss, and habitat loss correlating positively with degree of fragmentation. In this study, we used butterfly assemblages on islands of Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada to decouple habitat fragmentation from habitat loss and test two competing hypotheses: (1) the island effect hypothesis, which predicts that decreasing fragment size and increasing fragment isolation reduces species diversity beyond the effects of habitat loss, and (2) the habitat amount hypothesis, which negates fragmentation effects and predicts that only total habitat area determines the diversity of species persisting on fragmented landscapes. Using eight independent size classes of islands (ranging from 0.1 to 8.0 ha) that varied in number of islands while holding total area constant, species diversity comparisons, species accumulation curves, and species-area relationship extrapolations demonstrated that smaller insular habitats contained at least as many butterfly species as continuous habitat. However, when highly mobile species occurring on islands without their larval food plants were excluded from analyses, island effects on potentially reproducing species became apparent. Similarily, generalized linear models suggested that effects of island isolation and vascular plant richness on insular butterfly richness were confounded by species of high mobility. We conclude that inter-fragment movements of highly mobile species may obscure important fragmentation effects on potentially reproducing populations, questioning support for the habitat amount hypothesis.

  8. Assessing natural hazards in NE Colombia using Sentinel-1 interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    The DIGENTI project (Digitaler Entscheidertisch für das Naturgefahrenmanagement auf Basis von Satellitendaten und VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information)) aims to assess the natural hazard threat to the Cesar and La Guajira departments of northeast Colombia as guidance for decision makers and disaster relief workers. As members of the DIGENTI project, we use Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to detect hillslope movements, delineate settlements, and monitor damage to urban areas. Our study area, located in the remote Serranía del Perijá mountain range on the border of Colombia and Venezuela, is mountainous, highly vegetated, and experiences high and spatially variable rainfall (between 1 and 4 m a-1). The remote nature of the region, coupled with the favorable conditions for mass movements and other hillslope instabilities, make it an ideal location to employ remote sensing techniques to monitor potential natural hazards. In the highly vegetated Serranía del Perijá mountain range, traditional damage proxy mapping is complicated by vegetation-related coherence loss between SAR scenes. Cross-referencing existing maps, we define regions of consistently high coherence as settled or urban areas. Using the spatial extent of settled or urban areas as a mask, we establish an algorithm to use coherence loss only in these regions as a damage proxy in urban areas where the local population will be most affected. Outside of settlements, hillslope instabilities and movements are quantified and mapped using a two-prong approach: (1) Horizontal ground displacement is be calculated by dense amplitude cross-correlation using the topsOffsetApp in the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE). This allows the location, direction, and magnitude of mass movements and hillslope instabilities to be identified and mapped; (2) We use a timeseries of interferograms to quantify vertical ground deformation (e.g., as caused by landsliding) during the Sentinel-1

  9. Assessing public aesthetic preferences towards some urban landscape patterns: the case study of two different geographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Devereux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Landscape aesthetics is closely linked to people's daily life, and a large body of studies has been conducted to understand the public's landscape preferences. These studies commonly focused on comprehensive landscape configuration, yet limited emphasis was placed on the patterns of individual landscape features. This research explored people's preferences towards the composition and patterns of some specific urban features. Questionnaire-based survey was conducted in two cities: Cambridge, UK and Nanjing, China and more than 180 responses were collected, respectively. Respondents from both sites showed similar preferences towards freely growing trees, individual houses, gable roofs and mixed design of green spaces. On the other hand, respondents from Cambridge and Nanjing have different preferences towards the height of trees, the size of green spaces, and the height diversity of buildings. This survey also proved that the factors of age, education, status and length of living have larger influences on landscape preferences than the factors of gender, and major. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between people's aesthetic preferences towards comparative landscape patterns, building types, tree shapes and roof structures. The existence of generally shared landscape preferences makes it feasible to conduct international and standardized projects for acquiring comparable and transferable criteria. The methodology and findings of this research provides landscape planners and decision makers with useful reference to compare, evaluate and improve urban landscape configurations to meet people's needs.

  10. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, Jill S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  11. The Caribbean Landscape Conservation Cooperative: a new framework for effective conservation of natural and cultural resources in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gould; K.R. Jacobs; M. Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Governmental and nongovernmental organizations charged with managing natural resources increasingly emphasize the need to work across jurisdictional boundaries. Their challenge is to manage shifting resources under rapidly changing climate and land-use scenarios. Scientists, resource managers, and conservation planners, and their organizations and agencies routinely...

  12. The media image of the relationship between nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, 2-3 (2005), s. 123-133 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic development * content analysis Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  13. Hydrologic Classification of Bristol Bay, Alaska Using Hydrologic Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.; Sproles, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on climate, terrain and underlying geology. Such characterization of landscapes into areas of common hydrologic patterning is particularly instructive where site specific hydrologic data is sparse or spatially incomplete. By using broad scale landscape metrics to organize the landscape into discrete, characterized units, natural resources managers can gain valuable understanding of landscape patterning and how locations may be differentially affected by a variety of environmental stressors ranging from land use change to climate change. The heterogeneity of aquatic habitats and undisturbed hydrologic regimes within Bristol Bay are a known principal driver for its overall fisheries stability and the use of hydrologic landscapes offers the ability to better characterize the hydrologic and landscape influences on structuring biotic populations at a regional scale. Here we classify the entire Bristol Bay region into discrete hydrologic landscape units based on indices of annual climate and seasonality, terrain, and geology. We then compared hydrologic landscape units to locations of available long term streamflow for characterization of expected hydrologic behavior where streamflow data was lacking. This demonstration of hydrologic landscapes in Bristol Bay, Alaska shows the utility of using large-scale datasets on climate, terrain and geology to infer broad scale hydrologic patterning within a data poor area. Disclaimer: The authors' views expressed here do not necessarily reflect views or policies of USEPA.

  14. An assessment of the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and landscape pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...

  15. Stewardship and fireshed assessment: a process for designing a landscape fuel treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard Bahro; Klaus H. Barber; Joseph W. Sherlock; Donald A. Yasuda

    2007-01-01

    Natural resource land managers today face a difficult challenge of developing a cohesive fuels and vegetation management strategy that addresses the widely acknowledged wildfire threat. Treatments must also be compatible with a wide variety of other land management goals, such as managing for wildlife habitat, watersheds, and forest health. In addition, funding will...

  16. Assessing the efficiency of Mediterranean ditch networks in preventing vineyards soil erosion within landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavasseur, Florent; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Lagacherie, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Water erosion of cultivated soils is a threat to the sustainability of agriculture, especially in Mediterranean areas. For a long time, Mediterranean farmers have thus adopted some soil conservation practices. Actual ditch networks, which are generally associated with terraces, result from historical successive farmer settlements and are one of these soil conservation practices. By intercepting surface run-off, ditches decrease slope length and prevent soil erosion on downstream plots. However, since water erosion hazard and ditch network geometries are highly variable in vineyards landscape and since ditch building and maintaining are costly, the objective of this study was to identify and map the resulting efficiency of ditch networks in preventing soil erosion. For a given area, a ditch network efficiency is defined here as the balance between the network density, i.e. network cumulated length for a given area unit, and the erosion sensitivity over an area which measures the performance of the ditch network in limiting soil erosion. The erosion efficiency of ditch networks was thus identified using both i) computer generated ditch networks with various spatial configurations and ii) the stream power index as an erosion sensitivity indicator, computed from a DTM in which each ditch network was burned. The stream power index of the actual networks were compared with a set of generated networks whose density and topology were selected to maximize the performance in preventing soil erosion thanks to the use of a self-developed optimized stochastic network generator. For four 1 km² hillslopes, we showed that the performances of actual networks to prevent soil erosion was among the best that were obtained by simulated networks with even greater densities. Furthermore, we showed that the stream power index values that accounted for the actual ditch networks to prevent soil erosion hazard was both minimal and weakly variable in the whole study area (30 km²) at

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sand used in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, U; Damla, N; Kobya, A I; Celik, N; Celik, A; Van, A A

    2009-03-01

    The natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in sand samples used as building materials in Turkey was measured by gamma spectrometry. The measured activity in the sand samples ranged from 17 to 97 Bq kg(-1), 10 to 133 Bq kg(-1) and 116 to 955 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data for other countries. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the external hazard index (H(ex)), the internal hazard index (H(in)), the indoor absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose rate were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The Ra(eq) values of sand samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv yr(-1). This study shows that the measured sand samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) of seven different sand samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV photons by using the gamma ray transmission method. Experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient were compared with theoretical values obtained using the program XCOM. The calculated values and the experimental results of this work and the other results in the literature are found to be in good agreement. Chemical and structural analyses (XRD) of the sand samples were also undertaken.

  18. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their

  19. ASSESSING AEROBIC NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE AT FOUR DOE SITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  20. Using the CAESAR-Lisflood and SIBERIA landform evolution models to assess the evolution of a post-mining landscape at millennial time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, John; Hancock, Greg; Coulthard, Tom

    2014-05-01

    A significant goal of mine closure is the development of an erosionally stable landform that functionally merges with the surrounding landscape. Poor landform design may result in severe erosion and gullying which may deliver excess sediment to the surrounding undisturbed landscape. In addition, erosion may result in the exposure of hazardous material that was intended to be contained within the landform over geological time, thereby posing an environmental risk. These risks mean that it is important that the erosional stability of a landform be carefully assessed. In this study, a conceptual rehabilitated landform of the ERA Ranger Uranium Mine is assessed over a 1000-year period using both the SIBERIA and CAESAR-Lisflood computer-based landscape evolution models. Utilising two models enables both an independent evaluation of likely landscape evolution processes and the relative performance and output of each model. Overall findings show that SIBERIA and CAESAR-Lisflood produce erosion rates and patterns that are broadly similar. At millennial time scales, short-term processes such as gullying appear to be the dominant erosion features on the proposed landform, resulting in substantial erosion features in terms of size and amount of hillslope material eroded and transported downslope. Overall both models produce very similar results providing confidence in the models themselves, parameterisation and predictions. The results highlight the usefulness of such modelling in terms of design assessment.

  1. DID YOU HEAR THE ONE ABOUT THE GOVERNOR, NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGER, AND THE LANDSCAPE ECOLOGIST WHO WALK INTO A BAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The joke in the title continues with John Q. Public approaching each character and inquiring "how;s the water? Each response represents a different perspective on assessing water resources. The Governor touts...

  2. THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIROMENTAL SECURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. Human land-use practices (including type, magnitude, and distribution) are the most important factors influencingenvironmental management at local, regional, nat...

  3. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.

  4. A network approach to assessing social capacity for landscape planning: The case of fire-prone forests in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Ken Vance-Borland; Lorien Jasny; Kerry E. Grimm; Susan Charnley

    2016-01-01

    tManagement of ecological conditions and processes in multiownership landscapes requires cooperationby diverse stakeholder groups. The structure of organizational networks – the extent to which networksallow for interaction among organizations within and across ideological and geographic boundaries –can indicate potential opportunities for cooperation on landscape-...

  5. Geoheritage, Geodiversity and natural landscape enhanced and protected through anthropogenic activity: a case study using the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault, Afar and Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Hagos, Miruts; Guilbaud, Marie-Noelle

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) committee called in 2014 for all thematic geological and volcanological studies to be revised in light of a widening gap between current dogma and the progressive geoheritage science views. We discuss question of natural sites and anthropogenic activity. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault UNESCO WH project is the basis of this presentation, but we also the Afar Region of Ethiopia and UNAM campus, Mexico City. It is now difficult to find any totally 'natural' (devoid of human influence) landscape. This very definition of natural ignores that humankind is a geological force, and humans are part of the natural process. The UNESCO WH guidelines recognise this in paragraph 90: 'it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people'. A geological landscape, may be large enough to accommodate human occupation without significantly changing landforms: this is the case of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault. Human activity works in some ways to protect geological landscape: regulating vegetation and erosion. The aesthetic nature of humans may work to enhance the landscape's visibility by organisation of land use, and ceremonial use based on the sense of place. Humans also exercise economic activity such as quarrying and mining, which if uncontrolled can seriously modify a landscape. However, isolated works may not have an impact, or may even enhance the value of the site by uncovering geological features that would not naturally be seen. In the Chaîne des Puys only 0,3% of the land surface has been worked by artisanal methods and certain sites, like the Lemptégy volcano have been extracted with the view of enhancing the landscape's scientific value without detracting from the aesthetic. The site preserves its natural, scientific and aesthetic qualities, because of the human presence. The local population have always been and continue to be

  6. A Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Monitored Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Novak, John; Parker, John; Campbell, Bruce G.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The sustainability of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) over time depends upon (1) the presence of chemical/biochemical processes that transform wastes to innocuous byproducts, and (2) the availability of energy to drive these processes to completion. The presence or absence of contaminant-transforming chemical/biochemical processes can be determined by observing contaminant mass loss over time and space (mass balance). The energy available to drive these processes to completion can be assessed by measuring the pool of metabolizable organic carbon available in a system, and by tracing the flow of this energy to available electron acceptors (energy balance). For the special case of chlorinated ethenes in ground-water systems, for which a variety of contaminant-transforming biochemical processes exist, natural attenuation is sustainable when the pool of bioavailable organic carbon is large relative to the carbon flux needed to drive biodegradation to completion. These principles are illustrated by assessing the sustainability of MNA at a chlorinated ethene-contaminated site in Kings Bay, Georgia. Approximately 1,000 kilograms of perchloroethene (PCE) was released to a municipal landfill in the 1978-1980 timeframe, and the resulting plume of chlorinated ethenes migrated toward a nearby housing development. A numerical model, built using the sequential electron acceptor model code (SEAM3D), was used to quantify mass and energy balance in this system. The model considered the dissolution of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) as the source of the PCE, and was designed to trace energy flow from dissolved organic carbon to available electron acceptors in the sequence oxygen > chlorinated ethenes > ferric iron > sulfate > carbon dioxide. The model was constrained by (1) comparing simulated and measured rates of ground-water flow, (2) reproducing the observed distribution of electron-accepting processes in the aquifer, (3) comparing observed and measured concentrations of

  7. Assessment of the visual landscape impact and dominance of wind tubines in Austria using weighted viewshed maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauppenlehner, Thomas; Salak, Boris; Scherhaufer, Patrick; Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Due to efficiency reasons and broadly availability of wind, wind energy is in focus of strategies regarding the expansion of renewable energy and energy transition policies. Nevertheless, the dimensions of the wind turbines and rotating dynamics have a significant impact on the landscape scenery and recreation as well as tourism activities. This often leads to local opposition against wind energy projects and is a major criterion regarding the acceptance of wind energy. In the project TransWind, the social acceptance of wind energy is surveyed on the basis of different development scenarios for Austria. Therefore, a GIS-based viewshed indicator was developed to assess the visual impact of different development scenarios as well as the current situation using weighted - regarding distance, amount and masking - viewshed analysis. This weighted viewshed maps for Austria allows a comprehensive evaluation of existing and potential wind energy sites regarding dominance and visual impact and can contribute to the spatial development process of wind energy site. Different regions can be compared and repowering strategies can be evaluated. Due to the large project area, data resolutions, generalized assumptions (e.g. tree heights) and missing data (e.g. solitary trees, small hedges) at local level further analysis are necessary but it supports the assessment of large-scale development scenarios can be identified.

  8. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I.; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: → A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. → Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. → INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  9. From leaves to landscape: A multiscale approach to assess fire hazard in wildland-urban interface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, Luciana; Beletzky, Natacha A; de Torres Curth, Mónica I; Oddi, Facundo J

    2016-12-01

    The overlapping zone between urbanization and wildland vegetation, known as the wildland urban interface (WUI), is often at high risk of wildfire. Human activities increase the likelihood of wildfires, which can have disastrous consequences for property and land use, and can pose a serious threat to lives. Fire hazard assessments depend strongly on the spatial scale of analysis. We assessed the fire hazard in a WUI area of a Patagonian city by working at three scales: landscape, community and species. Fire is a complex phenomenon, so we used a large number of variables that correlate a priori with the fire hazard. Consequently, we analyzed environmental variables together with fuel load and leaf flammability variables and integrated all the information in a fire hazard map with four fire hazard categories. The Nothofagus dombeyi forest had the highest fire hazard while grasslands had the lowest. Our work highlights the vulnerability of the wildland-urban interface to fire in this region and our suggested methodology could be applied in other wildland-urban interface areas. Particularly in high hazard areas, our work could help in spatial delimitation policies, urban planning and development of plans for the protection of human lives and assets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  11. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m -3 . The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Propuesta metodológica para la zonificación funcional de áreas naturales protegidas terrestres desde la perspectiva del paisaje. Methodological proposal for functional zoning of terrestrial natural areas protected from the landscape perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Maikel RAMÓN PUEBLA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La división de un área natural protegida en zonas de manejo es un proceso arduo y complejo, para lo cual es necesario un sistema de evaluación y clasificación de la superficie del territorio en cuestión que permita el reconocimiento en el terreno de los sitios donde se llevarán a cabo las acciones para la protección y el manejo de los valores y recursos del área. El presente trabajo propone una guía metodológica que describe, analiza y privilegia como soporte teórico-metodológico la Geoecología de los Paisajes como vía para llegar a la propuesta de zonificación funcional de un Área Natural Protegida terrestre, partiendo de la delimitación, clasificación y cartografía de las unidades de paisaje con el empleo de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica; el análisis de algunas de las propiedades sistémicas de los paisajes y el cálculo de indicadores como naturalidad, heterogeneidad, peligro, estabilidad y sensibilidad entre otros, así como la evaluación de los potenciales y los conflictos de uso como parte del diagnóstico, permitirá realizar la propuesta de zonificación funcional con una visión integral del territorio y determinar para cada zona y subzona las acciones a desarrollar para mitigar los impactos, atenuar o eliminar las amenazas, mejorar la salud de los objetos de conservación y proteger los valores en cada una de las áreas identificadas con problemas.The division of a protected natural area in managed territories is a difficult and complex process for which an assessment and classification system of the surface of the territory, allowing the recognition of the places, where actions to protect the manage values and the resources of the area will be carried out, is necessary. This paper proposes a methodological guide, describes, assesses and favors, as a theoretical and methodological medium, the Geoecology of Landscapes as a means to reach the functional zoning proposal of a terrestrial protected area from

  13. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...

  14. Spiked natural matrix materials as quality assessment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiner, M.S.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has conducted the Quality Assessment Program since 1976 to evaluate the quality of the environmental radioactivity data, which is reported to the Department of Energy by as many as 42 commercial contractors involved in nuclear work. In this program, matrix materials of known radionuclide concent