WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural groundwater quality

  1. Natural radioactivity and groundwater quality assessment in the northern area of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yehia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and natural radioactivity of the northern area of the western desert groundwater were determined to evaluate hydrogeochemical facies and assess groundwater quality for different uses. Many the groundwater samples belong to the Na+- Cl−, Na2SO4− type, followed by Ca2+- Mg2+- Cl− type. Only a few samples are of the Na+- HCO3− type. The spatial distributions of the major ions describe similar anomalies, with the highest concentrations found at the extreme northeastern margin of the oasis, as well as in its northern and northwestern parts. Fe is the most abundant toxic metal, followed by Cu and Mn. Anomalies of Cr, Ni and Zn are also detected. Rock/water interactions strongly affect the chemical composition of the groundwater. Dissolution and cation exchange are the main processes controlling the hydrogeochemistry. Most of the irrigation groundwater problems in the study area may be resolved using an effective drainage system. The estimated total annual dose due to ingestion of 238U, 232Th and 40K in groundwater samples reveals that the groundwater is safe for human consumption. However, the toxic metal content of the Bahariya groundwater exceeds the permissible levels for both irrigation and consumption, and the water must be filtered through suitable membranes to exclude these toxic metals. Regular monitoring of the quality of this water for drinking is strictly required.

  2. Use of natural isotopes and groundwater quality for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-21

    Jul 21, 2006 ... lower threshold. Higher dissolution of carbonate resulting from higher partial pressures of CO2. The 14C content of this groundwater is higher than for B. Macro-pore and preferential recharge occurs if rainfall exceeds the higher threshold. Lower dissolution of bicarbonate because of lower partial pressure.

  3. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318725371

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  4. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... investigation is focused on seasonal variation in groundwater quality of Valsad district of south Gujarat (India). Groundwater ... natural resource that has to be conserved and preserved for sustenance of life in future [1]. Groundwater was ... The groundwater quality may also vary with seasonal changes [2].

  5. Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Anthropogenic and Natural Factors Influencing Groundwater Quality Based on Source Apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueru; Zuo, Rui; Meng, Li; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Liu, Xin; Chen, Minhua

    2018-02-06

    Globally, groundwater resources are being deteriorated by rapid social development. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the combined impacts of natural and enhanced anthropogenic sources on groundwater chemistry. The aim of this study was to identify seasonal characteristics and spatial variations in anthropogenic and natural effects, to improve the understanding of major hydrogeochemical processes based on source apportionment. 34 groundwater points located in a riverside groundwater resource area in northeast China were sampled during the wet and dry seasons in 2015. Using principal component analysis and factor analysis, 4 principal components (PCs) were extracted from 16 groundwater parameters. Three of the PCs were water-rock interaction (PC₁), geogenic Fe and Mn (PC₂), and agricultural pollution (PC₃). A remarkable difference (PC₄) was organic pollution originating from negative anthropogenic effects during the wet season, and geogenic F enrichment during the dry season. Groundwater exploitation resulted in dramatic depression cone with higher hydraulic gradient around the water source area. It not only intensified dissolution of calcite, dolomite, gypsum, Fe, Mn and fluorine minerals, but also induced more surface water recharge for the water source area. The spatial distribution of the PCs also suggested the center of the study area was extremely vulnerable to contamination by Fe, Mn, COD, and F - .

  6. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the shallow groundwater quality in a typical irrigation area with reclaimed water, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yong; Yin, Shiyang; Pan, Xingyao; Niu, Yong; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Hao, Qichen

    2017-09-22

    In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO 3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO 3 ) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO 3 +SO 4 ) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers. The major ions (F, HCO 3 ) and trace element (As) in the shallow groundwater represented the natural origin, while the nitrate and sulfate concentrations were related to the application of fertilizer and sewage discharge in the facility agricultural area, which was mainly affected by the human activities. The values of pH, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, and conventional component (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl) in shallow groundwater increased from grass land and cultivated land, to construction land and to facility agriculture which were originated from the combination sources of natural processes (e.g., water-rock interaction) and human activities (e.g., domestic effluents). The study indicated that both natural processes and human activities had influences on the groundwater hydrochemical compositions in shallow groundwater, while anthropogenic processes had more contribution, especially in the reclaimed water irrigation area.

  7. Groundwater quality: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, Pauline

    2000-01-01

    This is one of a series of information sheets prepared for each country in which WaterAid works. The sheetsaim to identify inorganic constituents of significant risk to health that may occur in groundwater in thecountry in question. The purpose of the sheets is to provide guidance to WaterAid Country Office staff ontargeting efforts on water-quality testing and to encourage further thinking in the organisation on waterqualityissues.

  8. Comparison of groundwater quality from forested (Waimarino River), urban (Turangi), and natural wetland (South Taupo Wetlands) subcatchments at the southern end of Lake Taupo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.; Reeves, R.R.; Eser, P.; Chague-Goff, C.; Coshell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of groundwater quality of three different land uses, (1) exotic pine plantation ready for harvest (Waimarino River Catchment), (2) an urban area characterised by a land treatment facility for sewage effluent from Turangi (Turangi oxidation ponds), and (3) a natural wetland (South Taupo Wetlands) demonstrates that groundwater quality in the southern region of the Lake Taupo catchment is controlled by both natural and human influences in the area. Comparative water quality issues can be summarised as follows. (1) Naturally high concentrations of reduced iron and manganese are present in all three study areas, with the highest concentrations found in the natural wetland area and around the Turangi land treatment facility. (2) Concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, and ammonium in the groundwater down-gradient of the Turangi oxidation ponds are elevated relative to the other two study areas. Stable isotopic signatures also show that the groundwater has been influenced by surface water from the oxidation ponds, mostly due to additional evaporation caused by the relatively long residence time of the water (125 days) in the oxidation ponds. Elevated concentrations of ammonium also occur in deep groundwater under the forest areas of the Waimarino River catchment. (3) The water at all three sites is generally unsuitable for drinking supplies due to naturally elevated concentrations of reduced iron and manganese in the groundwater and elevated concentrations of ammonium at many monitoring sites, particularly around the Turangi land treatment site and the Waimarino deep aquifer monitoring sites. Aeration followed by settling or filtration of the groundwater could significantly reduce the concentrations of iron and manganese. (4) Elevated concentrations of reduced iron and manganese are unlikely to affect the water quality of Lake Taupo as all reduced iron and manganese will be oxidised once the water reaches the lake and precipitate as oxyhydroxide minerals

  9. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...

  10. Seasonal variations in groundwater quality of Valsad District of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is an important precious natural resource. For optimum utilization of water resources, it is necessary to know both the quality as well as quantity of water. The present investigation is focused on seasonal variation in groundwater quality of Valsad district of south Gujarat (India). Groundwater samples from fifteen ...

  11. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability.This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  12. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas

  13. Groundwater quality mapping in urban groundwater using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Bilgehan; Berktay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Konya City, located in the central part of Turkey, has grown and urbanized rapidly. A large amount of the water requirement of Konya City is supplied from groundwater. The quality of this groundwater was determined by taking samples from 177 of the wells within the study area. The purposes of this investigation were (1) to provide an overview of present groundwater quality and (2) to determine spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, Cl-, SO4(-2), hardness, and NO3- concentrations, and (3) to map groundwater quality in the study area by using GIS and Geostatistics techniques. ArcGIS 9.0 and ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst were used for generation of various thematic maps and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst to produce the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique, ordinary kriging, was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map shows that the southwest of the city has optimum groundwater quality, and, in general, the groundwater quality decreases south to north of the city; 5.03% (21.51 km2) of the total study area is classified to be at the optimum groundwater quality level.

  14. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  15. Does leaching of naturally occurring radionuclides from roadway pavements stabilised with coal fly ash have negative impacts on groundwater quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahayni, T; Vanhoudt, N

    2018-05-05

    We assessed the potential impact of using coal fly ash to stabilise roadway pavements on groundwater quality and human health. The leaching potential of naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) typically present in the fly ash was assessed with the HYDRUS-1D code and data representative of a segment of the Wisconsin State Trunk Highway 60 as a case study. Our assessment suggests that the impact would be mainly from the chemical toxicity of uranium (U). In our particular case study, U concentration in the leachate exceeded the maximum contaminant level for this element (MCL = 30 μg L -1 ) in almost all the scenarios. In the groundwater, the MCL was only exceeded under conditions of high leaching and low dilution in the aquifer. The radiological toxicity from the consumption of the contaminated groundwater by a hypothetical adult, however, was at maximum 43% of the individual dose criterion (IDC = 0.1 mSv y -1 ). The results also highlight the need to consider site-specific conditions such as climate and hydrogeology when assessing the environmental impacts of utilising fly ash in roadway construction applications since they could have profound effects on the assessment findings. There is also a pressing need for reliable and representative data to support realistic assessments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  17. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    Naturally, surface water is highly susceptible to contamination, but groundwater is less susceptible. However, once groundwater is polluted, remediation is usually very difficult and expensive to undertake. Also, its quality cannot ... problem of inadequacy of potable water supply from the public water works. This is invariably ...

  18. Modeling groundwater flow and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle

    2013-01-01

    In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.

  19. The natural background to the quality of groundwater: implications for the implementation of the Framework Water Directive in Europe; El fondo natural de la calidad del agua subterranea: implicaciones para la aplicacion de la Directiva Marco del Agua en Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, M.; Custodio, E.; Nieto, P.

    2003-07-01

    The most recent water legislation issued world-wide require to establish a scientifically based definition for groundwater baseline quality, which is simple to use and nimble for politicians and managers. Derived from the European projects Baseline, groundwater baseline has been defined as the range of concentrations of a given element, species or chemical substance present is solution, being derived from natural geological, biogical, or atmospheric sources. The terms of this definition conforms the methodology to use to accomplish European water laws requirements: 1) to establish groundwater baseline for the European water bodies within next years: 2) to study hydrochemical trends and to distinguish baseline trends from pollution trends; 3) to inquiry the causes of pollution trends, set up restoration programs and monitor their success by determining the start of chemical trends reversals. The methodology used in the European project BaSeLiNe to answer these questions and the main methodological and conceptual conclusions are used to illustrate the need for an accurate determination of groundwater baseline. (Author) 4 refs.

  20. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  1. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  2. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Shallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the aquifer system and groundwater quality of Okrika Island using lithological logs, static ... quantity is as important as its quality. This is ..... Ibadan, Evans. Brothers Nigeria Limited. Olobaniyi, S.B. and Owoyemi, F.B. 2006. Characterization by factor analysis of the chemical facies of groundwater in the.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    COD) and metals like Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn). The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal. Key Words: Ground Water, Water quality index, Valsad District, Gujarat. 1.

  4. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for ...

  6. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered – total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses ...

  7. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics of groundwater quality from Yola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Some physicochemical parameters related to groundwater quality obtained from Yola Area of. Northeastern Nigeria was investigated for the purpose of drinking and irrigation. An attempt was also made to develop linear regression equations to predict the concentration of water quality having significant ...

  10. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy

  11. Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Ehsanullah; Baba, Alper

    2017-07-01

    Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world. While most people think that consuming groundwater is a reliable and safe source of drinking water for health, the United Nations (UN) agencies report various kinds of waterborne diseases and even child mortalities due to drinking water quality in the country. In this article, significant geogenic and anthropogenic factors that play a vital role in groundwater contamination of the country are identified and explained. Different geogenic contaminations such as arsenic, fluoride, sulfate, and boron occur in several areas of Afghanistan that have a direct effect on human health. The water quality mapping for Afghanistan is completed for half of the country, which shows that groundwater is plagued by high levels of fluoride and arsenic in some areas. The water quality mapping of the other half of the country cannot be completed due to security concerns currently. Also, there are different kinds of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery that can be seen in different parts of the country because of anthropogenic activities which continuously deteriorate groundwater.

  12. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  13. Modeling Effects of Groundwater Basin Closure, and Reversal of Closure, on Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauloo, R.; Guo, Z.; Fogg, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Population growth, the expansion of agriculture, and climate uncertainties have accelerated groundwater pumping and overdraft in aquifers worldwide. In many agricultural basins, a water budget may be stable or not in overdraft, yet disconnected ground and surface water bodies can contribute to the formation of a "closed" basin, where water principally exits the basin as evapotranspiration. Although decreasing water quality associated with increases in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) have been documented in aquifers across the United States in the past half century, connections between water quality declines and significant changes in hydrologic budgets leading to closed basin formation remain poorly understood. Preliminary results from an analysis with a regional-scale mixing model of the Tulare Lake Basin in California indicate that groundwater salinization resulting from open to closed basin conversion can operate on a decades-to-century long time scale. The only way to reverse groundwater salinization caused by basin closure is to refill the basin and change the hydrologic budget sufficiently for natural groundwater discharge to resume. 3D flow and transport modeling, including the effects of heterogeneity based on a hydrostratigraphic facies model, is used to explore rates and time scales of groundwater salinization and its reversal under different water and land management scenarios. The modeling is also used to ascertain the extent to which local and regional heterogeneity need to be included in order to appropriately upscale the advection-dispersion equation in a basin scale groundwater quality management model. Results imply that persistent managed aquifer recharge may slow groundwater salinization, and complete reversal may be possible at sufficiently high water tables.

  14. Seasonal evaluation of groundwater quality around Igando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation and Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship and variability of groundwater quality parameters around Solous 1 and 2 Dumpsites, in Igando, Lagos, for the wet and the dry seasons. The correlation between TDS and other hydrochemical parameters which constituted ...

  15. Principal component analysis of groundwater quality data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical quality data of groundwater extracted from 36 boreholes in Ho Municipality indicated that 11 sources recorded pH values outside WHO guideline range, while 5 recorded turbidity levels above WHO guideline limits. Sodium levels ranged from 1.80 to 544 mg/L with a mean of 111 ± 132 mg/l; chloride ...

  16. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates ...

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in shallow wetland groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schot, Paul P.; Pieber, Simone M.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryWetlands worldwide are threatened by environmental change. Differences in groundwater composition is one of the factors affecting wetland terrestrial floristic biodiversity. However, few studies discuss variations in wetland groundwater composition. This study presents an analysis of local-scale spatial and short-term temporal variations in 15 groundwater composition parameters of the 7 km2 Naardermeer wetland nature reserve in The Netherlands. Data is available from a network of 35 groundwater wells with 2-4 filters each, at depths between 50 and 800 cm, which were sampled about monthly over a 1-year period, totalling 1042 chemical analysis from 103 filter screens. Relative standard deviations indicate large differences in variation between parameters. Largest spatial and temporal variations were found for nutrients (NO3-, PO43-, NH4+) and redox sensitive parameters (Fe, Mn), and lowest variations for macroions and SiO2. A horizontal zonation in groundwater concentrations has been found related to soil type and soil wetness, with largest horizontal decrease in NO3- and SO42-, and largest increase in Fe and SiO2, going in the groundwater flow direction from dry sandy soils to wet peat/clay soils. No clear horizontal patterns have been found for the macroions. Spatial zonations in the north-south direction and with depth are absent for all parameters. Spatial and temporal variations were found to be related. 3D-maps indicate highest temporal fluctuations at filter screens with lowest median concentrations for NO3-, SO42- and Fe, but the reverse pattern for SiO2. High temporal variations of nutrients and redox sensitive parameters could not be traced back to a seasonal trend. The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality parameters as presented in this study, together with their reported effects on different vegetation types, may be used to design efficient monitoring schemes by nature managers having set specific vegetation development targets

  18. Groundwater Quality in the Wassa West District of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. K. Kortatsi

    Abstract. Reconnaissance hydrochemical survey of 56 wells was conducted in the Wassa West District with the objective of providing baseline data for the establishment of groundwater quality monitoring stations. The data acquired is used in this paper to assess the quality of groundwater in the District. Groundwaters are ...

  19. Groundwater quality in the Wassa West District of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconnaissance hydrochemical survey of 56 wells was conducted in the Wassa West District with the objective of providing baseline data for the establishment of groundwater quality monitoring stations. The data acquired is used in this paper to assess the quality of groundwater in the District. Groundwaters are mainly ...

  20. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  1. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.; Farrar, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) North San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in northern California in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA North San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 89 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the North San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the North San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  4. Innovative technique for assessment of groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, M.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2001-07-01

    Groundwater quality of a part of Chaj Doab has been assessed with innovative techniques which are not reported in literature. The concept of triangular coordinates is modified by multi-rectangular ones for the classification of major cations and anions analysed in the ground water. A Multi-Rectangular Diagram (MRD) has been developed with the combination of rectangular coordinates by virtue of which milli-equivalent per liter percentages (meq/1%) of major cations and anions could be classified into different categories more efficiently as compared to classical trilinear diagrams. Both Piper diagram and MRD are used for the assessment of 259 data sets analysed from ground water of Chaj Doab area, Pakistan. The differentiated ground water types with MRD in the study area are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate type emerges as the most abundant type of ground water in the study area. A map showing spatial variation of groundwater quality has been constructed with the help of MRD. This map shows that, in the vicinity of rivers Chenab and Jhelum, calcium bicarbonate type of waters occur while the central area is mainly covered by sodium bicarbonate dominant waters. Groundwaters near the upper Jhelum canal are dominant in sodium sulfate. An important relation between calcium and sodium is proposed which explains the movement history of groundwater in the aquifer. Hydrogeochemical processes have been evaluated with new methods. Ion exchange between calcium and sodium, precipitation of calcium bicarbonate and dissolution of rock forming minerals are the major delineated hydrogeochemical processes. (author)

  5. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Krishna; Rammohan, V; Sahayam, J Dajkumar; Jeevanandam, M

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO(3), Na-Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO(3), and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards shows that all groundwater samples except few are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The major groundwater pollutions are nitrate and phosphate ions due to sewage effluents and fertilizer applications. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influence such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  7. Chemical quality of groundwater in chaj doab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the chemical quality of groundwater in Chaj Doab, an inter fluvial area of the Punjab, where it is the primary source of drinking water. Therefore, its quality must meet certain standards, because elevated levels of different elements in drinking water have significant hazard for health. For this purpose, 83 shallow and 53 deep ground water samples were collected from different sampling stations, spread over the entire study-area, on quarterly basis. These were analyzed for their dissolved chemical constituents by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and Ion-selective electrodes. Quality of groundwater is evaluated, with respect to bicarbonate (HCO/sub 3/), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO/sub 3/), sulfate (SO/sub 4/) sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), by comparing observed values with WHO and EEC drinking-water standards. This comparison indicates that norms of good-quality drinking water are exceeded for EC, Na, K, Mg, Cl and SO/sub 4/ at several locations. Concentrations of some parameters even more than the Maximum Admissible concentration have been observed. This study clearly indicates an increasing trend of nitrate concentrations. (author)

  8. Ammoniacal nitrogen removal from groundwaters using natural and synthetic zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Matsiyevska, Oksana; Chverenchuk, Andrii; Soprunko, Svitlana; Berezyuk, Roman; Pidlisny, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    In article results of ammoniacal nitrogen occurrence ways into groundwaters analysis was represented. NH4+ removing effectivity from simulative solutions by natural (Sokyrnytsia minefield, Ukraine) and synthetic zeolites was compared.

  9. Classification management plan of groundwater quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Ming; Chen, Yu Ying; Pan, Shih Cheng; Li, Hui Jun; Hsiao, Fang Ke

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration has been monitoring regional water quality for 14 years. Since the beginning of 2002 till now, there are 453 regional groundwater monitoring wells in ten groundwater subregions in Taiwan, and the monitoring of groundwater quality has been carried out for a long time. Currently, water quality monitoring project has reached 50 items, while the number of water quality monitoring data has reached more than 20,000. In order to use the monitoring data efficiently, this study constructed the localized groundwater quality indicators of Taiwan. This indicator takes into account the different users' point of view, incorporating the Taiwan groundwater pollution monitoring standards (Category II), irrigation water quality standard and drinking water source water quality standard. 50 items of water quality monitoring projects were simplified and classified. The groundwater quality parameters were divided into five items, such as potability for drinking water, salting, external influence, health influences and toxicity hazard. The weight of the five items of groundwater was calculated comprehensively, and the groundwater quality of each monitoring well was evaluated with three grades of good, ordinary, and poor. According to the monitoring results of the groundwater monitoring wells in October to December of 2016, about 70% of groundwater quality in Taiwan is in good to ordinary grades. The areas with poor groundwater quality were mostly distributed in coastal, agriculture and part of the urban areas. The conductivity or ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher in those regions, showing that groundwater may be salinized or affected by external influences. Groundwater quality indicators can clearly show the current comprehensive situation of the groundwater environment in Taiwan and can be used as a tool for groundwater quality classification management. The indicators can coordinate with the Taiwan land planning policy in the

  10. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east ...

  11. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic ... standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered – total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and ... Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II blocks; Birbhum. District. J. Earth ...

  12. Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality in lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogeochemical study of groundwater was carried out in a part of the lower Palar river basin, southern India to determine the geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analysed for pH, Eh, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, CO3, Cl and ...

  13. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  14. A fuzzy-logic based decision-making approach for identification of groundwater quality based on groundwater quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiati, M; Asghari-Moghaddam, A; Nakhaei, M; Adamowski, J; Akbarzadeh, A H

    2016-12-15

    Due to inherent uncertainties in measurement and analysis, groundwater quality assessment is a difficult task. Artificial intelligence techniques, specifically fuzzy inference systems, have proven useful in evaluating groundwater quality in uncertain and complex hydrogeological systems. In the present study, a Mamdani fuzzy-logic-based decision-making approach was developed to assess groundwater quality based on relevant indices. In an effort to develop a set of new hybrid fuzzy indices for groundwater quality assessment, a Mamdani fuzzy inference model was developed with widely-accepted groundwater quality indices: the Groundwater Quality Index (GQI), the Water Quality Index (WQI), and the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI). In an effort to present generalized hybrid fuzzy indices a significant effort was made to employ well-known groundwater quality index acceptability ranges as fuzzy model output ranges rather than employing expert knowledge in the fuzzification of output parameters. The proposed approach was evaluated for its ability to assess the drinking water quality of 49 samples collected seasonally from groundwater resources in Iran's Sarab Plain during 2013-2014. Input membership functions were defined as "desirable", "acceptable" and "unacceptable" based on expert knowledge and the standard and permissible limits prescribed by the World Health Organization. Output data were categorized into multiple categories based on the GQI (5 categories), WQI (5 categories), and GWQI (3 categories). Given the potential of fuzzy models to minimize uncertainties, hybrid fuzzy-based indices produce significantly more accurate assessments of groundwater quality than traditional indices. The developed models' accuracy was assessed and a comparison of the performance indices demonstrated the Fuzzy Groundwater Quality Index model to be more accurate than both the Fuzzy Water Quality Index and Fuzzy Ground Water Quality Index models. This suggests that the new hybrid fuzzy

  15. Surface and groundwater quality assessment of Marikina river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Pena, Jowell P.; Pael, Limela G.

    2009-03-01

    The study used the physico-chemical characteristics to determine the degree of pollution in different surface and groundwater sources in Marikina. The hydrogen ion concentration in all the stations for surface water was generally basic ranging from 7.24 to 7.44, while conductivity was observed to be highest in Royal Ville station that has a value of 253 μ/cm. Among the four stations in groundwater which obtained an acidic pH, Brgy. Singkamas deep-well has a neutral value. The conductivity was observed to be highest in Brgy. Conception which has a value of 1026 μ/cm. The major ions result showed that the three stations from Marikina River have conformed to the water quality criteria for fresh waters set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, while results from different deep-well stations showed that among four stations, Brgy. Singkamas and Conception deep-well have exceeded the recommended value concentration for drinking water quality standards. The multi-element results were obtained from an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Results showed that significant concentrations of metals like Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, and Pb in both surface and groundwater stations have exceeded the maximum concentrations set by both DENR and PNSDW. The significant differences in the concentrations of physico-chemical components facilitate detection of contamination from domestic and industrial wastes. (author)

  16. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  17. Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong area, Adamawa state, northeastern Nigeria. ... The high content of fluoride and iron in the groundwater may have contributed to the high EC and TDS especially during the rainy season when the rate of leaching and infiltration is high. Keywords: Quality ...

  18. Groundwater quality in the glacial aquifer system, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.

    2017-12-07

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water (Burow and Belitz, 2014). The glacial aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated.

  19. Natural Gas Occurrence in Groundwater near Oil and Gas Drilling Sites Environmental Concerns in Northeast Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Liang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract unconventional natural gas in the northeast of the United States. Over the past few years, the presence of contaminants in shallow groundwater near drilling sites has created higher awareness of drinking water quality. One key question has been recently raised about the origin and pathways of the contaminants, especially natural gas found in groundwater in neighboring areas of gas drilling sites in northeast Pennsylvania. Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, is not currently classified as a health hazard when dissolved in drinking water. Yet, it is a threat for explosion and fire hazards. In the Bradford, Susquehanna, Tioga, and Wyoming counties located in northeast Pennsylvania, dissolved methane concentration was measured to be 19.2 mg/l. Maximum concentration was recorded up to 64 mg/l when a warning level of concentration of natural gas in groundwater is only 10 mg/l. Recent studies have been investigating the origin of natural gas found in water wells in these counties based on the isotopic composition of methane, ethane and dissolved inorganic carbon. While Breen et al. (2007) and Osborn et al. (2010 and 2011) claim that the isotopic analysis of methane confirms the thermogenic origin of methane in groundwater in Susquehanna and Wyoming counties, Molofsky et al. (2011) claim that the natural gas origin in the groundwater is not related to fracking activities in the Marcellus Shale but to a geologic origin instead. To better understand the origin of dissolved methane, an integral computer model will be implemented. The model will analyze the potential migration of natural gas to shallow groundwater by using available data. Potential scenarios will include outgassing from wells casing and preferential flow through deep fractures. Currently, the lack of a proper model prevents the prediction and explanation of several of the existing questions

  20. Groundwater quality and hydrogeological characteristics of Malacca state in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi Sharif Moniruzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and aquifer productivity of Malacca catchment in Peninsular Malaysia are presented in this article. Pumping test data were collected from 210 shallow and 17 deep boreholes to get well inventory information. Data analysis confirmed that the aquifers consisting of schist, sand, limestone and volcanic rocks were the most productive aquifers for groundwater in Malacca state. GIS-based aquifer productivity map was generated based on bedrock and discharge capacity of the aquifers. Aquifer productivity map is classified into three classes, namely high, moderate and low based on discharge capacity. Groundwater potential of the study area is 35, 57 and 8% of low, moderate and high class respectively. Fifty two shallow and 14 deep aquifer groundwater samples were analyzed for water quality. In some cases, groundwater quality analysis indicated that the turbidity, total dissolved solids, iron, chloride and cadmium concentrations exceeded the limit of drinking water quality standards.

  1. Groundwater quality from a part of Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, N.

    2018-03-01

    Quality of groundwater is assessed from a part of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater samples collected from thirty locations from the study area were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bicarbonate ( {HCO}3^{ - } ), chloride (Cl-), sulphate ( {SO}4^{2 - } ), nitrate ( {NO}3^{ - } ) and fluoride (F-). The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater is alkaline in nature and are mainly characterized by Na+- {HCO}3^{ - } and Na+-Cl- facies. Groundwater chemistry reflects the dominance of rock weathering and is subsequently modified by human activities, which are supported by genetic geochemical evolution and hydrogeochemical relations. Further, the chemical parameters (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl-, {SO}4^{2 - } , {NO}3^{ - } and F-) were compared with the drinking water quality standards. The sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, permeability index, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio were computed and USSL, Wilcox and Doneen's diagrams were also used for evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation. For industrial purpose, the pH, TDS, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } were used to assess the impact of incrustation and corrosion activities on metal surfaces. As a whole, it is observed that the groundwater quality is not suitable for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes due to one or more chemical parameters exceeding their standard limits. Therefore, groundwater management measures were suggested to improve the water quality.

  2. Groundwater quality in central New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 14 production wells and 15 private wells in central New York from August through December 2012 in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The samples were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers in this area. Fifteen of the wells are finished in sand-and-gravel aquifers, and 14 are finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 29 wells were sampled in a previous central New York study, which was conducted in 2007. Water samples from the 2012 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved gases (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that the groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although for all of the wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: color (2 samples), pH (7 samples), sodium (9 samples), chloride (2 samples), fluoride (2 samples), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (8 samples), aluminum (4 samples), arsenic (1 sample), iron (9 samples), manganese (13 samples), radon-222 (13 samples), total coliform bacteria (6 samples), and heterotrophic bacteria (2 samples). Drinking-water standards for nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, and

  3. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228Th}, and {sup 228}Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 228}Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  4. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M; Bueno, T O

    2008-10-01

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides (40)K, (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (232)Th, (228Th), and (228)Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides (40)K, (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (210)Po, (210)Pb, and (228)Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (228)Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  5. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    will explore how criteria for nature quality based on the Ecologist View can be developed and thereby feed into the ongoing discussion of the development of the organic farming practices. We suggest additional criteria for nature quality based on an Ecologist View of Nature: biodiversity, habitat diversity......Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...

  6. Groundwater quality monitoring around Bass Lake, Betty's Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study suggests that water monitoring methodology used in this study should yield better results during the drier summer period when there is decrease in the rate of groundwater flow and a lower water table. Monitoring throughout the year is recommended. Keywords: groundwater quality; septic tanks; sewage pollution

  7. Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality in lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogeochemical study of groundwater was carried out in a part of the lower Palar river basin, southern. India to determine the geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality. Thirty-nine ground- water samples were collected from the study area and analysed for pH, Eh, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3,. CO3, Cl and ...

  8. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water ...

  9. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairy farms in central South Africa depend mostly on groundwater for domestic needs and dairy activities. Groundwater samples were collected from 37 dairy farms during 2009 and 2013. Sixteen water quality parameters were tested and compared to the standard. Four parameters in 2009 and six in 2013 exhibited 100% ...

  10. Approaches to hazard-oriented groundwater management based on multivariate analysis of groundwater quality

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Rebecca Mary

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water extracted near rivers in alluvial aquifers is subject to potential microbial contamination due to rapidly infiltrating river water during high discharge events. The heterogeneity of river-groundwater interaction and hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer renders a complex pattern of groundwater quality. The quality of the extracted drinking water can be managed using decision support and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) systems, but the detection of po...

  11. Groundwater Quality in Central New York, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, J.E.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 28 private residential wells in central New York from August through December 2007 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of groundwater. Seventeen wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 are finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest groundwater use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,799-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 216 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and 4 types of bacteria. Results indicate that groundwater used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at several wells. The cations detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia, but no nutrients exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). The trace elements barium, boron, lithium, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements present in the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Fifteen pesticides, including seven pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 17 of the 35 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal MCLs. Sixteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 15 of the 35 wells. Nine analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. One sample had a water color that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) and the New York State MCL of 10 color

  12. Evaluation on changes caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as a natural barrier for the HLW disposal. Literature survey and groundwater observation conducted at Mt. Iwate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Nakata, Eiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is very important in the site characterization for the HLW disposal to understand changes in geochemical performances caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as the natural barrier. The various effects and its magnitude of changes were listed up and were filed from literature surveys of the correlation between volcanic activities and hydrological can geochemical changes (e.g. water temperature, water pressure, water level, dissolved gas concentration of He and Rn, isotopic ratio of He, and chloride concentration) in volcanic aquifer. However, it is difficult to evaluate the magnitude of impacts, which volcanic activities will give to the groundwater environment in the natural barrier, through only the literature surveys. We have started monitoring of groundwater level and changes in groundwater quality, since volcanic activities have enhanced at Mt. Iwate from June in 1998. Judging from variation of isotopic ratio of dissolved He in groundwater, a prompt and sharp signals indicating volcanic activities will easily be found in shallow groundwater and discharged ponds. On the other hands, geochemical conditions in deep groundwater surroundings from some 100 m to 1000 m deep will be very stable, if the area being more than 5 km apart from the volcanic active center. Consequently, our observed results suggest that the groundwater environment which is not directly disturbed by the underground magmatic activities spreads under the area that is connected to trench side of the volcanic front. (author)

  13. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  14. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids. (TDS), Sodium (Na+) ... of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and ... leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial.

  15. Time-dependent methods to evaluate the effects of urban sprawl on groundwater quality: a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources are threatened worldwide with unknown and unpredictable fate, due to non-stationarity and change of water cycle dynamics, and increasing demand resulting from population growth and economic expansion. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions are necessary to ensure the short-term and long-term provision of adequate, affordable, accessible and safe freshwater supply to meet the needs of the growing human population and ecosystems. Since the mid-1950s, Europe is experiencing the phenomenon of urban sprawl, characterized by an unplanned incremental urban development, no more tied with population growth (EEA 2006. Impacts of urban sprawl threaten both the natural and rural environments and the quality of life for people living in cities, with worsening of air quality, and surface- and groundwater quality and quantity. For the protection of groundwater, the European Union issued a series of Directives (Water Framework Directive, 2000/60/EC; Groundwater Directive, 2006/118/EC that require member states to achieve a good chemical status of their groundwater bodies and the identification of areas where groundwater suffers increasing trends in contaminant concentrations. In order to cope with EU Directives, a time-dependent approach for groundwater vulnerability assessment is developed to account for both the recent status of groundwater contamination and its evolution in the Po Plain area of Lombardy Region (northern Italy. Such approach takes the advantages of a Bayesian spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability and satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban areas and monitor their evolution. The proposed approach can determine potential impacts of contamination events on groundwater quality, if policies are maintained at the status quo or if new measures are implemented for safeguarding groundwater resources.

  16. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  17. hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in sagamu area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABDULRASHEED

    alkaline indices (CAI), were calculated for irrigation purposes. The results were presented as spatial distribution maps for interpretation and further inferences. Comparison of the groundwater quality in the area with local and international ...

  18. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment and pollution source apportionment in an intensely exploited region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Huiwei; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Mingnan; Zhu, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Deterioration in groundwater quality has attracted wide social interest in China. In this study, groundwater quality was monitored during December 2014 at 115 sites in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan region of northern China. Results showed that 21.7% of NO 3 - and 51.3% of total hardness samples exceeded grade III of the national quality standards for Chinese groundwater. In addition, results of gray relationship analysis (GRA) show that 64.3, 10.4, 21.7, and 3.6% of samples were within the I, II, IV, and V grades of groundwater in the Hutuo River region, respectively. The poor water quality in the study region is due to intense anthropogenic activities as well as aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major factors: (1) domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff pollution (anthropogenic activities), (2) water-rock interactions (natural processes), and (3) industrial wastewater pollution (anthropogenic activities). Using PCA and absolute principal component scores-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), results show that domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are the main sources of groundwater pollution in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan area. Thus, the most appropriate methods to prevent groundwater quality degradation are to improve capacities for wastewater treatment and to optimize fertilization strategies.

  20. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  1. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  2. Groundwater Quality and the Settlements Condition in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Cholil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehend the factors which influence on the juvenile water, it needs paying attention to the rocks permeability, the thickness of the aeration zone, the type of the material composition and the depth of the ground water. The grade of the ground water quality, both ground water in general and juvenile water in the urban, is dependent upon the natural physical, man made physical, and the condition of the local inhabitant besides the another factors. The influence grade of the factors are undersirable yet because among of them there are cross-linkages. The linkage of the ground water quality condition, besides another factor, inconfirmed by the inhabitant and the settelement. The aspect of the man made physical, both sanitation condition and the population density with their activity effect i.e. sewage by product, should fully determine the ground water quality. There is a closed connection between the juvenile water quality and the settlement condition, mainly, in the case is the domestic sewage disposal. It is estimated that the unit of settlement associates with the grade of the juvenile water quality. Some of the variabilities which are desirable to sustain the settlement condition and constitutes the influence variability i.e. the density of the population and buildings, and the condition of the drainage system for sewage.

  3. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  4. Cl/Br Ratio to Determine Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naily, W.; Sudaryanto

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater has different characteristics in each location influenced by mineral content in rocks that dissolves as water travels through the pores of rocks or soil or when stored in the soil (aquifer). Different minerals dissolving in rocks will lead to differences in anion content in groundwater. Chloride and bromide are the major ions that can be found in groundwater. The concentration of chloride is 500 times greater than the concentration of bromide. In addition, the high chloride concentration is a tracer for the influence of sea water. The ratio between chloride and bromide (Cl/Br ratio) can be used as a determinant of groundwater quality, as well as a determinant of groundwater contamination, sea water intrusion and the origin of sea water intrusion.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  6. Groundwater-quality monitoring program in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department began a groundwater-quality monitoring program in 1980 in Chester County, Pa., where a large percentage of the population relies on wells for drinking-water supply. This report documents the program and serves as a reference for data collected through the program from 1980 through 2008. The initial focus of the program was to collect data on groundwater quality near suspected localized sources of contamination, such as uncontrolled landfills and suspected industrial wastes, to determine if contaminants were present that might pose a health risk to those using the groundwater. Subsequently, the program was expanded to address the effects of widely distributed contaminant sources associated with agricultural and residential land uses on groundwater quality and to document naturally occurring constituents, such as radium, radon, and arsenic, that are potential hazards in drinking water. Since 2000, base-flow stream samples have been collected in addition to well-water and spring samples in a few small drainage areas to investigate the relation between groundwater quality measured in well samples and streams. The program has primarily consisted of spatial assessment with limited temporal data collected on groundwater quality. Most data were collected through the monitoring program for reconnaissance purposes to identify and locate groundwater-quality problems and generally were not intended for rigorous statistical analyses that might determine land-use or geochemical factors affecting groundwater quality in space or through time. Results of the program found several contaminants associated with various land uses and human activities in groundwater in Chester County. Volatile organic compounds (such as trichloroethylene) were measured in groundwater near suspected localized contaminant sources in concentrations that exceeded drinking

  7. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2017-12-29

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, which have the potential for natural gas development, underlie Pike County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, conducted a study that expanded on a previous more limited 2012 study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Pike County prior to possible extensive shale-gas development. Seventy-nine water wells ranging in depths from 80 to 610 feet were sampled during June through September 2015 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality in the various bedrock geologic units throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low values in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. All groundwater samples collected in 2015 were analyzed for bacteria, dissolved and total major ions, nutrients, selected dissolved and total inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane. Additionally, samples from 20 wells distributed throughout the county were analyzed for selected man-made volatile organic compounds, and samples from 13 wells where waters had detectable gross alpha activity were analyzed for radium-226 on the basis of relatively elevated gross alpha-particle activity.Results of the 2015 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards for constituents and properties included in analyses, but groundwater samples from some wells had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, manganese, pH, bacteria, sodium, chloride, sulfate

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  9. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  10. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    and evaluates natural and human-related processes that affect water quality. Findings are synthesized to assess the vulnerability of the Denver Basin aquifer system to groundwater contamination.

  11. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior groundwater basins, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile (1,691-square-kilometer) South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The South Coast Interior Basins study unit contains eight priority groundwater basins grouped into three study areas, Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama, in the Southern Coast Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA South Coast Interior Basins study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated (raw) groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality between basins. The assessment was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 50 wells in 2008 and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the SCI study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as trace elements and minor ions. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the SCI study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration

  12. Groundwater Quality Assessment and Monitoring Using Geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the spatial variation of groundwater parameters in Port Harcourt metropolis using GIS. Thirty two (32) water samples were collected from boreholes from different parts of the study area into a treated and well labeled 1.5 litres plastic bootle. The water samples were then subjected to laboratory analysis ...

  13. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ous chemicals like lime, sodium-carbonate, sodium- bi-carbonate, common salt, sodium-sulphate and chrome-sulphate. It is established .... method (Cole-Parmer iodine electrode, model no. 27502-13). Bicarbonate (HCO. −. 3 ) concentrations of the groundwater were determined by potentio- metric titration method. SO2−. 4.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  15. Impact of point source pollution on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, M.A.; Solehria, B.A.; Rai, N.I.

    2005-01-01

    The management of point source pollution (municipal and industrial waste water) is an important item on Brown Agenda confronting urban planners and policy makers. The industrial concerns and households produce enormous amount of waste water, which has to be disposed of through the municipal sewage system. Generally, municipal wastewater management is done on non-scientific lines, resulting in considerable social and economic loss and gradual degradation of the natural resources. The present study highlights that how the poor management practices, lack of infrastructure, and poor disposal system-comprising of mostly open, un-walled or partially lined drains, affect the groundwater quality and render it unfit for human consumption. Satiana Road sludge carrier at Faisalabad city, receiving effluents of about 67 textile units, 4 oil mills, 2 ice factories, 3 laundris and domestic waste water of Peoples Colony No.1, Maqbool Road and Ghulam Rasool Nagar was selected to derive quantitative and qualitative estimates of TDS, Na, Cl and heavy metals namely Fe, Cu and Pb of the waste water and their leaching around the sludge carrier. The measurement of leaching of TDS, Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -1/ per 1000 m basis in lined section was 818, 550 and 228 tons, respectively. Where as in the unlined section, annual increase of TDS, Na/sup /+, and Cl/sup -/ was 2404,1615 and 669 tons per 1000 m respectively. In case of leaching of metals through the sludge carrier, Cu was at the top with 8.4 tons per annum per 1000 m followed by Fe and Pb with 6.66 and 1.2 tons per annum per 1000 m respectively. The concentration of all the salts/metals studied were higher in groundwater near the sludge carrier which decreased with increase in distance. The groundwater contamination in unlined portions is greater than lined portions, which might be due to higher seepage losses in unlined portions of the sludge carrier (4.9 % per 1000 m) as compared to relatively low seepage losses in lined portion of

  16. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban planning in. Mekelle area, Northern ... Describing the overall water quality and its impact on water pipes in the Mekelle area is complicated due to the spatial ...... Cities of theFuture:Towards Integrated Sustainable Water and Landscape. Management.

  17. Groundwater Quality Studies: A Case Study of the Densu Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    farming) within the Densu basin culminated in a public outcry over the quality of water supplied from the Weija ... It is, therefore, imperative to carry out an extensive groundwater quality assess-ment of the basin, as well as water types of ...... environment (Evans et al., 1977) and often occurs with iron (Fe). Its concentrations in ...

  18. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    63

    solids, hardness, fluorides, bicarbonate and manganese in the groundwater. Table 4a Yearly (2005-2013) value of pre monsoon water quality index. Table 4b Yearly (2006-2013) value of post monsoon water quality index. Calcium (Ca). Silicate weathering is the dominant process for supply of the calcium ions to the.

  19. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical behaviour of groundwater through statistical analysis of long term water quality data (year 2005–2013). Water Quality Index (WQI), descriptive statistics, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension and predictability index were estimated for each water parameter.

  20. Water Balance and Groundwater Quality of Koraro Area, Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses Koraro Tabia (or Station), one of the millennium villages where shortage and bad quality water is a challenge. Water balance and the hydro chemical characteristics of groundwater have been investigated in order to assess the water potential and quality in the area. Hydrometeorological information has ...

  1. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

    2012-05-15

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental quality assessment of groundwater resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kalbani, Mohammed Saif; Price, Martin F.; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Abahussain, Asma; O'Higgins, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted to assess the quality of groundwater resources of Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. 11 drinking water sources were sampled during summer and winter seasons during 2012-2013 to evaluate their physico-chemical quality indicators; and assess their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. Sample collection, handling and processing followed the standard methods recommended by APHA and analyzed in quality assured laboratories using appropriate analytical methods and instrumental techniques. The results show that the quality parameters in all drinking water resources are within the permissible limits set by Omani and WHO standards; and the drinking water quality index is good or medium in quality based on NFS-WQI classification criteria, indicating their suitability for human consumption. There is an indication of the presence of high nitrate concentrations in some groundwater wells, which require more investigations and monitoring program to be conducted on regular basis to ensure good quality water supply for the residents in the mountain. The trilinear Piper diagram shows that most of the drinking water resources of the study area fall in the field of calcium and bicarbonate type with some magnesium bicarbonate type indicating that most of the major ions are natural in origin due to the geology of the region. This study is a first step towards providing indicators on groundwater quality of this fragile mountain ecosystem, which will be the basis for future planning decisions on corrective demand management measures to protect groundwater resources of Al Jabal Al Akhdar.

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Cole-Parmer iodine electrode, model no. 27502-. 19). Total hardness (TH) of the groundwater was calculated using the formula given by Sawyer et al. (2003):. TH (as CaCO3) mg/L = (. Ca2+ + Mg2+). × 50 where the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ are represented in meq/l. The Cr+6 and Fe2+ concentrations in samples.

  4. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  5. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  6. Groundwater quality assessment of urban Bengaluru using multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgundi, Mohammad Shahid; Shetty, Amba

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic activities has become a subject of prime concern. The objective of the study was to assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality and to identify the sources in the western half of the Bengaluru city using multivariate statistical techniques. Water quality index rating was calculated for pre and post monsoon seasons to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The post-monsoon samples show signs of poor quality in drinking purpose compared to pre-monsoon. Cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the groundwater quality data measured on 14 parameters from 67 sites distributed across the city. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) grouped the 67 sampling stations into two groups, cluster 1 having high pollution and cluster 2 having lesser pollution. Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied to delineate the most meaningful parameters accounting for temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality of the study area. Temporal DA identified pH as the most important parameter, which discriminates between water quality in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and accounts for 72% seasonal assignation of cases. Spatial DA identified Mg, Cl and NO3 as the three most important parameters discriminating between two clusters and accounting for 89% spatial assignation of cases. Principal component analysis was applied to the dataset obtained from the two clusters, which evolved three factors in each cluster, explaining 85.4 and 84% of the total variance, respectively. Varifactors obtained from principal component analysis showed that groundwater quality variation is mainly explained by dissolution of minerals from rock water interactions in the aquifer, effect of anthropogenic activities and ion exchange processes in water.

  7. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang; Prem. Parajuli

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land...

  8. Groundwater quality and hydrochemical properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Naji; Hussein, Belal H M; Rafrafi, Sarra; El Kassas, Neama

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring is one of the most important aspects in groundwater studies in arid environments particularly in developing countries, like Saudi Arabia, due to the fast population growth and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industrial uses. Groundwater samples have been collected from eight locations in Al-Ula in Saudi Arabia during June 2012 and January 2013 in order to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and the groundwater quality and to understand the sources of dissolved ions. Physicochemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid, and major cations and anions were determined. Chloride was found to be the dominant anion followed by HCO(-) 3 and SO4 (2-). Groundwater of the study area is characterized by the dominance of alkaline earths (Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)) over alkali metals (Na(+) + K(+)). The analytical results show that the groundwater is generally moderately hard and slightly alkaline in nature. The binary relationships of the major ions reveal that water quality of the Al-Ula region is mainly controlled by rock weathering, evaporation, and ion exchange reactions. Piper diagram was constructed to identify hydrochemical facies, and it was found that majority of the samples belong to Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Chemical indices like chloro-alkali indices, sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Also, the results show that the chemical composition of groundwater sources of Al-Ula is strongly influenced by lithology of country rocks rather than anthropogenic activities.

  9. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  10. Complex interactions among climate change, sanitation, and groundwater quality: A case study from Ramotswa, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.; Altchenko, Y.; Kenabatho, P. K.; Sylvester, S. R.; Villholth, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    With population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change, groundwater is becoming an increasingly important source of drinking water around the world, including southern Africa. This is an investigation into the coupled human and natural system linking climate change, droughts, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a town in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana. During the recent drought from 2013-2016, water shortages from reservoirs that supply the larger city of Gaborone resulted in curtailed water supply to Ramotswa, forcing people with flush toilets to use pit latrines. Pit latrines have been suspected as the cause of elevated nitrate in the Ramotswa groundwater, which also contributes to the town's drinking water supply. The groundwater pollution paradoxically makes Ramotswa dependent on Gaborone's water, supplied in large part by surface reservoirs, which are vulnerable to drought. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicates that droughts like the one in 2013-2016 are increasing in likelihood due to climate change. Because of the drought, many more people used pit latrines than under normal conditions. Analysis of the groundwater for nitrate and using caffeine as an indicator, human waste leaching from pit latrines is implicated as the major culprit for the nitrate pollution. The results indicate a critical indirect linkage between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality and water security in this area of rapid urbanization and population growth. Recommendations are offered for how Ramotswa's water security could be made less vulnerable to climate change.

  11. Bacterial sulfate reduction limits natural arsenic contamination in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Holm, Thomas R.; Park, Jungho; Jin, Qusheng; Sanford, Robert A.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Bethke, Craig M.

    2004-11-01

    Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater, increasingly recognized as a threat to human health worldwide, is characterized by arsenic concentrations that vary sharply over short distances. Variation in arsenic levels in the Mahomet aquifer system, a regional glacial aquifer in central Illinois, appears to arise from variable rates of bacterial sulfate reduction in the subsurface, not differences in arsenic supply. Where sulfate-reducing bacteria are active, the sulfide produced reacts to precipitate arsenic, or coprecipitate it with iron, leaving little in solution. In the absence of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis is the dominant type of microbial metabolism, and arsenic accumulates to high levels.

  12. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  13. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  14. Aspect of Groundwater Quality Evaluation in Itapa Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspect of Groundwater Quality Evaluation in Itapa Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria. OO Ige, LA Korode. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v8i2.8S · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality of Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...

  16. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 2. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India. M Senthilkumar R Arumugam D Gnanasundar D S C Thambi E Sampath Kumar. Volume 124 Issue 2 March 2015 pp ...

  17. Groundwater quality in arid regions: The case of Hassi Messaoud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After chemical quality study, it has been realized that the groundwater of Hassi Messaoud region isn't drinking one according to WHO and Algerian standards for drinking water. This water is highly mineralized and very hard and its major concentrations are often higher than recommended standards, so it requires treatment ...

  18. Investigation of seasonal variation of groundwater quality in Jimeta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contaminants in all the aquifers revealed strong positive correlations in both seasons which are an indication of common source. Factor analysis indicates that groundwater chemistry is controlled by anthropogenic activities, salinity, ammonification and natural mineralization. It is recommended that safe waste disposal ...

  19. Groundwater quality characterization around Jawaharnagar open dumpsite, Telangana State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnisa, Syeda Azeem; Zainab Bi, Shaik

    2017-11-01

    In the present work groundwater samples were collected from ten different data points in and around Jawaharnagar municipal dumpsite, Telangana State Hyderabad city from May 2015 to May 2016 on monthly basis for groundwater quality characterization. Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r) value was determined using correlation matrix to identify the highly correlated and interrelated water quality standards issued by Bureau of Indian Standard (IS-10500:2012). It is found that most of the groundwater samples are above acceptable limits and are not potable. The chemical analysis results revealed that pH range from 7.2 to 7.8, TA 222 to 427 mg/l, TDS 512 to 854 mg/l, TH 420 to 584 mg/l, Calcium 115 to 140 mg/l, Magnesium 55 to 115 mg/l, Chlorides 202 to 290 mg/l, Sulphates 170 to 250 mg/l, Nitrates 6.5 to 11.3 mg/l, and Fluoride 0.9 to 1.7 mg/l. All samples showed higher range of physicochemical parameters except nitrate content which was lower than permissible limit. Highly positive correlation was observed between pH-TH ( r = 0.5063), TA-Cl- ( r = 0.5896), TDS-SO4 - ( r = 0.5125), Mg2+-NO3 - ( r = 0.5543) and Cl--F- ( r = 0.7786). The groundwater samples in and around Jawaharnagar municipal dumpsite implies that groundwater samples were contaminated by municipal leachate migration from open dumpsite. The results revealed that the systematic calculations of correlation coefficient between water parameters and regression analysis provide qualitative and rapid monitoring of groundwater quality.

  20. Quality of our groundwater resources: Arsenic and fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  1. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  2. Land-use impacts on the quality of groundwater in Bulawayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land-use impacts on the quality of groundwater in Bulawayo. ... The impacts of land use from commercial, industrial and domestic activities in the second largest city (Bulawayo) in Zimbabwe on groundwater quality are investigated in this paper. ... Key Words: Groundwater, Water quality, Land use, Environmental impact

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  4. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  5. Chromium in surface water and groundwater in the surrounding area of a tannery: relationships with water quality baseline, Elena, Cordoba. Argentina; Cromo en aguas subterraneas y superficiales en el entorno de una curtiembre, relacion con valores de fondo natural. Elena, Cordoba. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteoda, E.; Blarasin, M.; Damilano, G.; Cabrera, A.; Giuliano Albo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The basin of the El Barreal stream is a dominantly rural area in which groundwater is used for all activities whereas the stream is used as sink of residues and effluents. The existence of a tannery, which discharge the effluents into a wetland (which is drained by the stream), reveals the need to study the presence of Chromium in surface and groundwater and to compare values derived from pollution with those corresponding to the natural water baseline values. Fifty three samples of surface and groundwater were abstracted and chemical analyses were made, including total Chromium in water and plants. The chemical analysis results were studied by means of conventional and statistical techniques. The local and regional geological characteristics allow us to interpret that Chromium in water is derived from source minerals, being possible to stand out that high values probably are related to nearby serpentinite bodies.The values of total chrome in surface and groundwater are included in the natural quality baseline range calculated for this basin (0,25-5ug/L), exempting those samples with higher values linked to sites with farming activities and to the wetland environment where the Chromium effluent is discharged. In the last place, Chromium was retained in soil and plants whereas the aquifer was affected by a contaminant plume of total dissolved solids because of advective-dispersive transport. In the 2009 monitoring survey, a small increase of Chromium in groundwater was detected in relation to that of 2005, being assumed that partial desorption of Chromium is taking place from the solid phase. (Author) 19 refs.

  6. Understanding Land Use Impacts on Groundwater Quality Using Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; Masarik, K.; Masterpole, D.; Johnson, B.; Piette, S.

    2017-12-01

    Chippewa County, in western Wisconsin, has a unique historical set of groundwater quality data. The county conducted extensive groundwater sampling of private wells in 1985 (715 wells) and 2007 (800 wells). In 2016, they collaborated with UW-Extension and UW-Stevens Point to evaluate the current status of groundwater quality in Chippewa County by sampling of as many of the previously studied wells as possible. Nitrate was a primary focus of this groundwater quality inventory. Of the 744 samples collected, 60 were further analyzed for chemical indicators of agricultural and septic waste, two major sources of nitrate contamination. Wells for nitrate source analysis were selected from the 2016 participants based upon certain criteria. Only wells with a Wisconsin Unique Well Number were considered to ensure well construction information was available. Next, an Inverse Distance Weighting tool in ESRI ArcMap was used to assign values categorizing septic density. Two-thirds of the wells were selected in higher density areas and one-third in lower density areas. Equally prioritized was an even distribution of nitrate - N concentrations, with 28 of the wells having nitrate - N concentrations higher than the drinking water standard of 10 mg/L and 32 wells with concentrations between 2 and 10 mg/L. All wells with WUWN and nitrate - N concentrations greater than 20 mg/L were selected. The results of the nitrate source analyses will aid in determining temporal changes and spatial relationships of groundwater quality to soils, geology and land use in Chippewa County.

  7. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  8. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  9. Groundwater-quality and quality-control data for two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming, April and May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.; Mueller, David K.; Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming, to study groundwater quality. During April and May 2012, the U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, collected groundwater-quality data and quality-control data from monitoring well MW01 and, following well redevelopment, quality-control data for monitoring well MW02. Two groundwater-quality samples were collected from well MW01—one sample was collected after purging about 1.5 borehole volumes, and a second sample was collected after purging 3 borehole volumes. Both samples were collected and processed using methods designed to minimize atmospheric contamination or changes to water chemistry. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for field water-quality properties (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, oxidation potential); inorganic constituents including naturally occurring radioactive compounds (radon, radium-226 and radium-228); organic constituents; dissolved gasses; stable isotopes of methane, water, and dissolved inorganic carbon; and environmental tracers (carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and the ratio of helium-3 to helium-4). Quality-control sample results associated with well MW01 were evaluated to determine the extent to which environmental sample analytical results were affected by bias and to evaluate the variability inherent to sample collection and laboratory analyses. Field documentation, environmental data, and quality-control data for activities that occurred at the two monitoring wells during April and May 2012 are presented.

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the northern San Joaquin Basin, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,079 square mile Northern San Joaquin Basin (Northern San Joaquin) study unit was investigated from December 2004 through February 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 that was passed by the State of California and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Northern San Joaquin study unit was the third study unit to be designed and sampled as part of the Priority Basin Project. Results of the study provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw (untreated) groundwater, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 61 wells in parts of Alameda, Amador, Calaveras, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus Counties; 51 of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based approach to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 10 of the wells were sampled to increase spatial density and provide additional information for the evaluation of water chemistry in the study unit (understanding/flowpath wells). The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the California Department of Public Health database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource; and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors

  11. Natural attenuation of coal tar organics in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.W.G.; Barker, J.F.; Hamilton, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    A volume of sand containing residual coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table under controlled field conditions to investigate natural attenuation processes for selected creosote compounds. Movement of groundwater through the source has led to the development of a complex dissolved organic plume, which has been monitored in detail for more than 1,000 days. During this period, several distinct types of behavior were evident for the monitored compounds. The m-xylene plume reached a maximum extent and has started to recede, while the naphthalene plume continues to migrate further from the source. Indications are that the dibenzofuran plume is at steady state, with no additional advancement and little change in plume mass over a 1-year period

  12. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Zanzibar Municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This is a waste of resource that leads to scarcity of water for the people and increased costs for water. ... population and drive for enhanced tourism on the island is forcing more water production from the ... economic activities (especially tourism based activities) thus greatly impacting on the natural resources base among of ...

  14. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White , Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  15. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SUNAMGANJ OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raihan, J. B. Alam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality in Sunamganj of Bangladesh was studied based on different indices for irrigation and drinking uses. Samples were investigated for sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, electrical conductance, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio, total hardness, permeability index, residual sodium bi-carbonate to investigate the ionic toxicity. From the analytical result, it was revealed that the values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that ground water of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there was neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, so that ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. Average Total Hardness of the samples in the study area was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. Average total hardness of the samples was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. It was shown based on GIS analysis that the groundwater quality in Zone-1 could be categorized of "excellent" class, supporting the high suitability for irrigation. In Zone-2 and Zone-3, the groundwater quality was categorized as "risky" and "poor" respectively. The study has also made clear that GIS-based methodology can be used effectively for ground water quality mapping even in small catchments.

  16. Application of Geospatial Techniques for Groundwater Quality and Availability Assessment: A Case Study in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuddithamby Gunaalan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources in the northern coastal belt of Sri Lanka, as there are no major water supply schemes or perennial rivers. Overexploitation, seawater intrusion and persistent pollution of this vital resource are threatening human health as well as ecosystems in the Jaffna Peninsula. Therefore, the main intent of the present paper is to apply geospatial techniques to assess the spatial variation of groundwater quality and availability for the sustainable management of groundwater in the coastal areas. The electrical conductivity (EC and depth to water (DTW of 41 wells were measured during the period from March to June 2014, which represents the dry period of the study area. Surface interpolation, gradient analysis, a local indicators of spatial autocorrelations (LISA and statistical analysis were used to assess the quality and availability of groundwater. The results revealed that the drinking and irrigation water quality in the study area were poor and further deteriorated with the progression of the dry season. Good quality and availability of groundwater were observed in the western zone compared to other zones of the study area. A negative correlation was identified between depth to water and electrical conductivity in the western zone. Hence, relatively deep wells in the western zone of the study area can be used to utilize the groundwater for drinking, domestic and agricultural purposes. The outcomes of this study can be used to formulate policy decisions for sustainable management of groundwater resources in Jaffna Peninsula.

  17. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  18. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  19. Baseline groundwater quality from 34 wells in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Wayne County, Pennsylvania, is underlain by the Marcellus Shale, which currently (2014) is being developed elsewhere in Pennsylvania for natural gas. All residents of largely rural Wayne County rely on groundwater for water supply, primarily from bedrock aquifers (shales and sandstones). This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for Wayne County prior to development of the natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale. Selected wells completed in the Devonian-age Catskill Formation, undifferentiated; the Poplar Gap and Packerton Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided; and the Long Run and Walcksville Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided, were sampled.

  20. Natural Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Mining Zones of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienta, M. A.; Rodriguez, R.; Villasennor, G.; Romero, F.; Talavera, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A.; Cruz, O.

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards have been measured in groundwater of various areas of Mexico. This is a relevant public health problem since groundwater supplies most drinking water of the country. Although a natural source has been proposed as the cause of water contamination at most sites, the specific processes releasing As have only been identified in a few aquifers. The geological characteristics of Mexico including volcanic, geothermal, and highly mineralized zones constitute favorable environments for As occurrence. Furthermore, As-abundance in bedrock has lead Mexico to be one of the major world As-producers. As-bearing minerals like arsenopyrite, scorodite, mimetite, adamite, tennantite and nickeline can be found in several zones. Besides, arsenic may be a minor component of Fe, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Au ores. While thousands of people have been chronically exposed to As, arsenic-related health effects have been documented only for residents at some Mexican locations, like Comarca Lagunera, Zimapan, and Acambaro. Water-rock interactions may release As to water in mining areas, but ore extraction and processing produce surface wastes that can also release As to groundwater. Investigations developed in two historical mining zones revealed different As contents in groundwater. At Zimapan, a semi-arid area about 250 km NE of Mexico City, abundant arsenopyrite and hydrogeological conditions produced high As concentrations in deep wells exploited for drinking water supply. Oxidation and dissolution of As-bearing minerals mainly arsenopyrite, scorodite and tennantite released As to the fractured deep limestone aquifer. In addition, mining operations polluted shallow wells. In contrast, low levels of As were detected in wells near mine tailings in the warm sub-humid zone of Taxco, Guerrero. To explain those differences, the mineralogy and the geochemical processes occurring in tailings at both areas were studied. Results showed that besides

  1. Estimating impacts of land use on groundwater quality using trilinear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang; Lihua. Cui

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is connected to the landscape above and is thus affected by the overlaying land uses. This study evaluated the impacts of land uses upon groundwater quality using trilinear analysis. Trilinear analysis is a display of experimental data in a triangular graph. Groundwater quality data collected from agricultural, septic tank, forest, and wastewater land uses...

  2. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  3. Montana groundwater quality impact of rainfall, land use, and geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauder, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The significance of climatic change on groundwater quality in the Northern Plains is discussed. In some parts of Montana, particularly west of the Continental Divide, relatively high rainfall has contributed to the annual flushing, dilution and mixing of nitrates, and use of annual cropping practices. Consequently, nitrate-nitrogen levels in groundwater seldom exceed established standards. However, such intensive farming, coupled with high rainfall during critical times of the year, could contribute to movement of pesticides and other contaminants to groundwater. East of the Continental Divide, relatively low annual rainfall has contributed to the concentration of soluble salts in both shallow and deep groundwater. In addition, limited rainfall has promoted the use of summer fallowing as the predominant agricultural land use practice in the cropped areas. Summer fallowing has likely led to increases in nitrate-nitrogen concentration in some geographic regions. Climatic change leading to less rainfall could potentially impact the use of additional summer fallowing practices, while climatic change leading to greater rainfall amounts in this region might contribute to additional nitrate leaching in areas where nitrates have accumulated below the root zone as a result of long-term alternate crop fallowing practices. 2 refs,

  4. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  5. Groundwater-quality characteristics for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, November 2009 through September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 146 shallow (less than or equal to 500 feet deep) wells for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, from November 2009 through September 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions and dissolved solids, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, uranium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, volatile organic compounds, and coliform bacteria. Selected samples also were analyzed for gross alpha radioactivity, gross beta radioactivity, radon, tritium, gasoline range organics, diesel range organics, dissolved hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethene, and ethane), and wastewater compounds. Water-quality measurements and concentrations in some samples exceeded numerous U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) in some samples were arsenic, selenium, nitrite, nitrate, gross alpha activity, and uranium. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some samples exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goals. Measurements of pH and turbidity and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, fluoride, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron, and manganese exceeded EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in some samples. Radon concentrations in some samples exceeded the alternative MCL proposed by the EPA. Molybdenum and boron concentrations in some samples exceeded EPA Health Advisory Levels. Water-quality measurements and concentrations also exceeded numerous Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) groundwater standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded WDEQ Class I domestic groundwater standards in some samples were measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, boron, selenium, nitrite, and nitrate. Measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron

  6. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using water quality index and fractal dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Jacintha, T. German Amali; Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    A review has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical behaviour of groundwater through statistical analysis of long term water quality data (year 2005-2013). Water Quality Index ( WQI), descriptive statistics, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension and predictability index were estimated for each water parameter. WQI results showed that majority of samples fall in moderate category during 2005-2013, but monitoring site four falls under severe category (water unfit for domestic use). Brownian time series behaviour (a true random walk nature) exists between calcium (Ca^{2+}) and electric conductivity (EC); magnesium (Mg^{2+}) with EC; sodium (Na+) with EC; sulphate (SO4^{2-}) with EC; total dissolved solids (TDS) with chloride (Cl-) during pre- (2005-2013) and post- (2006-2013) monsoon season. These parameters have a closer value of Hurst exponent ( H) with Brownian time series behaviour condition (H=0.5). The result of times series analysis of water quality data shows a persistent behaviour (a positive autocorrelation) that has played a role between Cl- and Mg^{2+}, Cl- and Ca^{2+}, TDS and Na+, TDS and SO4^{2-}, TDS and Ca^{2+} in pre- and post-monsoon time series because of the higher value of H (>1). Whereas an anti-persistent behaviour (or negative autocorrelation) was found between Cl- and EC, TDS and EC during pre- and post-monsoon due to low value of H. The work outline shows that the groundwater of few areas needs treatment before direct consumption, and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  7. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using water quality index and fractal dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Jacintha, T. German Amali; Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A review has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical behaviour of groundwater through statistical analysis of long term water quality data (year 2005-2013). Water Quality Index ( WQI), descriptive statistics, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension and predictability index were estimated for each water parameter. WQI results showed that majority of samples fall in moderate category during 2005-2013, but monitoring site four falls under severe category (water unfit for domestic use). Brownian time series behaviour (a true random walk nature) exists between calcium (Ca^{2+}) and electric conductivity (EC); magnesium (Mg^{2+}) with EC; sodium (Na+) with EC; sulphate (SO4^{2-}) with EC; total dissolved solids (TDS) with chloride (Cl-) during pre- (2005-2013) and post- (2006-2013) monsoon season. These parameters have a closer value of Hurst exponent ( H) with Brownian time series behaviour condition (H=0.5). The result of times series analysis of water quality data shows a persistent behaviour (a positive autocorrelation) that has played a role between Cl- and Mg^{2+}, Cl- and Ca^{2+}, TDS and Na+, TDS and SO4^{2-}, TDS and Ca^{2+} in pre- and post-monsoon time series because of the higher value of H (>1). Whereas an anti-persistent behaviour (or negative autocorrelation) was found between Cl- and EC, TDS and EC during pre- and post-monsoon due to low value of H. The work outline shows that the groundwater of few areas needs treatment before direct consumption, and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  8. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  9. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality in Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anindita; Nag, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater resources of Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Twenty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, major anions (CO3 2-, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, F-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+, K+). Study results reveal that the groundwater of the area is mostly acidic in nature. The trend amongst average ionic concentrations of cations and anions is Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Fe2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > CO3 2- > SO4 2- > F- respectively during the post monsoon whereas the trend for cations and anions are Mg2+ > Ca2+> Na+ > K+ > Fe and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > F- > CO3 - in pre monsoon session, respectively. To explore the ionic toxicity of the study area, the derived parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated. The hydro geochemical data suggest that weathering of rock forming minerals along with secondary contributions from agricultural and anthropogenic sources are mainly controlling the groundwater composition of Kashipur Block, Purulia District. According to piper diagram, water samples of most of the area of the block are fresh water and in some areas sulphate rich throughout the year. All samples are distributed to central rock dominance category. Groundwater chemistry of this block is mainly controlled by the interaction existing between the litho units and the percolating water into the subsurface domain. However, the groundwater quality and suitability of this study area can be termed as good to moderate with a few exceptions which have been encountered on a local scale.

  13. Groundwater Quality Assessment In Eliozu Community Port Harcourt Niger Delta Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesuyi Adeola Alex

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Potable water is an essential ingredient for good health and the socio-economic development of man. Groundwater is an important natural resource for this. The majority of the Nigerian population depends on groundwater for drinking. Thus availability of clean groundwater is of utmost importance. Hence quality assessment was carried out to ascertain the groundwater quality in Eliozu Community in ObioApkor Local Government area of River State Nigeria. The study assessed the level of contamination and quality of the groundwater of randomly selected boreholes. Water quality analysis was performed on samples collected from thirty 30 boreholes within Eliozu community for the following physicochemical parameters pH temperature Electrical conductivity total dissolved solids TDS total hardness salinity dissolved oxygen DO biochemical oxygen demand BOD chemical oxygen demand COD nitrate chloride Cu and Zn using standard methods. The result from the present study showed that the pH of groundwater samples ranges from 5.5 8.0 indicating slight acidity in some of the water samples. The values for electrical conductivity salinity and total hardness were ranged between 10.1 25.4 uScm 0.001 0.45 mgL and 3.59 381.9 mgL respectively and were all within the World health organisation WHO Department of petroleum resources and Federal environmental protection agency FEPA maximum permissible limits. The COD chloride nitrate and heavy metal content of water samples were also within WHO DPR and FEPA permissible limit. This indicates that most of the physicochemical properties of the tested water samples were within the WHO DPR and FEPA permissible limits however water samples from borehole points 5 16 22 25 28 and 30 were slightly acidic those from borehole points 2 17 18 and 30 had DO levels below the WHO recommended limits of 6.0 mgL while BOD was higher than the WHO recommended limits of 5.0 mgL in most of the study locations. It was evident from this study

  14. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898-2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Baggelaar, Paul K.; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryStatistical trend analysis is applied to a 110 years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences presented here could be of interest world wide. Trendless concentration data series measured in the early years, which should bear the least anthropogenic influences, are selected to quantify the regional natural background concentration levels (NBLs) of groundwater resources at the depth of abstraction. Trends in the period 1960-2005, which contained a more homogeneous data set, are normalized to drinking water standards, mapped in planar view and cross sections, and used to identify the responsible hydrochemical processes. Seven representative trend bundles are defined by aggregation of trends for individual chemical parameters. Trend reversals due to either environmental sanitation measures or well field adaptation measures are identified by comparing significant trends obtained for two different periods within the time series. Natural background levels (NBLs) for individual PSWFs are upscaled to the national groundwater body level (as reported to EU), by aggregating them according to a PSWF typology based on a Hydrochemical System Analysis. This aggregation method groups together PSWFs that deliver waters of the same origin and similar hydrogeochemical environment. PSWFs delivering old groundwaters with a very stable quality are clearly differentiated from PSWFs pumping highly vulnerable aquifers characterized by strongly deteriorating water quality trends. Results are presented on national maps of The Netherlands with NBLs and water quality trends for selected major constituents. A normalized concentration change index (NCC) is defined and mapped to relate the quality difference between a recent survey (in 2008) and calculated NBLs, to the EU drinking water

  15. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  16. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  17. Baseline groundwater quality from 20 domestic wells in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 domestic wells during August and September 2012 and analyzed for 47 constituents and properties, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. This study, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for central and southern Sullivan County prior to drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale.

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics and spatial analysis of groundwater quality in parts of Bundelkhand Massif, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Ahmad; Ali, Umair

    2018-03-01

    The tribulations of water quality have become more serious than the quantity, as the environmental evils are getting more severe day by day in different parts of the world. Large number of components like soil, geology, sewage disposal, effluents and other environmental conditions in which the water tends to reside or move and interact with ground and biological characteristics, greatly persuade the groundwater quality. Therefore, hydrochemical study has been carried out graphically and spatially in GIS environment in part of Bundelkhand Massif. The hydrochemical study exposes the water quality by measuring the concentration of parameters and comparing them with the drinking water and irrigation standards. Groundwater samples have been collected and analysed for physiochemical characteristics in order to understand the hydrochemistry of the water. The results revealed that ground water is alkaline in nature and total hardness observed in all samples falls under moderately hard to very hard category. At some places higher concentration of Cl- could be dangerous from health point of view. Major hydrochemical facies were identified using Piper Trilinear diagram and Durov diagrams, etc. Analysis of different determinations such as sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and per cent sodium revealed that most of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. It was also observed that the quality of groundwater was not suitable for drinking purpose in industrial and irrigation area. In the area, few sampling sites showed unsuitability because of influences of urban and industrial waste discharge, aquifer material mineralogy, other anthropogenic activities and increased human interventions.

  19. Natural radioactivity and chemical concentrations in Egyptian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rafat M; Khalil, F A; El Fayoumi, M A K

    2011-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water have been performed in many parts of the world, mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. A study of the radionuclide and chemical components in groundwater from Beni Suef Governate, Egypt has been carried out. Fifty water samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy to determine the 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K concentrations; major elements, pH, alkalinity, and conductivity were also measured. The specific activity values ranged from 0.008 to 0.040 Bq/l for 226Ra, from 0.003 to 0.019 Bq/l for 232Th, and from 0.025 to 0.344 Bq/l for 40K. The annual ingestions of these radionuclides, using local consumption rates (average over the whole population) of 1.5 l day(-1), were estimated to be 8.59, 4.86, and 83.47 Bq year(-1) for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The estimated values and weighted means of these radionuclides compare well with the world average. The estimated effective doses from drinking water were found to be 2.4 μSv year(-1) (226Ra), 1.1 μSv year(-1) (232Th), and 0.51 μSv year(-1) (40K). Contribution of these radionuclides to the committed effective dose from 1 year consumption of drinking water is estimated to be only 4%.

  20. Public Health Goal for Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Omar, H.A.; El-Baset, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring and man-made radionuclide in groundwater may have a health hazardous to some residents. The objective of this work is to provide criteria for safety of drinking-water with respect to the chemical parameters and the radionuclide content. The annual effective dose for the consumption of drinking water was considered. Ground water samples were selected from different sites in Egypt, that have the most population, it were taken from aquifer regions along Giza sites in Egypt. Chemical analyses for the major anions, cations, and the radiological analyses were tested . Activity concentrations (Bq/l) of the gross alpha and the gross beta activities of our investigated samples were compared with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of the world health organization (WHO). Some of the water samples were found to have a higher of gross beta and alpha particles than the MCL. Alpha activity were found depending on to the total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the water samples. Gamma activity concentrations were analyzed using low background germanium detector, the higher of activity values was found in some investigated samples is due to increasing of 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities. Tritium activity concentrations also were measured using soft beta liquid scintillation counter, it was found lower than the MCL. Our investigated samples were found to have a higher concentrations of the phosphate, nitrites, iron, and manganese contents than the maximum permissible limit, all the ground water samples were found to have a higher of silica and alumina content. Commercial carbon powder and natural clay materials were tested as ion exchangers for the removal of inorganic contaminants in the ground water samples. Clay materials was found to have a higher selectivity than activated carbon for the removal of radionuclides, phosphates, nitrites, and manganese content at the ground water samples

  1. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    the 70 wells sampled, 3 surface-water samples were collected in streams near 2 of the sampled wells in order to better comprehend the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-TCP), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and alkalinity), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), and dissolved gases (including noble gases) also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 298 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix-spikes) were collected at approximately 3 to 12 percent of the wells in the SCRC study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were less than 10 percent relative and/or standard deviation, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84

  2. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  3. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Nevada study unit: granitic, metamorphic, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks. One natural spring that is not used for drinking water was sampled for comparison with a nearby primary grid well in the same cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA] and perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major ions, total dissolved solids, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (radium isotopes, radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, and uranium isotopes). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-14, strontium isotopes, and tritium), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells sampled for each analysis, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection, handling, and analytical procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, with few exceptions. Matrix-spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to finished drinking water that is served to the consumer, not to untre

  4. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period.

  6. Assessment of hydro-geochemistry and groundwater quality of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, M. G.; Uddin, S. M. Helal; Haque, A. B. M. H.

    2017-12-01

    The study was carried out to understand the hydro-geochemistry and ground water quality in the Rajshahi City of Bangladesh. A total of 240 groundwater samples were collected in 2 years, i.e., 2009 and 2010 covering the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Aquifer soil samples were collected from 30 locations during the monsoon in 2000. All the samples were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters according to standard methods of analysis, these includes pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, and total alkalinity, major cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+, major anions such as HCO3 -, NO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 2- and heavy metals such as Mn, Zn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb. The results illustrated that the groundwater was slightly acidic to neutral in nature, total hardness observed in all samples fall under the hard to a very hard category. The bicarbonate and calcium concentration in the groundwater exceeded the permissible limits may be due to the dissolution of calcite. The concentration of calcium, iron, manganese, arsenic and lead were far above the permissible limit in most of the shallow tube well samples. The study found that the major hydrochemical facies was identified to be calcium-bicarbonate-type (CaHCO3). A higher concentration of metals including Fe, Mn, As and Pb was found indicating various health hazards. The rock-water interaction was the major geochemical process controlling the chemistry of groundwater in the study area. The study results revealed that the quality of the groundwater in Rajshahi City area was of great concern and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment.

  7. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  8. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  9. Changes of Groundwater Quality in the Sorrounding Pollution Sources Due to Earthquake Dissaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main domestic water supply of the population of the Yogyakarta Special Region, both in the urban and as well as in the rural area due to its quantity and quality advantages. The rapid population growth has caused an increase of groundwater demand, consequently it is facing some problems to the sustainability of groundwater supply. Lowering of groundwater level has been observed in some places, as well as the degradation of groundwater quality. Earthquake which stroke Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006, damaged buildings and other infrastructures in the area, including roads and bridges. It might also damage the underground structures such as septic tanks, and pipes underneath the earth surface. It might cause cracking of the geologic structures. Furthermore, the damage of underneath infrastructures might create groundwater quality changes in the area. Some complains of local community on lowering and increasing groundwater level and groundwater quality changes were noted. Field observation and investigation were conducted, including collection of groundwater samples close to (the pollution sources. Laboratory analyses indicated that some parameters increased to exceed the drinking water quality standards. The high content of Coli form bacteria possibly was caused by contamination of nearby septic tanks or other pollution sources to the observed groundwater in the dug well.

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  11. Investigation on shallow groundwater in a small basin using natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Komae, Takami

    1996-01-01

    The authors conducted an investigation on shallow groundwater using natural radioisotopes as indicators in the small basin of the Hinuma River, Kasama City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. 3 H concentrations in the groundwater showed that it originated from precipitation in the 1960's. Since 222 Rn concentrations decreased as groundwater flowed downstream, they were influenced by infiltration of surface water. Especially, during the irrigation period, the decrease of 222 Rn concentrations was remarkable in the lowland. From the distribution of 222 Rn concentrations in surface water, the sections where groundwater seeped into a river were found, and a quantitative analysis of groundwater seepage in the two sections was conducted on the basis of 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater and in surface water. The ratios of groundwater seepage to the flow at the upstream station for the two sections were about 5% and 10%, respectively. The water movement within the basin, i.e., the actual manner in which surface water infiltrated underground and groundwater seeped into a river, was clarified by analyzing the variations of natural radioisotope concentrations in water and the water balance of the basin. (author)

  12. Assessment of Groundwater Chemical Quality, Using Inverse Distance Weighted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ashraf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation technique, ordinary Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters in Damghan plain of Iran. According to Scofield guidelines for TDS value, 60% of the water samples were harmful for irrigation purposes. Regarding to EC parameter, more than 60% of studied area was laid in bad range for irrigation purposes. The most dominant anion was Cl- and 10% of water samples showed a very hazardous class. According to Doneen guidelines for chloride value, 100% of collected water from the aquifer had slight to moderate problems for irrigation water purposes. The predominant cations in Damghan plain aquifer were according to Na+> Ca++> Mg++> K+. Sodium ion was the dominant cation and regarding to Na+ content guidelines, almost all groundwater samples had problem for foliar application. Calcium ion distribution was within usual range. The magnesium ion concentration is generally lower than sodium and calcium. The majority of the samples showed Mg++amount within usual range. Also K+ value ranged from 0.1 to 0.23 meq/L and all the water samples had potassium values within the permissible limit. Based on SAR criterion 80 % of collected water had slight to moderate problems. The SSP values were found from 2.87 to 6.87%. According to SAR value, thirty percent of ground water samples were doubtful class. The estimated amounts of RSC were ranged from 0.4-2 and based on RSC criterion, twenty percent of groundwater samples had slight to moderate problems.

  13. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  14. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated. The Madera-Chowchilla study unit is about 860 square miles and consists of the Madera and Chowchilla groundwater subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley Basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Shelton and others, 2009). The study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches, most of which occurs between November and February. The main surface-water features in the study unit are the San Joaquin, Fresno, and Chowchilla Rivers, and the Madera and Chowchilla canals. Land use in the study unit is about 69 percent (%) agricultural, 28% natural (mainly grasslands), and 3% urban. The primary crops are orchards and vineyards. The largest urban area is the city of Madera. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. In the Madera-Chowchilla study unit, these wells typically are drilled to depths between 200 and 800 feet, consist of a solid casing from land surface to a depth of about 140 to 400 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. The primary aquifer system in the study unit consists of Quaternary-age alluvial-fan and fluvial deposits that were formed by the rivers draining the Sierra Nevada. Sediments consist of gravels, sands

  16. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Nkeng, George Elambo; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater quality of the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja-Cameroon) was assessed for its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses. A total of 67 groundwater samples were collected from open wells, springs, and boreholes. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major ions, and dissolved silica. In 95% of groundwater samples, calcium is the dominant cation, while sodium dominates in 5% of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples have HCO(3) as major anion, and in 20%, NO(3) is the major anion. Main water types in the study area are CaHCO(3), CaMgHCO(3), CaNaHCO(3), and CaNaNO(3)ClHCO(3). CO(2)-driven weathering of silicate minerals followed by cation exchange seemingly controls largely the concentrations of major ions in the groundwaters of this area. Nitrate, sulfate, and chloride concentrations strongly express the impact of anthropogenic activities (agriculture and domestic activities) on groundwater quality. Sixty-four percent of the waters have nitrate concentrations higher than the drinking water limit. Also limiting groundwater use for potable and domestic purposes are contents of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO(3) (-) and total hardness (TH) that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Irrigational suitability of groundwaters in the study area was also evaluated, and results show that all the samples are fit for irrigation. Groundwater quality in the Banana Plain is impeded by natural geology and anthropogenic activities, and proper groundwater management strategies are necessary to protect sustainably this valuable resource.

  17. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Groundwater in Tanke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Email: levinwankwo@yahoo.com. Abstract. A study of the radioactivity in groundwater from Tanke-Ilorin, Nigeria, has been carried out. Ten water samples were analyzed by ... effective dose from a year's consumption of drinking water in the study area is, therefore, higher than the ... areas, waste dump areas or military areas.

  18. Assessment of natural groundwater recharge in Tudun Wada Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This empirical relationship similar to Chaturvedi formula was derived by fitting the estimated values of rainfall recharge and the corresponding values of rainfall in the monsoon season through the non-linear regression techniques. The variance was found to be 29.50 %, and the recharge of groundwater commences at P ...

  19. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  20. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP)

  1. phisco-chemical studies concerning naturally occuring radiocuclides and heavy metal concentrations in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Allah, A.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is a comprehensive of drinking water quality from various rural regions of Egypt. People are living in these rural regions have a problem of scarcely water resources. They mainly depend on groundwater resources for drinking. These water resources may be contaminated with both naturally and/or industrial pollutants unexpected. In this study, several groundwater samples are obtained from certain regions in Egypt; physical, chemical and radiological parameters are examined. Then, compared to the standard limits values of the world health organization. A new modified ion exchange resin was prepared in our laboratory with a high efficiency factor which may be used for reducing the heavy metals that are being found in groundwater samples. The removal of heavy metals such as, Pb (II), Co (II) and Mn (II) ions was carried out by the modified ion exchange resin using Batch sorption experiments. The optimum condition of the removal efficiency was conducted under different parameters such as; effect of ph, initial ion concentrations, weight loaded and contact time to determine the optimum conditions for the resin function. Kinetic studies are performed using first and second order kinetic equations. The sorption kinetic experiments are found to be agreeing well with the second order kinetic equation. The particle diffusion model was also studied. three isotherm equations are applied for sorption of the investigated elements at equilibrium are well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation indicating that sorption process of those elements are applied with heterogeneous adsorption reaction. Dubinin and Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm equation is also applied. The free energy of the adsorption process is also given in the range of the ion exchange reaction.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.

    2017-12-07

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water (Burow and Belitz, 2014). The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Rio Grande aquifer system, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Bexfield, Laura M.

    2017-12-07

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water (Burow and Belitz, 2014). The Rio Grande aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated.

  4. Evaluation of ground-water quality in the Santa Maria Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jerry L.

    1977-01-01

    The quality and quantity of recharge to the Santa Maria Valley, Calif., ground-water basin from natural sources, point sources, and agriculture are expressed in terms of a hydrologic budget, a solute balance, and maps showing the distribution of select chemical constituents. Point sources includes a sugar-beet refinery, oil refineries, stockyards, golf courses, poultry farms, solid-waste landfills, and municipal and industrial wastewater-treatment facilities. Pumpage has exceeded recharge by about 10,000 acre-feet per year. The result is a declining potentiometric surface with an accumulation of solutes and an increase in nitrogen in ground water. Nitrogen concentrations have reached as much as 50 milligrams per liter. In comparison to the solutes from irrigation return, natural recharge, and rain, discharge of wastewater from municipal and industrial wastewater-treatment facilities contributes less than 10 percent. The quality of treated wastewater is often lower in select chemical constituents than the receiving water. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Hydrochemistry of the natural low pH groundwater in the coastal aquifers near Beihai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xun; Shen, Ye; Zhang, Hua; Song, Chao; Li, Jingwei; Liu, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Natural weak acidic groundwater occurs in the unconfined and confined aquifers consisting of Quaternary and Neogene unconsolidated sediments near Beihai in southern Guangxi, China. Under natural conditions the groundwater has low TDS (less than 200 mg L-1) and low concentrations of trace elements (less than 100 µg L-1) with a deceasing tend in contents of the Lanthanides (rare earth elements, less than 1 µg L-1) towards higher atomic number. The groundwater ranges in pH from 3.33 to 7.0 with an average value of 5.12 (even lower than that of local rainwater, 5.88). pH values in the groundwater are a bit higher in rainy seasons than those in dry seasons and do not show significant increasing or decreasing trend with time. The average pH value in groundwater in the confined aquifers is even a bit lower than that in the unconfined aquifer. Comprehensive analyses of the groundwater environment suggest that H+ in the groundwater may be derived from dissociation of H2CO3, release of the absorbed H3O+ in clay layers and the acidity of rainwater. The H2CO3 in the groundwater may be formed by dissolution of CO2 (g). Minerals in the unconsolidated sediment are predominated by quartz with small amount of clay minerals. The sediments undergoing a long-term weathering contain low levels of soluble constitutes. Lack of alkaline substances in the groundwater system is also helpful in the accumulation of acidity of the groundwater.

  6. Quality assessment of groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H W; Sun, Y Q; Li, Y; Zhou, X D; Tang, X Z; Yi, P; Murad, A; Hussein, S; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Yu, Z B; Chen, X G; Mugwaneza, V D P

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of groundwater quality plays a significant role in the utilization of the scarce water resources globally and especially in arid regions. The increasing abstraction together with man-made contamination and seawater intrusion have strongly affected groundwater quality in the Arabia Peninsula, exemplified by the investigation given here from the United Arab Emirates, where the groundwater is seldom reviewed and assessed. In the aim of assessing current groundwater quality, we here present a comparison of chemical data linked to aquifers types. The results reveal that most of the investigated groundwater is not suitable for drinking, household, and agricultural purposes following the WHO permissible limits. Aquifer composition and climate have vital control on the water quality, with the carbonate aquifers contain the least potable water compared to the ophiolites and Quaternary clastics. Seawater intrusion along coastal regions has deteriorated the water quality and the phenomenon may become more intensive with future warming climate and rising sea level.

  7. Coastal Water Quality Modeling in Tidal Lake: Revisited with Groundwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new method for predicting the temporal and spatial variation of water quality, with accounting for a groundwater effect, has been proposed and applied to a water body partially connected to macro-tidal coastal waters in Korea. The method consists of direct measurement of environmental parameters, and it indirectly incorporates a nutrients budget analysis to estimate the submarine groundwater fluxes. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of water quality has been used with the directly collected data and the indirectly estimated groundwater fluxes. The applied area is Saemangeum tidal lake that is enclosed by 33km-long sea dyke with tidal openings at two water gates. Many investigations of groundwater impact reveal that 10 50% of nutrient loading in coastal waters comes from submarine groundwater, particularly in the macro-tidal flat, as in the west coast of Korea. Long-term monitoring of coastal water quality signals the possibility of groundwater influence on salinity reversal and on the excess mass outbalancing the normal budget in Saemangeum tidal lake. In the present study, we analyze the observed data to examine the influence of submarine groundwater, and then a box model is demonstrated for quantifying the influx and efflux. A three-dimensional numerical model has been applied to reproduce the process of groundwater dispersal and its effect on the water quality of Saemangeum tidal lake. The results show that groundwater influx during the summer monsoon then contributes significantly, 20% more than during dry season, to water quality in the tidal lake.

  8. Baseline Geochemistry of Natural Occurring Methane and Saline Groundwater in an Area of Unconventional Shale Gas Development Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.; Darrah, T.; Warner, N. R.; Whyte, C. J.; Moore, M. T.; Millot, R.; Kloppmann, W.; Jackson, R. B.; Vengosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Naturally occurring methane is nearly ubiquitous in most sedimentary basins and delineating the effects of anthropogenic contamination sources from geogenic sources is a major challenge for evaluating the impact of unconventional shale gas development on water quality. This study employs a broadly integrated study of various geochemical techniques to investigate the geochemical variations of groundwater and surface water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing.This approache combines inorganic geochemistry (major cations and anions), stable isotopes of select inorganic constituents including strontium (87Sr/86Sr), boron (δ11B), lithium (δ7Li), and carbon (δ13C-DIC), select hydrocarbon molecular (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane) and isotopic tracers (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6), tritium (3H), and noble gas elemental and isotopic composition (He, Ne, Ar) to apportion natural and anthropogenic sources of natural gas and salt contaminants both before and after drilling. Methane above 1 ccSTP/L in groundwater samples awas strongly associated with elevated salinity (chloride >50 mg/L).The geochemical and isotopic analysis indicate saline groundwater originated via naturally occurring processes, presumably from the migration of deeper methane-rich brines that have interacted extensively with coal lithologies. The chemistry and gas compostion of both saline and fresh groundwater wells did not change following the installation of nearby shale-gas wells.The results of this study emphasize the value of baseline characterization of water quality in areas of fossil fuel exploration. Overall this study presents a comprehensive geochemical framework that can be used as a template for assessing the sources of elevated hydrocarbons and salts to water resources in areas potentially impacted by oil and gas development.

  9. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  11. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  12. Groundwater quality in the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Jasper, Monica; Taylor, Kimberly A.

    2017-09-27

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking water supplies. 

  13. Groundwater flow system in the valley of Toluca, Mexico: an assay of natural radionuclide specific activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Acosta, E.; Iturbe, J.L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Carrillo, J. [UACPyP-CCH, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, C. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-03-01

    Natural radionuclides and physicochemical parameters have been evaluated in groundwater samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system of the Toluca City, Mexico. The results obtained for radon and radium, together with the physicochemical parameters of the studied samples, indicate a fast and efficient recharge pattern. The presence of a local and a regional groundwater flows was also observed. The local flow belongs to shallower water, recognized by its low radon content and dissolved ions, as compared with the regional, deeper groundwater flow with a longer residence time.

  14. Radiological and hydrochemical study of thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea and Sperchios areas, Greece: insights into groundwater natural radioactivity and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, C; Mitropoulos, P; Argyraki, A

    2018-04-04

    A radiological and hydrochemical study has been conducted on thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea Island and eastern central Greece. Both areas are characterized by complex geology and are renowned since antiquity for their hot springs, that are exploited for therapeutic spa purposes until today. The aim of the study was to combine radiological and hydrochemical data in order to achieve a holistic water quality assessment with insights into the geology of the study areas. All samples were characterized with respect to their major and trace ion and element composition, as well as activity concentrations of 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K. The samples demonstrated elevated natural radioactivity and U concentrations, especially in some locations of the Kamena Vourla area, reaching 179 Bq/L 222 Rn, 2.2 Bq/L 226 Ra, 2.9 Bq/L 228 Ra, and 17 μg/L U. The estimated circulation depth of thermal groundwater ranges between 250 m in central Greece and 1240 m in north Euboea study area, whereas the calculated water residence times range between 27 and 555 years. Our data suggest the possible presence of an unknown until know U-rich plutonic rock formation in Kamena Vourla area and immiscibility of the fresh and thermal groundwaters in the studied areas.

  15. Chemical and Microbial Quality of Groundwater in Siloam Village, Implications to Human Health and Sources of Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiyo, John Ogony; Makungo, Rachel

    2018-02-12

    Due to inaccessibility of potable water, rural communities drill boreholes within their homesteads despite vulnerability to groundwater contamination and associated health risks. This study assessed the quality of groundwater, identified potential sources of contamination and potential human health risks in Siloam Village, South Africa. Statistical difference between similar water quality parameters at different sites was determined at a significance level (α) of 0.05. Water quality parameters with serious potential health effects on human beings were correlated with selected water quality parameters to understand the nature of correlation and possible sources of contamination. Fluorides and nitrates had excessively high concentrations associated with tooth damage and pronounced skeletal fluorosis, and methaemoglobinaemia in infants and mucous membrane irritation in adults, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between means of most water quality parameters. Contrasting correlation of fluoride with calcium and pH indicated the need to further identify local sources and fluoride control mechanisms. Correlation of nitrate with chloride mostly indicated that faecal contamination is the potential source of high nitrates in groundwater. This requires further verification. Presence of total coliforms and E. coli in most boreholes indicated potential presence of faecal contamination. The need to educate borehole owners' on possible strategies to minimise groundwater pollution was identified.

  16. Characterization of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in the Lower Tano River Basin Using Statistical and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, Adwoba; Stenni, Barbara; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Clara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Tetteh Akiti, Thomas; Yidana, Sandow

    2017-04-01

    Adwoba Kua- Manza Edjaha, Barbara Stennib,c,Giuliano Dreossib, Giulio Cozzic, Clara Turetta c,T.T Akitid ,Sandow Yidanae a,eDepartment of Earth Science, University of Ghana Legon, Ghana West Africa bDepartment of Enviromental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca Foscari University of Venice, Italy cInstitute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, CNR, Venice, Italy dDepartment of Nuclear Application and Techniques, Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences University of Ghana Legon This research is part of a PhD research work "Hydrogeological Assessment of the Lower Tano river basin for sustainable economic usage, Ghana, West - Africa". In this study, the researcher investigated surface water and groundwater quality in the Lower Tano river basin. This assessment was based on some selected sampling sites associated with mining activities, and the development of oil and gas. Statistical approach was applied to characterize the quality of surface water and groundwater. Also, water stable isotopes, which is a natural tracer of the hydrological cycle was used to investigate the origin of groundwater recharge in the basin. The study revealed that Pb and Ni values of the surface water and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water. In addition, water quality index (WQI), based on physicochemical parameters(EC, TDS, pH) and major ions(Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, HCO3-,NO3-, CL-, SO42-, K+) exhibited good quality water for 60% of the sampled surface water and groundwater. Other statistical techniques, such as Heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of contamination (Cd), and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), based on trace element parameters in the water samples, reveal that 90% of the surface water and groundwater samples belong to high level of pollution. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests that the water quality in the basin is likely affected by rock - water interaction and anthropogenic activities (sea water intrusion). This

  17. Groundwater Quality in Jingyuan County, a Semi-Humid Area in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays an important role in the rational development and utilization of groundwater in any part of the world. In the study, groundwater qualities in Jingyuan County, in Ningxia, China were assessed with entropy weighted water quality index method. In the assessment, 12 hydrochemical parameters including chloride, sulphate, sodium, iron, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia, nitrogen, fluoride, iodine and nitrite were selected. The assessment results show that the concentrations of iodine, TH, iron and TDS are the most influencing parameters affecting the groundwater quality. The assessment results are rational and are in consistency with the results of filed investigation of which both indicates the groundwater in Jingyuan County is fit for drinking.

  18. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water Quality Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olatunji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index (WQI method. Twenty two water samples were collected, 10 samples from boreholes and 12 samples from hand dug wells. All these were analysed for their physico – chemical properties. The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, fluoride, iron, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and carbonate. The water quality index for the twenty two samples ranged from 0.66 to 756.02 with an average of 80.77. Two of the samples exceeded 100, which is the upper limit for safe drinking water. The high values of WQI from the sampling locations are observed to be due to higher values of iron and fluoride. This study reveals that the investigated groundwaters are mostly potable and can be consumed without treatment. Nonetheless, the sources identified to be unsafe should be treated before consumption.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River Basin, New York, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, Amy J.; Reddy, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The second groundwater quality study of the Chemung River Basin in south-central New York was conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 305(b) water-quality-monitoring program. Water samples were collected from five production wells and five private residential wells from October through December 2008. The samples were analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of the groundwater. Five of the wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and five are finished in bedrock aquifers. Two of these wells were also sampled for the first Chemung River Basin study of 2003. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 217 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and four types of bacterial analyses. Results of the water-quality analyses for individual wells are presented in tables, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: sodium (one sample), total dissolved solids (one sample), aluminum (one sample), iron (one sample), manganese (four samples), radon-222 (eight samples), trichloroethene (one sample), and bacteria (four samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.5); the median water temperature was 11.0 degrees Celsius (?C). The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate (median 202 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) and calcium (median 59.0 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is moderately hard to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or greater) than were moderately hard (61-120 mg/L as Ca

  20. Study on groundwater quality and potential use in shallow coastal East Surabaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyudi; Arief Setiyono; Onie Wiwid Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of coastal area is one of the fast growing urban area in Surabaya. Increasing in population and industrial growth have driven increasing demands for natural resources, particularly water. The objectives of this study are to identify the quality of the coastal groundwater through in situ measurement and laboratory analyses, and to find out its potential to be utilized as a source of water for coastal aquaculture. Groundwater samples from 70 sampling station have been taken from east Surabaya coastal area. Measurements of the temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the samples carried out directly in situ, and measurements of concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, sulphide, and phosphate conducted in the Environmental Laboratory of ITS. The results show that coastal groundwater in west part of the study area, in only very small area, can be used as a drinking water, and in almost all area of the east Surabaya coastal area is not permitted. In the central and south part can be utilized as a source of the coastal aquaculture, however in the north part is not potential, in the central area is medium, and in the south part is categorized as a high potential. (author)

  1. Impact of Coastal Development and Marsh Width Variability on Groundwater Quality in Estuarine Tidal Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M.; Wilson, A. M.; Smith, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upland development has been shown to negatively impact surface water quality in tidal creeks in the southeastern US, but less is known about its impact on groundwater. We sampled groundwater in the upland and along the marsh perimeter of tidal creeks located within developed and undeveloped watersheds. Samples were analyzed for salinity, dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Groundwater samples collected from the upland in developed and undeveloped watersheds were compared to study the impact of development on groundwater entering the marsh. Groundwater samples collected along the marsh perimeter were analyzed to study the impact of marsh width variability on groundwater quality within each creek. Preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between salinity and marsh width in undeveloped watersheds, and a higher concentration of nutrients in developed versus undeveloped watersheds.

  2. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Beak Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) for several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Each annual Part 2 GWQR addresses RCRA interim status reporting requirements regarding assessment of the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater contamination. This report includes background information regarding the extent of groundwater and surface water contamination in the Bear Creek Regime based on the conceptual models described in the remedial investigation report (Section 2); a summary of the groundwater and surface water monitoring activities performed during CY 1995 (Section 3.0); analysis and interpretation of the CY 1995 monitoring data for groundwater (Section 4.0) and surface water (Section 5.0); a summary of conclusions and recommendations (Section 6.0); and a list of cited references (Section 7.0). Appendices contain diagrams, graphs, data tables, and summaries and the evaluation and decision criteria for data screening.

  3. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  4. Determination of natural Radioactivity in Groundwater in Tanke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the radioactivity in groundwater from Tanke-Ilorin, Nigeria, has been carried out. Ten water samples were analyzed by ϒ-ray spectroscopy to determine the 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations. The activity concentration values range from 0.81 ± 0.08 to 7.4 ± 2.2 Bq/l for 226Ra and from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 5.6 ± 2.6 Bq/l for ...

  5. Quality of Mount Etna groundwaters utilized for the potable supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammanco, G.; Giammanco, S.; Valenza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The groundwaters of many aquifers of Mt. Etna are naturally enriched in a number of elements that are present in the rocks making up the volcanic edifice. The concentrations of magnesium, iron and manganese in the waters from many wells and springs utilized for the potable supply of Catania and various other villages exceed the maximum admissible concentrations (CMA) fixed by the law n. 236 enacted in 1988. The literal observance of the law in force has led to the prohibition from drinking such waters, although the above-mentioned substances are not prejudicial to the health at the found concentrations. Further problems have arised from the presence of vanadium, even though no CMA has been fixed for this element. All this has provoked serious hardships to the population and risks to the health due to the reduced water delivery. In order to avoid such inconveniences, the revision of the law in force is necessary in all those geographical areas where are naturally rich in non toxic elements. For these elements is opportune that indicative and non prescriptive levels of acceptability were established instead of the CMA

  6. Study on the interaction of U(VI) species with natural organic matters in KURT groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Baik, Min Hoon; Cho, Hye Ryun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Cha, Wansik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The interaction of U(VI) (hexavalent uranium) species with natural organic matter (NOM) in KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) groundwater is investigated using a laser spectroscopic technique. The luminescence spectra of the NOM are observed in the ultraviolet and blue wavelength regions by irradiating a laser beam at 266 nm in groundwater. The luminescence spectra of U(VI) species in groundwater containing uranium concentrations of 0.034-0.788 mg·L-1 are measured in the green-colored wavelength region. The luminescence characteristics (peak wavelengths and lifetime) of U(VI) in the groundwater agree well with those of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) in a standard solution prepared in a laboratory. The luminescence intensities of U(VI) in the groundwater are weaker than those of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) in the standard solution at the same uranium concentrations. The luminescence intensities of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) in the standard solution mixed with the groundwater are also weaker than those of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) in the standard solution at the same uranium concentrations. These results can be ascribed to calcium-U(VI)-carbonate species interacting with NOM and forming non-radiative U(VI) complexes in groundwater.

  7. Study on the interaction of U(VI) species with natural organic matters in KURT groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Baik, Min Hoon; Cho, Hye Ryun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Cha, Wansik

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of U(VI) (hexavalent uranium) species with natural organic matter (NOM) in KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) groundwater is investigated using a laser spectroscopic technique. The luminescence spectra of the NOM are observed in the ultraviolet and blue wavelength regions by irradiating a laser beam at 266 nm in groundwater. The luminescence spectra of U(VI) species in groundwater containing uranium concentrations of 0.034-0.788 mg·L-1 are measured in the green-colored wavelength region. The luminescence characteristics (peak wavelengths and lifetime) of U(VI) in the groundwater agree well with those of Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (aq) in a standard solution prepared in a laboratory. The luminescence intensities of U(VI) in the groundwater are weaker than those of Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (aq) in the standard solution at the same uranium concentrations. The luminescence intensities of Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (aq) in the standard solution mixed with the groundwater are also weaker than those of Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (aq) in the standard solution at the same uranium concentrations. These results can be ascribed to calcium-U(VI)-carbonate species interacting with NOM and forming non-radiative U(VI) complexes in groundwater

  8. Hydrochemical characterization of a groundwater aquifer and its water quality in relation to irrigation in the Jinghuiqu irrigation district of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuhua; Li, Lin; Hu, Anyan

    2013-03-01

    The Jinghuiqu irrigation district is located in the semi-arid regions of northwestern China, where groundwater is the most important natural source for local industry, agriculture and residents. The present work was conducted in the Jinghuiqu irrigation district to characterize the groundwater aquifer, which has undergone long-term flood irrigation for over 2000 years. Isotopic and hydrochemical analyses, along with geological and hydrogeological tools, were used to determine the chemical properties and evolutionary processes of the groundwater aquifer. Results showed that the groundwater chemistry had changed significantly from 1990 to 2009. Water with concentrations of CaMgSO4 had decreased significantly, from 60% to 28% of the total water samples, during the period, while water with concentrations of NaSO4 and NaCl increased significantly, from 28% to 72%. The salinity of the groundwater increased rapidly and the affected area had expanded to most of the irrigation district. Stable isotope studies showed that most of the groundwater concentrations were derived from sulfate mineral dissolution. The minerals saturation indices (SI), ion ratios and oxygen isotope values of the groundwater indicated that the shallow groundwater had mainly experienced mineral dissolution, cation exchange, and mixing of the irrigated surface waters and groundwater. The groundwater quality had continuously evolved toward salinization as concentrations of SO4(2-) and Na+ grew to dominate it. Water quality risk analyses showed that most of the saline groundwater is not suitable for domestic and irrigation uses, especially in the middle and eastern parts of the irrigation district. These findings indicate that the irrigation district should strengthen the groundwater resources management.

  9. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-01-01

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility's operations will also be presented

  10. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  12. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot...

  13. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pandian K and Sankar K 2007 Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality in the Vaippar river basin, Tamil- nadu; J. Geol. Soc. India 69 970–982. Pawar N J 1993 Geochemistry of carbonate precipitation from the groundwaters in the basaltic aquifers: An equi- librium thermo-dynamic approach; J. Geol. Soc. India 41.

  14. Groundwater quality studies: A Case study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater samples from 68 communities within the Densu basin were sampled and analysed over a period of 1 year for various physico-chemical water quality parameters using appropriate certified and acceptable international procedures, in order to assess the water types as well as the suitability of groundwater within ...

  15. Impacts of a rural subdivision on groundwater quality: results of long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Todd W; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Krause, Jacob J

    2018-03-30

    A rural subdivision in south central Wisconsin was instrumented with monitoring wells and lysimeters before, during, and after its construction to examine the impacts of the unsewered subdivision on groundwater quality and quantity. Prior to construction, the 78-acre (32 hectare) site was farmland. Sixteen homes were constructed beginning in 2003. Initial monitoring from 2002-2005 showed that groundwater beneath the site had been impacted by previous agricultural use, with nitrate-N values as high as 30 mg/l and some detections of the herbicide atrazine. Our twelve-year study shows that the transition from agricultural to residential land use has changed groundwater quality in both negative and positive ways. Although groundwater elevations showed typical seasonal fluctuations each year, there were no measurable changes in groundwater levels or general flow directions during the twelve-year study period. Chloride values increased in many wells, possibly as a result of road salting or water softener discharge. Nitrate concentrations varied spatially and temporally over the study period, with some initial concentrations substantially above the drinking water standard. In some wells, nitrate and atrazine levels have declined substantially since agriculture ceased. However, atrazine was still present at trace concentrations throughout the site in 2014. Wastewater tracers show there are small but detectable impacts from septic effluent on groundwater quality. Particle traces based on a groundwater flow model are consistent with the hypothesis that septic leachate has impacted groundwater quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical ...

  17. The groundwater quality of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao: a hydrogeochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambeek, M.H.G. van; Eggenkamp, H.G.M.; Vissers, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater resources on the Caribbean Islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao are limited and of poor quality. The groundwater of the islands is brackish, due to both seawater mixing and the semi-arid climate of the islands.Two hundred and thirty water samples were collected to relate chemical

  18. Monitoring groundwater quality in South-Africa: Development of a national strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the temporal distribution of groundwater quality on a national scale in South Africa. The effective management of the country's groundwater resources is thus difficult and a need exists for a national network for monitoring...

  19. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  20. An approach to quality classification of deep groundwaters in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Smellie, J.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1993-11-01

    In Sweden and Finland high quality groundwater samples are required in the site characterization programmes relating to safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) and TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland) initiated a cooperative task to critically evaluate the quality of the earlier sampling programmes and to further develop the understanding of quality or representativeness of the groundwater samples. The major aim in this report has been, therefore, to make an attempt to classify groundwaters from site investigations in Sweden and Finland based on quality. Different classification systems have been tested and developed. These can be divided in two main groups; manual methods and computer-based mathematical methods. Manual, statistical, mixing ratio and scoring systems have all been used to illustrate the difficulty in judging groundwater quality. (28 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.)

  1. Stable groundwater quality in deep aquifers of Southern Bangladesh: The case against sustainable abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, P.; McArthur, J.M.; Hoque, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In forty six wells > 150 m deep, from across the arsenic-polluted area of south-central Bangladesh, groundwater composition remained unchanged between 1998 and 2011. No evidence of deteriorating water quality was found in terms of arsenic, iron, manganese, boron, barium or salinity over this period of 13 years. These deep tubewells have achieved operating lives of more than 20 years with minimal institutional support. These findings confirm that tubewells tapping the deep aquifers in the Bengal Basin provide a safe, popular, and economic, means of arsenic mitigation and are likely to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, concerns remain about the sustainability of a resource that could serve as a source of As-safe water to mitigate As-pollution in shallower aquifers in an area where tens of millions of people are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic in well water. The conjunction of the stable composition in deep groundwater and the severe adverse health effects of arsenic in shallow groundwater lead us to challenge the notion that strong sustainability principles should be applied to the management of deep aquifer abstraction in Bangladesh is, the notion that the deep groundwater resource should be preserved for future generations by protecting it from adverse impacts, probably of a minor nature, that could occur after a long time and might not happen at all. Instead, we advocate an ethical approach to development of the deep aquifer, based on adaptive abstraction management, which allows possibly unsustainable exploitation now in order to alleviate crippling disease and death from arsenic today while also benefiting future generations by improving the health, education and economy of living children. - Highlights: • Tens of millions of people in Bangladesh are affected by arsenic pollution of groundwater. • Deep wells in potentially non-renewable aquifers are the dominant form of mitigation. • Water quality in these aquifers has remained stable for 13

  2. hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in sagamu area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABDULRASHEED

    Groundwater samples from 39 wells in different geological settings in Sagamu area, Southwestern Nigeria were analysed for their ... 94.9% of the groundwater within the area is generally suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes. KEYWORDS: ... can also be found in ground water near contaminated sources, posing ...

  3. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface and groundwater chemistry being an important factor in urban planning and infrastructure development, present paper tries to present the problems of corrosiveness due to groundwater chemistry in Mekelle city. Iron corrosion in distribution systems and engineering structures are common problems in many urban ...

  4. Quality assessment of groundwater from Hadejia Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical and trace metal levels of groundwater (borehole) from Hadejia Local Government Area of Jigawa State used for drinking and other domestic purposes were analyzed to assess its equality. A total of 20 sampling points were selected for the study, the groundwater samples were collected and analyzed ...

  5. Groundwater chemistry and quality of Nigeria: A status review | Edet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, data show that on the average, TDS for the groundwater from the different basins was < 250 mg/l compared to the saline groundwater with average TDS as high as 15700 mg/l. The high salinity was attributed to dissolution of salts and seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration on the average is high especially, ...

  6. groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Southern Nigeria has been carried out in an attempt to assess the suitability of the groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes in ...... for irrigation purposes. Electrical conductivity (Table 6) is a good measure of the salinity hazard to crops as it reflects the TDS in groundwater. Based on the US salinity diagram (Fig.

  7. Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation with Reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for the both the groundwater and soil samples and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) for the soil samples were also computed. Out of the analyzed 20 groundwater samples, 8 show EC values below 0.7 and the remaining between 0.71 and 1.12 dS/m, and pH values from ...

  8. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond.

  9. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  10. Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bodrud-Doza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the groundwater quality in the Faridpur district of central Bangladesh based on preselected 60 sample points. Water evaluation indices and a number of statistical approaches such as multivariate statistics and geostatistics are applied to characterize water quality, which is a major factor for controlling the groundwater quality in term of drinking purposes. The study reveal that EC, TDS, Ca2+, total As and Fe values of groundwater samples exceeded Bangladesh and international standards. Ground water quality index (GWQI exhibited that about 47% of the samples were belonging to good quality water for drinking purposes. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI, degree of contamination (Cd, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI reveal that most of the samples belong to low level of pollution. However, Cd provide better alternative than other indices. Principle component analysis (PCA suggests that groundwater quality is mainly related to geogenic (rock–water interaction and anthropogenic source (agrogenic and domestic sewage in the study area. Subsequently, the findings of cluster analysis (CA and correlation matrix (CM are also consistent with the PCA results. The spatial distributions of groundwater quality parameters are determined by geostatistical modeling. The exponential semivariagram model is validated as the best fitted models for most of the indices values. It is expected that outcomes of the study will provide insights for decision makers taking proper measures for groundwater quality management in central Bangladesh.

  11. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  13. Risk Communication of Groundwater Quality in Northern Malawi, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi lies in Africa's Great Rift Valley. Its western border is defined by Lake Malawi, the third largest lake in Africa. Over 80% of Malawians live in rural areas and 90% of the labor force is associated with agriculture. More than half of the population lives below the poverty line. Area characteristics indicate a high likelihood of nitrate and total coliform in community drinking water. Infants exposed to high nitrate are at risk of developing methemoglobinemia. In addition, diarrheal diseases from unsafe drinking water are one of the top causes of mortality in children under five. Without sufficient and sustainable supplies of clean water, these challenges will continue to threaten Malawi's ability to overcome the devastating impact of diarrheal diseases on its population. Therefore, Malawi remains highly dependent on outside assistance and influence to reduce or eliminate the threat posed by unsafe drinking water. This research presents a literature review of nitrate and total coliform groundwater quality and a proposed risk communication plan for drinking water in northern Malawi.

  14. Factor analysis as a tool in groundwater quality management: two southern African case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Hallbauer, Dieter; Amos, Amos; Hranova, Roumiana

    Although developed as a tool in the social sciences, R-mode factor analysis, a multivariate statistical tool, has proven highly effective in studies of groundwater quality. The technique examines the relationships between variables (such as chemical parameters in groundwater), which are shown by a number of cases (such as sampling points). In this study, two examples are presented. The first is of groundwater around a southern African iron ore mine and the second is of groundwater in the vicinity of a southern African municipal sewage disposal works. Groundwater samples were collected, their chemistry analysed and factor analysis was performed on each of the chemical datasets. In the first case study, factor analysis successfully separated signatures due to uncontaminated groundwater (calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate), agricultural activities (potassium and ammonium) and mining activities (sodium, chloride and sulphate). In the second case study, factor analysis did identify a chemical signature (nitrate and phosphate; minor iron) related to the sewage works-but since this signature involved parameters that were within regulated limits, the finding was of limited value for management purposes. Thus although R-mode factor analysis can be a valuable tool studies of groundwater quality, this is not always the case. Multivariate statistical techniques like factor analysis should thus be used as supplementary to, but not in replacement of, conventional groundwater quality data treatment methods.

  15. Review of the impacts of leaking CO 2 gas and brine on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bacon, Diana H.; Zheng, Liange; Kyle, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-06-01

    This review paper provides a synthetic view of the existing knowledge and summarizes data and findings of the recent literature on the subject of the potential leaking of CO2 from the deep subsurface storage reservoirs and the effects on aquifer quality. New ideas and concepts are developed and insights are also provided. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present and discuss potential risks for groundwater degradation due to CO2 gas and brine exposure; 2) identify the set of geochemical data required to assess and predict aquifer responses to CO2 and brine leakage. Specifically, this paper will discuss the following issues: 1) Aquifer responses (such as changes in aqueous phase/groundwater chemical composition; changes in solid phase chemistry and mineralogy; changes in the extent and rate of reactions and processes and possible establishment of a new network of reactions and processes affecting or controlling overall mobility of major, minor, and trace elements; development of conceptual and reduced order models (ROMs) to describe and predict aquifer responses); 2) The degree of impact such as significant or insignificant changes in pH and major, minor, and trace element release that depend on the following controlling variables; the effect of leaking plume characteristics (gas composition, pure CO2 and/or CO2 -CH4 -H2S mixtures and brine concentration and composition (trace metals); aquifer properties [such as initial aqueous phase conditions and mineralogy: minerals controlling sediments’ response (e.g., calcite, Si bearing minerals, etc.)]; overview of relevant hydrogeological and geochemical processes related to the impact of CO2 gas and brine on groundwater quality; the fate of the elements released from sediments or transported with brine (such as precipitation/incorporation into minerals (calcite and other minerals), adsorption, electron transfer reactions, the role of natural attenuation; whether or not the release of metals following exposure to

  16. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  17. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  18. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  19. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Abbott, Joshua K.; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M. K.; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996−2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996–2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state’s 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas’ depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  20. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets.

  1. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  3. The quality of Albanian natural waters and the human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaj, Alqiviadh; Hasko, Agim; Miho, Aleko; Schanz, Ferdinand; Brandl, Helmut; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Albania possesses a wealth of aquatic ecosystems, many of enormous natural and biological value, such as the Lakes Ohrid, Prespa and Shkodra, glacial lakes, river valleys, and coastal lagoons. Although many habitats are highly polluted by inorganic and organic wastes, detailed knowledge on the water quality is still lacking. For the first time, an environmental assessment of the water quality is presented and the main polluting sources identified. As a consequence, a systematic control and the establishment of routine monitoring of surface and groundwater is proposed, which elucidates the present environmental state and helps to develop new strategies of waste and wastewater management. It would help allow Albania to reach an international standard in environmental protection, as a part of UNECE Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, the MAP/UNEP Medpol Program and the Basel Convention.

  4. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality using physiochemical and geochemical analysis in the vicinity of Lei Nala, Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S.; Zafar, M.; Mahmood, T.; Mashiatullah, A.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of groundwater samples in vicinity of Lei Nala in Islamabad was assessed using physio-chemical and geochemical parameters. Lei Nala was sampled at four different locations, ten shallow groundwater samples (up to 200 feet) and twelve deep groundwater (>200 feet) were collected for analysis. Absence of carbonate ions (CO/sub 3/sup -2/) in all groundwater samples indicates presence of limestone dissolution giving rise to bicarbonate and ultimately Ca-Mg type waters. Piper diagram reveals dominance with 53.86 % of Ca-Mg-type of water in the studied area. For anion concentration, HCO/sub 3/-type of water predominated with 96.15 % samples. There is no significant change in the hydro-chemical facies in the study area, indicating that most of the major ions are natural in origin which is due to the fact that groundwater is passing through sedimentary rocks and dissolves Margalla Hill Limestone thus dominating HCO/sub 3/ and Ca-Mg facies. (author)

  7. Temporal changes in groundwater quality of the Saloum coastal aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeye Maguette Dieng

    2017-02-01

    High variation in rainfall between the 2 reference years (2003 and 2012 also changes chemical patterns in the groundwater. Chemical evolution of the groundwater is geographically observed and is due to a combination of dilution by recharge, anthropic contamination and seawater intrusion. The results of environmental isotopes (δ18O, δ2H compared with the local meteoric line indicate that the groundwater has been affected by evaporation processes before and during infiltration. The results also clearly indicate mixing with saltwater and an evolution towards relative freshening between 2003 and 2012 in some wells near the Saloum River.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from January to February 2011, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Santa Barbara study unit was the thirty-fourth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Santa Barbara study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the Santa Barbara study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the Santa Barbara study unit located in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, groundwater samples were collected from 24 wells. Eighteen of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and six wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds); constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]); naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace

  10. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce

    2017-12-07

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water (Burow and Belitz, 2014). The Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers constitute one of the important areas being evaluated.

  12. Testing safety assessment models using natural analogues in high natural-series groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Chapman, N.; McKinley, I.; Franca, E.P.; Shea, M.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the second year of the project is outlined in terms of four analogue objectives. Results of modelling of the preliminary data sets on groundwater chemical speciation of radionuclides, colloids, redox processes, and hydrothermal fluid transport are presented

  13. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898–2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendizabal, I.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Baggelaar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical trend analysis is applied to a 110. years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences

  14. Numerical Speadsheet Modeling of Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Contaminant Plumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Twesme, Troy

    1999-01-01

    .... The model was used to evaluate natural attenuation for removal of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume from a surficial aquifer containing three regions with distinctly different processes for degradation of TCE...

  15. Impact of land-use on groundwater quality: GIS-based study from an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arina; Khan, Haris Hasan; Umar, Rashid

    2017-12-01

    In this study, groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin is assessed using a GIS-based groundwater quality index (GQI) concept that uses groundwater quality data from field survey and laboratory analysis. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2012 and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, Anions (Cl, SO4, NO3), and Cations (Ca, Mg, Na). To generate the index, several parameters were selected based on WHO recommendations. The spatially variable grids of each parameter were modified by normalizing with the WHO standards and finally integrated into a GQI grid. The mean GQI values for both the season suggest good groundwater quality. However, spatial variations exist and are represented by GQI map of both seasons. This spatial variability was compared with the existing land-use, prepared using high-resolution satellite imagery available in Google earth. The GQI grids were compared to the land-use map using an innovative GIS-based method. Results indicate that the spatial variability of groundwater quality in the region is not fully controlled by the land-use pattern. This probably reflects the diffuse nature of land-use classes, especially settlements and plantations.

  16. The immigration model and its implications of natural radionuclides of coastal groundwater in Xiamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Minggang; Huang Yipu; Chen Min; Liu Guangshan

    2004-01-01

    The natural radionuclides in groundwater systems are considered to reside in three pools: dissolved, sorbed (on rock surface), and solid. Transfer of radionuclides between the dissolved and solid pools is accomplished chiefly by dissolution, (co-)precipitation and/or a-recoil. The mass balance equations model of the natural radionuclides of dissolved and adsorbed phase reservoir in groundwater is established by setting certain conditions and parameters. The modeling equations form the basic of our assessment of the effects of sorption-desorption, dissolution-precipitation, and advection-diffusion in radionuclide transport in the groundwater. The interaction between groundwater and rock in Xiamen coastal aquifers were studied quantitatively using this model, which gave us reasonable explanation for the spatial distribution of natural radium, radon isotopes activities and their activities ratio. α-recoil supply rates of 222 Rn (P r,Rn-222 ) and 224 Ra (P α,Ra-224 ) range from 0.09 x 10 3 to 3.44 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 and from 0.13 x l0 3 to 4.91 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 , respectively. P α,Ra-224 is also found to be larger than P r,Rn-222 in every station, revealing that aquifer solids contain more thorium than uranium in studied area. Both of P r,Rn-222 and P α,Ra-224 of coastal groundwater decreased seaward, revealing a-recoil supplying rates of 222 Rn and 224 Ra by aquifers rock decreased gradually, which gave good explanation of the spatial distribution characters of above two nuclides. P r,Rn-222 /A Rn-222 increase seaward from 0.3 to 0.9 along the major paths, with the average value of 0.6. Such results reveal that the primary source of groundwater 222 Rn in these areas is α-recoil of 226 Ra decay in solid pool, and its relative increase along the paths. Another source of 222 Rn is 226 Ra decay in tile sorbed pool (R f,Ra-226 ·A Ra-226 ), which attributes about 40 percent of total source of coastal groundwater 222 Rn. P α,Ra-224 /A Ra-224 ranges

  17. The immigration model and its implications of natural radionuclides of coastal groundwater in Xiamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Minggang; Huang Yipu; Chen Min; Liu Guangshan

    2005-01-01

    The natural radionuclides in groundwater systems are considered to reside in three pools: dissolved, sorbed (on rock surface), and solid. Transfer of radionuclides between the dissolved and solid pools is accomplished chiefly by dissolution. (co-)precipitation and/or α-recoil. The mass balance equations model of the natural radionuclides of dissolved and adsorbed phase reservoir in groundwater is established by setting certain conditions and parameters. The modeling equations form the basic of our assessment of the effects of sorption-desorption, dissolution-precipitation, and advection-diffusion in radionuclide transport in the groundwater. The interaction between groundwater and rock in Xiamen coastal aquifers were studied quantitatively using this model, which gave us reasonable explanation for the spatial distribution of natural radium, radon isotopes activities and their activities ratio. α-recoil supply rates of 222 Rn (P r,Rn-22 -2) and 224 Ra (P a,Ra-224 ) range from 0.09 x l0 3 to 3.44 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 and from 0.13 x 10 3 to 4.91 x 10 3 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 , respectively. P a,Ra-224 is also found to be larger than P r,Rn-222 in every station, revealing that aquifer solids contain more thorium than uranium in studied area. Both of P r,Rn-222 and P a,Ra-224 of coastal groundwater decreased seaward, revealing α-recoil supplying rates of 222 Rn and 224 Ra by aquifers rock decreased gradually, which gave good explanation of the spatial distribution characters of above two nuclides. P r,Rn-222 /A Rn-222 increase seaward from 0.3 to 0.9 along the major paths, with the average value of 0.6, Such results reveal that the primary source of groundwater 222 Rn in these areas is α-recoil of 226 Ra decay in solid pool, and its relative increase along the paths. Another source of 222 Rn is 226 Ra decay in the sorbed pool (R f,Ra-226 ·A Ra-226 ), which attributes about 40 per cent of total source of coastal groundwater 222 Rn. P α,Ra-224 /A Ra-224

  18. Groundwater-quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January through December 2014 and select quality-control data from May 2012 through December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Kingsbury, James A.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Fleming, Brandon J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-10-05

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 559 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from January through December 2014. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which are used to assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which are used to evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radionuclides, and some constituents of special interest (arsenic speciation, chromium [VI] and perchlorate). These groundwater-quality data, along with data from quality-control samples, are tabulated in this report and in an associated data release.

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  1. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater quality of Punjab and Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, V.; Douglas, E. M.; Hannigan, R.; Schaaf, C.; Moore, J.

    2016-12-01

    Punjab and Haryana lie in the semi-arid region of northwestern India and are characterized by a limited access to freshwater resources and an increasing dependence on groundwater resources to meet human demand, resulting in overexploitation. The objectives of the present study was to characterize groundwater recharge sources using stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) and to trace geochemical evolution of groundwater using rare earth elements (REEs). Samples were collected from 30 different locations including shallow domestic handpumps, deep irrigation wells, surface water and rainwater. Samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and trace elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) at University of Massachusetts Boston. Precipitation, surface water and irrigation return flow were identified as the primary sources of recharge to groundwater. Sustainability of recharge sources is highly dependent on the glacier-fed rivers from the Himalayas that are already experiencing impacts from climate change. Geochemistry of REEs revealed geochemically evolved groundwater system with carbonate subsurface weathering as major hydrological processes. Enhanced dissolution of carbonates in the future can be a serious issue with extremely hard groundwater leaving scaly deposits inside pipes and wells. This would not only worsen the groundwater quality but would impose financial implications on the groundwater users in the community. If irrigated culture is to survive as an economically viable and environmentally sustainable activity in the region, groundwater management activities have to be planned at the regional scale.

  2. Rare earth element distributions and trends in natural waters with a focus on groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-04-15

    Systematically varying properties and reactivities have led to focused research of the environmental forensic capabilities of rare earth elements (REE). Increasing anthropogenic inputs to natural systems may permanently alter the natural signatures of REE, motivating characterization of natural REE variability. We compiled and analyzed reported dissolved REE concentration data over a wide range of natural water types (ground-, ocean, river, and lake water) and groundwater chemistries (e.g., fresh, brine, and acidic) with the goal of quantifying the extent of natural REE variability, especially for groundwater systems. Quantitative challenges presented by censored data were addressed with nonparametric distributions and regressions. Reported measurements of REE in natural waters range over nearly 10 orders of magnitude, though the majority of measurements are within 2-4 orders of magnitude, and are highly correlated with one another. Few global correlations exist among dissolved abundance and bulk solution properties in groundwater, indicating the complex nature of source-sink terms and the need for care when comparing results between studies. This collection, homogenization, and analysis of a disparate literature facilitates interstudy comparison and provides insight into the wide range of variables that influence REE geochemistry.

  3. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2017-06-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - }. The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  4. Unconfined Groundwater Quality based on the Settlement Unit in Surakarta City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Cholil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer with growing population density is endangered by population. This may cause serious problem as greatest portion of the population utility groundwater of unconfined aquifer as their drinking water. This research is aim at studying the difference in quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer in Surakarta Munipicality by settlement units, and studying the impact settlement factors and groundwater depth on the quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer. The research was executed by a survey methhod, taking 44 units of groundwater of unonfined aquifer samples at stratified proportional random from 44 villages. The samples were analyzed at the laboratory of Local Drinking Water Company (PDAM of Surakarta. Data were analyzed using by stiff diagram, variance analysis, and multiple regression. The research reveals that there is very little differences in the quality of free groundwater in Surakarta, as it is shown by same chemical properties. Several chemical properties were found very high in concentration, but the rest were simultaniously low. On the basis of minimum quality of drinking water coli content have exeeded the allowed limit for drinking water. Among the settlement units observed, there were no significant differences in the physical, chemical (except pH, bacteriological factors. This means that differences among various depth of water. Electrical onductivity (EC, Na, Mg, H2CO3, H2SO4, and NH3 were found different among various depth of water table. Major chemical conentration were significant with geology formation. Population density, built up areas, size of settlement, building density, and the condition of drainage simultaniously affect the quality of free ground water. No differences among settlement units was observed the most important fators determining the free groundwater quality was population density.

  5. The Grand Challenge of Basin-Scale Groundwater Quality Management Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    The last 50+ years of agricultural, urban and industrial land and water use practices have accelerated the degradation of groundwater quality in the upper portions of many major aquifer systems upon which much of the world relies for water supply. In the deepest and most extensive systems (e.g., sedimentary basins) that typically have the largest groundwater production rates and hold fresh groundwaters on decadal to millennial time scales, most of the groundwater is not yet contaminated. Predicting the long-term future groundwater quality in such basins is a grand scientific challenge. Moreover, determining what changes in land and water use practices would avert future, irreversible degradation of these massive freshwater stores is a grand challenge both scientifically and societally. It is naïve to think that the problem can be solved by eliminating or reducing enough of the contaminant sources, for human exploitation of land and water resources will likely always result in some contamination. The key lies in both reducing the contaminant sources and more proactively managing recharge in terms of both quantity and quality, such that the net influx of contaminants is sufficiently moderate and appropriately distributed in space and time to reverse ongoing groundwater quality degradation. Just as sustainable groundwater quantity management is greatly facilitated with groundwater flow management models, sustainable groundwater quality management will require the use of groundwater quality management models. This is a new genre of hydrologic models do not yet exist, partly because of the lack of modeling tools and the supporting research to model non-reactive as well as reactive transport on large space and time scales. It is essential that the contaminant hydrogeology community, which has heretofore focused almost entirely on point-source plume-scale problems, direct it's efforts toward the development of process-based transport modeling tools and analyses capable

  6. Groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin, New York, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Water was sampled from 20 production and domestic wells from August through November 2009 to characterize groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin in New York. Of the 20 wells sampled, 8 were completed in sand and gravel, and 12 were completed in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were color (1 sample), pH (3 samples), sodium (3 samples), total dissolved solids (4 samples), iron (4 samples), manganese (3 samples), gross alpha radioactivity (1 sample), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.1); the median water temperature was 9.7°C. The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate [median 158 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 45.5 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is soft to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L or more as CaCO3) than were moderately hard or soft (120 mg/L or less as CaCO3); the median hardness was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. The maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite was 3.79 mg/L as nitrogen, which did not exceed established drinking-water standards for nitrate plus nitrite (10 mg/L as nitrogen). The trace elements with the highest median concentrations were strontium (median 202 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), and iron (median 55 μg/L in unfiltered water). Six pesticides and pesticide degradates, including atrazine, fipronil, disulfoton, prometon, and two pesticide degradates, CIAT and desulfinylfipronil, were detected among five samples at concentrations

  7. Overview of groundwater quality in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, 1946--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. The data repository is available on the web at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/cwqdr/Piceance/index.shtml. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane. Some portion of recharge to most of the wells for which data were available was derived from precipitation (most likely snowmelt), as indicated by δ2H [H2O] and δ18O[H2O] values that plot along the Global Meteoric Water Line and near the values for snow samples collected in the study area. Ninety-three percent of the samples were oxic, on the basis of concentrations of dissolved oxygen that were greater than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter. Concentration data were compared with primary and secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Constituents that exceeded the primary standards were arsenic (13 percent), selenium (9.2 percent), fluoride (8.4 percent), barium (4.1 percent), nitrate (1.6 percent), and benzene (0.6 percent). Concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene did not exceed standards in any samples. Constituents that exceeded the secondary standard were dissolved solids (72 percent), sulfate (37 percent), manganese (21 percent), iron (16 percent), and chloride (10 percent). Drinking-water standards have not been established for

  8. The geochemistry of naturally occurring methane and saline groundwater in an area of unconventional shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Jennifer S.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Whyte, Colin J.; Moore, Myles T.; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2017-07-01

    Since naturally occurring methane and saline groundwater are nearly ubiquitous in many sedimentary basins, delineating the effects of anthropogenic contamination sources is a major challenge for evaluating the impact of unconventional shale gas development on water quality. This study investigates the geochemical variations of groundwater and surface water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing and in relation to various geospatial parameters in an area of shale gas development in northwestern West Virginia, United States. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a broadly integrated study of various geochemical techniques designed to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of natural gas and salt contaminants both before and after drilling. These measurements include inorganic geochemistry (major cations and anions), stable isotopes of select inorganic constituents including strontium (87Sr/86Sr), boron (δ11B), lithium (δ7Li), and carbon (δ13C-DIC), select hydrocarbon molecular (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane) and isotopic tracers (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6), tritium (3H), and noble gas elemental and isotopic composition (helium, neon, argon) in 105 drinking-water wells, with repeat testing in 33 of the wells (total samples = 145). In a subset of wells (n = 20), we investigated the variations in water quality before and after the installation of nearby ( 50 mg/L). The integrated geochemical data indicate that the saline groundwater originated via naturally occurring processes, presumably from the migration of deeper methane-rich brines that have interacted extensively with coal lithologies. These observations were consistent with the lack of changes in water quality observed in drinking-water wells following the installation of nearby shale-gas wells. In contrast to groundwater samples that showed no evidence of anthropogenic contamination, the chemistry and isotope ratios of surface waters (n = 8) near known spills or leaks

  9. Impacts of land-use and soil properties on groundwater quality in the hard rock aquifer of an irrigated catchment: the Berambadi (Southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, Muddu; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Braun, Jean Jacques; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri S.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has large impacts on groundwater resources, both in terms of quantity and quality: when combined with intensive chemical fertilizer application, it can lead to progressive groundwater salinization. Mapping the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater quality is not only essential for assessing the impacts of different types of agricultural systems but also for identifying hotspots of water quality degradation that are posing a risk to human and ecosystem health. In peninsular India the development of minor irrigation led to high density of borewells which constitute an ideal situation for studying the heterogeneity of groundwater quality. The annual groundwater abstraction reaches 400 km3, which leads to depletion of the resource and degradation of water quality. In the agricultural Berambadi catchment (84km2, Southern India, part of the environmental observatory BVET/ Kabini CZO) the groundwater table level and chemistry are monitored in 200 tube wells. We recently demonstrated that in this watershed, irrigation history and groundwater depletion can lead to hot spots of NO3 concentration in groundwater, up to 360 ppm (Buvaneshwari et al., 2017). Here we focus on the respective roles of evapotranspiration, groundwater recycling and chemical fertilizer application on chlorine concentration [Cl] in groundwater. Groundwater [Cl] in Berambadi spans over two orders of magnitude with hotspots up to 380 ppm. Increase in groundwater [Cl] results from evapotranspiration and recycling, that concentrates the rain Cl inputs ("Natural [Cl]") and/or from KCl fertilization ("Anthropogenic [Cl]"). To quantify the origin of Cl in each tube well, we used a novel method based on (1) a reference element, sodium, originating only from atmosphere and Na-plagioclase weathering and (2) data from a nearby pristine site, the Mule Hole forested watershed (Riotte et al., 2014). In the forested watershed, the ranges of Cl concentration and Na/Cl molar ratio are 9-23 ppm and 2

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 3,900-square-mile (mi2) San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter San Diego) study unit was investigated from May through July 2004 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southwestern California in the counties of San Diego, Riverside, and Orange. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Diego study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 58 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as the primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the San Diego study unit. The San Diego study unit consisted of four study areas: Temecula Valley (140 mi2), Warner Valley (34 mi2), Alluvial Basins (166 mi2), and Hard Rock (850 mi2). The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers. For example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination than groundwater in deep water-bearing zones. This study had two components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first component of this study-the status assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource-was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to

  11. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy Y- 12 Plant. These sites are located south of the Y- 12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites located in the CRHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the CRHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data and detailed descriptions of groundwater quality in the regime are presented

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  13. Groundwater quality assessment using the water quality pollution indices in Toyserkan Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Sobhanardakani; Lobat Taghavi; Behzad Shahmoradi; Amin Jahangard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iran is located within the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required water is secured via the use of groundwater. Owing to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was performed to evaluate water quality pollution indices for heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu) contamination monitoring in Toyserkan Plain during spring and summer in 2012. Methods: A total of 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm) and ...

  14. Major ion chemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Haripur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Tariq, J.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-07-01

    Study was conducted for investigating chemical composition of groundwater, identifying the compositional types of groundwater, delineating the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry and assessing the groundwater quality for drinking / irrigation uses. Groundwater samples collected from shallow (hand pumps, open well, motor pumps) and deep (tube wells) aquifers were analyzed for major cations (Na/sup +/,K/sup +, Ca/sup 2+/, Mg/sup 2+/) and anions (HCO/sub 3/, Cl/sup '/, SO/sub 4/). The data indicated that Ca/sub 2/ is the dominant cation in most of the samples followed by Mg/sup 2+/ whereas HCO/sub 3/ is the most abundant anion in all samples. Hydrochemistry provides a clear indication of active recharge of shallow and deep aquifers by modern meteoric water. Carbonate dissolution was found to be the prevailing process controlling the groundwater chemistry. Chemical quality was assessed for drinking purpose by comparing with WHO, Indian and national standards, and for irrigation purpose using empirical indices such as SAR and RSC. The results show that groundwater meets the norms of good quality drinking water and can be safely used for irrigation. (author)

  15. Natural organics in groundwaters and their potential effect on contaminant transport in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.; Richer, D.

    1996-07-01

    Naturally occurring organics in groundwaters of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) of southern Manitoba and of the Atikokan Research Area of northwestern Ontario were investigated to assess their potential role in radionuclide transport within granite fractures of the Canadian Shield. A survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, carried out to determine the variability in the organic content of these groundwaters, showed average concentrations in WRA deep groundwaters of 0.8 ± 0.1 mg/L for Fracture Zone 2, 0.8 ± 0.4 mg/L for near-vertical fractures, and 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/L for deeper saline groundwater. Surface waters and near-surface groundwaters had significantly higher DOC with 29.2 ± 0.6 mg/L in streams from the East Swamp. The DOC consisted mainly of hydrophilic neutral compounds 60 to 75%, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids 23 to 39%, along with very small amounts of hydrophobic bases and neutrals, and hydrophilic bases. The average complexing capacity of natural organics in WRA deep groundwaters was calculated to be 6.7 x 10 -6 eq/L. The ability of these organics to complex radionuclides was tested using conditional stability constants from the literature for humic complex formation with trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent actinides. The chemistries of Np(V) and U(VI) were predicted to be dominated by inorganic complexes and not significantly affected by organics. Accurate predictions for AM(III) and Th(IV) could not be made since the literature contains a wide range in values of stability constants for humic complexes with these elements. Surface waters and near-surface groundwaters in many areas of the Canadian Shield contain enough humics to complex a significant fraction of dissolved actinides. Radiocarbon ages of humics from WRA groundwater varied between 3600 and 6200 years before present, indicating that a component of humic substances in deep groundwaters must originate from near-surface waters. 54 refs., 15 tabs., 5

  16. Groundwater quality characterization to protect biodiversity in SADC region (Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vitale

    2016-06-01

    requires a successful groundwater characterization and protection. Conservation of biodiversity depends on groundwater needs strategies that allows for the use of groundwater in a way that is compatible with the persistence of ecosystems in natural area, such as Limpopo Transfrontier Park, in the Southern African Region, which is an area rich in term of biological diversity and ecological complexity. In particular the quality of ground water in some parts of the country, especially shallow ground water, is changing as a result of human activities. The goal of the following study is to provide an assessment of the actual groundwater quality-monitoring network and in consideration of the growing demand for water, there is a need to understand the effects of planting on water resources to estimate crop water requirement for the focus area, as last step of the methodology.

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  19. High naturally occurring radioactivity in fossil groundwater from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Hirschfeld, Daniella; Vinson, David; Dwyer, Gary; Raanan, Hadas; Rimawi, Omar; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Akkawi, Emad; Marie, Amer; Haquin, Gustavo; Zaarur, Shikma; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2009-03-15

    High levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes have been measured in low-saline and oxic groundwater from the Rum Group of the Disi sandstone aquifer in Jordan. The combined 228Ra and 226Ra activities are up to 2000% higher than international drinking water standards. Analyses of the host sandstone aquifer rocks show 228Ra and 226Ra activities and ratios that are consistent with previous reports of sandstone rocks from different parts of the world. A compilation of previous data in groundwater from worldwide sandstone aquifers shows large variations in Ra activities regardless of the groundwater salinity. On the basis of the distribution of the four Ra isotopes and the ratios of the short- to long-lived Ra isotopes, we postulate that Ra activity in groundwater is controlled by the balance of radioactive decay of parent Th isotopes on aquifer solids, decay of the dissolved radium isotopes, and adsorption of dissolved Ra on solid surfaces. The availability of surface adsorption sites, which depends on the clay content in the aquifer rocks, is therefore an important constraint for Ra activity in sandstone aquifers. These findings raise concerns about the safety of this and similar nonrenewable groundwater reservoirs, exacerbating the already severe water crisis in the Middle East.

  20. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  1. Methane production rates from natural organics of glacial lake clay and granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hawkins, J.L.; Hamon, C.J.; Motycka, M.

    1996-05-01

    Engineered barrier materials are an integral part of the proposed Canadian concept for the disposal of used nuclear fuel or high level waste. Components of these barriers, such as the buffer and backfill clays surrounding the waste containers in a vault, and granitic groundwater, naturally contain small quantities of organic material (up to about 1.2 wt%). Despite high temperatures, space and water limitations and radiation effects, the question remains whether gas could be produced from these organics as a result of biological processes. Degradation of organic carbon by microbes can produce gases such as carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ). This work demonstrates that methane is produced in natural systems containing 2 . In deep fracture zone groundwater, the largest methane production rate was 0.19 mole %/day or 5 μg CH 4 /L groundwater per day, at STP. This can be compared with the methane production rate of 1 μg CH 4 /(kg clay · day) at STP in an earlier experiment containing added organic material. Using this rate of 5 pg CH 4 /(L groundwater · day) (3.75 μg C/(L groundwater · day)), all of the organic C in the groundwater, assuming it is equally bioavailable, would have been converted to CH 4 during the timeframe of this experiment. Enhanced methane production occurred with an increase in natural organic carbon, an increase in the microbe population and with the addition of Fe. Steady-state methane production rates of 10 to 25 μg CH 4 / L groundwater per day have been repeatedly observed in clay-free systems. The effects of microbial metabolism, the requirement for a facilitating consortium, the Eh, the pH, the salinity, the groundwater sulphate concentration, the presence of methanotrophs and the sorption effects of clay interlayers are discussed as possible explanations for the inhibition of methanogenesis and methane production in the presence of clay and crushed granite. (author). 49 refs., 11 tabs., 12 figs

  2. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  5. Assessment and modeling of groundwater quality using WQI and GIS in Upper Egypt area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeiy, Ragab ElSayed

    2017-04-04

    The continuous growth and development of population need more fresh water for drinking, irrigation, and domestic in arid countries like Egypt. Evaluation the quality of groundwater is an essential study to ensure its suitability for different purposes. In this study, 812 groundwater samples were taken within the middle area of Upper Egypt (Sohag Governorate) to assess the quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. Eleven water parameters were analyzed at each groundwater sample (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 - SO 4 2- , Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cl - , electrical conductivity, and pH) to exploit them in water quality evaluation. A classical statistics were applied for the raw data to examine the distribution of physicochemical parameters in the investigated area. The relationship between groundwater parameters was tested using the correlation coefficient where a strong relationship was found between several water parameters such as Ca 2+ and Cl - . Water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical model used to transform many water parameters into a single indicator value which represents the water quality level. Results of WQI showed that 20% of groundwater samples are excellent, 75% are good for drinking, and 7% are very poor water while only 1% of samples are unsuitable for drinking. To test the suitability of groundwater for irrigation, three indices are used; they are sodium adsorption ration (SAR), sodium percentage (Na%), and permeability index (PI). For irrigation suitability, the study proved that most sampling sites are suitable while less than 3% are unsuitable for irrigation. The spatial distribution of the estimated values of WQI, SAR, Na%, PI, and each groundwater parameter was spatially modeled using GIS.

  6. Determination of trigger levels for groundwater quality in landfills located in historically human-impacted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefania, Gennaro A; Zanotti, Chiara; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; Rotiroti, Marco

    2018-02-03

    Landfills are one of the most recurrent sources of groundwater contamination worldwide. In order to limit their impacts on groundwater resources, current environmental regulations impose the adoption of proper measures for the protection of groundwater quality. For instance, in the EU member countries, the calculation of trigger levels for identifying significant adverse environmental effects on groundwater generated by landfills is required by the Landfill Directive 99/31/EC. Although the derivation of trigger levels could be relatively easy when groundwater quality data prior to the construction of a landfill are available, it becomes challenging when these data are missing and landfills are located in areas that are already impacted by historical contamination. This work presents a methodology for calculating trigger levels for groundwater quality in landfills located in areas where historical contaminations have deteriorated groundwater quality prior to their construction. This method is based on multivariate statistical analysis and involves 4 steps: (a) implementation of the conceptual model, (b) landfill monitoring data collection, (c) hydrochemical data clustering and (d) calculation of the trigger levels. The proposed methodology was applied on a case study in northern Italy, where a currently used lined landfill is located downstream of an old unlined landfill and others old unmapped waste deposits. The developed conceptual model stated that groundwater quality deterioration observed downstream of the lined landfill is due to a degrading leachate plume fed by the upgradient unlined landfill. The methodology led to the determination of two trigger levels for COD and NH 4 -N, the former for a zone representing the background hydrochemistry (28 and 9 mg/L for COD and NH 4 -N, respectively), the latter for the zone impacted by the degrading leachate plume from the upgradient unlined landfill (89 and 83 mg/L for COD and NH 4 -N, respectively). Copyright

  7. Groundwater quality for 75 domestic wells in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2017-03-06

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in Lycoming County and adjacent counties in north-central and northeastern Pennsylvania, which are largely forested and rural and are currently undergoing development for hydrocarbon gases. Water-quality data are needed for assessing the natural characteristics of the groundwater resource and the potential effects from energy and mineral extraction, timber harvesting, agriculture, sewage and septic systems, and other human influences.This report, prepared in cooperation with Lycoming County, presents analytical data for groundwater samples from 75 domestic wells sampled throughout Lycoming County in June, July, and August 2014. The samples were collected using existing pumps and plumbing prior to any treatment and analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, volatile organic compounds, gross-alpha particle and gross beta-particle activity, uranium, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222.Results indicate groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but that some samples exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for arsenic, iron, manganese, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, pH, bacteria, or radon-222. Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 9 of the 75 (12 percent) well-water samples, with concentrations as high as 23.6 μg/L; arsenic concentrations were higher than the health advisory level (HAL) of 2 μg/L in 23 samples (31 percent). Total iron concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 300 μg/L in 20 of the 75 samples. Total manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 50 μg/L in 20 samples and the HAL of 300 μg/L in 2 of those samples. Three samples had chloride concentrations that exceeded the SMCL of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L); two of those samples exceeded the SMCL of 500 mg/L for TDS. The pH ranged

  8. Impacts of the 2013 Extreme Flood in Northeast China on Regional Groundwater Depth and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flooding’s impact on shallow groundwater is not well investigated. In this study, we analyzed changes in the depth and quality of a regional shallow aquifer in the 10.9 × 104 km2 Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, following a large flood in the summer of 2013. Pre- (2008–2012 and post-flood records on groundwater table depth and groundwater chemistry were gathered from 20 wells across the region. Spatial variability of groundwater recharge after the flood was assessed and the changes in groundwater quality in the post-flood period were determined. The study found a considerable increase in the groundwater table after the 2013 summer flood across the region, with the largest (3.20 m and fastest (0.80 m·s−1 rising height occurring in western Sanjiang Plain. The rising height and velocity gradually declined from the west to the east of the plain. For the entire region, we estimated an average recharge height of 1.24 m for the four flood months (June to September of 2013. Furthermore, we found that the extreme flood reduced nitrate (NO3− and chloride (Cl− concentrations and electrical conductivity (EC in shallow groundwater in the areas that were close to rivers, but increased NO3− and Cl− concentrations and EC in the areas that were under intensive agricultural practices. As the region’s groundwater storage and quality have been declining due to the rapidly increasing rice cultivation, this study shows that floods should be managed as water resources to ease the local water shortage as well as shallow groundwater pollution.

  9. Groundwater quality in an abandoned metal extraction site: the case study of Campello Monti (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neha; Lasagna, Manuela; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Extractive activities present threat to natural water systems and their effects are observed even after the cessation of activities. The harmful effects of extractive activities such as deterioration of water sources by low quality waters or by allowing leaching of metals into groundwater makes it necessary to carry out careful, scientific and comprehensive studies on this subject. Consequently, the same problem statement was chosen as part of a PhD research Project. The PhD research is part of REMEDIATE project (A Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action Initial Training Network for Improved decision making in contaminated land site investigation and risk assessment, Grant Agreement No. 643087). The current work thus points out on the contamination of groundwater sources due to past mining activities in the area. Contaminated groundwater may act as possible contamination source to surface water also. The impacts on water systems connected to mining activities depend on the ore type, metal being extracted, exploitation method, ore processing, pollution control efforts, geochemical and hydrogeochemical conditions of water and surroundings. To evaluate the effects posed by past metal extracting activities the study was carried out at an abandoned site used for extracting nickel in Campello Monti (Valstrona municipality, Piedmont region, Italy). Campello Monti is located in basement of Southern Italian Alps in the Ivrea Verbano Zone. The area is composed of mafic rocks intruded by mantle periodite. The mafic formation consists of peridotites, pyroxenites, gabbros, anorthosites, gabbro-norite, gabbro-diorite and diorite. Mines were used for nickel exploitation from 9th Century and continued until 1940s. The long history of nickel extraction has left the waste contaminated with Ni and Co in the mountains alongwith tunnels used for carrying out metal extracting activities. The area around the site is used for housing, shows the presence of domestic animals and has Strona creek

  10. Groundwater quality across scales: impact on nutrient transport to large water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Hans; Moosdorf, Nils; Mallast, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of dissolved nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in groundwater are an increasing concern in many areas of the world. Especially regions with high agriculture impact see widespread declining groundwater quality, with considerable uncertainty mainly regarding the impact of phosphorus (P). Implications reach from direct impacts on different water users to discharge of nutrient-rich groundwater to rivers, lakes and coastal areas, where it can contribute to eutrophication, hypoxia or harmful algal blooms. While local-scale studies are abundant and management options exist, quantitative approaches at regional to continental scales are scarce and frequently have to deal with data inconsistencies or are temporally sparse. Here, we present the research framework to combine large databases of local groundwater quality to data sets of climatical, hydrological, geological or landuse parameters. Pooling of such information, together with robust methods such as water balances and groundwater models, can provide constraints such as upper boundaries and likely ranges of nutrient composition in various settings, or for the nutrient transport to large water bodies. Remote Sensing can provide spatial information on the location of groundwater seepage. Results will eventually help to identify focus areas and lead to improved understanding of the role of groundwater in the context of global biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Experiences of Mass Pig Carcass Disposal Related to Groundwater Quality Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yei Hseu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig industry is the most crucial animal industry in Taiwan; 10.7 million pigs were reared for consumption in 1996. A foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemic broke out on 19 March 1997, and 3,850,536 pigs were culled before July in the same year. The major disposal method of pig carcasses from the FMD outbreak was burial, followed by burning and incineration. To investigate groundwater quality, environmental monitoring of burial sites was performed from October 1997 to June 1999; groundwater monitoring of 90–777 wells in 20 prefectures was performed wo to six times in 1998. Taiwanese governmental agencies analyzed 3723 groundwater samples using a budget of US $1.5 million. The total bacterial count, fecal coliform, Salmonella spp., nitrite-N, nitrate-N, ammonium-N, sulfate, non-purgeable organic carbon, total oil, and total dissolved solid were recognized as indicators of groundwater contamination resulting from pig carcass burial. Groundwater at the burial sites was considered to be contaminated on the basis of the aforementioned indicators, particularly groundwater at burial sites without an impermeable cloth and those located at a relatively short distance from the monitoring well. The burial sites selected during outbreaks in Taiwan should have a low surrounding population, be away from water preservation areas, and undergo regular monitoring of groundwater quality.

  12. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  13. Influence of a vinasse-distributing lake on water quality of the groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Farias de França e Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse is an organic matter and nutrient-rich residue generated during alcohol distillation. However, if applied to crops in excess, it may disturb the complex balance of soil absoption and contaminate groundwater. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of a vinasse-distributing pool on the quality of groundwater in a sugarcane field in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 10 observation wells along three parallel transects around the vinasse-distributing pool. The quality of groundwater as well as the fluvial water of the Ipojuca River was assessed as a control for ocean intrusion. The following parameters were measured: CE, SDT, pH, COD, BOD, NO3-, NO2-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cl- and HCO3-. Storing vinasse in the distribution lake disturbed CE, COD and BOD values as well TDS, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in groundwater.

  14. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional (SNR) study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide statistically unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system of the Sierra Nevada. The primary aquifer system for the SNR study unit was delineated by the depth intervals over which wells in the State of California’s database of public drinking-water supply wells are open or screened. Two types of assessments were made: (1) a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) an evaluation of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors that represent characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, rather than the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  18. Demonstrating trend reversal of groundwater quality in relation to time of recharge determined by 3H/3He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Broers, H.P.; Grift, B. van der; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent EU legislation is directed to reverse the upward trends in the concentrations of agricultural pollutants in groundwater. However, uncertainty of the groundwater travel time towards the screens of the groundwater quality monitoring networks complicates the demonstration of trend reversal. We

  19. Natural colloids in groundwater from granite and their potential impact on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.

    1997-03-01

    AECL has submitted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel disposal at depth in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. As part of geochemical studies carried out in support of the EIS, the role of natural groundwater colloids (0.001 to 0.45 μm) and suspended particles (>0.45 μm) in radionuclide transport in granite rock has been investigated. This report summarizes the results of investigations carried out in groundwaters from the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) of southern Manitoba and the Atikokan Research Area (ARA) of northwestern Ontario to determine the concentrations, size distributions, and compositions of natural particles in groundwaters from the Canadian Shield. Particles from groundwater were isolated by ultrafiltration under a nitrogen atmosphere and particle concentrations and size distributions were determined by filtration, and by laser-based particle counting and size analysis. Groundwaters from Canadian Shield granites contain particles in a broad range of sizes, with no one particular size being dominant. Particle compositions include aluminosilicates, Fe oxides, carbonate and organics. Suspended particles are most likely generated by the mobilization of fracture-lining minerals by groundwater flow, while colloids are formed by a combination of precipitation and mobilization of colloidal material from fracture surfaces. The average concentration of 0.01 to 0.45 μm colloids in WRA groundwaters was 1.05 ± 0.14 mg/L. Average colloid concentrations were slightly higher in the more highly fractured ARA, although the highest observed colloid concentration in the ARA was below the 7 mg/L maximum observed in a sample from the WRA. The existence of colloids in the 0.001 to 0.01 μm size range was demonstrated using the results of chemical analysis of particle concentrates and data obtained with the laser-based Ultrafine Particle Size Analyzer (UPA). The WRA groundwaters contain on average about 2.7 mg/L of 0

  20. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonte, M.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  2. Hydro-geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality from weathered basement aquifers in Northern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah; Monjerezi, Maurice; Mwatseteza, Jonas F.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    The obligation to ensure adequate potable water supply to everyone, has necessitated the development of groundwater resources for reliable rural water supply in most developing countries. An understanding of spatial variation and processes affecting water quality is essential in sustaining usable water supplies under changing climate and local environmental pressures. In this study, an assessment of quality and dominant hydro-geochemical processes affecting the quality of groundwater from weathered basement aquifers in Mzimba district, Northern Malawi, has been conducted. Groundwater samples were collected from 172 hand-pumped boreholes, drilled for domestic rural water supply and analysed for major and minor ions, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). In general, groundwater is of low mineralisation (TDS range: 29-1896 mg L -1 for the dry season), with hydro-geochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO 3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. Multivariate statistical analysis (HCA and PCA) and geochemical interpretation showed that the Ca-HCO 3 groundwater type result from hydrolysis of silicate minerals, which causes the solution to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. The processes of cation exchange of Na + and K + in the groundwater for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ on clay minerals, carbonate precipitation and evaporation, are shown to modify the chemical composition from Ca-HCO 3 types to Ca-Cl types. Groundwater is generally of good quality in both rainy and dry seasons, with little seasonal changes. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff and Wilcox diagrams showed that most samples were also suitable for irrigation except for 4% (eight samples) of the groundwater samples (with EC > 2000 μS cm -1). These are located in alluviums and colluviums localised near river banks and in inter hill valleys.

  3. Presenting a conceptual model of data collection to manage the groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourbakhsh Zahra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model was proposed in the present study, which highlighted important independent and dependent variables in order to managing the groundwater quality. Furthermore, the methods of selection of variable and collection of related data were explained. The study was carried out in the Tajan Plain, north of Iran; 50 drinking wells were considered as sampling points. In this model the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was proposed to select the indicator water quality parameters. According to expert opinions and characteristics of the study area ten factors were chosen as variables influencing the quality of groundwater (land use types, lithology units, geology units, distance of wells to the outlet, distance to the residential areas, direction toward the residential areas, depth of the groundwater table, the type of aquifer, transmissivity and population. Geographic Information System (AecGIS 9.3 was used to manage the spatial-based variables and the data of non-spatial-based variables were obtained from relevant references. A database, which contains all collected data related to groundwater quality management in the studied area, was created as the output of the model. The output of this conceptual model can be used as an input for quantitative and mathematical models. Results show that 6 parameters (sulphate, iron, nitrate, electrical conductivity, calcium, and total dissolved solids (TDS were the best indicators for groundwater quality analysis in the area. More than 50% of the wells were drilled in the depth of groundwater table about 5 meters, in this low depth pollutants can load into the wells and also 78% of the wells are located within 5 km from the urban area; it can be concluded from this result that the intensive urban activities could affect groundwater quality.

  4. Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation with Reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    collected from the command area of the hand dug wells from where the groundwater samples .... and fractured upper parts of the rocks are exploited through these hand dug wells. They supply water daily for domestic, irrigation and livestock consumption. 1.3.6.1. Hand Dug Wells ... (c) Fracture characteristics of bedrock.

  5. Assessment of shallow groundwater quality and its suitability for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, water for drinking should be treated mildly, due to low pH and high iron content. Polyvinyl chloride materials (PVC) and other non-corrosive materials should be used for the construction of boreholes within the area to reduce damage to plumbing materials. Groundwater monitoring, effective and holistic ...

  6. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    extremely low. Surface water and groundwater system is one of the most important influencing factors in foundation engineering and urban development and is required for design of structures. Hence monitoring and conserving this important resource is essential. (Chatterjee et al., 2010). Understanding the hydrogeology of ...

  7. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in Sagamu area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were subjected to chemical analysis involving the Induced Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) for cation determination, and volumetric analysis to determine the anions. The classification of the groundwater using Piper diagram, Gibbs variation, Wilcox classification and Zhang evolution plot reveals ...

  8. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... Igbinosa and Okoh (2009) reported the damaging conse- quences of leachate infiltration into groundwater bodies on life expectancy of such water consumers, while Quinn et al. (2006) enumerated its effect and that of delayed drawdown on moist plant productivity and wetland ecology. Several studies have ...

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality at the Nigerian Institute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to ascertain the suitability of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research's groundwater resources for aquaculture purposes. The samples were subjected to physico-chemical analyses and the parameters analyzed are Iron, pH, Sulphide ion Total Ammonia, Dissolved Oxygen, ...

  10. Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality in lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for few locations. The results of these analyses were used to identify the geochemical processes that are taking place in this region. Cation exchange and silicate ...... composition of groundwater from alluvial aquifers in the Wanaka and Wakatipu basins, central Otago, New. Zealand; Hydrogeol. J. 6 264–281. Rouxel M ...

  11. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... sources peculiar to emerging African cities. Key words: Shallow well, pollution, water level, ... groundwater contamination within the region of interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study area ... were covered with cork to prevent spillage and contamination and were kept in the laboratory at 4°C before the ...

  12. Assessment of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater in parts of the Central Region of Ghana was assessed to determine its suitability for domestic use and irrigation activities. Stiff and Piper diagrams show that the predominant water type in the area is Na-Cl, which is characterized by relatively high salinities. This water type occurs in aquifers underlying six ...

  13. Groundwater quality degradation due to salt water intrusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were collected from production boreholes in Zanzibar municipality and analyzed for salinity indication parameters comprising of chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts and ...

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality around a petroleum tank farm, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the physical and chemical properties of groundwater around a Petroleum Tank Farm was carried out between January and August, 2015 to assess the suitability of the borehole water for drinking and other domestic uses. The results show that pH of water was acidic with values ranging from 4.62 to 6.87, EC ...

  15. groundwater quality assessment of wells in ifewara, osun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influences as a result of factors such as overpopulation and activities (including agriculture, indiscriminate refuse disposal and use of septic tanks, soak away and latrines) which are capable of producing run-offs and leachate which could infiltrate into and pollute groundwater formation. Many households depend on wells ...

  16. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The presented study was aimed at investigating possible interactions between the porous sandy aquifer intensively exploited for drinking water purposes and the groundwater dependent ecosystem (GDE) consisting of a valuable forest stand. The investigated aquifer (Bogucice Sands) and the associated GDE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The aquifer covers the area of ca. 200 km2 and belongs to the category of medium groundwater basins in Poland. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. This relic of once vast forests is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepolomicka" (PLB120002) that supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the Niepolomice Forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. The Niepolomice Forest contains also several nature reserves and the European bison breeding centre and has an important recreational value as the largest forest complex in the vicinity of Krakow. Due to spatially variable lithologies and groundwater levels, the Niepolomice Forest is a mosaic of various forest and non-forest habitats, including wetlands, marsh forests, humid forests and fresh forests. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils in the area. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly in the period 1900-1930 and after the Second World War and by forest management. Due to artesian conditions in the area and relatively thin clay layer separating Tertiary aquifer layers from shallow Quaternary aquifer, the upward leaching of deeper groundwater may contribute in a significant way to the water balance of the investigated GDE. In September 2009 a cluster of

  17. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nagpur Region (India Based on WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Rajankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI has been calculated for different groundwater sources i.e. dug wells, bore wells and tube wells at Khaperkheda region, Maharashtra (India. Twenty two different sites were selected in post monsoon, winter and summer season. And water quality index was calculated using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF information system. The calculated WQI showed fair water quality rating in post monsoon season which then changed to medium in summer and winter seasons for dug wells, but the bore wells and hand pumps showed medium water quality rating in all seasons where the quality was slightly differs in summer and winter season than post monsoon season, so the reasons to import water quality change and measures to be taken up in terms of groundwater quality management are required.

  18. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Naito, M.; Thorne, M.C.; Walke, R.

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of 'Reference Biospheres' to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'

  19. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  20. Colloid migration in groundwaters: Geochemical interactions of radionuclides with natural colloids. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Longworth, G.; Hasler, S.E.; Gardiner, M.; Fritz, P.; Klotz, D.; Lazik, D.; Wolf, M.; Geyer, S.; Alexander, J.L.; Read, D.; Thomas, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In this joint research programme the significance of groundwater colloids in far field radionuclide migration has been studied. The characterization, quantification and theoretical interpretation of colloid-borne transport phenomena for radionuclides were the main objectives of this research programme. Groundwaters, colloids and sediments were sampled from aquifer system overlying a saltdome in the Gorleben area in northern Germany and were characterized by various analytical methods (ICP-MS, ICP-AES, neutron activation analysis (NAA), DOC-Analyser, HPIC, potentiometric titration). Different natural isotopes ( 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 18 O, 34 S, U/Th decay series) were determined and their ratios were compared with one another in the order to ascertain the provenance of the groundwater colloids. The investigated groundwaters contain substantial amounts of colloids mainly composed of humic and fulvic acids loaded with various metal ions. The chemical interaction of radionuclide ions of various oxidation states (Am, Eu, for M(III), Th, Pu for M(IV), Np for M(V) and U for M(VI)) with groundwater colloids was investigated in order to elucidate the colloid facilitated migration behaviour of actinides in a given aquifer system. Transport process studies with generated pseudocolloids of radionuclides in various oxidation states were undertaken in scaled column experiments, pre-equilibrated with colloid rich Gorleben groundwater. A modelling programme was developed to predict chemical transport of radionuclides in the presence of humic colloids using a modified version of the CHEMTARD code. Modelling predictions have generated acceptable results for Eu, Am and U and poorer agreement between experimental and modelling results for Th and Np as a result of more limited data. (orig.)

  1. Colloid migration in groundwaters: Geochemical interactions of radionuclides with natural colloids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Delakowitz, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Zeh, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Probst, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Lin, X. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Ehrlicher, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Schauer, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Ivanovich, M. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Longworth, G. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Hasler, S.E. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gardiner, M. [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Fritz, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Klotz, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lazik, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Wolf, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Geyer, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Alexander, J.L. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Thomas, J.B. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1994-08-01

    In this joint research programme the significance of groundwater colloids in far field radionuclide migration has been studied. The characterization, quantification and theoretical interpretation of colloid-borne transport phenomena for radionuclides were the main objectives of this research programme. Groundwaters, colloids and sediments were sampled from aquifer system overlying a saltdome in the Gorleben area in northern Germany and were characterized by various analytical methods (ICP-MS, ICP-AES, neutron activation analysis (NAA), DOC-Analyser, HPIC, potentiometric titration). Different natural isotopes ({sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 18}O, {sup 34}S, U/Th decay series) were determined and their ratios were compared with one another in the order to ascertain the provenance of the groundwater colloids. The investigated groundwaters contain substantial amounts of colloids mainly composed of humic and fulvic acids loaded with various metal ions. The chemical interaction of radionuclide ions of various oxidation states (Am, Eu, for M(III), Th, Pu for M(IV), Np for M(V) and U for M(VI)) with groundwater colloids was investigated in order to elucidate the colloid facilitated migration behaviour of actinides in a given aquifer system. Transport process studies with generated pseudocolloids of radionuclides in various oxidation states were undertaken in scaled column experiments, pre-equilibrated with colloid rich Gorleben groundwater. A modelling programme was developed to predict chemical transport of radionuclides in the presence of humic colloids using a modified version of the CHEMTARD code. Modelling predictions have generated acceptable results for Eu, Am and U and poorer agreement between experimental and modelling results for Th and Np as a result of more limited data. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  4. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaraja, C.

    2017-09-01

    The present hydrogeochemical study was confined to the Thoothukudi District in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 100 representative water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for the major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and anions (chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, fluoride and nitrate) along with various physical and chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify the overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to dilution of ions and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC corresponds to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. Sodium (Na %), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), residual sodium bicarbonate, permeability index (PI), magnesium hazards (MH), Kelly's ratio (KR), potential salinity (PS) and Puri's salt index (PSI) and domestic quality parameters such as total hardness (TH), temporary, permanent hardness and corrosivity ratio (CR) were calculated. The majority of the samples were not suitable for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes in the study area. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through binary diagrams such as of mole ratios of {SO}_{ 4}^{ 2- } /Cl- and Cl-/EC that clearly classify the sources of seawater intrusion and saltpan contamination. Spatial diagram BEX was used to find whether the aquifer was in the salinization region or in the freshening encroachment region.

  5. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  6. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, Fernando; Santos, Robson Rodger; Silva, L. Ferreira da; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2008-01-01

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi 8 O 8 ), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO 3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  7. Geochemistry and quality of groundwater of the Yarmouk basin aquifer, north Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2018-01-04

    Quality of groundwater in the Yarmouk basin, Jordan has been assessed through the study of hydrogeochemical characteristics and the water chemistry as it is considered the main source for drinking and agriculture activities in the region. The results of the relationship between Ca 2+  + Mg 2+ versus HCO 3 -  + CO 3 2- , Ca 2+  + Mg 2+ versus total cations, Na +  + K + versus total cations, Cl -  + SO 4 2- versus Na +  + K + , Na + versus Cl - , Na + versus HCO 3 -  + CO 3 2- , Na + versus Ca 2+ , and Na + : Cl - versus EC describe the mineral dissolution mechanism through the strong relationship between water with rocks in alkaline conditions with the release of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , and F - ions in the groundwater for enrichment. Furthermore, evaporation processes, groundwater depletion, and ion exchange contribute to the increased concentration of Na + and Cl - ions in groundwater. Anthropogenic sources are one of the main reasons for contamination of groundwater in the study area and for increasing the concentration of Mg 2+ , Na + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - ions. Results show the quality of groundwater in the study area is categorized as follows: HCO 3 -  + CO 3 2-  > Cl -  > SO 4 2-  > NO 3 -  > F - and Na +  > Ca 2+  > Mg 2+  > K + . In conclusion, the results of TDS, TH, and chemical composition showed that 26% of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for drinking. About 28% of groundwater samples in the study area have a high concentration of Mg 2+ , Na + , and NO 3 - above the acceptable limit. Also, based on high SAR, 10% of the groundwater samples were not suitable for irrigation purposes.

  8. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nagpur Region (India) Based on WQI

    OpenAIRE

    Rajankar, P. N.; Gulhane, S. R.; Tambekar, D. H.; Ramteke, D. S.; Wate, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) has been calculated for different groundwater sources i.e. dug wells, bore wells and tube wells at Khaperkheda region, Maharashtra (India). Twenty two different sites were selected in post monsoon, winter and summer season. And water quality index was calculated using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) information system. The calculated WQI showed fair water quality rating in post monsoon season which then changed to medium i...

  9. Groundwater quality assessment of the shallow aquifers west of the Nile Delta (Egypt) using multivariate statistical and geostatistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa A.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive urban, agricultural and industrial expansions on the western fringe of the Nile Delta of Egypt have exerted much load on the water needs and lead to groundwater quality deterioration. Documenting the spatial variation of the groundwater quality and their controlling factors is vital to ensure sustainable water management and safe use. A comprehensive dataset of 451 shallow groundwater samples were collected in 2011 and 2012. On-site field measurements of the total dissolved solids (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature, as well as lab-based ionic composition of the major and trace components were performed. Groundwater types were derived and the suitability for irrigation use was evaluated. Multivariate statistical techniques of factor analysis and K-means clustering were integrated with the geostatistical semi-variogram modeling for evaluating the spatial hydrochemical variations and the driving factors as well as for hydrochemical pattern recognition. Most hydrochemical parameters showed very wide ranges; TDS (201-24,400 mg/l), pH (6.72-8.65), Na+ (28.30-7774 mg/l), and Cl- (7-12,186 mg/l) suggesting complex hydrochemical processes of multiple sources. TDS violated the limit (1200 mg/l) of the Egyptian standards for drinking water quality in many localities. Extreme concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, are mostly related to their natural content in the water-bearing sediments and/or to contamination from industrial leakage. Very high nitrate concentrations exceeding the permissible limit (50 mg/l) were potentially maximized toward hydrologic discharge zones and related to wastewater leakage. Three main water types; NaCl (29%), Na2SO4 (26%), and NaHCO3 (20%), formed 75% of the groundwater dominated in the saline depressions, sloping sides of the coastal ridges of the depressions, and in the cultivated/newly reclaimed lands intensely covered by irrigation canals, respectively. Water suitability for irrigation use clarified that the

  10. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  11. gis-based integrated groundwater potential assessment of osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Surrette et al., 2008;. Yeh et al.,2008). Consequently, groundwater is not uniformly distributed in terms of quantity and quality. Depending on the hydrogeological and climatic conditions, either the magnitude of natural groundwater resources or ...

  12. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  13. Ra and Rn isotopes as natural tracers of submarine groundwater discharge in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Reich, C.; Kroeger, K.D.; Baskaran, M.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of naturally occurring radionuclides in the U/Th decay series (222Rn, 223,224,226,228Ra) were studied during wet and dry conditions in Tampa Bay, Florida, to evaluate their utility as groundwater discharge tracers, both within the bay proper and within the Alafia River/estuary — a prominent free-flowing river that empties into the bay. In Tampa Bay, almost 30% of the combined riverine inputs still remain ungauged. Consequently, groundwater/surface water (hyporheic) exchange in the discharging coastal rivers, as well as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) within the bay, are still unresolved components of this system's water and material budgets. Based on known inputs and sinks, there exists an excess of 226Ra in the water column of Tampa Bay, which can be evaluated in terms of a submarine groundwater contribution to the bay proper. Submarine groundwater discharge rates calculated using a mass balance of excess 226Ra ranged from 2.2 to 14.5 L m− 2 day− 1, depending on whether the estuarine residence time was calculated using 224Ra/xs228Ra isotope ratios, or whether a long term, averaged model-derived estuarine residence time was used. When extrapolated to the total shoreline length of the bay, such SGD rates ranged from 1.6 to 10.3 m3 m− 1 day− 1. Activities of 222Rn were also elevated in surface water and shallow groundwater of the bay, as well as in the Alafia River estuary, where upstream activities as high as 250 dpm L− 1 indicate enhanced groundwater/surface water exchange, facilitated by an active spring vent. From average nutrient concentrations of 39 shallow, brackish, groundwater samples, rates of nutrient loading into Tampa Bay by SGD rates were estimated, and these ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 × 105 mol day− 1 (PO43−), 0.9–6.2 × 105 mol day− 1 (SiO4−), 0.7–5.0 × 105 mol day− 1 (dissolved organic nitrogen, DON), and 0.2–1.4 × 106 mol day− 1 (total dissolved nitrogen, TDN). Such nutrient loading estimates, when compared

  14. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment at the 216-B-3 Pond Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Teel, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes a groundwater quality assessment of the 216-B-3 pond system, a Resources Conservation and Recovery act of 1976 (RCRA) waste facility. In 1990, sampling and chemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility indicated that the contamination indicator parameters, total organic halogens (TOX), and total organic carbon (TOC) had exceeded established limits in two wells. This discovery placed the facility into RCRA groundwater assessment status and subsequently led to a more detailed hydrochemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility. Comprehensive chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 1994 through 1996 revealed one compound, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRIS2CH), that may have contributed to elevated TOX concentrations. No compound was identified as a contributor to TOC. Detailed evaluations of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH and comparison of occurrences of these parameters led to conclusions that (1) with few exceptions, these constituents occur at low concentrations below or near limits of quantitation; (2) it is problematic whether the low concentrations of TRIS2CH represent a contaminant originating from the facility or if it is a product of well construction; and (3) given the low and diminishing concentration of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH, no further investigation into the occurrent of these constituents is justified. Continued groundwater monitoring should include an immediate recalculation of background critical means of upgradient/downgradient comparisons and a return to seminannual groundwater monitoring under a RCRA indicator parameter evaluation program

  15. Hydrochemical and multivariate analysis of groundwater quality in the northwest of Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Salem, W M; Embaby, A A; Mohamed, F A

    2017-08-01

    The northwestern coast of Sinai is home to many economic activities and development programs, thus evaluation of the potentiality and vulnerability of water resources is important. The present work has been conducted on the groundwater resources of this area for describing the major features of groundwater quality and the principal factors that control salinity evolution. The major ionic content of 39 groundwater samples collected from the Quaternary aquifer shows high coefficients of variation reflecting asymmetry of aquifer recharge. The groundwater samples have been classified into four clusters (using hierarchical cluster analysis), these match the variety of total dissolvable solids, water types and ionic orders. The principal component analysis combined the ionic parameters of the studied groundwater samples into two principal components. The first represents about 56% of the whole sample variance reflecting a salinization due to evaporation, leaching, dissolution of marine salts and/or seawater intrusion. The second represents about 15.8% reflecting dilution with rain water and the El-Salam Canal. Most groundwater samples were not suitable for human consumption and about 41% are suitable for irrigation. However, all groundwater samples are suitable for cattle, about 69% and 15% are suitable for horses and poultry, respectively.

  16. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Dichloromethane-Contaminated Groundwater Undergoing Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wright

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled release of the industrial solvent methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane (DCM, has resulted in widespread groundwater contamination in the United States. Here we investigate the role of groundwater bacterial communities in the natural attenuation of DCM at an undisclosed manufacturing site in New Jersey. This study investigates the bacterial community structure of groundwater samples differentially contaminated with DCM to better understand the biodegradation potential of these autochthonous bacterial communities. Bacterial community analysis was completed using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of groundwater samples (n = 26 with DCM contamination ranging from 0.89 to 9,800,000 μg/L. Significant DCM concentration-driven shifts in overall bacterial community structure were identified between samples, including an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes within the most contaminated samples. Across all samples, a total of 6,134 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified, with 16 taxa having strong correlations with increased DCM concentration. Putative DCM degraders such as Pseudomonas, Dehalobacterium and Desulfovibrio were present within groundwater across all levels of DCM contamination. Interestingly, each of these taxa dominated specific DCM contamination ranges respectively. Potential DCM degrading lineages yet to be cited specifically as a DCM degrading organisms, such as the Desulfosporosinus, thrived within the most heavily contaminated groundwater samples. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial taxa with DCM-degrading potential were present at the study site. Our 16S rRNA gene survey serves as the first in situ bacterial community assessment of contaminated groundwater harboring DCM concentrations ranging over seven orders of magnitude. Diversity analyses revealed known as well as potentially novel DCM degrading taxa within defined DCM concentration

  17. Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nik N. Nik Daud; Nur H. Izehar; B. Yusuf; Thamer A. Mohamed; A. Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using two aeration methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii) to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in removing iron an...

  18. Multivariate analysis of groundwater quality in parts of Lagos - Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The co-efficient of variation shows that all the groundwater parameters examined are highly variable except pH (10.92%).The factor analysis employed indicates that of the two Factors I and II, Factor I, which explains 62.73% of the total variance, has a strong positive loading on EC, TDS, TH, Na, Cl, Ca, K and SO4 . Factor II ...

  19. Removal of Iron and Manganese from Natural Groundwater by Continuous Reactor Using Activated and Natural Mordenite Mineral Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevi, Y.; Dewita, S.; Aghasa, A.; Dwinandha, D.

    2018-01-01

    Mordenite minerals derived from Sukabumi natural green stone founded in Indonesia was tested in order to remove iron and manganese from natural groundwater. This research used two types of adsorbents which were consisted of physically activated and natural mordenite. Physical activation of the mordenite was carried out by heating at 400-600°C for two hours. Batch system experiments was also conducted as a preliminary experiment. Batch system proved that both activated and natural mordenite minerals were capable of reducing iron and manganese concentration from natural groundwater. Then, continuous experiment was conducted using down-flow system with 45 ml/minute of constant flow rate. The iron & manganese removal efficiency using continuous reactor for physically activated and natural mordenite were 1.38-1.99%/minute & 0.8-1.49%/minute and 2.26%/minute & 1.37-2.26%/minute respectively. In addition, the regeneration treatment using NH4Cl solution managed to improve the removal efficiency of iron & manganese to 1.98%/minute & 1.77-1.90%/minute and 2.25%/minute & 2.02-2.21%/minute on physically activated mordenite and natural mordenite respectively. Subsequently, the activation of the new mordenite was carried out by immersing mordenite in NH4Cl solution. This chemical activation showed 2.42-2.75%/minute & 0.96 - 2.67 %/minute and 2.66 - 2.78 %/minute & 1.34 - 2.32 %/minute of iron & manganese removal efficiency per detention time for chemically activated and natural mordenite respectively.

  20. Effect of Domestic Waste Leachates on Quality Parameters of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jiya MUSA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is an elixir of life. Percolating groundwater provides a medium through which wastes particularly organics can undergo degradation into simpler substances through biochemical reactions involving dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation and reduction processes. Ground water samples in and around dumpsite and landfills located in Kubuwa were studied to assess the effect of wastewater leachates on groundwater resources in the particular area. Groundwater samples were collected from 5 different bore-wells in and around relative distances from dumpsites. EC values ranged between 30 and 138 µS/cm, TDS ranged between 95 mg/L and 120 mg/L, SS ranged between 10 and 23 mg/L while that of the evening ranged between 11 and 15 mg/L, nitrate values ranged between 0.18 to 0.80 mg/L for the early morning samples while the late evening samples which ranged between 0.25 and 0.43 mg/L, while concentration of Sulphate in the morning water sample ranged between 168 and 213 mg/L while that of the evening ranged between 20 and 45 mg/L. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria should create landfills and dumpsites far away from residential homes and better still recycling plants should be put in place to recycle the various forms of waste products from homes.

  1. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  2. Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhammad Salman; Nasir, Abdul; Rashid, Haroon; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain

    2017-10-01

    Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the `R Statistical' software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.

  3. Assessment and Monitoring of Nutrient Management in Irrigated Agriculture for Groundwater Quality Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Davis, R.; Smart, D. R.; Brown, P. H.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient fluxes to groundwater have been subject to regulatory assessment and control only in a limited number of countries, including those in the European Union, where the Water Framework Directive requires member countries to manage groundwater basis toward achieving "good status", and California, where irrigated lands will be subject to permitting, stringent nutrient monitoring requirements, and development of practices that are protective of groundwater. However, research activities to rigorously assess agricultural practices for their impact on groundwater have been limited and instead focused on surface water protection. For groundwater-related assessment of agricultural practices, a wide range of modeling tools has been employed: vulnerability studies, nitrogen mass balance assessments, crop-soil-system models, and various statistical tools. These tools are predominantly used to identify high risk regions, practices, or crops. Here we present the development of a field site for rigorous in-situ evaluation of water and nutrient management practices in an irrigated agricultural setting. Integrating groundwater monitoring into agricultural practice assessment requires large research plots (on the order of 10s to 100s of hectares) and multi-year research time-frames - much larger than typical agricultural field research plots. Almonds are among the most common crops in California with intensive use of nitrogen fertilizer and were selected for their high water quality improvement potential. Availability of an orchard site with relatively vulnerable groundwater conditions (sandy soils, water table depth less than 10 m) was also important in site selection. Initial results show that shallow groundwater concentrations are commensurate with nitrogen leaching estimates obtained by considering historical, long-term field nitrogen mass balance and groundwater dynamics.

  4. Using a groundwater quality negotiation support system to change land-use management near a drinking-water abstraction in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Cors; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; van der Grift, Bas; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2008-02-01

    SummaryA negotiation support system (NSS) was developed to solve groundwater conflicts that arose during land-use management. It was set up in cooperation with the stakeholders involved to provide information on the impact of land use, e.g., agriculture, nature (forested areas), recreation, and urban areas, on the quality of both infiltrating and abstracted groundwater. This NSS combined simulation programs that calculate (1) the concentrations of nitrate in shallow groundwater for each land-use area and (2) the transport of nitrate in the groundwater-saturated zone. The user interface of the NSS enabled scenario analyses. The NSS was validated at a drinking-water abstraction near Holten (the Netherlands) using a spatial planning process aimed at sustainable land-use and groundwater-resource management. Two land-use scenarios were considered: a base scenario reflecting the autonomous development and an adapted land-use scenario. The calculated results for shallow groundwater provided an explicit spatial overview of the impact of historical land use and N application on the quality of abstracted groundwater as well as insight into the impact of changes in land use and N application. Visualization of the conflicting interests of agriculture and the drinking-water abstraction helped all stakeholders accept the necessary changes in land use identified by the adapted land-use scenario of the NSS. These changes were included in the preferred land-use management option in the regional planning process, which has since been formalized. The NSS provided system insight, scoping analyses, and education, in addition to generating quantitative information on the impact of land-use functions on groundwater quality.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment along Wadi Al Showat, Khamis Mushiet District, Southwest Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhumidan, S. M.; Alfaifi, H. J.; Ibrahim, E. K. E.; Abdel Rahman, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the hydrochemistry and geologic characteristics of the shallow groundwater aquifer along Wadi Al Showat, Khamis Mushiet District, Southwest Saudi Arabia was evaluated and assessed. Along this wadi the fractured/weathered basement rocks house significant quantity of groundwater that usually used by local people for agricultural and domestic purposes. Assessing and evaluation of the quality of the groundwater in such shallow aquifers is very important; especially the groundwater is generally occurred within the fractured basement rocks at shallow depths, thus exposing the groundwater to surface or near-surface contaminants is expected. For this purpose hydrochemical and biological analysis was conducted for 25 water samples collected from the available shallow dug wells along the studied wadi. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to the agriculture and urbanization practices along the wadi. The effect of domestic waste water and septic tanks was obvious. In addition, the field investigation indicates that the basement rocks in the area is dissected by two main sets of fractures that oriented in the west-northwest and east-west directions. In some places, the basement rocks is intruded by coarse-grained, quartz-rich quartzite grained monzogranite, and pegmatite veins that have a coarse-grained weathering product, therefore, they tend to develop and preserve open joint systems between the granitic blocks. These fracturing system are important from the hydrogeological point of view, as they facilitate the storage, water flow movement through them and also facilitate the vertical infiltration of the surface pollutants. These results led to a better understanding of the groundwater characteristics that is important in groundwater management in the study area.

  6. Assessment and modeling of the groundwater hydrogeochemical quality parameters via geostatistical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Shawgar; Madani, Hassan; Katibeh, Homayoon; Fatehi Marj, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Geostatistical methods are one of the advanced techniques used for interpolation of groundwater quality data. The results obtained from geostatistics will be useful for decision makers to adopt suitable remedial measures to protect the quality of groundwater sources. Data used in this study were collected from 78 wells in Varamin plain aquifer located in southeast of Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Ordinary kriging method was used in this study to evaluate groundwater quality parameters. According to what has been mentioned in this paper, seven main quality parameters (i.e. total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na+), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO4 2-)), have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical and geostatistical methods. After data normalization by Nscore method in WinGslib software, variography as a geostatistical tool to define spatial regression was compiled and experimental variograms were plotted by GS+ software. Then, the best theoretical model was fitted to each variogram based on the minimum RSS. Cross validation method was used to determine the accuracy of the estimated data. Eventually, estimation maps of groundwater quality were prepared in WinGslib software and estimation variance map and estimation error map were presented to evaluate the quality of estimation in each estimated point. Results showed that kriging method is more accurate than the traditional interpolation methods.

  7. Comparison of different methods to assess natural backgrond levels in groundwater bodies in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Parrone, Daniele; Ghergo, Stefano; Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Oliveira, Juana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the natural background levels (NBLs) of a substance or element is important to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in groundwater bodies. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. Rainfall composition, water-rock interactions in both vadose and saturated zone, exchanges with other water bodies and residence time also contribute to determine the groundwater natural composition. Nowadays there are different methods to assess NBLs but the main concern is that they may provide different results. In the European legislative context, the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) requests to EU Member States to derive appropriate threshold values (TV) for several potentially harmful substances, taking into account NBLs when necessary, in order to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. In the framework of a common project between Italy (CNR) and Portugal (FCT), several groundwater bodies were taken into account in different regions of Italy (Latium and Campania) and Portugal. The general objective is the definition of a sound comprehensive methodology for NBL assessment at groundwater body scale, suitable to different hydrogeological settings through comparing diverse case studies and different approaches. The Italian case studies are located in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary geological contexts, where high concentrations of substances such as As, F, Fe, Mn among others in groundwater are well known. The Portuguese case studies are located in carbonate and porous media aquifers. Several data sets were explored with the use of statistical as well as mathematical procedures in order to determine a threshold between natural and anthropogenic concentration. Today essentially two groups of methods are proposed, the first ascribed to the probability plots (PP method), the second based on the selection of the

  8. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  9. Spatial distribution of groundwater quality with special emphasis on fluoride of Mandvi Taluka, Surat, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Mayuri; Jariwala, Namrata; Agnihotri, Prasit

    2017-12-01

    The present study deals with the groundwater quality with respect to F- in the Mandavi Taluka of Surat city with an objective to analyze the spatial variability of ground water quality parameter. A total 57 representative groundwater samples from different bore wells and hand pumps were collected during pre-monsoon. Samples were analyzed for various physiochemical parameters including fluoride. GIS technique is adopted to prepare DEM and spatial distribution map of fluoride to represent fluoride concentration in the study area. Results obtained from analysis with GIS mapping reveal that fluoride in the study is mainly attributed to geogenic source.

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  11. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater biosolids is the most common method of biosolids management used in North Carolina and the United States. Biosolids have characteristics that may be beneficial to soil and plants. Land application can take advantage of these beneficial qualities, whereas disposal in landfills or incineration poses no beneficial use of the waste. Some independent studies and laboratory analysis, however, have shown that land-applied biosolids can pose a threat to human health and surface-water and groundwater quality. The effect of municipal biosolids applied to agriculture fields is largely unknown in relation to the delivery of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern to surface-water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the 319 Nonpoint Source Program to better understand the transport of nutrients and bacteria from biosolids application fields to groundwater and surface water and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations.

  12. Environmental legacy of an underground gas well blowout: long-term effects of gas and brine leakage on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    In 1965, a catastrophic underground blowout occurred during the drilling of a gas well in the village of Sleen, the Netherlands. The blowout led to the uncontrolled release of large amounts of natural gas and saline groundwater. Now, 50 years later, a number of nearby groundwater monitoring have been sampled to study the long term effects of this event on the groundwater composition of the overlying freshwater aquifers. The findings are used as an analogue for studying the potential adverse effects of hydraulic fracturing on groundwater quality. In total, 27 samples were taken and analysed for dissolved gas molecular and isotopic composition, major ion chemistry, water isotopes and stable chlorine isotope ratios. The resulting data show that concentrations of dissolved methane are still strongly elevated compared to background samples in a plume downstream of the blowout location. Isotopic data reveals the thermogenic nature of this plume; all samples with methane concentrations greater than 10 mg/l (n=12) had δC-CH4 values greater than -30‰ (VPDB), characteristic of thermogenic methane. The maximum distance at which thermogenic methane is observed is at approximately 500 meter downstream of the centre of the blowout. The progressive enrichment of both δ13C-CH4 and δ2D-CH4, that is observed with distance from the well and decreasing methane concentrations, presents strong evidence for the role of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in limiting the spread of the dissolved methane plume. Low sulphate and increased Fe(II) and Mn(II) concentrations indeed suggest that multiple AOM pathways are involved in the natural attenuation of the dissolved methane plume. Chlorine concentrations were only elevated in a subset of wells in close proximity to the blowout location, indicating that the present-day effects of brine migration are minimal. Nevertheless, elevated Na/Cl ratio's in multiple wells reveal that freshening of the aquifer is still on-going. In summary, this

  13. Transpiration of Eucalyptus woodlands across a natural gradient of depth-to-groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghar, Sepideh; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Zeppel, Melanie; Cleverly, James; Rumman, Rizwana; Hingee, Matthew; Boulain, Nicolas; Li, Zheng; Eamus, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Water resources and their management present social, economic and environmental challenges, with demand for human consumptive, industrial and environmental uses increasing globally. However, environmental water requirements, that is, the allocation of water to the maintenance of ecosystem health, are often neglected or poorly quantified. Further, transpiration by trees is commonly a major determinant of the hydrological balance of woodlands but recognition of the role of groundwater in hydrological balances of woodlands remains inadequate, particularly in mesic climates. In this study, we measured rates of tree water-use and sapwood 13C isotopic ratio in a mesic, temperate Eucalypt woodland along a naturally occurring gradient of depth-to-groundwater (DGW), to examine daily, seasonal and annual patterns of transpiration. We found that: (i) the maximum rate of stand transpiration was observed at the second shallowest site (4.3 m) rather than the shallowest (2.4 m); (ii) as DGW increased from 4.3 to 37.5 m, stand transpiration declined; (iii) the smallest rate of stand transpiration was observed at the deepest (37.5 m) site; (iv) intrinsic water-use efficiency was smallest at the two intermediate DGW sites as reflected in the Δ13C of the most recently formed sapwood and largest at the deepest and shallowest DGW sites, reflecting the imposition of flooding at the shallowest site and the inaccessibility of groundwater at the deepest site; and (v) there was no evidence of convergence in rates of water-use for co-occurring species at any site. We conclude that even in mesic environments groundwater can be utilized by trees. We further conclude that these forests are facultatively groundwater-dependent when groundwater depth is <9 m and suggest that during drier-than-average years the contribution of groundwater to stand transpiration is likely to increase significantly at the three shallowest DGW sites. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  15. Use of natural isotopes and groundwater quality for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative estimates of the recharge of dolomitic aquifers could be derived from the bicarbonate concentrations of the spring waters. The model has also been used to simulate the response of the limited temporal tritium measurements and single determinations of CFC for some springs. This has revealed significant ...

  16. Spatial assessment of groundwater quality in Mamundiyar basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In order to assess the groundwater quality, 30 groundwater samples have been collected in year 2008. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and anions like bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The groundwater locations were selected to cover the entire study area and attention was been given to the area where contamination is expected. The expected groundwater contaminants were chloride, nitrate, TDS, etc. The results were evaluated in accordance with the drinking water quality standards given by the World Health Organization (WHO 1993). To know the distribution pattern of the concentration of different elements and to demarcate the higher concentration zones, the contour maps for various elements were also generated, discussed, and presented.

  17. Modelling of groundwater quality using bicarbonate chemical parameter in Netravathi and Gurpur river confluence, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylus, K. J.; H., Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    In the coastal aquifer, seawater intrusion considered the major problem which contaminates freshwater and reduces its quality for domestic use. In order to find seawater intrusion, the groundwater quality analysis for the different chemical parameter was considered as the basic method to find out contamination. This analysis was carried out as per Bureau of Indian standards (2012) and World Health Organisations (1996). In this study, Bicarbonate parameter was considered for groundwater quality analysis which ranges the permissible limit in between 200-600 mg/l. The groundwater system was modelled using Groundwater modelling software (GMS) in which the FEMWATER package used for flow and transport. The FEMWATER package works in the principle of finite element method. The base input data of model include elevation, Groundwater head, First bottom and second bottom of the study area. The modelling results show the spatial occurrence of contamination in the study area of Netravathi and Gurpur river confluence at the various time period. Further, the results of the modelling also show that the contamination occurs up to a distance of 519m towards the freshwater zone of the study area.

  18. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality using DEA and AHP: a case study in the Sereflikochisar region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurmaci, Murat; Üstün, A Korkut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in Sereflikochisar Basin, in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey using different hydrochemical, statistical, and geostatistical methods. A total of 51 groundwater samples were collected from the observation wells in the study area to evaluate the characteristics of the groundwater quality. As a relatively simple and practical method, a groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed to evaluate the overall groundwater quality. In this process, complex decision-making techniques such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used. Based on these models, two new indices (A-GWQI and D-GWQI) were proposed. According to the D-GWQI score (from 0.6 to 1), water quality was classified in four categories as unsuitable (0.6–0.7), permissible (0.7–0.8), good (0.8–0.9), and excellent (0.9–1). The spatial distribution maps of the groundwater quality were created using the Kriging method. For each map, seven different semivariogram models were tested and the best-fitted model was chosen based on their root mean square standardized error. These maps showed that the areas with high groundwater quality were in the eastern and southern parts of the study area where the D-GWQI scores were greater than 0.8. Depending on the distance from the Salt Lake, the characteristics of groundwater changed from NaCl to NaHCO3 and CaHCO3 facies. This study shows how to determine the spatial distribution of the groundwater quality and identify the impact of salt lakes on the groundwater quality in inland aquifers. The findings of this study can be applied to ensure the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes in the study area.

  1. Use of environmental tracers to evaluate ground-water age and water-quality trends in a buried-valley aquifer, Dayton area, southwestern, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Schlosser, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC method) and tritium and helium isotopes (3H-3He method) were used as environmental tracers to estimate ground-water age in conjunction with efforts to develop a regional ground-water flow model of the buried-valley aquifer in the Dayton area, southwestern Ohio. This report describes results of CFC and water-quality sampling, summarizes relevant aspects of previously published work, and describes the use of 3H-3He ages to characterize temporal trends in ground-water quality of the buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. Results of CFC sampling indicate that approximately 25 percent of the 137 sampled wells were contaminated with excess CFC's that rendered the ground water unsuitable for age dating. Evaluation of CFC ages obtained for the remaining samples indicated that the CFC compounds used for dating were being affected by microbial degradation. The degradation occurred under anoxic conditions that are found in most parts of the buried-valley aquifer. As a result, ground-water ages derived by the CFC method were too old and were inconsistent with measured tritium concentrations and independently derived 3H-3He ages. Limited data indicate that dissolved methane may play an important role in the degradation of the CFC's. In contrast, the 3H-3He technique was found to yield ground-water ages that were chemically and hydrologically reasonable. Ground-water ages derived by the 3H-3He technique were compared to values for selected water- quality characteristics to evaluate temporal trends in ground-water quality in the buried- valley aquifer. Distinct temporal trends were not identified for pH, alkalinity, or calcium and magnesium because of rapid equilibration of ground-water with calcite and dolomite in aquifer sediments. Temporal trends in which the amount of scatter and the number of outlier concentrations increased as ground-water age decreased were noted for sodium, potassium, boron, bromide, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate

  2. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  3. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2017-09-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  4. The use of natural isotopes for identifying the origins of groundwater flows: Drentsche Aa Brook Valley, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshehawi, Samer; Grootjans, Ab; Bregman, Enno

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the origin of various groundwater flows in a small brook valley reserve Drentsche Aa Valley in the northern part of the Netherlands. The aim was also to validate a hydrological model that simulated coupled particle flow in this area and also incorporated different scenarios for groundwater abstraction in order to predict future implications of groundwater abstraction on ecological values. Water samples from various sites and depths were analysed for macro-ionic composition, stable isotopes (2H and 18O) and also 14C. Three sites have 14C activities over 100%, indicating very recent water. The main groundwater discharge areas showed inflow of old groundwater up to 5000 years. Inflow of different groundwater flows of various ages could be detected most clearly from the 14C data. Downstream area that were affected by groundwater abstraction showed distinct infiltration characteristics, both in macro-ionic composition and contents of natural isotopes, to a depth of 6m below surface In the main exfiltration areas, we found that at 95 meters below the surface, the groundwater was characterized by a NaCl type groundwater facies. But the absolute concentrations were not high enough to conclude that double diffusive convection (DDC) near a salt diapir was responsible for this effect.

  5. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Part 1 (this report) consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 of the report, to be issued mid-year, will contain an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following CY.

  6. GIS-based assessment and characterization of groundwater quality in a hard-rock hilly terrain of Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Jha, Madan K; Mal, Bimal C

    2011-03-01

    The growing population, pollution, and misuse of freshwater worldwide necessitate developing innovative methods and efficient strategies to protect vital groundwater resources. This need becomes more critical for arid/semi-arid regions of the world. The present study focuses on a GIS-based assessment and characterization of groundwater quality in a semi-arid hard-rock terrain of Rajasthan, western India using long-term and multi-site post-monsoon groundwater quality data. Spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters in the study area were analyzed by GIS techniques. Groundwater quality was evaluated based on a GIS-based Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI). A Potential GWQI map was also generated for the study area following the Optimum Index Factor concept. The most-influential water quality parameters were identified by performing a map removal sensitivity analysis among the groundwater quality parameters. Mean annual concentration maps revealed that hardness is the only parameter that exceeds its maximum permissible limit for drinking water. GIS analysis revealed that sulfate and nitrate ions exhibit the highest (CV > 30%) temporal variation, but groundwater pH is stable. Hardness, EC, TDS, and magnesium govern the spatial pattern of the GWQI map. The groundwater quality of the study area is generally suitable for drinking and irrigation (median GWQI > 74). The GWQI map indicated that relatively high-quality groundwater exists in northwest and southeast portions of the study area. The groundwater quality parameter group of Ca, Cl, and pH were found to have the maximum value (6.44) of Optimum Index factor. It is concluded that Ca, Cl, and pH are three prominent parameters for cost-effective and long-term water quality monitoring in the study area. Hardness, Na, and SO(4), being the most-sensitive water quality parameters, need to be monitored regularly and more precisely.

  7. Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements at water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, J.D.; Szabo, Z.; Focazio, M.J.; Eberts, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow patterns on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements were examined in five hydrologically distinct aquifer systems in the USA. Although naturally occurring, these trace elements can exceed concentrations that are considered harmful to human health. The results show that pumping-induced hydraulic gradient changes and artificial connection of aquifers by well screens can mix chemically distinct groundwater. Chemical reactions between these mixed groundwaters and solid aquifer materials can result in the mobilization of trace elements such as U, As and Ra, with subsequent transport to water-supply wells. For example, in the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska, mixing of shallow, oxygenated, lower-pH water from an unconfined aquifer with deeper, confined, anoxic, higher-pH water is facilitated by wells screened across both aquifers. The resulting higher-O2, lower-pH mixed groundwater facilitated the mobilization of U from solid aquifer materials, and dissolved U concentrations were observed to increase significantly in nearby supply wells. Similar instances of trace element mobilization due to human-induced mixing of groundwaters were documented in: (1) the Floridan aquifer system near Tampa, Florida (As and U), (2) Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers in eastern Wisconsin (As), (3) the basin-fill aquifer underlying the California Central Valley near Modesto (U), and (4) Coastal Plain aquifers of New Jersey (Ra). Adverse water-quality impacts attributed to human activities are commonly assumed to be related solely to the release of the various anthropogenic contaminants to the environment. The results show that human activities including various land uses, well drilling, and pumping rates and volumes can adversely impact the quality of water in supply wells, when associated with naturally-occurring trace elements in aquifer materials. This occurs by causing subtle but significant changes in

  8. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggie, Bernadietta; Subiyanto, Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Djuniadi

    2018-03-01

    Improved shrimp farming affects the groundwater quality conditions. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality conventionally has less accuracy. This paper presents the implementation of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for assessing shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality. The data used is the impact data of shrimp farming in one of the regions in Indonesia from 2006-2016. Criteria used in this study were 8 criteria and divided into 49 sub-criteria. The weighting by AHP performed to determine the importance level of criteria and sub-criteria. Final priority class of shrimp farming impact were obtained from the calculation of criteria's and sub-criteria's weights. The validation was done by comparing priority class of shrimp farming impact and water quality conditions. The result show that 50% of the total area was moderate priority class, 37% was low priority class and 13% was high priority class. From the validation result impact assessment for shrimp farming has been high accuracy to the groundwater quality conditions. This study shows that assessment based on AHP has a higher accuracy to shrimp farming impact and can be used as the basic fisheries planning to deal with impacts that have been generated.

  9. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  10. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences - Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors' teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  11. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  12. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  13. Potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on water levels and natural groundwater discharge in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-04-14

    Several U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) agencies are concerned about the cumulative effects of groundwater development on groundwater resources managed by, and other groundwater resources of interest to, these agencies in Snake Valley and surrounding areas. The new water uses that potentially concern the DOI agencies include 12 water-right applications filed in 2005, totaling approximately 8,864 acre-feet per year. To date, only one of these applications has been approved and partially developed. In addition, the DOI agencies are interested in the potential effects of three new water-right applications (UT 18-756, UT 18-758, and UT 18-759) and one water-right change application (UT a40687), which were the subject of a water-right hearing on April 19, 2016.This report presents a hydrogeologic analysis of areas in and around Snake Valley to assess potential effects of existing and future groundwater development on groundwater resources, specifically groundwater discharge sites, of interest to the DOI agencies. A previously developed steady-state numerical groundwater-flow model was modified to transient conditions with respect to well withdrawals and used to quantify drawdown and capture (withdrawals that result in depletion) of natural discharge from existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals. The original steady-state model simulates and was calibrated to 2009 conditions. To investigate the potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on the groundwater resources of interest to the DOI agencies, 10 withdrawal scenarios were simulated. All scenarios were simulated for periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, 55, and 105 years from the start of 2010; additionally, all scenarios were simulated to a new steady state to determine the ultimate long-term effects of the withdrawals. Capture maps were also constructed as part of this analysis. The simulations used to develop the capture maps test the response of the system, specifically the reduction of natural

  14. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    , radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes and dissolved noble gases also were measured to provide a dataset that will be used to help interpret the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater in subsequent reports. In total, 221 constituents were investigated for this study. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells in the CAMP study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 90 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All organic constituents and most inorganic constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the 90 grid wells

  15. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  16. The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the

  17. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot. T...... limited correlation ranges (less than 10m) and large variations are found over a few metres. The temporal variations observed over a period of 15 months were modest. The observed large variations should be taken into account when designing groundwater sampling and monitoring.......The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot....... The geology of the area described on the basis of 31 sediment cores appears relatively homogeneous. Large vertical and horizontal variations were observed. The vertical variations are strongly affected by the deviating composition of the agricultural infiltration water. The horizontal variations show very...

  18. Prospects and quality indices for groundwater development in Ibadan metropolis, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade, O.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical and hydrogeochemical studies were conducted in part of Ibadan metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the groundwater potential and quality for sustainable development. Interpreted results of vertical electrical sounding data revealed three to four geo-electric layers; top soil (22.1-441.4 Ωm, lateritic horizon (402.1-712.2 Ωm, clayey/sandyclay layer (2.95-66.0 Ωm and weathered/fractured bedrock (66.3-1056.7 Ωm. Stacked overburden isopach and basement isoresitivity maps revealed few areas with thick overburden and fractured basement, hence of apparently high groundwater prospect. Hydrogeochemical study indicates that groundwater in the study area is generally fresh, soft- moderately hard, slightly acidic and dominated by Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and HCO3 ions. The dominant hydrochemical facies is Na-Cl type with minor mixed Ca-Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Many of the analyzed parameters fall within recommended limits and thus, most of the groundwater in the study area are chemically suitable for drinking. A few however, recorded TDS, pH, NO3, Al, Mg and Cl concentrations above permissible levels, suggesting some concern in terms of potability. The groundwater quality for agricultural purposes was assessed using Sodium absorption ratio, permeability index and electrical conductivity values along with USSL and Wilcox diagrams, all indicating that most of the samples are excellent to good for irrigation.

  19. Hydrogeochemical investigations and groundwater quality assessment of Torbat-Zaveh plain, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, M J; Ebrahimi, P; Razmara, M; Ghasemi, A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations of groundwater in Torbat-Zaveh plain have been carried out to assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, 190 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters and major ion concentrations. The abundance of major cations and anions was in the following order: Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+), and Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text]. As a result, alkaline element (Na(+)) exceeds alkaline earth elements (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), and strong acids (Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]) dominate weak acids ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) in majority of the groundwater samples. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]. The results display that rock-weathering interactions and ion-exchange processes play important role in controlling groundwater chemistry. Saturation index values also indicate that water chemistry is significantly affected by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite. US Salinity Laboratory(USSL) and Wilcox diagrams together with permeability index values reveal that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purpose. However, in some regions, the water samples do not indicate required irrigational quality.

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality and health risk in drinking water basin using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-02-01

    Eğirdir Lake basin was selected as the study area because the lake is the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey and groundwater in the basin is used as drinking water. In the present study, 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters to determine the hydrochemical characteristics, groundwater quality, and human health risk in the study area. The dominant ions are Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 2- , and SO 4 2 . According to Gibbs plot, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field. A groundwater quality index (WQI) reveals that the majority of the samples falls under good to excellent category of water, suggesting that the groundwater is suitable for drinking and other domestic uses. The Ca-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-HCO 3 , Ca-SO 4 -HCO 3 , and Ca-Mg-HCO 3 -SO 4 water types are the dominant water types depending on the water-rock interaction in the investigation area. Risk of metals to human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children. It was indicated that As with HQ ingestion >1 was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. It can be concluded that the highest contributors to chronic risks were As and Cr for both adults and children.

  1. Comprehensive characterisation of groundwater quality in and around a landfill area for agricultural suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, V.; Chilambarasan, L.; Nandhakumar, G.; Porchelvan, P.

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater contamination has become so alarming that the existing valuable freshwater resources are at stake. Landfilling of solid refuse without pre-emptive measures, over the years, leads to the utter depletion of the groundwater quality in its vicinity. The Kodungaiyur landfill at the Perambur taluk located in the northernmost region of the Chennai metropolitan, is such a poorly managed landfill. This research article is intended to exhibit a detailed study report on the physicochemical and bacteriological parametric analyses of the currently available subsurface water in and around the landfill area. Besides being evident from the faecal coliform test that the water is not potable, the chief objective was to investigate the suitability of groundwater for irrigation. Representative samples of groundwater were collected from inside the landfill site, and the residential areas located within 2 km from the site and analysed using standard methods. The test results were interpreted by employing exhaustive statistical approaches. It is evident to the interpretations that, out of the nine sampled locations, seven were found to be endowed with a groundwater quality fit enough for irrigation.

  2. Surface and groundwater drought evaluation with respect to aquatic habitat quality in the upper Nitra River Basin in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, M.; Fendek, M.; Macura, V.; Kralova, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological drought is being broadly studied within last decades in many countries. It is because of increasing frequency of drought periods occurrence also in mild climate conditions, leading to unexpected and undesired consequences for environment and various spheres of the state economy. Drought affects water availability for plants, animals and human society. Natural conditions of drought occurrence are often combined with human activities strengthening drought consequences. Lack of water in the nature, connected to meteorological and hydrological drought occurrence, increases at the same time needs for surface and groundwater in many types of human activities (agriculture, industrial production, electric power generation…). Drought can be identified within the low flow phase of the flow regime. Flow regime is considered for one of the most important conditions influencing quality of the river ecosystems. Occurrence of meteorological, surface and groundwater droughts was analyzed for the upper part of the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia. Drought occurrence was studied in two gauging profiles on the Nitra River - in Klacno and Nedozery, both representing the headwater profiles. The threshold level method was used for groundwater drought analysis. Base flow values were separated from the discharge hydrograms using the HydroOffice 2010 statistical program package. The influence of surface water drought on groundwater level was analyzed. Habitat suitability curves derived according to IFIM methodology were constructed for different fish species at Nedozery profile. The influence of different low flow values from 600 to 150 L/s on fish amount, size and species variability was studied. In the end, the minimum flow, bellow which unfavourable life conditions occur, was estimated. The results showed the necessity of taking into account the ecological parameters when estimating the ecological status of surface water bodies. Such an approach is fully compatible with

  3. Effects of an open Waste dump-site on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the quality of groundwater around an open dump-site was carried out using borehole water samples collected from two points each, close to the dump-site and a control point outside the vicinity. Analysis showed that with the exception of temperature and salinity, which were not significantly different ...

  4. multivariate analysis of groundwater quality in parts of lagos-nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKOTEYON

    The quality of twenty-six groundwater sources in Lagos state was evaluated. Data on physico-chemical parameters. (Hydrogen ion, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolve Solids, Calcium, Chloride, Total Hardness, Magnesium, Sodium,. Potassium, Bicarbonate and Sulfate) were collated from the database of Lagos Water ...

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Eti-Osa, Lagos-Nigeria using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    overall good quality. The contribution from groundwater is vital; because about two billion people depend directly upon aquifers for drinking water, and 40 percent of the world's food is produced by irrigated ... exploitation etc)among others has affected the use of .... digital EC/TDS/Temperature COM-100 respectively.

  6. Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial lake of Kashmir Himalayas using linear geostatistics. S Sarah1,∗, Gh Jeelani2 and Shakeel Ahmed1. 1IFCGR, National Geophysical Research Institute, CSIR, Hyderabad 500 606, India. 2Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Kashmir, ...

  7. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  8. Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    ), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), and naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, total arsenic and iron [unfiltered] and arsenic, chromium, and iron species [filtered]). Isotopic tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, isotopic ratios of strontium in water, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), dissolved standard gases (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon), and dissolved noble gases (argon, helium-4, krypton, neon, and xenon) were measured to help identify sources and ages of sampled groundwater. In total, 245 constituents and 8 water-quality indicators were measured. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, or matrix spikes) were collected at 16 percent of the wells in the WSJV study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples all were within acceptable limits of variability. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 87 percent of the compounds. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results

  10. Analysis of the groundwater monitoring controversy at the Pavillion, Wyoming natural gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was contacted by citizens of Pavillion, Wyoming 6 years ago regarding taste and odor in their water wells in an area where hydraulic fracturing operations were occurring. EPA conducted a field investigation, including drilling two deep monitor wells, and concluded in a draft report that constituents associated with hydraulic fracturing had impacted the drinking water aquifer. Following extensive media coverage, pressure from state and other federal agencies, and extensive technical criticism from industry, EPA stated the draft report would not undergo peer review, that it would not rely on the conclusions, and that it had relinquished its lead role in the investigation to the State of Wyoming for further investigation without resolving the source of the taste and odor problem. Review of the events leading up to EPA's decision suggests that much of the criticism could have been avoided through improved preproject planning with clear objectives. Such planning would have identified the high national significance and potential implications of the proposed work. Expanded stakeholder involvement and technical input could have eliminated some of the difficulties that plagued the investigation. However, collecting baseline groundwater quality data prior to initiating hydraulic fracturing likely would have been an effective way to evaluate potential impacts. The Pavillion groundwater investigation provides an excellent opportunity for improving field methods, report transparency, clarity of communication, and the peer review process in future investigations of the impacts of hydraulic fracturing on groundwater. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Enhancing arsenic removal from groundwater at household level with naturally occurring iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Kumari Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of drinking water low in Arsenic (As prevents arsenic poisoning. The presence of high concentrations of iron (Fe in groundwater under the alluvial plains of the large rivers in Southeast Asia is a prerequisite for the simple removal of As. This study investigated the mechanisms and possibilities for enhancing As removal with naturally occurring Fe in a reliable, low cost and sustainable way. The results of the study show that As removal with Fe is greatly enhanced by the addition of an oxidizing agent (preferably KMnO4 immediately after the pumping of groundwater. Further enhancement of As removal in the presence of Fe can be achieved by adding a small volume of a concentrated basic solution of MnO4- and AlO2-, which has a combined oxidation, coagulation and buffering capacity. Best results were obtained when this solution was mixed with the groundwater immediately after its pumping until a pale pink color appeared. Maximum required reaction time was 10 minutes and subsequent filtration of the water was able to reduce the As concentration to near zero. Concentrations of MnO4- and AlO2- can be varied in the solution to achieve sufficient As removal to suit different Fe/As ratios and the presence of interfering co-occurring anions.

  12. Report on the audit of the Savannah River Site`s quality control program for groundwater sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-20

    The Savannah River Site`s groundwater remediation program was managed by the Department of Energy`s (Department) management and operating contractor for the site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse). One component of the remediation program was the quality control program. The goal of the groundwater quality control program was to ensure that the results of laboratory analyses of groundwater samples were accurate and precise so that they could be relied upon for making remediation decisions. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Westinghouse acquired the minimal number of laboratory analyses required to ensure that groundwater sampling results met this criteria.

  13. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Madera–Chowchilla and Kings subbasins, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-08

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Many households and small communities in the Madera– Chowchilla and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley rely on private domestic wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  14. Effect of carbonat on the solubility of neptunium in natural granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. Y.; Oh, J. Y.; Yun, J. I.; Baik, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the solubility of neptunium (Np) in the deep natural groundwater of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel (KURT). According to a Pourbaix diagram (pH-E h diagram) that was calculated using the geochemical modeling program PHREEQC 2.0, the redox potential and the carbonate ion concentration both control the solubility of neptunium. The carbonate effect becomes pronounced when the total carbonate concentration is higher than 1.5x10 -2 M at E h = -200 mV and the pH value is 10. Given the assumption that the solubility-limiting stable solid phase is Np(OH) 4 (am) under the reducing condition relevant to KURT, the soluble neptunium concentrations were in the range of 1x10 -9 M to 3x10 -9 M under natural groundwater conditions. However, the solubility of neptunium, which was calculated with the formation constants of neptunium complexes selected in an OECD-NEA TDB review, strongly deviates from the value measured in natural groundwater. Thus, it is highly recommended that a prediction of neptunium solubility is based on the formation constants of ternary Np(IV) hydroxo-carbon ato complexes, even though the presence of those complexes is deficient in terms of the characterization of neptunium species. Based on a comparison of the measurement sand calculations of geochemical modeling, the formation constants for the 'upper limit' of the Np(IV) hydroxo-carbonato complexes, namely Np(OH) y (CO 3 ) z 4-y-2z , were appraised as follows: log K .deg. 122 = -3.0±0.5 for Np(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 2- , log K .deg. 131 =-5.0±0.5 for Np(OH) 3 (CO 3 ) - , and log K .deg. 141 = -6.0±0.5 for Np(OH) 4 (CO 3 ) 2-

  15. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Martin, Misty S; Carlton, Doug D; Amorim, Catarina L; Castro, Paula M L; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-08-10

    Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  16. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C. Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  17. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies

  18. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-06-27

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  19. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies during different phases of natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.

  20. Natural radon reduction rate of the community groundwater system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Uk; Seong Kim, Tae; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Moon Su; Cho, Soo Young; Choo, Chang Oh; Cho, Byong Wook

    2017-08-01

    Tank waters from 13 Community Groundwater Systems (CGS) showed average radon reduction rate of 26.5% (varying from -17.9% to 63.3%). When applying the reduction rate of 26.5% to the nationwide CGS, the percentage of CGS having radon level above 100Bq/L decreases from 28.8% to 22.0%. The natural radon reduction method would be applied to the CGS having radon level slightly exceeding guideline of WHO, as an alternative for aeration or GAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Groundwater science relevant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Norman G.; Van Stempvoort, Dale

    2016-01-01

    When the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) was signed in 1972 by the Governments of Canada and the United States (the “Parties”) (Environment Canada, 2013a), groundwater was not recognized as important to the water quality of the Lakes. At that time, groundwater and surface water were still considered as two separate systems, with almost no appreciation for their interaction. When the GLWQA was revised in 1978 (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2012), groundwater contamination, such as that reported at legacy industrial sites such as those at Love Canal near the Niagara River, was squarely in the news. Consequently, the potential impacts of contaminated groundwater from such sites on Great Lakes water quality became a concern (Beck, 1979), and Annex 16 was added to the agreement, to address “pollution from contaminated groundwater” (Francis, 1989). However, no formal process for reporting under this annex was provided. The GLWQA Protocol in 1987 modified Annex 16 and called for progress reports beginning in 1988 (USEPA, 1988). The Protocol in 2012 provided a new Annex 8 to address groundwater more holistically (Environment 2 Canada, 2013b). Annex 8 (Environment Canada, 2013b) commits the Parties to coordinate groundwater science and management actions; as a first step, to “publish a report on the relevant and available groundwater science” by February 2015 (this report); and to “identify priorities for science activities and actions for groundwater management, protection, and remediation…” The broader mandate of Annex 8 is to (1) “identify groundwater impacts on the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes;” (2) “analyze contaminants, including nutrients in groundwater, derived from both point and non-point sources impacting the Waters of the Great Lakes;” (3) “assess information gaps and science needs related to groundwater to protect the quality of the Waters of the Great Lakes

  2. Distribution of Redox-Sensitive Groundwater Quality Parameters Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rügge, Kirsten; Pedersen, Jørn K.

    1995-01-01

    The leachate plume stretching 300 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark) has been characterized in terms of redox-sensitive groundwater quality parameters along two longitudinal transects (285 samples). Variations in the levels of methane, sulfide, iron(ll), manganese(ll), ammonium......, dinitrogen oxide, nitrite, nitrate, and oxygen in the groundwater samples indicate that methane production, sulfate reduction, iron reduction, manganese reduction, and nitrate reduction take place in the plume. Adjacent to the landfill, methanogenic and sulfatereducing zones were identified, while aerobic...

  3. Human health and groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Candela Lledó, Lucila

    2016-01-01

    Strategic overview series of the International Association of Hydrogeologists-IAH. This Series is designed both to inform professionals in other sectors of key interactions with groundwater resources and hydrogeological science, and to guide IAH members in their outreach to related sectors. The naturally high microbiological and chemical quality of groundwater, captured at springheads and in shallow galleries and dugwells, has been vital for human survival, wellbeing and development from o...

  4. Groundwater level response in U.S. Principal Aquifers to natural climate variability on interannual to multidecadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Gurdak, J. J.; Dickinson, J.; Hanson, R. T.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Maurer, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Natural climate variability on interannual to multidecadal timescales are important controls on precipitation, drought, evapotranspiration, streamflow, and groundwater recharge. Climate variability can also augment or diminish human stresses on water resources. Thus, understanding climate variability has particular relevance for groundwater management. Findings will be presented from a national scale study of groundwater level response to natural climate variability in principal aquifers (PAs) of the U.S., including the California Coastal Basin, Rio Grande, Coastal Lowlands, Mississippi Embayment, Floridan, and Glacial aquifer systems. We use the U.S. Geological Survey hydroclimatic analysis toolkit HydroClimATe to perform singular spectrum analysis and identify quasi-periodic signals in precipitation and groundwater time series that are coincident with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) (6-12 mo cycle), Pacific/North American oscillation (PNA) (accounting for more than 90% of the variance in many PAs. The next largest amount of variance in precipitation and groundwater levels was attributed to ENSO, accounting for more than 50% of the variance in many PAs. The AMO was the least frequently detected signal in all time series but accounted for as much as 95% of the variance when detected. Thus, climate variability on interannual to multidecadal timescales has a statistically significant and measurable effect on the lagged responses of precipitation variability and, in turn, groundwater level fluctuations in PAs. Our findings have important implications for the availability and sustainability of groundwater, including management and planning decisions about the locations, cost effectiveness, and optimal time periods for conjunctive use strategies.

  5. Groundwater management in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margat, Jean

    1987-06-01

    Groundwater, like other extensive natural and renewable resources, easily accessible and, at the same time, vulnerable, has to be managed so as to reconcile the unique resource with its many users, and its long-term preservation with short-term utilization requirements. Under the natural, legal, and economic conditions prevailing in France, where groundwater constitutes a large part of water production and resources, where there are tens of thousands of economic developers and users of a few hundred natural groundwater management units, such management concerns these users as well as the public and collective authorities that control the users' activities for the common present and future good of all. Legislative, financial, and educational means are applied simultaneously to preserve and protect the quality and quantily of the groundwater and at times to encourage its use and stimulate its development.

  6. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    -sediment chemistry; geomorphology and its effect on ground-water flow; geophysical studies on depth to ground-water table and depth to bedrock; bedrock fractures and their potential influence on ground-water flow; leaching studies of scars and waste-rock piles; mineralogy and mineral chemistry and their effect on ground-water quality; debris-flow hazards; hydrology and water balance for the Red River Valley; ground-water geochemistry of selected wells undisturbed by mining in the Red River Valley; and quality assurance and quality control of water analyses. Studies aimed specifically at the Straight Creek natural-analog site include electrical surveys; high-resolution seismic survey; age-dating with tritium/helium; water budget; ground-water hydrology and geochemistry; and comparison of mineralogy and lithology to that of the mine site. The highly mineralized and hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks of the Red River Valley contain several percent pyrite in the quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP) alteration zone, which weather naturally to acid-sulfate surface and ground waters that discharge to the Red River. Weathering of waste-rock piles containing pyrite also contributes acid water that eventually discharges into the Red River. These acid discharges are neutralized by circumneutral-pH, carbonate-buffered surface and ground waters of the Red River. The buffering capacity of the Red River, however, decreases from the town of Red River to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station near Questa. During short, but intense, storm events, the buffering capacity is exceeded and the river becomes acid from the rapid flushing of acidic materials from natural scar areas. The lithology, mineralogy, elevation, and hydrology of the Straight Creek proximal analog site were found to closely approximate those of the mine site with the exception of the mine site?s Sulphur Gulch catchment. Sulphur Gulch contains three subcatchments?upper Sulphur Gulch, Blind Gulch, and Spring Gulc

  7. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2017-11-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  8. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    63

    Department of Farm Engineering,. Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Banaras Hindu ... needs to be protected from the contamination. Keywords: Fractal dimension; Hurst exponent; Predictability index; Water Quality Index ... 2014) on the quality of drinking water resources (Thakur et al. 2015). The World. Health Organization ...

  9. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, fluoride, iron, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and carbonate. The water quality index for the twenty two samples ranged from 0.66 to 756.02 with an average of 80.77. Two of the samples exceeded ...

  10. Anthropogenic Influence On Groundwater Quality In Jericho and And Adjoining Wadis (Lower Jordan Valley, Palestine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, S.; Khayat, S.; Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Lower Jordan Valley is part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift. The graben is filled by sedmiments of limnological and marine origin. Towards the Dead Sea, the occurance of gipseous and salty sediments on the valley floor increase. The southern part of the Lower Jordan Valley, where the city of Jericho is situated, is an arid area (SMART-project, is to understand the vulnerability of the Jericho groundwater aquifers in connection with lowering the groundwater table by overexploitation and the intensively use of pesticides Jericho and its vicinity are of most importance for the Palestinians. However, beside the about 25,000 residents, the tourism industry and the vital agriculture depend on sufficient and expoitable fresh water resources. Because the demand of water is increasing, overexpoitaion takes place. Due to over extraction of groundwater a huge depression cone is evolving during the dry season which is filled up again according to the groundwater recharge in the rainy season. Concomitantly, depression cone in the fresh water aquifers leads to an infiltration of the surrounding saltwater. The amount of saltwater which infiltrates into the freshwater resource was calculated by different stable isotope methods (d2H, d18O) and hydrochemical analyses of wellwater. The agriculture is main consumer of groundwater - over 60% of the pumped water is used for inefficient irrigation. Additionally, an intensive use of pesticides in concentrated liquid and gaseous forms for vegetable gardening hold the danger to pollute the groundwater via irrigation return flow. This return flow most probably endangers the quality of the water resource, because shallow wells nearby extract it directly from the underground. However, one result of the first screening campaign concerning pesticide remnants in the groundwater wells of Jericho, just traces have been detected. Thus, the higher amount of chemicals is retained by the soil during infiltration of irrigated water. The detected low

  11. Pollution sources and groundwater quality in the Coastal region of the Yugoslav part of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatina, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to access the vulnerability and risk of the aquifer system in the Yugoslav part of the Danube, as the primary source of drinking water for a numerically substantial community, industrial purposes and irrigation, as well as a high concentration of civil, industrial and agricultural activities (hence, a potential source of pollution of the groundwater resources through land occupation and use as well as the disposal of solid and liquid wastes), a great hydro-geophysical exploration was performed. Within the lower part of the plain, exploratory test of Salinac field, near Smederevo town, was particularly investigated. The reason why is because that part is also an area of the mouth of the Velika Morava into the Danube, where Derdap reservoir is located. Task of complex exploration was to delineate the aquifer, obtain appropriate parameters (groundwater level, groundwater chemistry, clay content, filtration characteristics and physical parameters of geological functions), as well as to map the aquifer vulnerability, in order to prevent and moderate a harmful influence of the performed reservoir on the environment (increased groundwater infiltration from the reservoir into surrounding rocks, permanent groundwater level raising, etc.). Based on the results, zoning of the study area according to the aquifer vulnerability has been done. Then, land-use planning and development of strategy for groundwater protection and management was possible. In the paper, not only sources of contamination, characteristics of pollutants and their influence on the groundwater quality was presented, but also content of organic matters, phosphates and nitrogen compounds, etc. Further, means of protection and management are discussed, as well as the appropriate legal regulations. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in the Eastern District of Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed M; Murad, Ahmed; Chowdhury, RezaulKabir

    2017-03-01

    Water samples were collected to evaluate the groundwater quality in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer in the eastern part of Abu-Dhabi Emirate, UAE. The chemical monitoring revealed some spatial variability in chemical parameters as influenced by matrix aquifer changes in geological formations. Results show that changes in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer is mainly controlled by evaporation, silicate mineral dissolution, evaporite dissolution, and cation exchange. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved sodium, chloride, and sulphate. The high value of total dissolved solids of shallow groundwater is mainly controlled by evaporation. The dominance of sodium ion was evident among the cationic compositions with an average of 2621.1 mg/L, while the chloride ion was the dominant among the anionic constituents with an average of 6249 mg/L. The prevalence of those two elements in most water samples contributes to the existence of saline water occurrence in the study area.

  13. Groundwater quality in a mining activity area (The Bierzo Basin-Leon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losa, A. de la; Moreno, L.; Nunez, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Bierzo Basin presents large coal mining structures without restore where the air exposition of metallic sulphurs could become a source of heavy metal pollution and acification of waters. This paper presents the results of a research focused on groundwater quality affected by the mining activity. A sampling campaign of both ground and surface waters was carried out. Altogether, 37 sampling points has been selected including 26 springs, 7 shallow wells for agricultural use and 4 river water samples, all of them directly or indirectly connected to groundwater. The interpretation of results is based on the multivariate analysis application. Sulphate is the dominant anion in both water types, and it is related, in most cases, to oxidation of sulphurs, widely represented in the study area. However, the main conclusion is that surface water and groundwater samples have no high abnormal contents of heavy metals due to the induced alteration by mining activity. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Integrating geochemical investigations and geospatial assessment to understand the evolutionary process of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Alharbi, Talal; Mansour, Basma

    2018-04-12

    Groundwater is the key for life in arid areas. Aquifer overexploitation and climatic conditions can significantly deteriorate groundwater quality. The Al-Qassim area in central Saudi Arabia is characterized by dense agricultural use and is irrigated mainly by fossil groundwater from the Saq Aquifer. Understanding the area's hydrochemistry, major factors governing groundwater quality, and alternative uses of the groundwater are the main goals of this study. Groundwater samples were collected and examined for major, minor, and trace elements. Ionic relationships, hydrochemical facies, geospatial distributions, and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the hydrochemical processes at play. The salinity and nitrate concentrations of the Saq Aquifer's groundwater were found to increase in the outcrop areas more than the confined areas. The spatial distributions were fragmented by three main factors: (i) modern recharge by relatively brackish water, (ii) irrigation return flow in intensive farming areas, and (iii) overexploitation and draining of deep and relatively saline zones of the aquifer. Seven water types were found representing the alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate-chloride ions and earth alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate and chloride. Mixing between fresh and brackish water, dissolution of mineral phases, silicate weathering, and reverse ion exchange were recognized as the evolutionary processes, while evaporation played a minor role. Cluster analyses characterized the fresh groundwater zone, modern groundwater recharge zone, and anthropogenic influence zone. In the confined areas, nearly all the groundwater was appropriate for domestic use and irrigation. In the outcrop areas, some limitations were found due to unsuitable conditions.

  15. Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data around municipal landfill and paper factory and their potential influence on population's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdić, Vlatka; Cačić, Ljiljana; Brana, Josip; Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj

    2012-02-01

    To assess the level of 15 groundwater quality parameters in groundwater samples collected around municipal landfill and paper factory in order to evaluate usefulness of the groundwater and its possible implication on the human health. Obtained data have been analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) technique, in order to differentiate the groundwater samples on the basis of their compositional differences and origin. Wastes and effluents from municipal landfill did not contribute significantly to the pollution of the aquatic medium. Groundwater degradation caused by high contents of nitrate, mineral oils, organic and inorganic matters was particularly expressed in the narrow area of the city centre, near the paper factory and most likely it has occurred over a long period of time. The results have shown that the concentrations of the most measured parameters (NO3-N, NH4-N, oils, organic matter, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cr) were above allowed limits for drinking and domestic purposes. This study has provided important information on ecological status of the groundwater systems and for identification of groundwater quality parameters with concentrations above allowable limits for human consumption. The results generally revealed that groundwater assessed in this study mainly does not satisfy safe limits for drinking water and domestic use. As a consequence, contaminated groundwater becomes a large hygienic and toxicological problem, since it considerably impedes groundwater utilization. Even though, all of these contaminants have not yet reached toxic levels, they still represent long term risk for health of the population.

  16. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  17. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN

  18. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the three Sacramento Valley study units, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal or California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative-concentration greater than 1.0 indicates a concentration greater than a benchmark. For organic (volatile organic compounds and pesticides) and special-interest (perchlorate) constituents, relative-concentrations were classified as high (greater than 1.0); moderate (equal to or less than 1.0 and greater than 0.1); or low (equal to or less than 0.1). For inorganic (major ion, trace element, nutrient, and radioactive) constituents, the boundary between low and moderate relative-concentrations was set at 0.5. Aquifer-scale proportions were used in the status assessment for evaluating regional-scale groundwater quality. High aquifer-scale proportion is defined as the percentage of the area of the primary aquifers that have a relative-concentration greater than 1.0 for a particular constituent or class of constituents; percentage is based on an areal rather than a volumetric basis. Moderate and low aquifer-scale proportions were defined as the percentage of the primary aquifers that have moderate and low relative-concentrations, respectively. Two statistical approaches-grid-based, which used one value per grid cell, and spatially-weighted, which used the full dataset-were used to calculate aquifer-scale proportions for individual constituents and classes of constituents. High and moderate aquifer-scale proportions were significantly greater for inorgani

  19. Study of Seasonal Variation in Groundwater Quality of Sagar City (India by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Pathak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.

  20. Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu District of Busan City, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Chung, Sang Yong; Selvam, Sekar; Lee, Seung Yeop; Elzain, Hussam Eldin

    2017-10-01

    The hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS techniques were used to evaluate the groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the river water and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. Factor analysis represented the contamination sources of the mineral dissolution of the host rocks and domestic influences. The Gibbs plot exhibited that the major ions were derived from the rock weathering condition. Piper's trilinear diagram showed that the groundwater quality was classified into five types of CaHCO 3 , NaHCO 3 , NaCl, CaCl 2 , and CaSO 4 types in that order. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The fuzzy GIS map showed that highly contaminated groundwater occurred in the northeastern and the central parts and that the groundwater of medium quality appeared in most parts of the study area. It suggested that the groundwater quality of the study area was influenced by local geology, seawater intrusion, and municipal contaminants. This research clearly demonstrated that the geochemical analyses and fuzzy GIS method were very useful to identify the contaminant sources and the location of good groundwater quality.

  1. Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza A.T.M. Tanvir Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In coastal regions of Bangladesh, sources of irrigation are rain, surface and groundwater. Due to rainfall anomaly andsaline contamination, it is important to identify deep groundwater that is eligible for irrigation. The main goal of the study wasto identify deep groundwater which is suitable for irrigation. Satkhira Sadar Upazila, at the southwestern coastal zone ofBangladesh, was the study area, which was divided into North, Center and South zones. Twenty samples of groundwaterwere analyzed for salinity (0.65-4.79 ppt, sodium absorption ratio (1.14-11.62, soluble sodium percentage (32.95-82.21, electricalconductivity (614-2082.11 μS/cm, magnesium adsorption ratio (21.96-26.97, Kelly’s ratio (0.48-4.62, total hardness(150.76-313.33 mg/l, permeability index (68.02-94.16 and residual sodium bi-carbonate (79.68-230.72 mg/l. Chemical constituentsand values were compared with national and international standards. Northern deep groundwater has the highest salinityand chemical concentrations. Salinity and other chemical concentrations show a decreasing trend towards the south. Lowchemical concentrations in the southern region indicate the best quality groundwater for irrigation.

  2. Data-Driven Approach for Analyzing Hydrogeology and Groundwater Quality Across Multiple Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Zachary K; Li, Shu-Guang; Liao, Hua-Sheng; Lusch, David

    2017-08-29

    Recent trends of assimilating water well records into statewide databases provide a new opportunity for evaluating spatial dynamics of groundwater quality and quantity. However, these datasets are scarcely rigorously analyzed to address larger scientific problems because they are of lower quality and massive. We develop an approach for utilizing well databases to analyze physical and geochemical aspects of groundwater systems, and apply it to a multiscale investigation of the sources and dynamics of chloride (Cl - ) in the near-surface groundwater of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Nearly 500,000 static water levels (SWLs) were critically evaluated, extracted, and analyzed to delineate long-term, average groundwater flow patterns using a nonstationary kriging technique at the basin-scale (i.e., across the entire peninsula). Two regions identified as major basin-scale discharge zones-the Michigan and Saginaw Lowlands-were further analyzed with regional- and local-scale SWL models. Groundwater valleys ("discharge" zones) and mounds ("recharge" zones) were identified for all models, and the proportions of wells with elevated Cl - concentrations in each zone were calculated, visualized, and compared. Concentrations in discharge zones, where groundwater is expected to flow primarily upwards, are consistently and significantly higher than those in recharge zones. A synoptic sampling campaign in the Michigan Lowlands revealed concentrations generally increase with depth, a trend noted in previous studies of the Saginaw Lowlands. These strong, consistent SWL and Cl - distribution patterns across multiple scales suggest that a deep source (i.e., Michigan brines) is the primary cause for the elevated chloride concentrations observed in discharge areas across the peninsula. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    groundwater samples collected from wells on the east side of the north transect than for groundwater samples from other wells, indicating that these characteristics might be related to the elevated constituent concentrations found at that location. Similarly, saturated thickness and screen depth below the water table were significantly smaller for groundwater samples under oxic or mixed (oxic-anoxic) conditions than for those under anoxic to suboxic conditions.The greater constituent concentrations at wells on the east side of the north transect also could, in part, be related to groundwater discharge from an unnamed alluvial drainage located directly upgradient from that location. Although the quantity and quality of water discharging from the drainage is not known, the drainage appears to collect water from a residential area located upgradient to the east of the wells, and groundwater could become concentrated in nitrate and other dissolved constituents before flowing through the drainage. High levels of nitrate, whether from anthropogenic or natural geologic sources, could promote more soluble forms of selenium and other constituents by affecting the redox condition of groundwater. Whether oxic conditions at wells on the east side of the north transect are the result of physical characteristics or of groundwater inflow from the alluvial drainage, the oxic conditions appear to cause increased dissolution of minerals from the shallow shale bedrock at that location. Because ratios of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate evaporation likely has not had a substantial effect on groundwater, constituent concentrations at that location likely are not the result of evapoconcentration. 

  4. Evaluation of groundwater and stream quality characteristics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    batteries in Ibadan, ... impairment of water bodies in urban areas has been .... experimentation to ensure acceptable data quality. Procedure for the COD determination was evaluated with potassium hydrogen phthalate standard.

  5. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  6. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  7. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Vashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from five talukas of Valsad district for one year (from August 2008 to July 2009 and were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics.  The present investigation is focused on  determination of parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn.  Correlation coefficients were determined to identify the highly correlated parameters and interrelated water quality parameters. Correlation matrix of Valsad district suggests that EC of groundwater is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of seventeen water quality parameters studied.  It may be suggested that the quality of Valsad district can be checked very effectively by controlling EC of water.

  8. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Garabedian, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluoroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13 C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13 C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A V max for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The K m values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 μM for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Reconnaissance, Tutuila, American Samoa, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    In May and July 1989, 19 ground-water samples were collected from 17 of the 35 water-supply wells on the island of Tutuila, American Samoa. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, hardness, specific conductance, turbidity, total and fecal coliform bacteria, major ions, major nutrients, 12 common metals, and 66 organic compounds. Chemical analysis of the water samples shows that, after chlorination, sampled ground water was in compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Fourteen of the 19 samples were collected before the water was chlorinated in the water distribution system, and five were collected after chlorination. Seven of the 14 unchlorinated samples contained coliform bacteria and five of the seven contained fecal coliform bacteria, indicating potential contamination from disease-causing pathogens. All five of the chlorinated samples contained trace levels of trihalomethanes, but at concentrations below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. Trihalomethanes were the only organic constituents detected. Concentrations of total dissolved solids in the 19 samples ranged from about 100 to 2,400 milligrams per liter. Four samples had concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations of 500 and 250 milligrams per liter, respectively. For samples with less than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate were the dominant ions, indicating that they were derived from dissolution of minerals and carbon-dioxide enrichment of recharge water. For samples with greater than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, sodium and chloride were the dominant ions, indicating increased mixing of ground water with seawater.

  11. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2017-09-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  12. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon's 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined

  13. An Assessment of Peri-Urban Groundwater Quality from Shallow Dug Wells, Mzuzu, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R.; Felsot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout Malawi, governmental, non-governmental, religious and civic organizations are targeting the human need for water. Diarrheal diseases, often associated with unsafe drinking water, are a leading cause of mortality in children under five in Malawi with over 6,000 deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2010). From January to March 2012, a field study was undertaken in Malawi to study water quality and develop a public health risk communication strategy. The region studied, Area 1B, represents a comparatively new peri-urban area on the edge of Mzuzu city. Area 1B is serviced by a piped municipal water supply, but many shallow dug wells are also used for household water. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 shallow dug well sites and analyzed for nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli, total hardness, total alkalinity and pH. In addition to water quality analyses, a structured household questionnaire was administered to address water use, sanitation, health, consumption patterns, and socioeconomics. Results showed that more than half of the groundwater samples would be considered of unacceptable quality based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards for E. coli contamination. Low levels of nitrate were found in groundwater, but only one well exceeded WHO standards. The structured questionnaire revealed that some residents were still consuming groundwater despite the access to safer municipal water. In general, the widespread E. coli contamination was not statistically correlated with well depth, latrine proximity, or surface features. Similarly, nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with proximity to latrines. On the other hand, nitrate was correlated with well depth, which is expected given the high potential for leaching of anionic highly water soluble compounds. E. coli was significantly correlated with nitrate concentration. Projects targeting the need for clean water need to recognize that households with access to a

  14. Quality-assurance and data management plan for groundwater activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, James E.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s principle earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended on to collect data of the highest quality. This document is a quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities (GWQAP) of the Kansas Water Science Center. The purpose of this GWQAP is to establish a minimum set of guidelines and practices to be used by the Kansas Water Science Center to ensure quality in groundwater activities. Included within these practices are the assignment of responsibilities for implementing quality-assurance activities in the Kansas Water Science Center and establishment of review procedures needed to ensure the technical quality and reliability of the groundwater products. In addition, this GWQAP is intended to complement quality-assurance plans for surface-water and water-quality activities and similar plans for the Kansas Water Science Center and general project activities throughout the USGS. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing, and reporting groundwater data that are quality assured and quality controlled. This GWQAP presents policies directing the collection, processing, analysis, storage, review, and publication of groundwater data. In addition, policies related to organizational responsibilities, training, project planning, and safety are presented. These policies and practices pertain to all groundwater activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, including data-collection programs, interpretive and research projects. This report also includes the data management plan that describes the progression of data management from data collection to archiving and publication.

  15. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  16. Tracing natural gas transport into shallow groundwater using dissolved nitrogen and alkane chemistry in Parker County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T.; Nicot, J. P.; Mickler, P. J.; Darvari, R.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved methane in shallow groundwater drives public concern about the safety of hydraulic fracturing. We report dissolved alkane and nitrogen gas concentrations and their stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N, respectively) from 208 water wells in Parker county, Texas. These data are used to differentiate 'stray' natural gas and low temperature microbial methane, and (2) estimate the ratio of stray gas to groundwater. The ratio of (gas-phase) stray natural gas to groundwater is estimated by correlating dissolved methane and nitrogen concentrations and dissolved nitrogen δ15N values. Our hypothesis is groundwater exposed to high volumes of stray natural gas have high dissolved methane concentrations and low dissolved nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Alternatively, groundwater exposed to low volumes of stray gas-phase natural gas have elevated dissolved methane, but the concentration of dissolved nitrogen and its d15N value is atmospheric. A cluster of samples in Parker county have high concentrations of dissolved methane (>10mg/L) with d13Cmethane and alkane ratios (C1/C2+C3) typical of natural gas from the Barnett Shale and the Strawn Formation. Coupling dissolved nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values with these results, we suggest that few of the wells in this cluster preserve large gas to water ratios. Many samples with high dissolved methane concentrations have atmospheric dissolved nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values, providing evidence against high flux natural gas transport into shallow groundwater. These results demonstrate that dissolved nitrogen chemistry, in addition to dissolved alkane and noble gas measurements, may be useful to discern sources of dissolved methane and estimate ratios of stray natural gas-water ratios.

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality in wells within the Bombali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Research International ... (temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids and salinity), chemical (pH, nitrate-nitrogen, sulphate, calcium, ammonia, fluoride, aluminium, iron, copper and manganese) parameters using potable water testing kit; and bacteriological (faecal and non-faecal coliforms) qualities.

  18. Investigation of Seasonal Variation of groundwater Quality in Jimeta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sadiq

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES VOL, 10, NO.1, 2012 15-36 ... chloride exceeded the recommended standards of drinking water quality in the rainy season from the shallow and ... chloride, and decrease in ammonium ion and coliform with water depth in shallow aquifer in the dry season, and COD, nitrate ...

  19. Classification and quality of groundwater supplies in the Lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares data gathered from a study of the chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking-water from 28 rural borehole supplies in Chikhwawa, Malawi, with a tiered classification scheme (Class 0 being ideal through to Class III being unsuitable for drinking without prior treatment) developed by investigators ...

  20. groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    boreholes analysed for some physical and chemical constituents including electrical conductance, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, ... useful in that it could provide baseline water quality data which could be used to evaluate the ... The low-lying alluvial plains are characterised by vegetation consisting of ...

  1. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  2. groundwater quality assessment of wells in ifewara, osun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water resource for immediate and future use are of regional to global concern. Water supports all forms of ... population is often a function of natural as well as anthropogenic activities (Sajjad, et al., 1998). Water is ..... salt can affect soil structure and yield (Fipps, 2003). High salinity is capable of posing salinity hazard to.

  3. Quality modeling of drinking groundwater using GIS in rural communities, northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaferi, Mohammad; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Shakerkhatibi, Mohammad; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Belvasi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of groundwater resources in water supply, this work aimed to study quality of drinking groundwater in rural areas in Tabriz county, northwest of Iran. Thirty two groundwater samples from different areas were collected and analyzed in terms of general parameters along with 20 heavy metals (e.g. As, Hg and …). The data of the analyses were applied as an attribute database for preparing thematic maps and showing water quality parameters. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) were used to compare and evaluate water quality. The findings showed that hydrochemical faces of the groundwater were of calcium-bicarbonate type. EC values were from 110 to 1750 μs/cm, in which concentration of salts was high in the east and a zone in north of the studied area. Hardness was from 52 to 476 mg/l and CaCO3 with average value of 185.88 ± 106.56 mg/L indicated hard water. Dominant cations and anions were Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) and HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (2), respectively. In the western areas, arsenic contamination was observed as high as 69 μg/L. Moreover, mercury was above the standard level in one of the villages. Eskandar and Olakandi villages had the lowest quality of drinking water. In terms of CA, sampling sites were classified into four clusters of similar water quality and PCA demonstrated that 3 components could cover 84.3% of the parameters. For investigating arsenic anomaly, conducting a comprehensive study in the western part of studied area is strongly recommended.

  4. The Nature and Role of Physical Models in Enhancing Sixth Grade Students' Mental Models of Groundwater and Groundwater Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Debra Lynne Foster

    2012-01-01

    Through a non-experimental descriptive and comparative mixed-methods approach, this study investigated the experiences of sixth grade earth science students with groundwater physical models through an extended SE learning cycle format. The data collection was based on a series of quantitative and qualitative research tools intended to investigate…

  5. How does natural groundwater flow affect CO2 dissolution in saline aquifers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, R.; Michel-Meyer, I.; Tsinober, A.; Shavit, U.

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of supercritical CO2 in aquifer brine is one of the most important trapping mechanisms in CO2 geological storage. Diffusion-limited dissolution is a very slow process. However, since the CO2-rich water is slightly denser than the CO2-free water, when CO2-free water is overlaid by heavier CO2-rich water, convective instability results in fingers of dense CO2-rich water that propagate downwards, causing CO2-unsaturated water to move upwards. This convection process significantly accelerates the dissolution rate of CO2 into the aquifer water.Most previous works have neglected the effect of natural groundwater flow and assumed it has no effect on the dissolution dynamics. However, it was found that in some of the saline aquifers groundwater flow rate, although small, is not zero. In this research, we study the effect of groundwater flow on dissolution by performing laboratory experiments in a bead pack cell using a mixture of methanol and ethylene-glycol as a CO2 analog while varying the water horizontal flow rate. We find that water horizontal flow decreases the number of fingers, their wavelength and their propagation velocity. When testing high water flow rates, no fingers were developed and the dissolution process was entirely diffusive. The effect of water flow on the dissolution rate did not show a clear picture. When increasing the horizontal flow rate the convective dissolution flux slightly decreased and then increased again. It seems that the combination of density-driven flow, water horizontal flow, mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion affect the dissolution rate in a complex and non-monotonic manner. These intriguing dynamics should be further studied to understand their effect on dissolution trapping.

  6. Importance of Rocks and Their Weathering Products on Groundwater Quality in Central-East Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Gountié Dedzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the influence of lithology on water quality in Méiganga and its surroundings. The main geological formations in this region include gneiss, granite and amphibolite. The soils developed on these rocks are of ABC type, which are acidic to slightly acidic. Electrical conductivity (EC, organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, phosphorus and exchangeable base values were low to very low in the soil samples. Groundwater samples were investigated for their physicochemical characteristics. The wide ranges of EC values (15.1–436 µS/cm and total dissolved solids (9–249 mg/L revealed the heterogeneous distribution of hydrochemical processes within the groundwater of the area. The relative abundance of major dissolved species (mg/L was Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations and HCO3− >> NO3− > Cl− > SO42− for anions. All the groundwater samples were soft, with total hardness values (2.54–136.65 mg/L below the maximum permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO guideline. The majority of water samples (67% were classified as mixed CaMg-HCO3 type. Alkaline earth metal contents dominated those of alkali metals in 66.66% of samples. Thus, for the studied groundwater, Mg2+ and Ca2+ ion adsorption by clay minerals was almost nonexistent; this implies their release into the solution, which accounts for their high concentrations compared to alkali metals. Ion geochemistry revealed that water-rock interactions (silicate weathering and ion exchange processes regulated the groundwater chemistry. One water sample points towards the evaporation domain of this diagram, indicating that groundwater probably does not originate from a deeper system. Kaolinite is the most stable secondary phase in the waters in the study area, in accordance with the geochemical process of monosiallitization, which predominated in the humid tropical zone.

  7. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-03-03

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  8. Belgrade waterworks groundwater source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, A.; Dasic, M.; Vukcevic, G.; Vasiljevic, Lj.; Nikolic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Paper deals with Belgrade Waterworks groundwater source, its characteristics, conception of protection programme, contaminations on source and with parameters of groundwater quality degradation. Groundwaters present natural heritage with their strategic and slow renewable natural resources attributes, and as such they require priority in protection. It is of greatest need that existing source is to be protected and used optimally for producing quality drinkable water. The concept of source protection programme should be based on regular water quality monitoring, identification of contaminators, defining areas of their influences on the source and their permanent control. However, in the last 10 years, but drastically in the last 3, because of the overall situation in the country, it is very characteristic downfall in volume of business, organisation and the level of supply of the technical equipment

  9. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  10. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  11. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  12. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  13. Groundwater quality assessment using the water quality pollution indices in Toyserkan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran is located within the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required water is secured via the use of groundwater. Owing to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was performed to evaluate water quality pollution indices for heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination monitoring in Toyserkan Plain during spring and summer in 2012. Methods: A total of 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and kept cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The results revealed that the mean values of contamination index (Cd, heavy metal pollution index (HPI and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.81, 9.74 and 1.20, respectively and were -2.67, 9.51 and 1.32, respectively in samples for summer season and this indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Toyserkan Plain is not higher than permissible limits, the irregular and long-term utilization of agricultural inputs, use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, over utilization of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries can threaten the ground water, and cause irreversible damages in this area

  14. Visions for a Pan-European digital data infrastructure for groundwater quantity and quality data relevant for implementation of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    The EU Water Framework and Groundwater Directives stipulate that EU member states (MS) should ensure good groundwater chemical and quantitative by 2015. For the assessment of good chemical status the MS have to establish Natural Background Levels (NBLs) and Threshold Values (TVs) for groundwater bodies at risk and compare current concentration levels to these. In addition the MS shall ensure trend reversals in cases where contaminants or water levels show critical increasing or decreasing trends. The EU MS have to demonstrate that the quantitative and chemical status of its groundwater bodies does not put drinking water, ecosystems or other legitimate uses at risk. Easy on-line access to relevant visualizations of groundwater quality and quantity data of e.g. nitrate, chloride, arsenic and water tables in Europe's major aquifer types compiled from national databases would be of great importance for managers, authorities and scientists conducting risk and status assessments. The Water Resources Expert Group of the EuroGeoSurveys propose to develop Pan-European interactive on-line digital maps and visualizations of concentrations levels and trends, as well as calculated natural background levels and threshold values for the most important aquifer types of Europe mainly derived based on principles established in the former EU project "BRIDGE" - Background cRiteria for the IDentification of Groundwater Thresholds. Further, we propose to develop Pan-European digital and dynamic maps and cross sections in close collaboration with ecologists, which delineate dependent or associated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across Europe where groundwater quantity and quality plays a significant role in sustaining good ecological status of the ecosystem, and where the water resources and ecosystems are most vulnerable to climate change. Finally, integrated water resources management requires integrated consideration of both deep and shallow groundwater and surface water issues

  15. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  16. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  17. Arsenic Removal from Natural Groundwater by Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. García-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of natural groundwater by arsenic (As is a serious problem that appears in some areas of Northern Central Mexico (NCM. In this research, As was removed from NCM wells groundwater by the electrocoagulation (EC technique. Laboratory-scale arsenic electroremoval experiments were carried out at continuous flow rates between 0.25 and 1.00 L min−1 using current densities of 5, 10, and 20 A m−2. Experiments were performed under galvanostatic conditions during 5 min, at constant temperature and pH. The response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of the processing variables (flow rate and current density, response modeling, and predictions. The highest arsenic removal efficiency from underground water (99% was achieved at low flow rates (0.25 L min−1 and high current densities (20 A m−2. The response models developed explained 93.7% variability for As removal efficiency.

  18. Hydrochemical characterization and quality appraisal of groundwater from Pungar sub basin, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasamoorthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pungar sub basin is located in the central part of South India. The geology is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. Increased population and intensive agricultural activity make it imperative to assess the quality of the groundwater system to ensure long-term sustainability of the resources. A total of 87 groundwater samples were collected from bore wells for two different seasons, viz., Pre monsoon and Post monsoon and analyzed for major cations and anions. Semi-arid climate, high evaporation rate and nutrient enrichment are the key features for EC enrichment. HigherNO3- and Cl− were observed in groundwater samples. The sources of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are from silicate weathering process. The facies demarcation suggests base exchanged hardened water. Gibbs plot suggests chemical weathering of rock forming minerals along with evaporation. The plot of (Ca2+ + Mg2+ versus (SO42-+HCO3- suggests both ion exchange and reverse exchange processes. The plot of (Na++K+ versus TZ+ shows higher cations via silicate weathering, alkaline/saline soils and residence time. The disequilibrium index for carbonate minerals point out influence of evaporation and silicate minerals favor incongruent dissolution. Mineral stability diagrams signify groundwater equilibrium with Kaolinite, Muscovite and Chlorite minerals. Comparison of groundwater quality with drinking standards and irrigation suitability standards proves that majority of water samples are suitable for drinking purpose. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange and influence of agricultural and sewage impact.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment for domestic and agriculture purposes in Puducherry region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, M.; Senthil Nathan, D.

    2017-11-01

    Totally about 174 groundwater samples have been collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season to study the suitability for domestic and agriculture purposes along the coastal aquifers of Puducherry region. Parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), bicarbonate (HCO3), chloride (Cl) and sulfate (SO4) were analyzed to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (Na%), permeability index (PI) and chlorinity index were assessed for irrigation purposes. The higher concentration of ions such as Na, Ca, Cl and So4 indicates seawater intrusion, mineral dissolution, intense agricultural practices and improper sewage disposal. The level of EC, TDS and hardness in the water samples indicates that maximum of them are suitable for drinking and domestic purposes. The parameters such as SAR, Na%, PI, MAR and Chlorinity index indicates that majority of water sample are very good to moderately suitable for agriculture. In pre-monsoon, RSC of about 5.7% of samples was higher which when used for a longer time alter the soil properties and reduce crop production. Wilcox diagram suggests that water samples are of medium saline to low sodium type indicating that groundwater is suitable for irrigation. Temporal variation of groundwater quality shows significant increasing trend in EC, TDS and ions like Mg, K and Cl in the last decade, mainly due to anthropogenic activities with little geogenic impact in the quality of groundwater.

  20. Synthetic and natural antioxidants: food quality protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of food lipid components, known as oxidative rancidity is one of the major deteriorative and quality-affecting reactions. Oxidative rancidity is initiated by oxygen free-radicals or by the reaction of molecular oxygen with pre-formed organic free-radicals from polyunsaturated fatty acids composing fats and oils. Oxidation may be prevented or delayed by antioxidants, these substances being organic molecules of either synthetic or natural origin which can scavenge the oxygen free-radicals involved in fatty acid oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants are the most popular and widely used antioxidants, however concerns about it safe to both human and animal health is encouraging research on substances from natural origin showing antioxidant properties. Few natural antioxidants have been proved to be effective when compared to synthetic products in the same experimental conditions. This work summarizes the main characteristics of the most important synthetic antioxidants, also discuss the principal characteristics of four natural antioxidants, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of using natural products compared to synthetic ones, and sight the future for natural products with antioxidant activity.

    La oxidación de los componentes lípidos de un alimento, conocida como rancidez oxidativa, es una de las reacciones que deteriora y afecta en forma más importante la calidad de un producto. La rancidez oxidativa es iniciada por radicales libres del oxígeno o por el ataque del oxígeno molecular a radicales libres pre-formados en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados que forman las grasas y aceites. La oxidación puede ser prevenida o retrasada por los antioxidantes, sustancias orgánicas de origen sintético o natural que actúan como atrapadores de los radicales libres del oxígeno involucrados en la oxidación de los ácidos grasos. Los antioxidantes sintéticos son los más populares y ampliamente utilizados, sin embargo existe

  1. Importance of ethanol on natural attenuation of groundwater impacted by gasohol; Importancia do etanol na atenuacao natural de aguas subterraneas impactadas por gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Cristina Cardoso [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: crisnunes@ens.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry Xavier [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental. Lab. de Remediacao de Aguas Subterraneas

    2007-07-15

    In this study, results of 6.5 years of a controlled release experiment with Brazilian gasoline in groundwater were evaluated. Ethanol exhaustion after 32 months and the significant dissolved BTEX mass reduction of more than 90% after 79 months, associated with the electron acceptors use and their metabolic byproducts accumulation, demonstrated the efficiency of monitored natural attenuation for groundwater contamination without immediate risk to receptors. Moreover, ethanol degradation provided a natural bio barrier formation that increased BTEX biodegradation rate and prevented the BTEX plume expansion. (author)

  2. Hydrogeologic settings and groundwater-flow simulations for regional investigations of the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants to public-supply wells—Investigations begun in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study was designed to shed light on factors that affect the vulnerability of groundwater and, more specifically, water from public-supply wells to contamination to provide a context for the NAWQA Program's earlier finding of mixtures of contaminants at low concentrations in groundwater near the water table in urban areas across the Nation. The TANC study has included investigations at both the regional (tens to thousands of square kilometers) and local (generally less than 25 square kilometers) scales. At the regional scale, the approach to investigation involves refining conceptual models of groundwater flow in hydrologically distinct settings and then constructing or updating a groundwater-flow model with particle tracking for each setting to help quantify regional water budgets, public-supply well contributing areas (areas contributing recharge to wells and zones of contribution for wells), and traveltimes from recharge areas to selected wells. A great deal of information about each contributing area is captured from the model output, including values for 170 variables that describe physical and (or) geochemical characteristics of the contributing areas. The information is subsequently stored in a relational database. Retrospective water-quality data from monitoring, domestic, and many of the public-supply wells, as well as data from newly collected samples at selected public-supply wells, also are stored in the database and are used with the model output to help discern the more important factors affecting vulnerability in many, if not most, settings. The study began with investigations in seven regional areas, and it benefits from being conducted as part of the NAWQA Program, in which consistent methods