WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural gas infrastructure

  1. The economic implications of natural gas infrastructure investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi Martino; Hartono, Djoni; Arentsen, Maarten; Lovett, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Since 2001, the Indonesian government has issued natural gas master plans annually holding the planned gas infrastructure developments in order to motivate private parties who are not motivated due to the lack of the gas infrastructure increase. Since 2002, there were only three segments of gas

  2. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  3. Natural gas infrastructure requirements for merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Merchant power plants are complicated with diverse risks. Of course where there are risks there are opportunities for reward. Creating an effective merchant plant requires a strong organization that is committed to marketing, trading and risk management. The organization must have the infrastructure to capitalize on the opportunities a merchant plant provides. The market dynamics are ever changing and move at incredible speeds--what was a moneymaking deal yesterday is no longer valid today. The merchant plant owner is the expert in setting up the actual infrastructure for trading the various commodities, including forward pricing, cash and physical trades, transportation and operation for maximizing the plant's potential. Optionally, the plant's risk profile and a risk management program are the key factors in determining the sucres of the merchant plant project

  4. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  5. Infrastructures for natural gas : The challenges of internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.; De Jong, J.

    2009-01-01

    The European natural gas infrastructure is facing the challenge of adapting itself to an increasingly international pattern of supply and demand, while the coordination of transactions is getting more and more complex. New patterns of trade are evolving, reflecting the consequences of the gradual

  6. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  7. Transport of natural gas; criterions for the infrastructure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The planning of the expansion of transport of natural gas system; should keep in mind the changes that are happening in the structure of this industry in the country. In this respect, it is growing the number of actors private present in her, what determines a indicative type planning, whose main objective is to serve as information or guide in decisions of investment involved agents in the maintenance and the amplification of the net of transport for the national supply of natural gas. An indicative plan has objectives different to those of an operative plan of short term. While this last search to establish a program of adjustments to manage commitments of transport and to maintain, this way, the validity of the gas pipeline, The indicative plan of transport is guided to quantify the intensity of the financial effort that is required so that the capacity of the gas pipeline net, responds to the prospective growth of the gas industry. In other words, the indicative plan should contribute to identify the type of works and the one mounts of the investments that the transport of gas system needs in the long term. In this sense, it is important to specify the function objective that will optimize, this precision it should take into account, in our case, the foreseen expansion of the electric sector, because this it depends in good measure of the costs and of the geographical readiness of fuels as the natural gas and the coal. Said otherwise, the function objective that should be optimized involves the expansion of the net of transport of natural gas and the expansion of the generation capacity simultaneously and of the infrastructure of electricity transmission

  8. Literature Review and Synthesis for the Natural Gas Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talaber, Leah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McPherson, Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parrott, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manzanares, Trevor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consuming regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well has to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines designed to quickly and efficiently transport the gas from its origin to areas of high demand. The transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage: If the natural gas being transported is not immediately required, it can be put into storage facilities until it is needed. A description of the natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) sector is provided as follows.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    greater storage capacity and is tailored to meet fleets' needs. Cost of Installation Costs of installing ). According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, costs for installing a CNG accompanying Clean Cities Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) Model to evaluate the return

  10. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  11. The economics of natural gas infrastructure investments. Theory and model-based analysis for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochner, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Changing supply structures, security of supply threats and efforts to eliminate bottlenecks and increase competition in the European gas market potentially warrant infrastructure investments. However, which investments are actually efficient is unclear. From a theoretical perspective, concepts from other sectors regarding the estimation of congestion cost and efficient investment can be applied - with some extensions - to natural gas markets. Investigations in a simple analytical framework, thereby, show that congestion does not necessarily imply that investment is efficient, and that there are multiple interdependencies between investments in different infrastructure elements (pipeline grid, gas storage, import terminals for liquefied natural gas (LNG)) which need to be considered in an applied analysis. Such interdependencies strengthen the case for a model-based analysis. An optimization model minimizing costs can illustrate the first-best solution with respect to investments in natural gas infrastructure; gas market characteristics such as temperature-dependent stochasticity of demand or the lumpiness of investments can be included. Scenario analyses help to show the effects of changing the underlying model presumption. Hence, results are projections subject to data and model assumption - and not forecasts. However, as they depict the optimal, cost-minimizing outcome, results provide a guideline to policymakers and regulators regarding the desirable market outcome. A stochastic mixed-integer dispatch and investment model for the European natural gas infrastructure is developed as an optimization model taking the theoretical inter-dependencies into account. It is based on an extensive infrastructure database including long-distance transmission pipelines, LNG terminals and gas storage sites with a high level of spatial granularity. It is parameterized with assumptions on supply and demand developments as well as empirically derived infrastructure extension costs

  12. 75 FR 17407 - Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-11-000] Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public Conference March 31... Room on the second floor of the offices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street...

  13. Does infrastructure provision hinder energy integration? The case of natural gas in the southern cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navajas, Fernando

    2010-09-15

    This paper uses evidence on policies, markets and private transactions to discuss the experience of natural gas infrastructure integration in the Southern Cone of Latin America. The argument is that contracts on international exchanges supported by infrastructure may become incomplete due to contingencies related to policy-induced price distortions not anticipated at the moment of writing. Beyond regulatory risk mitigation, it calls for back-up contract provisions designed to cope with aggregate imbalances and for some supranational coordination related to information about market conditions and on energy planning dialogues that test consistency and stress situations in markets where exports originate.

  14. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  15. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  17. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  19. Analyzing Drivers of Conflict in Energy Infrastructure Projects: Empirical Case Study of Natural Gas Pipeline Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Young Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructure projects have caused various conflicts between stakeholders, particularly among the residents around construction sites and operators. The conflicts are largely due to the “Not in My Backyard” mentality associated with hazardous projects. In natural gas pipeline (NGP projects, conflicts have been increasing with the increase in a wider range of linear projects, and they have been worsening because of the lack of clear countermeasures. This study proposes an effective conflict management strategy for NGP projects in Korea. To achieve the objectives, 25 conflict drivers were identified and 143 case-based surveys were conducted to determine the causal relationship between the drivers and the level of conflict using structural equation modeling (SEM. The SEM results show that factors such as economic (e.g., decreased value of the land, construction-related (e.g., disturbance due to using the original route and site, and safety-related characteristics (e.g., concerns about explosions and accidents are the most important in understanding the causes of conflicts. Based on the causal relationship, five key strategies were proposed to manage the critical conflicts. This study can serve as a basis for implementing better conflict management plans in the future for a more sustainable project execution.

  20. Methane emissions from natural gas infrastructure and use in the urban region of Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, Kathryn; Down, Adrian; Raciti, Steve M; Budney, John; Hutyra, Lucy R; Floerchinger, Cody; Herndon, Scott C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Zahniser, Mark S; Jackson, Robert B; Phillips, Nathan; Wofsy, Steven C

    2015-02-17

    Methane emissions from natural gas delivery and end use must be quantified to evaluate the environmental impacts of natural gas and to develop and assess the efficacy of emission reduction strategies. We report natural gas emission rates for 1 y in the urban region of Boston, using a comprehensive atmospheric measurement and modeling framework. Continuous methane observations from four stations are combined with a high-resolution transport model to quantify the regional average emission flux, 18.5 ± 3.7 (95% confidence interval) g CH4 ⋅ m(-2) ⋅ y(-1). Simultaneous observations of atmospheric ethane, compared with the ethane-to-methane ratio in the pipeline gas delivered to the region, demonstrate that natural gas accounted for ∼ 60-100% of methane emissions, depending on season. Using government statistics and geospatial data on natural gas use, we find the average fractional loss rate to the atmosphere from all downstream components of the natural gas system, including transmission, distribution, and end use, was 2.7 ± 0.6% in the Boston urban region, with little seasonal variability. This fraction is notably higher than the 1.1% implied by the most closely comparable emission inventory.

  1. An Atmosphere-based Method for Detection and Quantification of Methane Emisions from Natural Gas Infrastructure in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, K.; Down, A.; Raciti, S. M.; Budney, J.; Hutyra, L.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Zahniser, M. S.; Sargent, M. R.; Jackson, R. B.; Phillips, N. G.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions from the natural gas supply-chain are highly uncertain and can vary widely among components and processes. We present an atmosphere-based method for detecting and quantifying the area and time-averaged surface flux of methane from natural gas infrastructure, and its application to the case-study of Boston, Massachusetts. Continuous measurements of atmospheric methane at a network of stations, inside and outside the city, are used to quantify the atmospheric methane gradient due to emissions from the urban area. Simultaneous observations of atmospheric ethane, and data on the ethane and methane content of the pipeline gas flowing through the region, are used to trace the atmospheric methane enhancement to the natural gas source. An atmospheric transport model is used to quantitatively relate the observed methane enhancement to a surface flux from the whole urban region. We find that methane emissions from natural gas in the urban region over one year was equal to 2.7 ± 0.6 % of the natural gas delivered to the region. Our findings for Boston suggest natural-gas-consuming regions, generally, may be larger sources of methane to the atmosphere than is current estimated and represent areas of significant resource loss.

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the

  3. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  4. Viability of developing natural gas infrastructure from the Barents sea : from field to market – a complete analysis of the value chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Erling Andreas; Torvund, Tord Steinset

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses whether it is profitable to build a natural gas infrastructure solution in the Barents Sea, under reasonable assumptions about costs and revenues. In order to answer this question we have looked at the resource base in the Barents Sea and the probability of new discoveries, how the global market for natural gas will develop, at what cost the oil and gas companies will be able to recover the resources, and what type of infrastructure that suits the region best ...

  5. Running on Fumes: A Critical Look at Mexico’s Natural Gas Transportation and Distribution Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    company’s revenues, but PEMEX has also been hampered in its ability to leverage private investment and ownership in developing and improving...PEMEX offers for gas distribution franchises ; the standard for exclusivity ranges from 20 to 75 years or more in much of the world, but in Mexico... vs . Government,” Revue de l’energie 53, no.1 (2002):648. 12 Juan Rosellon and Jonathan Halpern, “Regulatory Reform in Mexico’s Natural Gas Industry

  6. Joint Costs in Electricity and Natural Gas Distribution Infrastructures: The Role of Urban Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzeyyen Anil Senyel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the joint cost structure of electricity and natural gas distribution investments. Assessing the joint costs is critical for urban development and public policy regarding competition at the local level. The paper accounts for the urban and geographic factors at the local level, while the previous literature primarily used company-level data with a few or no site-specific variables in joint cost analyses. An empirical analysis of the multi-utility capital costs suggests that the local urban and geographic conditions affect such costs, with economies of scope present in electricity and natural gas both in terms of total costs and underground investment costs. Hence, the joint service provision makes economic and environmental sense for urban policy makers.

  7. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  8. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  9. The use of the natural-gas pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transport in a changing market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseldonckx, Dries; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the transport and distribution aspects of hydrogen during the transition period towards a possible full-blown hydrogen economy are carefully looked at. Firstly, the energetic and material aspects of hydrogen transport through the existing natural-gas (NG) pipeline infrastructure is discussed. Hereby, only the use of centrifugal compressors and the short-term security of supply seem to constitute a problem for the NG to hydrogen transition. Subsequently, the possibility of percentwise mixing of hydrogen into the NG bulk is dealt with. Mixtures containing up to 17 vol% of hydrogen should not cause difficulties. As soon as more hydrogen is injected, replacement of end-use applications and some pipelines will be necessary. Finally, the transition towards full-blown hydrogen transport in (previously carrying) NG pipelines is treated. Some policy guidelines are offered, both in a regulated and a liberalised energy (gas) market. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the use of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures seems well suited for the transition from natural gas to hydrogen on a distribution (low pressure) level. However, getting the hydrogen gas to the distribution grid, by means of the transport grid, remains a major issue. In the end, the structure of the market, regulated or liberalised, turns out not to be important. (author)

  10. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A.; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites.

  11. Geography and the costs of urban energy infrastructure: The case of electricity and natural gas capital investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyel, Muzeyyen Anil

    Investments in the urban energy infrastructure for distributing electricity and natural gas are analyzed using (1) property data measuring distribution plant value at the local/tax district level, and (2) system outputs such as sectoral numbers of customers and energy sales, input prices, company-specific characteristics such as average wages and load factor. Socio-economic and site-specific urban and geographic variables, however, often been neglected in past studies. The purpose of this research is to incorporate these site-specific characteristics of electricity and natural gas distribution into investment cost model estimations. These local characteristics include (1) socio-economic variables, such as income and wealth; (2) urban-related variables, such as density, land-use, street pattern, housing pattern; (3) geographic and environmental variables, such as soil, topography, and weather, and (4) company-specific characteristics such as average wages, and load factor. The classical output variables include residential and commercial-industrial customers and sales. In contrast to most previous research, only capital investments at the local level are considered. In addition to aggregate cost modeling, the analysis focuses on the investment costs for the system components: overhead conductors, underground conductors, conduits, poles, transformers, services, street lighting, and station equipment for electricity distribution; and mains, services, regular and industrial measurement and regulation stations for natural gas distribution. The Box-Cox, log-log and additive models are compared to determine the best fitting cost functions. The Box-Cox form turns out to be superior to the other forms at the aggregate level and for network components. However, a linear additive form provides a better fit for end-user related components. The results show that, in addition to output variables and company-specific variables, various site-specific variables are statistically

  12. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  13. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  14. Sensor transition failure in the high flow sampler: Implications for methane emission inventories of natural gas infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Touché; Ferrara, Thomas W; Townsend-Small, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Quantification of leaks from natural gas (NG) infrastructure is a key step in reducing emissions of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), particularly as NG becomes a larger component of domestic energy supply. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires measurement and reporting of emissions of CH4 from NG transmission, storage, and processing facilities, and the high-flow sampler (or high-volume sampler) is one of the tools approved for this by the EPA. The Bacharach Hi-Flow Sampler (BHFS) is the only commercially available high-flow instrument, and it is also used throughout the NG supply chain for directed inspection and maintenance, emission factor development, and greenhouse gas reduction programs. Here we document failure of the BHFS to transition from a catalytic oxidation sensor used to measure low NG (~5% or less) concentrations to a thermal conductivity sensor for higher concentrations (from ~5% to 100%), resulting in underestimation of NG emission rates. Our analysis includes both our own field testing and analysis of data from two other studies (Modrak et al., 2012; City of Fort Worth, 2011). Although this failure is not completely understood, and although we do not know if all BHFS models are similarly affected, sensor transition failure has been observed under one or more of these conditions: (1) Calibration is more than ~2 weeks old; (2) firmware is out of date; or (3) the composition of the NG source is less than ~91% CH4. The extent to which this issue has affected recent emission studies is uncertain, but the analysis presented here suggests that the problem could be widespread. Furthermore, it is critical that this problem be resolved before the onset of regulations on CH4 emissions from the oil and gas industry, as the BHFS is a popular instrument for these measurements. An instrument commonly used to measure leaks in natural gas infrastructure has a critical sensor transition failure issue that results in underestimation of leaks, with

  15. LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gu, Anzhong [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Na [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and more are being planned. China is now able to manufacture LNG road tanks and containers. The construction of the first two LNG carriers has been completed. LNG satellite stations have been built, and LNG vehicles have been manufactured. LNG related regulations and standards are being established. The prospects of LNG in China are also discussed in this paper. Interesting topics such as small-scale liquefiers, LNG cold energy utilization, coal bed methane liquefaction, LNG plant on board (FPSO - floating production, storage, and off-loading), and LNG price are introduced and analyzed. To meet the increasing demand for natural gas, China needs to build about 10 large LNG receiving terminals, and to import LNG at the level of more than 20 bcm (billion cubic metre) per year by 2020. (author)

  16. LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gu, Anzhong; Zhang, Na

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and more are being planned. China is now able to manufacture LNG road tanks and containers. The construction of the first two LNG carriers has been completed. LNG satellite stations have been built, and LNG vehicles have been manufactured. LNG related regulations and standards are being established. The prospects of LNG in China are also discussed in this paper. Interesting topics such as small-scale liquefiers, LNG cold energy utilization, coal bed methane liquefaction, LNG plant on board (FPSO - floating production, storage, and off-loading), and LNG price are introduced and analyzed. To meet the increasing demand for natural gas, China needs to build about 10 large LNG receiving terminals, and to import LNG at the level of more than 20 bcm (billion cubic metre) per year by 2020. (author)

  17. The obstacles for the investments in natural gas distribution infrastructure in Brazil; Os obstaculos aos investimentos na rede de distribuicao de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Bueno, Salua Saud; Selles, Vitor [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the main obstacles for the expansion of the Brazilian gas distribution pipelines infrastructure. The paper examines the evolution of investments in the gas chain and highlights the existence of an important unbalance between the level of investments in the upstream and transportation segments and the level of investment in the distribution network. It is clear that the level of investments in the distribution segment is not following the pace of expansion of the other segments. Given this conclusion, the paper examines the potential for increasing the level of investment in the distribution segment by augmenting the debt level of distribution companies. By analyzing the main distribution companies' financial statements, the paper shows that they there is room for an expansion in investments through financial leverage. Finally, the paper examines the main financing obstacles that impede the companies to increase their investment level. (author)

  18. The impact of northern gas on North American gas infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letwin, S.

    2004-01-01

    The three business units that Enbridge operates are crude oil pipelines; natural gas liquids (NGL) transportation; and gas transmission and distribution. The need for more infrastructure will increase as the demand for natural gas increases. This presentation outlined the issues that surround and sometimes impede infrastructure development. It also emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. Additional LNG supply is required along with new supply from Alaska, Mackenzie Delta and the east coast. The issue of a secure source of supply was discussed along with northern gas expectations. It is expected that Mackenzie Delta gas (1.2 bcf/day) will be available by 2008 to 2010 and Alaska North Slope gas (4 bcf/day) will be available from 2012 to 2014. Gas demand by industrial, residential, commercial and power generation sectors across North America was illustrated. The challenge lies in creating infrastructure to move the supply to where it is most in demand. General infrastructure issues were reviewed, such as prices, regulatory streamlining, lead times, stakeholder issues and supporting infrastructure. 19 figs

  19. Conventional oil and natural gas infrastructure increases brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) relative abundance and parasitism in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath-Plaisted, Jacy; Nenninger, Heather; Koper, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    The rapid expansion of oil and natural gas development across the Northern Great Plains has contributed to habitat fragmentation, which may facilitate brood parasitism of ground-nesting grassland songbird nests by brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), an obligate brood parasite, through the introduction of perches and anthropogenic edges. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brown-headed cowbird relative abundance and brood parasitism rates of Savannah sparrow ( Passerculus sandwichensis ) nests in relation to the presence of infrastructure features and proximity to potential perches and edge habitat. The presence of oil and natural gas infrastructure increased brown-headed cowbird relative abundance by a magnitude of four times, which resulted in four times greater brood parasitism rates at infrastructure sites. While the presence of infrastructure and the proximity to roads were influential in predicting brood parasitism rates, the proximity of perch sites was not. This suggests that brood parasitism associated with oil and natural gas infrastructure may result in additional pressures that reduce productivity of this declining grassland songbird.

  20. Effects of a significant New Madrid Seismic Zone event on oil and natural gas pipelines and their cascading effects to critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Damon E.

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is a construct that relates preparedness and responsiveness to natural or man-made disasters that involve vulnerable assets deemed essential for the functioning of our economy and society. Infrastructure systems (power grids, bridges, airports, etc.) are vulnerable to disastrous types of events--natural or man-made. Failures of these systems can have devastating effects on communities and entire regions. CIP relates our willingness, ability, and capability to defend, mitigate, and re-constitute those assets that succumb to disasters affecting one or more infrastructure sectors. This qualitative research utilized ethnography and employed interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs) from various fields of study regarding CIP with respect to oil and natural gas pipelines in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The study focused on the research question: What can be done to mitigate vulnerabilities in the oil and natural gas infrastructures, along with the potential cascading effects to interdependent systems, associated with a New Madrid fault event? The researcher also analyzed National Level Exercises (NLE) and real world events, and associated After Action Reports (AAR) and Lessons Learned (LL) in order to place a holistic lens across all infrastructures and their dependencies and interdependencies. Three main themes related to the research question emerged: (a) preparedness, (b) mitigation, and (c) impacts. These themes comprised several dimensions: (a) redundancy, (b) node hardening, (c) education, (d) infrastructure damage, (e) cascading effects, (f) interdependencies, (g) exercises, and (h) earthquake readiness. As themes and dimensions are analyzed, they are considered against findings in AARs and LL from previous real world events and large scale exercise events for validation or rejection.

  1. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  2. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo; Melaina, Marc W.

    2011-01-01

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  3. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference : Tapping into new opportunities in oil sands supply and infrastructure : natural gas, diluent, pipelines, cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Participants at this conference were provided the opportunity to hear various views of several industry leaders on topics related to oil sands supply and infrastructure. Some of the issues addressed were: the latest project developments and pipeline infrastructure expansion initiatives in the oil sands industry; the growing natural gas supply requirements for oil sands production; how to effectively manage stakeholder issues in the context of rapid growth; an update on the supply and demand balance for diluent; demand for cogeneration and the implications of transmission system congestion; and, market development prospects for heavy crude and the need for additional refinery capacity. The Minister of Alberta Economic Development also made a special presentation. There were fifteen presentations made at the conference, of which nine were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE OF GAS NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek URBANIK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology today is becoming increasingly important. Increasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions make the search for such fuels which will not have such a negative effect on the environment as the fuel use currently - mainly coal. At present it seems that the substitute fuel can be gaseous fuels (propane-butane, methane. Their combustion is less harmful to the environment and their transport is relatively not very complicated. As it turns out, the use of gas is increasing in industry, automotive, heating systems (power plants that operate in the so-called cogeneration. The increase in demand carries continuous development of gas infrastructure, which in turn may increase probability of failure. As a conclusion of this article, taking into account all the construction disasters induced by the gas, the number of such failures is relatively small. It should be remembered, that the disaster caused by gas explosion may cause very large material and human losses. Not without significance is the impact of gas leakage, eg. of the pipeline on the environment. An example is the methane which is a greenhouse gas, less persistent in the air, but much more active than CO2. The article presents selected disasters associated with natural gas or propane-butane and the impact of these gases on the environment because these fuels are most commonly used in most sectors of the economy.

  5. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  6. Mitigating for nature in Danish infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    his paper presents results of a Danish study of mitigation efforts directed at nature protection in EIA of Danish infrastructure projects. The projects included in the study comprise road, rail, bridges, tunnels cables and oil- and gas-pipes. The study is based on a document analysis of EIA reports......, a workshop held with EIA professionals, a study of two cases and a survey among EIA professionals. The study reveals whether and how the mitigation hierarchy has been adhered to and what types of mitigation measures have been suggested. The study digs a bit deeper in discussing the dynamics in which...

  7. Historical variation in the capital costs of natural gas, carbon dioxide and hydrogen pipelines and implications for future infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, K.; Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Zwaan, van der B.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of large pipeline infrastructures for CH4, CO2and H2transportation usually constitutes a major and time-consuming undertaking, because of safety and environmental issues, legal and (geo)political siting arguments, technically un-trivial installation processes, and/or high investment

  8. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  9. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  10. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  12. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  13. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  14. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  15. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  16. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  17. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  18. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  19. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  20. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  1. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  2. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  3. The future of gas infrastructures in Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, Ger; McDonald, Alan; Jimin Zhao

    2001-01-01

    The IIASA-WEC study global energy perspectives emphasized trends toward cleaner, more flexible, and more convenient final energy forms, delivered chiefly by energy grids, and noted potential energy infrastructure deficiencies in Eurasia. We compare planned interregional gas pipelines and LNG terminals in Eurasia with the study's projected trade flows for 2020. We focus on the study's three high-growth scenarios and single middle course scenario. The comparison indicates that high gas consumption in a scenario need not imply high gas trade. For the former Soviet Union, a robust strategy across all six scenarios is to implement existing plans and proposals for expanding gas export capacity. For Eastern Europe, significant import capacity expansions beyond current plans and proposals are needed in all but the middle course scenario. Western European plans and proposals need to be increased only in two high gas consumption scenarios. Planned and proposed capacities for the Middle East (exports) and centrally planned Asia (imports) most closely match a high gas trade scenario, but are otherwise excessive. Paradoxically, for the Pacific OECD, more short-term import capacity is needed in scenarios with low gas consumption than in high-consumption scenarios. For Southeast Asia, proposed import capacities are significantly higher than scenario trade projections. (Author)

  4. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  5. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  6. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  7. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  8. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  9. Western Pacific liquefied natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woronuk, R.

    2004-01-01

    WestPac Terminals Inc. has expertise in natural gas supply and demand, transportation, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and economic optimization. This presentation addressed issues facing their proposed construction of an LNG terminal and associated facilities on the west coast of Canada. It presented pie charts comparing world gas reserves with production. NPC gas price projects and WestPac gas cost estimates were also presented. It was noted that an unprecedented growth in LNG imports to North America is essential and that LNG will be the lowest price major source of natural gas supply. Maps illustrating LNG sources and receiving terminals were also presented along with solutions to the not-in-my-back-yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Solutions include selecting locations where communities are pro-development, where LNG terminals can provide direct financial benefits to the community, and using existing infrastructure to minimize socio-economic impacts. The advantages of developing LNG to Prince Rupert were discussed in terms of serving energy markets, direct provincial benefits, and LNG/power generation synergies. figs

  10. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Western Pacific liquefied natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woronuk, R.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed issues facing WestPac Terminals' proposed construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal and associated facilities on the Ridley Island on the coast of British Columbia. WestPac Terminals Inc. has expertise in natural gas supply and demand, transportation, LNG and economic optimization. Although a review of proposals for receiving terminals in North America has demonstrated the urgency and attractiveness of LNG imports, west coast terminals are not proceeding, largely due to lack of support by local communities. WestPac's proposal includes a deep enough port to accommodate the largest LNG tankers; a port en route to west coast terminal locations to serve as a transshipment hub; sufficient space for LNG storage tanks and natural gas liquids extraction; sea, rail, air and highway access. Other solutions include selecting locations where communities are pro-development where LNG terminals can provide direct financial benefits to the community, and using existing infrastructure to minimize socio-economic impacts. The advantages of developing LNG at the proposed site were discussed in terms of serving energy markets and provincial benefits. LNG source and cost issues were reviewed along with existing markets and required infrastructure for LNG market development. tabs., figs

  12. Western Pacific liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronuk, R. [WestPac Terminals Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation addressed issues facing WestPac Terminals' proposed construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal and associated facilities on the Ridley Island on the coast of British Columbia. WestPac Terminals Inc. has expertise in natural gas supply and demand, transportation, LNG and economic optimization. Although a review of proposals for receiving terminals in North America has demonstrated the urgency and attractiveness of LNG imports, west coast terminals are not proceeding, largely due to lack of support by local communities. WestPac's proposal includes a deep enough port to accommodate the largest LNG tankers; a port en route to west coast terminal locations to serve as a transshipment hub; sufficient space for LNG storage tanks and natural gas liquids extraction; sea, rail, air and highway access. Other solutions include selecting locations where communities are pro-development where LNG terminals can provide direct financial benefits to the community, and using existing infrastructure to minimize socio-economic impacts. The advantages of developing LNG at the proposed site were discussed in terms of serving energy markets and provincial benefits. LNG source and cost issues were reviewed along with existing markets and required infrastructure for LNG market development. tabs., figs.

  13. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  14. The golden age of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The experts of energy policy agree to predict a brilliant future for natural gas. Among fossil energies, natural gas produces the least quantity of CO 2 . Geological reserves are estimated to 65 years for gas and 43 years for petroleum. Throughout the world, industrial infrastructures of gas production, transport and distribution are being developed, for instance 430000 km of gas pipeline are planned. In western Europe half the increase of gas demand by 2010 will be due to electricity production. Innovative techniques using natural gas are studied in various fields: cogeneration, transport, urban heating and fuel cells. The gas-fed fuel cell is based on a reversed electrolysis: hydrogen produced by the decomposition of natural gas interacts with oxygen and yields electricity. (A.C.)

  15. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  16. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  17. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  18. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  19. Investment in transport infrastructure, regulation, and gas-gas competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasmi, Farid; Oviedo, Juan Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)

  20. Investment in transport infrastructure, regulation, and gas-gas competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasmi, Farid [Toulouse School of Economics (ARQADE and IDEI), Universite Toulouse 1 Capitole (France); Oviedo, Juan Daniel [Universidad del Rosario (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)

  1. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  2. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  3. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  4. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  5. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  6. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  7. Symposium Proceedings: Tapping into natural gas production and infrastructure opportunities in the Alaska North Slope, Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Symposium was organized by the Canadian Institute to bring together stakeholders and other interested parties from governments, industry and the investment community to discuss the resource and development potential of Arctic natural gas fields, and related investment and regulatory matters. Various pipeline route alternatives, Aboriginal perspectives on development of natural resources, differences in regulatory regimes, and the need to consider the social and cultural aspects of development also received full exposure. Other than welcoming addresses by political leaders of the two territories and of the State of Alaska, discussions were informal, hence the text of presentations is not available. Nevertheless, the speaking notes and viewgraphs included in this volume, are good indicators of the range of topics and the depth and nature of the discussions which took place

  8. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  9. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  10. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  11. General Motors natural gas vehicle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koplow, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    General Motors (GM) has a number of natural gas vehicle (NGV) programs in progress that address various marketing, technical, and production planning issues that lean on the introduction of NGVs from GM. The initial target is light and medium duty trucks sold in non-attainment air quality regions. GM has also embarked on a longer term program that encompasses vehicle and systems development, gas supply and infrastructure development, and customer and market development. The major long-term issues are gas quality, supplier participation, and infrastructure

  12. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  13. Clean sailing. LNG terminals. Maritime infrastructure for liquefied natural gas; Sauber auf See. LNG-Terminals. Maritime Infrastruktur fuer fluessiges Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Ports act as essential hubs in the global economy. But the rise in maritime traffic is taking a toll on the quality of air in ports and out at sea. From 2015 onwards, threshold governing harmful emissions are being tightened in a bid to clear the air. All of which is driving interest in more environmentally sound fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the perfect fit, more than complying with the upcoming regulations. To enable its widespread adoption, Linde is working full steam ahead to create a network of LNG terminals in Europe. (orig.)

  14. Natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  15. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  16. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  17. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  18. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  19. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  20. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  1. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  2. Market development in the natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, R.W.; Arentsen, M.J.; Manders, A.M.P.; Plettenburg, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Options for the liberalization of the Dutch natural gas market have been investigated. Three models are compared and assessed for the impacts on the economic performance, the national interests and the so-called public tasks. The results of the report can be used to base the proposals for a new Natural Gas Act, which is expected to be sent to the Dutch parliament in the spring of 1999. The three liberalization models are specified according to the different phases in the industrial column of natural gas. Except for transport (limited possibilities) and distribution (monopolistic character and thus not suitable for market development), market development is possible in all the phases of the column. The models are the cooperation model (equal position for the natural gas trade company Gasunie and the natural gas distribution companies, and management of the natural gas infrastructure and the Dutch gas reserves by means of mutual tuning, cooperation and coordination), the EZ-model (price mechanism for the tariffs for natural gas, and access to the natural gas network through negotiated third party access (TPA) with indicative prices and conditions), and the market model (optimal use of market development options to stimulate the economic performance, introduction of price mechanism options, access through regulated TPA with tariffs, based on long-term marginal costs, role of the government limited to a favorable policy with respect to access to the network, competition and security of the interests which arise from the exploitation of the Dutch natural gas fields). 26 refs

  3. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  4. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  5. Natural gas for New Brunswick: First report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The development of the gas field off Sable Island and the imminent construction of a gas pipeline which will deliver natural gas to New Brunswick has prompted a thorough examination of energy-related issues in the province. This report presents the findings of the provincial energy committee which examined the implications of the arrival of natural gas to the province. The committee held a series of public hearings and consultations, and also received written submissions. After a historical perspective on natural gas as an energy source in the province and a review of the gas industry participants and their interests, the report discusses such issues as gas pipeline economics, local distribution company operations, infrastructure development, the regulatory framework, energy market competition, regional price equity, development of in-province gas sources, pipeline access, pipeline laterals and expansions, establishment of gas distribution franchises, municipal involvement in gas development, the impact of gas industry development on electric utility restructuring, and the environmental benefits of natural gas. Finally, recommendations are made regarding how natural gas should be regulated and distributed

  6. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  7. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  8. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  9. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  10. North American natural gas supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goobie, G.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation was given by leading energy analysts Pervin and Gertz, and provided their outlook on the North American natural gas supply and demand as well as transportation and processing options for the Mackenzie Valley project and the Alaska natural gas project. Arctic gas development was discussed in relation to larger North American and world energy markets. The impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure development were compared with the potential impacts of the Alaska and Mackenzie Valley pipelines. A review of North American gas supplies was presented. LNG imports to the United States are expected to exceed 8 BCF/D by 2010. In addition, huge growth in the LNG markets is expected in middle eastern countries as well as in Africa. There is currently strong growth in liquefaction capacity in most regions. However, many proposed LNG terminals will not proceed due to opposition on the west coast of North America. It is also expected that natural gas liquids (NGL) delivered to Alberta from the Mackenzie Valley Gas project are expected to be used by the heavy oil industry. Canadian crude supplies are expected to grow to nearly 4 million barrels per day by 2015. The impacts of Alaska and Mackenzie Valley gas projects on western NGL markets and the petrochemicals industry were reviewed. It was concluded that major investments in supply and infrastructure are need in order to develop Arctic gas, as LNG is likely to be the largest source of incremental supply. tabs., figs

  11. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  12. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  13. Russian Gas for Europe. Creating Access and Choice. Underpinning Russia's gas export strategy with Gazprom's infrastructure investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, T.

    2010-07-01

    This study deals with Gazprom's investment strategy regarding Russia's gas exports and export market behaviour, with a focus on European infrastructure projects, in a the geopolitical context. Because of its large gas reserves, Russia is well-positioned to take advantage of gas exports even as it faces possible competition from other gas suppliers and uncertain gas demand. Gas export earnings are an important source of income for Russia. As a government-controlled firm, Gazprom depends to a large extent on Europe for its hard-currency income. For Russia and Gazprom, the stream of income from gas exports and its expansion are economically vital. In this regard, gas export infrastructures such as Nord and South Stream could act as important instruments to expand Gazprom's market share in current markets and in growth markets. This study uses a real-option game model to assess the overall value of gas infrastructures in the face of demand uncertainties and potential competition. The result of this approach illustrates the strategic-economic character of Gazprom's infrastructure investments in possibly creating a first-mover's advantage. Yet, the model is of a highly stylised nature. Therefore, other aspects should be taken into account in assessing gas infrastructure investments. Besides the goal of possibly expanding Gazprom's market share, infrastructure investments could serve to mitigate overall transit risks. However, Gazprom's organisational constraints in realising gas infrastructures could put into question the rationale of such investments. In addition, Gazprom's position as well as that of Russian gas may be pressured by European (regulatory) policy in favour of alternative gas and other energy sources. The desired market outcomes for Gazprom have an impact on the prioritisation of Russian investments in the gas value chain.

  14. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  15. The natural gas industry and interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y.J.

    1995-01-01

    In discussing the impact of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636, the latest rule on the restructuring and deregulation of the US natural gas industry, the effect of interest rates on the success of the FERC policy is often overlooked. The thesis of this paper is that interest rates play an important role in integrating seasonal gas markets and in stimulating investment in storage infrastructure. We propose a model to analyse the equilibrium condition for an efficient gas market. Also analysed are the implications of pipeline rate design of FERC 636 for gas despatch decisions. (author)

  16. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  17. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. More natural gas from Russia, but when?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The fourth article in a series about changes in the European natural gas market focuses on Russia, a country with gigantic potential reserves (216,000 billion m 3 ) and a production unequalled in the world (780.4 billion m 3 in 1992 in the Russian Federation), but also with enormous economic and technical problems. The question is what role Russia is able to play in the European natural gas supply. Attention is paid to the organizational structure in former Soviet Union regarding the natural gas industry, the environmental effects of exploration and exploitation, the need for foreign capital, and the disappointing progress of the 1991 Energy Charter. On a short term the infrastructure must be improved. Also the conflicts on the price of natural gas transport between the transfer countries Ukraine, Slovenia and Czechoslovakia and the West-European clients must be solved. 1 fig., 7 ills., 2 tabs

  19. C.I.S. natural gas-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.; Stram, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that in the countries that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.), with their vast resources and a considerable existing production base, prospects are good for further growth of the region's exportable gas surplus. Investment fundamentals are stronger for gas than for any other energy resources in the area. But the pipeline infrastructure to move large amounts of gas will need extensive refurbishment to ensure export reliability and growth. Given the potential in terms of production and markets, significant amounts of outside investment in oil, natural gas, and NGL infrastructure will likely increase dramatically in these countries in the near future. These are some of the major conclusions of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics

  20. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  1. India expanding oil/gas E and D, infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that India continues to press oil and gas exploration and development and expansion of its petroleum sector infrastructure. One of the key moves is the government's decision to stage a fourth exploration bidding round, its most ambitious to date and one expected to elicit enthusiasm from international oil companies. At the same time, state oil companies Oil and Natural Gas Commission and Oil India Ltd. plan to maintain strong domestic E and D programs. ONGC is seeking more revenue to sustain India's ambitious oil and gas upstream plans. The state company has asked the government for a 50% hike in the price of domestic crude. The government currently pays ONGC and OIL only about $8.84/bbl, a price fixed in 1981. A jump of 50% in the domestic crude price would net ONGC another $1 billion/year in revenues, ONGC Chairman S.L. Khosla the. The government and other state companies also continue efforts to expand gas utilization and markets and match refining plans with market needs

  2. Who's afraid of natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in our electricity systems provoked by natural gas power generation technology are paving the way for large-scale renewables use in the future. Natural gas and gas turbines are now such a cheap and easy option for electricity generation that they appear to cast a pall over renewables. The market share of gas-fired generation continues expanding inexorably. Its cost continues to fall, setting renewables an ever more demanding competitive target. Nevertheless, paradoxical though this may sound, natural gas is actually the natural ally of renewables. Despite the fierce competitive challenge it represents, natural gas may even be the most important single factor shaping a bright future for renewables. (author)

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Liquid Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the origins of the Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) industry the production and transportation of LNG are discussed. Special attention is paid to the importance of the safety aspect during every activity or handling of LNG. Next the most important trade flows for LNG are dealt with. Two zones can be distinguished: the western part of the Pacific and the Atlantic basin. Subsequently the main aspects of a LNG-project are mentioned, as well as the success factors. Finally the prospects for the LNG-industry are reviewed. 11 figs

  5. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  10. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  11. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  12. Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities...... to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value...

  13. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  14. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  15. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  18. Natural-gas supply-and-demand problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamian, H.

    1998-01-01

    World natural-gas consumption quadrupled in the 30 years from 1966 to 1996, and natural gas now provides 22% of the total world energy demand. The security of natural-gas supply is paramount and rests with the suppliers and the consumers. This paper gives an overview of world natural-gas supply and demand and examines the main supply problems. The most important nonpredictable variables in natural-gas supply are worldwide gas price and political stability, particularly in regions with high reserves. Other important considerations are the cost of development/processing and the transport of natural gas to market, which can be difficult to maintain if pipelines pass through areas of political instability. Another problem is that many countries lack the infrastructure and capital for effective development of their natural-gas industry. Unlike oil, the cost of transportation of natural gas is very high, and, surprisingly, only approximately 16% of the total world production currently is traded internationally

  19. Green gas (SNG) in the Dutch energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerrigter, H.

    2006-04-01

    The presentation on the title subject comprises Motivation for Green Gas; Potential and application; Green Gas and SNG implementation; Biomass availability and import; Economy of SNG production; and the SNG development trajectory. SNG stands for Synthetic Natural Gas

  20. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  1. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Critical analysis of mechanisms of incentive regulation operators of electricity and natural gas networks and infrastructures. Final report. Public version, 23 November 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As the first mechanisms of incentive regulation of electricity and gas network operators have been introduced by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE) since 2008 (the report recalls the main objectives of these mechanisms and their consequences), this report proposes a critical analysis of such mechanisms related to investments and to exploitation expenses of operators and which have been implemented in Germany, Spain, Ireland and in the United Kingdom. For each country, the report proposes a detailed description of these mechanisms for the electric power sector and the gas sector (general overview of the regulation framework, objectives, determination of the authorised income, shift processing, specific incentive mechanisms, modalities of management by the regulator), and a feedback of the different concerned actors (operators and regulators). The last part proposes a description of the status of the French regulation, and an analysis of transposition of the four foreign regulations, and states some propositions for evolutions (objectives, overview of recommended evolutions, focus on three types of regulation evolution: processing of arbitral charges, processing of other incited capital charges, processing of arbitral charges)

  3. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  4. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  5. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  6. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  7. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  8. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  9. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  10. Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanger, Einar; Moelnvik, Mona J.; Owren, Geir; Einang, Per Magne; Grinden, Bjoern; Tangen, Grethe

    2002-05-01

    The report presents results from the project ''Landbasert bruk av naturgass - distribusjonsloesninger'' (Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions). It describes the aims of the project, the political external conditions for the use of natural gas, some environmental profits by changing from petroleum and coal to natural gas, the Norwegian infrastructure, the optimisation of energy transport, strategic consequences of the introduction of LNG and the practical consequences of the Enova strategy

  11. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  12. Conservation for cities how to plan and build natural infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    With this book, Robert McDonald offers a comprehensive framework for maintaining and strengthening the supporting bonds between cities and nature through innovative infrastructure projects. It's time to think differently about cities and nature. More people than ever live in cities, and all of this urban growth, along with challenges of adapting to climate change, will require a new approach to infrastructure if we're going to create livable urban places. After presenting a broad approach to incorporating natural infrastructure priorities into urban planning, he focuses each following chapter on a specific ecosystem service. He describes a wide variety of benefits, and helps practitioners answer fundamental questions about how to use natural infrastructure to create communities that are more resilient and livable.

  13. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  14. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  16. Cascading of fluctuations in interdependent energy infrastructures: Gas-grid coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fracturing and low cost of gas stimulated significant recent expansion of the natural gas networks. • Power system operators transition to gas as the main supply, also facing new reliability challenges. • Natural gas-fired generators vary burn-rates to balance fluctuating output of wind generation. • Impact of the gas-generator variations is seen in diffusive jitter of pressure within the gas network. • Fluctuating pressure impacts both reliability of natural gas deliveries and safety of pipeline operations. - Abstract: The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipelines and use this model to explore the effect of intermittent wind generation on the fluctuations of pressure in natural gas pipelines. The mean square pressure fluctuations are found to grow linearly in time with points of maximum deviation occurring at the locations of flow reversals.

  17. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  18. Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Plieninger, Tobias; Sandberg, Mattias; Stenseke, Marie; Tengö, Maria; Jönsson, K Ingemar

    2017-11-01

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  19. Future view on Norwegian natural gas distribution, 2015 - 2025; Framtidsbilde for norsk naturgassdistribusjon, 2015 - 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einang, P M; Hennie, E; Jetlund, A S; Bertelsen, T; Skjelvik, J M

    2005-05-15

    The report shows how the available market for natural gas can realised as LNG and CNG. The necessary investments in infrastructure and cost for the different solutions are also included. The expected price development natural gas and the connection prices for natural gas versus crude oil are shown. The report also shows the environmental benefits possible by choosing natural gas

  20. Developing competition while building up the infrastructure of the Brazilian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mello Sant Ana, Paulo Henrique; De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto; Valdir Bajay, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    For the last 20 years, countless countries have been carrying out structural reforms in the natural gas industry, trying to achieve efficiency and economic rationality with the introduction of competition. The objective of the paper is to present an approach to the development of competition and infrastructure of the Brazilian natural gas industry. This approach is based on a market projection to 2011, on the international experience and on the characteristics of the Brazilian market, infrastructure and regulatory framework. Possible impacts of the proposed measures are also provided. According to the market projection carried out in this paper, in 2011 there will be a possible surplus of natural gas in the country, which includes a dependence diminishing of the Bolivian gas supply. This gas surplus, allied to an upcoming Gas Law and the trade liberalization in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, can stimulate the development of competition, if some changes that proposed in this paper are made in the current Gas Bills. The approach proposed herein seeks to stimulate non-discriminatory open access, focused on information transparency and tariff regulation to help the development of infrastructure and competition. (author)

  1. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    hand sales of natural gas and LPG. 17 Decreto Legal, Diario Oficial , Noviembre 25, 1993. 37 Review Section 38 Figure 2. Mexican Natural Gas...California 500 Mexicali Baja California 29 Naco - Hermosillo Sonora 130 Nacozari de Garcia Sonora 85 Agua Prieta Sonora 173

  2. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  4. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  5. Bring money and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The budding natural gas markets in East Europe attract a great deal of interest from natural gas industries in the Western countries. Dutch companies, institutions and the government, too, are active in this market. So far the results have not been spectacular. An analysis is made of the present situation and the Dutch approach

  6. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Natural gas, the new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encel, Frederic; Boroumand, Raphael H.; Charlez, Philippe; Goutte, Stephane; Lafargue, Francois; Lombardi, Roland; Porcher, Thomas; Rebiere, Noemie; Schalck, Christophe; Sebban, Anne-Sophie; Sylvestre, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    As natural gas is about to become the first energy source in the world, is abundant and easy to transport, this collective publication addresses issues related to shale gas and to natural gas. The first part addresses shale gas. Four articles propose a global overview, comment the situation in the USA which, in eight years of time, reduced their oil dependency by half and became almost self-sufficient as far as gas is concerned, discuss technical and legal issues related to shale gas exploitation, discuss the perspective of evolution of the world gas markets, and notice that shale gas will not be a game changer in Europe. The second part addresses the natural gas. The articles discuss the possible influence of natural gas exploitation by Israel on the Middle-East geopolitical situation, the influence of the emergence of new producers in Africa (Tanzania and Mozambique), the contribution of gas-fuelled power station to the coverage of market risks, and the issue of European energy safety with a focus on the role of Turkey

  8. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  9. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  10. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures. Gas-Grid Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lebedev, Vladimir [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation). L.D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-05

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipelines and use this model to explore the effect of intermittent wind generation on the fluctuations of pressure in natural gas pipelines. The mean square pressure fluctuations are found to grow linearly in time with points of maximum deviation occurring at the locations of flow reversals.

  11. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  16. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  17. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  18. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  19. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  20. Insight conference proceedings : natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was discussed at this conference. Quebec's energy market is distinct by the diversity of its clients, the resource exploitation sector and its types of industries. As such, the energy needs are specific and the strategies for developing natural gas should be adapted to meet these needs. This conference focused on recent energy policy developments at Quebec's Office of Energy and other regulatory bodies. Topics of discussion included the risks and opportunities of the natural gas export market; volatile gas prices; public consultation processes; perspectives of large energy consumers; hydrocarbon potential and exploration in Quebec; natural gas exploration and development in Quebec; energy security and strategies to address carbon dioxide emissions. Other topics of discussion included the investment climate in Quebec; the profitability of Canada's oil and gas sector and refining capacity in Quebec. The conference featured 17 presentations, of which 6 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Natural gas for baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steub, G.

    1983-11-01

    German bakers account for about 11% of the total supply of energy required in the small-shop industry, consuming 13.3 billion kWH. The trade thus represents an attractive group of consumers for the energy supply industry. It is shown at what time of the day the peak requirement for energy occurs in bakeries and what baking ovens and firing systems have been developed for use in bakeries relying on gas as a source of heat.

  2. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  3. Adsorptive storage of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Song; Lang, Liu; Licheng, Ling

    2001-01-01

    The Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) storage technology is reviewed. The present status, theoretical limits and operational problems are discussed. Natural gas (NG) has a considerable advantage over conventional fuels both from an environmental point of view and for its natural abundance. However, as well known, it has a two fold disadvantage compared with liquid fuels: it is relatively expensive to transport from the remote areas, and its energy density (heat of combustion/volume) is low. All these will restrict its use. Compressed natural gas (CNG) may be a solution, but high pressures are needed (up to 25 MPa) for use in natural-gas fueled vehicles, and the large cost of the cylinders for storage and the high-pressure facilities necessary limit the practical use of CNG. Alternatively, adsorbed natural gas (ANG) at 3 - 4 MPa offers a very high potential for exploitation in both transport and large-scale applications. At present, research about this technology mainly focuses on: to make adsorbents with high methane adsorption capacity; to make clear the effects of heat of adsorption and the effect of impurities in natural gas on adsorption and desorption capacity. This paper provides an overview of current technology and examines the relations between fundamentals of adsorption and ANG storage. (authors)

  4. Canadian natural gas price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, G.

    1998-01-01

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  5. Methane-bomb natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 50% of the so-called 'greenhouse-effect' is not caused by CO 2 , but by more dangerous gases, among them is methane. Natural gas consists to about 98% of methane. In Austria result about 15% of the methane emissions from offtake, storage, transport (pipelines) and distribution from natural gas. A research study of the Research Centre Seibersdorf points out that between 2.5% and 3.6% of the employed natural gas in Austria emits. The impact of this emitted methane is about 29 times worse than the impact of CO 2 (caused for examples by petroleum burning). Nevertheless the Austrian CO 2 -commission states that an increasing use of natural gas would decrease the CO 2 -emissions - but this statement is suspected to be based on wrong assumptions. (blahsl)

  6. Natural gas and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCarufel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of various atmospheric pollutants in environmental changes and the global water cycle, carbon cycle, and energy balance is explained. The role of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in acid deposition is also outlined. The pollutants that contribute to environmental problems include nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases. The potential for natural gas utilization to mitigate some of these pollution problems is explored. Natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides than combustion of other fossil fuel, and also does not produce sulfur dioxide, particulates, or volatile organics. Other pollution controlling opportunities offered by natural gas include the use of low-polluting burners, natural gas vehicles, and cogeneration systems. 18 figs., 4 tabs

  7. 2013 - The Natural Gas Year in Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas consumption only rose by 1.3%, down from an average growth of 2.8% per year in the previous decade. Natural gas still suffers in particular from severe competition with coal in the power generation sector. Inside the EU-28, actual consumption was estimated down 1.9% to 460 Billion cubic metres (Bcm). This poor performance brought European consumption to levels not seen in more than 15 years. In the US, rising gas prices compared to 2012 has often made coal more competitive and penalized gas consumption in the power generation sector, causing it to fall by 10.5%. Global growth in natural gas has been increasingly constrained by supply. In 2013, the growth in gas production slowed substantially to 0.8%, bringing the total volume to 3377 Bcm. As before, the gas supply shortfall was due to the decline of mature and conventional fields, and an insufficient renewal of reserves. The lack of upstream investment is especially acute in emerging markets, due to a lack of a favourable regulatory and fiscal climate. The moderation of natural gas supply and investment has also been increasingly driven by geopolitical challenges. Deterioration of security, internal conflicts and resulting damage to infrastructures have caused some production outages and supply disruptions in some countries. In 2013, marketed production fell especially heavily in Africa (Algeria, Nigeria, Libya and Egypt). With the exception of Europe, other regions posted positive production gains. The largest of them were recorded in the CIS (+ 2.7%) and the Middle East (+ 3.4%). International gas trade increased significantly by 2.1% to 1048 Bcm, due to the growing dependence of consumer markets on increasingly distant production sources, sometimes located in economically and politically unstable areas. The rise in the international gas trade was only driven by inter-regional pipeline gas exports from the CIS to Europe (+ 15%) and China (+ 36%). Geopolitical risks are having an ever

  8. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  9. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  10. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  11. The emergent natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewert, F.; Meeder, J.

    1998-01-01

    A 30% increase of natural gas consumption worldwide is expected to occur since the year 2010. This development will concern countries located outside the traditional markets, in particular in central and eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and south America. This paper summarizes the talks given by the different representatives of these regions who explain the expected evolutions of the natural gas market in these areas: reserves, production, consumption, demand, competition with other energy sources, financial aspects.. (J.S.)

  12. Canadian natural gas winter 2005-06 outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    An outline of the Canadian natural gas commodity market was presented along with an outlook for Canadian natural gas supply and prices for the winter heating season of 2005-2006. In Canada, the level of natural gas production is much higher than domestic consumption. In 2004, Canadian natural gas production was 16.9 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d), while domestic consumption was much lower at 8.2 Bcf/d. The United States, whose natural gas consumption is higher than production, imported about 16 per cent of its natural gas supply from Canada and 3 per cent from other countries via liquefied natural gas imports. Canadian natural gas exports to the United States in 2004 was 8.7 Bcf/d, representing 51 per cent of Canada's production. In Canada, the most important natural gas commodity markets that determine natural gas commodity prices include the intra-Alberta market and the market at the Dawn, Ontario natural gas hub. A well connected pipeline infrastructure connects the natural gas commodity markets in Canada and the United States, allowing supply and demand fundamentals to be transferred across all markets. As such, the integrated natural gas markets in both countries influence the demand, supply and price of natural gas. Canadian natural gas production doubled from 7 to 16.6 Bcf/d between 1986 and 2001. However, in the past 3 years, production from western Canada has leveled out despite record high drilling activity. This can be attributed to declining conventional reserves and the need to find new natural gas in smaller and lower-quality reservoirs. The combination of steady demand growth with slow supply growth has resulted in high natural gas prices since the beginning of 2004. In particular, hurricane damage in August 2005 disrupted natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico's offshore producing region, shutting-in nearly 9 Bcf/d at the height of damage. This paper summarized some of the key factors that influence natural gas market and prices, with

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  14. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  15. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  16. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  17. Improving efficiency and effectiveness in natural gas regulation : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rounding, M.C.

    2004-11-01

    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper discusses the impact that natural gas regulation has had on the efficiency and competitiveness of the industry and its affect on customers and other stakeholders. It focuses on the efficiency of the regulatory process and examines regulatory objectives, best practices and performance indicators. The factors that determine the efficiency of natural gas regulation include alternative regulatory models, structure of the regulatory agency, regulatory framework approaches, and outcomes for the natural gas industry. The relationship between the government and the regulator was also examined in terms of their abilities to implement policy. A comparative evaluation between energy regulators in Canada, the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom was presented. The balancing of short-term and long-term objectives for gas supply and planning issues was also addressed. 17 refs

  18. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  19. Natural gas and deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of the deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes this study in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appear to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed on the European market, for example. Our analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Whenever possible, concrete examples are provided for a closer understanding of this complex subject. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by politics, the regulator and the industrial players. This obviously means a dynamic and constantly evolving process, making it a highly complex process. This report aims to shed some light on the subject. (author)

  20. Investing in Natural and Nature-Based Infrastructure: Building Better Along Our Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E. Sutton-Grier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the United States’ critical infrastructure is either aging or requires significant repair, leaving U.S. communities and the economy vulnerable. Outdated and dilapidated infrastructure places coastal communities, in particular, at risk from the increasingly frequent and intense coastal storm events and rising sea levels. Therefore, investments in coastal infrastructure are urgently needed to ensure community safety and prosperity; however, these investments should not jeopardize the ecosystems and natural resources that underlie economic wealth and human well-being. Over the past 50 years, efforts have been made to integrate built infrastructure with natural landscape features, often termed “green” infrastructure, in order to sustain and restore valuable ecosystem functions and services. For example, significant advances have been made in implementing green infrastructure approaches for stormwater management, wastewater treatment, and drinking water conservation and delivery. However, the implementation of natural and nature-based infrastructure (NNBI aimed at flood prevention and coastal erosion protection is lagging. There is an opportunity now, as the U.S. government reacts to the recent, unprecedented flooding and hurricane damage and considers greater infrastructure investments, to incorporate NNBI into coastal infrastructure projects. Doing so will increase resilience and provide critical services to local communities in a cost-effective manner and thereby help to sustain a growing economy.

  1. The price of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas used to be a relatively cheap primary energy source, always at a discount to crude oil (on a comparative British thermal unit basis). It gradually evolved into a major resource during the 20th century - reaching a 24 per cent share of global primary energy in 1999. In the year 2000, natural gas prices in the USA rose to unheard-of highs of 10/million US dollars Btu, ushering in a new era, with natural gas at a 120 per cent premium to crude oil. This clearly was a watershed for gas, somehow similar to the 1973-74 watershed for oil prices. And similarly, any return to the status quo-ante looks rather improbable, although a number of experts (alongside the International Energy Agency) still believe the 2000 price 'spike' to have been ''only transitory''. The consequences of higher gas prices (at a level equal to crude oil prices on a Btu basis) will be multifaceted and momentous, altering habits and uses in downstream industries and economic sectors, as well as providing added income for major gas-exporters, such as Russia, Canada and Algeria. Another potential consequence of the 2000 watershed might be to propel US standard prices (such as the 'Henry Hub' spot) to international status and gas price-setter, as the 'WTI spot' became an 'international benchmark' for crude oils in the post-1993 era. For the time being, the equality of gas and oil prices has become the new norm; but, in the longer term, a discount of crude oil relative to natural gas might be envisaged, as the latter is a cleaner fuel and emits less carbon dioxide when used. (author)

  2. Role of a natural gas utility in the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayko, J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Enbridge Gas Distribution is the largest natural gas distribution company in Canada at about 1.7 million residential, commercial and industrial customers. Enbridge will speak to the role of a natural gas utility in the hydrogen economy, and outline the benefits of hydrogen production from natural gas reformation for both stationary and mobile applications. Hydrocarbon reformation will act at least as a bridge until a more fully developed hydrogen economy infrastructure is developed. Reformation allows immediate leveraging of the reliability of vast existing natural gas distribution systems, and a reduced need for on-site hydrogen storage. Natural gas powered fuel cells provide improved emissions over traditional internal combustion engines, and in the stationary market provide smarter use of resources through the higher efficiencies of cogeneration (the capture and use of otherwise waste heat). (author)

  3. Gas infrastructure: Does the grid development go in the wrong direction?; Gasinfrastruktur. Stellt der Netzentwicklungsplan die falschen Weichen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buex, Arno [Storengy Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The German natural gas market is in a period of strong transition. Gas is rapidly becoming a key resource as it is a low-emission resource whose supply is ensured on a long-term basis. Best of all, natural gas offers high flexibility, which is getting increasingly important in the context of energy transition, growing gas imports, and growing importance of the spot market. Flexibility, in turn, necessitates consequent development of grid capacities and gas stores. In order to establish and coordinate the demand, the gas grid development plan for Germany ('Netzentwicklungsplan Gas' -NEP) required by the EnWG (Renewables Act) is currently under development. marketers are still not in agreement as to how the natural gas infrastructure of the future should be designed. Proposed solutions, scenarios and recommendations are current issues of a controversial discussion concerning the NEP Gas 2013. Especially from the view of gas store operators, the picture is critical. (orig.)

  4. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  5. The economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, D.; Mashayekhi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas resembles oil in fulfilling a wide variety of uses as both a source of energy and a feedstock, but the proportion of world production that is traded internationally is very much lower, and insufficient for a world price of gas to be established. Written specifically for economists interested in energy, development and industrial economics; oil and gas industry personnel; officials of developing countries; and intergovernmental organizations concerned with development. This book addresses the issues of how the economic price of gas is determined within individual countries with different characteristics and which factors should be taken into account by governments in the formulation of pricing policies that are appropriate for gas. These are illustrated with estimates of the costs of exploration and production of gas, and of the benefits to be derived from its use in various economic sectors for a number of Third World countries. The book also presents a detailed case study of the development of gas pricing in Bangladesh, and an analytical framework for the development of a formal gas planning model that could be applied to the cases of actual countries contemplating the development of gas use in the future

  6. Green future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of current trends in the use of natural gas in Italy shows that this energy source, now estimated to be covering 23.7% of total Italian national energy requirements, is fulfilling its role as an environmentally compatible, low cost and readily available energy alternative well suited to alleviate Italy's worrisome over-dependence on foreign supplied oil and reduce the severity of the urban air pollution problem (it being a low nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emitting, non-sulfur containing fuel). This paper expands this theme by giving a complete panorama of the natural gas market in Italy, sector by sector, and by coupling projections on the expected increased use of this energy source (as mandated by the National Energy Plan) with estimates of consequent reductions in air pollution based on a comparative analysis of fuel oil versus natural gas combustion

  7. Natural gas market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-07-01

    The natural gas market is opened to competition since August 2000. The economical impact of this new situation remains moderate in 2001 because the conditions of competition are not fulfilled everywhere. In France, for instance, the European directive on markets deregulation has not been transposed yet and the conditions of access of third parties to the national gas network have not been clearly defined. In this context of uncertainties, several questions remain unanswered. This study draws out a precise status of the situation of the 7 main European gas markets. It comprises also an analysis of the behaviour and strategy of the 18 main actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  8. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  9. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  10. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  11. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  12. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  14. Municipalities in Western Norway concentrate on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Only one percent of the natural gas from the Norwegian gas fields is currently used in Norway and it is a national goal that 10 percent of the gas produced shall be used for domestic purposes. Western Norway should pioneer this development, as this is where the gas is brought on land. ''Vestlandsroeret AS'' is a project in which sixteen municipalities - including the city Bergen - and eleven companies plan to develop infrastructure which will provide for transport of the gas to customers and markets in Western Norway. The article also discusses environmental considerations, public opinion, the utilization of waste heat and extensive development of cod culture

  15. Natural gas and electricity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calger, C.

    1998-01-01

    Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs

  16. Natural gas in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Voogd, J G

    1965-08-01

    In 1948, the first natural gas was found in Netherlands. Since 1951 it has been supplied by gas undertakings. Originally reserves were limited (c. 350 milliard ftU3D of dry gas in the NE. and c. 175 milliard ftU3D, mostly wet gas, in the SW). These finds have been completely overshadowed by the huge deposits discovered in 1960 in the province of Groningen near the village of Slochteren, these reserves being estimated now at 38.5 billion ftU3D at least. This gas is not of high cal val (894 Btu/ftU3D), but contains only traces of sulfur. The concession is being developed for a partnership formed by Shell (30%), Standard Oil Company of new Jersey (Esso, 30%), and ''Staatsmijnen,'' the Government owned Netherlands State Mining Industry (40%). The natural gas is destined, first, for domestic use, especially, for space heating, and secondly, for industrial purpose, after which important quantities will be available for export.

  17. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Nilsson, Ronny

    2009-11-01

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  18. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  19. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  20. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  1. The natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  2. Natural gas liquids: market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1996-01-01

    Future market outlook for natural gas liquids was discussed. It was shown that Canadian natural gas and natural gas liquid (NGL) production levels have experienced extraordinary growth over the past few years due to an increased U.S. demand for Canadian natural gas. Recent supply and demand studies have indicated that there will be growing surpluses of NGLs in Canada. By 1996, the majority of NGL surplus that is forecast to be available is ethane (64%), followed by propane (22%), butane (12%) and pentane plus (2%). Throughout the forecast period, the ratio of incremental ethane to the total NGL surplus, over and above forecast demand, was expected to continue to rise. The viability of producing and processing that ethane and transporting it to market, will be crucial. Development of a large ex-Alberta C2+ pipeline from Empress to Mont Belvieu under the reference case supply projection is a possibility, but only if total tariff and fractionation charge on the line is less than or equal to 10 US cents/USG (currently 16-22 US cents/USG). 11 figs

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  4. The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Gagnolet, Tamara D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Growing energy demand has increased the need to manage conflicts between energy production and the environment. As an example, shale-gas extraction requires substantial surface infrastructure, which fragments habitats, erodes soils, degrades freshwater systems, and displaces rare species. Strategic planning of shale-gas infrastructure can reduce trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, but the specific nature of these trade-offs is not known. We estimated the cost of avoiding impacts from land-use change on forests, wetlands, rare species, and streams from shale-energy development within leaseholds. We created software for optimally siting shale-gas surface infrastructure to minimize its environmental impacts at reasonable construction cost. We visually assessed sites before infrastructure optimization to test whether such inspection could be used to predict whether impacts could be avoided at the site. On average, up to 38% of aggregate environmental impacts of infrastructure could be avoided for 20% greater development costs by spatially optimizing infrastructure. However, we found trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs among sites. In visual inspections, we often distinguished between sites that could be developed to avoid impacts at relatively low cost (29%) and those that could not (20%). Reductions in a metric of aggregate environmental impact could be largely attributed to potential displacement of rare species, sedimentation, and forest fragmentation. Planners and regulators can estimate and use heterogeneous trade-offs among development sites to create industry-wide improvements in environmental performance and do so at reasonable costs by, for example, leveraging low-cost avoidance of impacts at some sites to offset others. This could require substantial effort, but the results and software we provide can facilitate the process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  7. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  8. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  9. Natural gas industry competitiveness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    A national study on the competitiveness of the natural gas industry was undertaken by the BC Oil and Gas Commission in cooperation with, and with the encouragement of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). The objective of the study was to compare the cost competitiveness of natural gas exploration , production, gathering and processing in British Columbia to the costs of the same processes in Alberta. The study was carried out by building an 'expected case' for each gas producing area in British Columbia and Alberta by averaging past events in such specific areas as pool sizes, production profiles, loads, drilling success rates, gas compositions, land, drilling, exploration and production/gathering costs, third party production/gathering and processing fees and abandonment costs; by constructing a cash flow model for each case, calculating unit cost, and ranking cases. The report provides the details of the methodology, displays the results of the investigation in graphical form, comments on the results factoring in also labour costs and cost differences due to resource characteristics, identifies some trends such as an increase in the proportion of connections to smaller plants, and provides suggestions for improvements

  10. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H

    1994-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  11. Liquefied natural gas : a Canadian perspective : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    World requirements for energy and natural gas are expected to increase in the near future. This energy market assessment presented an overview of global liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply and demand, and discussed the potential effects that imported LNG may have on Canadian gas markets and energy infrastructure. Regasification projects will double the world's existing LNG receiving capacity by 2015. However, LNG pricing will still be indexed to the price of crude oil and oil products in the future. LNG price differences will affect trading opportunities as well as the flow of LNG between regions. North American LNG facility development will be influenced by outlooks for continental gas supply and demand. Current declines combined with recent increases in United States natural gas production from unconventional gas resources will reduce requirements for LNG in the near future, and may have a significant impact on long-term North American and global LNG requirements. Canada's existing facilities are located competitively with other terminals. 33 figs.

  12. The use of compressed natural gas as a strategy of development of natural gas industry; Utilizacao do GNC (Gas Natural Comprimido) como estrategia de desenvolvimento da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Jucemara [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Segmento Veicular; Rickmann, Cristiano [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios; Maestri, Juares [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Mercado de Grandes Consumidores

    2008-07-01

    This work emphasizes the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as modal of transport, used by the Company of Gas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Sulgas, through experience in pioneering project in Brazil: the introduction of the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to assist areas where there is not the infrastructure of pipeline for the transport. The article offers a display of the project of expansion of the Natural gas in Rio Grande do Sul, through the supply of CNG to the company Tramontina in Carlos Barbosa's city in the year of 2002. The last aspect focused by this article demonstrates as the use of this transport technology impelled the development of the transport market in the State and it has been used as an important strategy for the development of the market of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) in the state. (author)

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  14. Sector of the natural gas in Colombia: Toward a bigger backing and dependability of the service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A sketch of the infrastructure requirements and laws is made of the natural gas industry in Colombia, according to the plan of massive use of the gas, settled down by the government in 1991 and the maturity of the market, that which forces to the development of a backing infrastructure to assure the highest levels of quality and continuity of the service of the natural gas for the users

  15. Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyashev Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regional gas infrastructure development this paper considers the issue of energy security of the countries of East Baltic, which depend heavily on a single energy supplier — Russia. In recent years, the countries of the region have announced several LNG terminal construction projects. The European Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with OAO Gazprom. Different scenarios and prospects for individual LNG terminal projects and associated pipeline infrastructure are evaluated. It is shown that the inability of countries to find a political compromise on this issue and the terms of existing contracts for Russian gas, as well as low domestic demand for gas hamper the implementation of a regional LNG terminal project even in the long term.

  16. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  17. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  18. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  19. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO 2 per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment

  20. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  1. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  2. Standardization and software infrastructure for gas hydrate data communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenlein, K.; Chirico, R.D.; Kazakov, A.; Frenkel, M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Div.; Lowner, R. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Wang, W. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Computer Network Information Center; Smith, T. [MIT Systems, Flushing, NY (United States); Sloan, E.D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Centre for Hydrate Research

    2008-07-01

    The perceived value of gas hydrates as an energy resource for the future has led to extensive hydrate research studies and experiments. The hydrate deposits are widely dispersed throughout the world, and many countries are now investigating methods of extracting gas hydrate resources. This paper described a gas hydrates markup language (GHML) developed as an international standard for data transfer and storage within the gas hydrates community. The language is related to a hydrates database developed to facilitate a greater understanding of naturally occurring hydrate interactions with geophysical processes, and aid in the development of hydrate technologies for resource recovery and storage. Recent updates to the GHML included the addition of ThermoML, a communication standard for thermodynamic data into the GHML schema. The standard will be used to represent all gas hydrates thermodynamic data. A new element for the description of crystal structures has also been developed, as well as a guided data capture tool. The tool is available free of charge and is publicly licensed for use by gas hydrate data producers. A web service has also been provided to ensure that access to GHML files for gas hydrates and data files are available for users. It was concluded that the tool will help to ensure data quality assurance for the conversion of data and meta-data within the database. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Natural gas in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalim, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A report is presented on 'Natural Gas in the European Community'. Aspects discussed include the challenges facing the gas industry in the EC, the development of the European gas industry, the structure and role of European gas companies, the sources of European supply, gas contracts and the influences that operate on sales into end markets, electricity generation from natural gas, evolving markets for natural gas in the EC, life in the private sector using British Gas as a role model and country profiles for eleven European countries. (UK)

  4. Globalization of the Natural Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, RJ.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with the foreseeable evolution of natural gas demand in the next 15 years. Natural gas consumption is growing faster than any other fossil fuel and, according to ENRON, the natural consumption growth will continue. The environmental aspect of natural gas use for power generation is presented, showing that gas use reduces pollution emissions (when compared with coal). On top of that, it appears that the conversion efficiency of gas is much higher than the conversion efficiency of coal steam. Eventually, natural gas resources should meet energy demand for decades. (TEC)

  5. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  6. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  7. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Market prospective of natural gas 2010-2025; Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Bautista, Alejandro; Doniz Gonzalez, Virginia; Navarrete Barbosa, Juan Ignacio [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Ministry of Energy, in compliance to Article 109 of the Natural Gas Regulations, publishes the Prospective natural gas market 2010-2025, which contains the most current information about the historical evolution and growth prospects of the domestic market country's natural gas and its role in the international context. This foresight is attached to the lines of action established in the National Energy Strategy, ratified by Congress in April 2010 in regard to strengthening the transportation infrastructure of natural gas, in order to ensure the supply of this fuel, therefore remains congruence with the instruments of power sector planning. The first one concerns the international panorama of natural gas in the different producing and consuming regions around the world. Chapter two provides a current perspective of those actions in the sector within the regulatory framework for natural gas in Mexico. The third chapter details the issues that occurred in the natural gas market during the period 1999-2009 and the fourth chapter discusses the expected evolution of demand and domestic supply of natural gas by 2025. [Spanish] La Secretaria de Energia, en el cumplimiento al Articulo 109 del Reglamento de Gas Natural, publica la Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025, la cual contiene la informacion mas actualizada acerca de la evolucion historica y las expectativas de crecimiento del mercado interno de gas natural del pais y su papel en el contexto internacional. Esta Prospectiva se apega a las lineas de accion establecidas en la Estrategia Nacional de Energia, ratificada por el Congreso en abril de 2010, en lo relativo a fortalecer la infraestructura de transporte de gas natural, con el fin de asegurar el suministro de este combustible, por lo cual se mantiene congruencia con los instrumentos de planeacion del sector energetico. La Prospectiva esta integrada por cuatro capitulos. El primero se refiere al panorama internacional del gas natural en las

  10. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  11. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  12. New opportunities for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the prospect of extremely low gas prices - approaching $1.00 per million Btu (MMBtu) on a seasonal basis - is frightening many producers. The presence of large gas inventories only serves to intensify these fears. Threats of declining market conditions stir the question: How should producers react to these prices? On the score, the experts advise: One of the first rules of playing the power game is that all bad news must be accepted calmly as if one already knew and didn't much care. Although stated jokingly, there is a kernel of truth to the suggestion. Having thought through the adversities involved in the worst case scenario - and for natural gas producers and other industry participants, those adversities are formidable - companies may be better prepared to adapt to the worst case, should it happen to materialize. Here, the bad news is that CERA foresees serious near-term perils that could route the industry toward that worst case. The good news is that long-term prospects provide a cause for optimism

  13. Prediction of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Walton, D.J.; Hoskins, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Distributors of natural gas need to predict future consumption in order to purchase a sufficient supply on contract. Distributors that offer their customers equal payment plans need to predict the consumption of each customer 12 months in advance. Estimates of previous consumption are often used for months when meters are inaccessible, or bimonthly-read meters. Existing methods of predicting natural gas consumption, and a proposed new method for each local region are discussed. The proposed model distinguishes the consumption load factors from summer to other seasons by attempting to adjust them by introducing two parameters. The problem is then reduced to a quadratic programming problem. However, since it is not necessary to use both parameters simultaneously, the problem can be solved with a simple iterative procedure. Results show that the new model can improve the two-equation model to a certain scale. The adjustment to heat load factor can reduce the error of prediction markedly while that to base load factor influences the error marginally. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  15. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  16. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  17. Natural gas industry R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  18. Natural gas poised to penetrate deeper into electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how advancements in gas supply, distribution and storage, coupled with new options in combustion equipment, continue to expand the use of natural gas for electric generation. The challenge is to meet the increasing demand while keeping prices competitive with other fuels--and keep a small band of skeptics at bay. To prepare for the projected growth in gas consumption, the natural-gas industry has invented in new infrastructure and technologies. Pipelines have been built; storage facilities have been expanded; and highly precise flow measurement stations have been installed. To mitigate supply and price risk, suppliers are offering short-, mid-, or long-term contracts which include service options and guarantees. In spite of these preparations, not all power producers are comfortable with the potential tidal wave of gas-fired capacity. Reason: It limits the electric-generation resource base to one fuel for future capacity

  19. Challenges and solutions in natural gas engine development and productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Izanloo, Hossein [Irankhodro Powertrain Co. (IPCO) (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    As an alternative fuel, natural gas is generally accepted for internal combustion engines and some developments have been conducted in order to adopt it for the road vehicles and stationary applications. Foresights shows natural gas vehicles will be a part of the future transportation technology regarding to their mid and long-term benefits. Therefore inherent problems of natural gas engine technology should be overcome to produce a competitive engine. In this paper major problems and their possible solutions in developing and producing natural gas engine for passenger cars are detailed and discussed. Challenging materials are sorted and presented in two categorizes: technical and econo-strategical problems. In the technical section major difficulties faced in components or systems of natural gas engine are analysed in different aspects of design, validation, and production. In addition problems arisen from the fuel characteristics which influence the function and durability of engine are argued. Subjects like freezing in gas regulator, cold start fuel injection, gas leakage, impurities within compressed natural gas, variation in fuel composition, thermo-mechanics of cylinder head and block, wear of valve seat inserts, spark plug erosion, back-fire phenomenon, engine oil quality requirement, low power density and mileage are described. In the econo-strategical discussion, challenges like limited gas distribution infrastructure, lack of specific manufacturing standards and codes, and non-dedicated emission standards are explained. In both part of the paper a comprehensive view is extended to clarify the effect, risk and solutions of each problem. Due to the fact that almost all information and analysis presented in this paper are based on the experience of developing a natural gas engine family, and an extensive literature review, discussions and conclusions could be useful as a guide line for future natural gas engine projects. (orig.)

  20. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Jin [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs.

  1. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  2. Business cycles and natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolos, S.; Asghar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the basic stylised facts of natural gas price movements using data for the period that natural gas has been traded on an organised exchange and the methodology suggested by Kydland and Prescott (1990). Our results indicate that natural gas prices are procyclical and lag the cycle of industrial production. Moreover, natural gas prices are positively contemporaneously correlated with United States consumer prices and lead the cycle of consumer prices, raising the possibility that natural gas prices might be a useful guide for US monetary policy, like crude oil prices are, possibly serving as an important indicator variable. (author)

  3. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  4. Pricing of natural gas in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapargaliev, I.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two state companies are in charge of natural gas supply in Kazakhstan. They buy, transport and sell natural gas and have monopolized the industry and provoked increase of gas prices. Ministry of Oil and gas Industry proposed demonopolization. The restructuring that took place caused new distribution of tasks in the gas industry. A more competitive environment was created leading to normalization of the natural gas prices. All economic subjects were granted the right to acquire gas regardless the type of ownership. Measures implemented for reorganization of gas companies contributed to the reduction of gas transport costs and prices by 50% and to decrease of gas prices in the southern regions by 50%. Despite these measures gas prices for household sector are still unchanged and are below the import prices, the main reason being the low average household income

  5. Natural gas supply in Denmark - A model of natural gas transmission and the liberalized gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregnbaek, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the liberalization of European energy markets a large area of research has spawned. This area includes the development of mathematical models to analyze the impact of liberalization with respect to efficiency, supply security and environment, to name but a few subjects. This project describes the development of such a model. In Denmark the parallel liberalization of the markets of natural gas and electricity and the existence of an abundance of de-centralized combined heat and power generators of which most are natural gas fired, leads to the natural assumption that the future holds a greater deal of interdependency for these markets. A model is developed describing network flows in the natural gas transmission system, the main arteries of natural gas supply, from a technical viewpoint. This yields a technical bounding on the supply available in different parts of the country. Additionally the economic structure of the Danish natural gas market is formulated mathematically giving a description of the transmission, distribution and storage options available to the market. The supply and demand of natural gas is put into a partial equilibrium context by integrating the developed model with the Balmorel model, which describes the markets for electricity and district heat. Specifically on the demand side the consumption of natural gas for heat and power generation is emphasized. General results and three demonstration cases are presented to illustrate how the developed model can be used to analyze various energy policy issues, and to disclose the strengths and weaknesses in the formulation. (au)

  6. Strengthening Canada's position in the North American natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) is the industry organization that represents the Canadian natural gas and energy delivery industry. It is on the frontline of consumer perceptions regarding natural gas, which is the fuel of choice for Canadian homeowners. Canadian consumers have benefitted from the deregulation initiatives of the mid-1980s which provided significant growth opportunities. Given the tumultuous energy environment throughout North America, the CGA believes that a national energy strategy should be developed to address future supply issues and also to examine ways to ensure that extreme market shifts are anticipated and mitigated as much as possible. The CGA is ready to provide governments with input for such a strategy representing the perspective of the Canadian consumer. The CGA recommends that the Government of Canada, the provinces and territories adopt the following initiatives regarding the use of natural gas: (1) recognize and promote the environmental qualities and applications of natural gas, (2) encourage competition, (3) promote transparent and consistent approach to regulation, (4) reaffirm commitment to market-based policies, (5) facilitate economic research, analysis and communication about trends in the natural gas market, and (6) promote the development of new technologies that expand the uses of natural gas and support research in infrastructure development. The government's actions in the areas proposed in this report will contribute to advancing Canada's environmental objectives and economic growth. 2 figs

  7. Making sure natural gas gets to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleckaitis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The role of natural gas in power generation was discussed with reference to price implications and policy recommendations. New natural gas supply is not keeping pace with demand. Production is leveling out in traditional basins and industry investment is not adequate. In addition, energy deregulation is creating disconnects. This presentation included a map depicting the abundant natural gas reserves across North America. It was noted that at 2002 levels of domestic production, North America has approximately 80 years of natural gas. The AECO consensus wholesale natural gas price forecast is that natural gas prices in 2010 will be lower than today. The use of natural gas for power generation was outlined with reference to fuel switching, distributed generation, and central generation. It was emphasized that government, regulators and the energy industry must work together to address policy gaps and eliminate barriers to new investment. 13 figs

  8. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  9. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  10. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 4, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and...

  11. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  12. Trends in natural gas distribution and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, C.F.A.

    1993-01-01

    On the occasion of the GAS EXPO 93, to be held from 13-15 October 1993 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, an overview is given of trends in the distribution of natural gas and the measuring of natural gas, as noted by experts from the energy utilities, GASTEC and Gasunie in the Netherlands. With regard to the natural gas distribution trends attention is paid to synthetic materials, the environmental effects, maintenance, underground natural gas pressure control, horizontal drilling (no-dig techniques), and other trends. With regard to natural gas metering trends brief discussions are given of the direct energy meter, the search for a new gas meter in households, telemetering, improving the accuracy of the gas meters by means of electronics, on the spot calibration of large gas meters, the use of an online chromatograph to determine the calorific value, the development of a calibration instrument, the so-called piston prover, to measure large quantities of natural gas, the recalibration of natural gas stations, the ultrasonic gas meter, and finally the quality of the natural gas supply. 1 fig., 11 ills

  13. Safeguarding public values in gas infrastructure expansion. A comparison of two investment projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2007-02-01

    The realisation of new gas infrastructure projects affects overall gas market performance with respect to the public values of affordability and security of supply. However, the actual contribution of a gas infrastructure expansion project to system affordability and security of supply depends upon the institutional design of the market (legislation, regulatory codes and arrangements, market rules, etc.). In this paper we link the institutional design applicable to two specific gas infrastructure projects with the safeguarding of the aforementioned public values. We conclude that path dependencies can cause large differences in the contribution of the projects to the safeguarding of public values

  14. Insurance issues and natural gas vehicles. Final report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    GRI has been funding research on natural gas vehicle (NGV) technology since 1986. To support the activity, GRI is evaluating a number of NGV issues including fuel storage, tank inspection, system safety, refueling, U.S. auto and truck use characteristics, and the fleet vehicle infrastructure. In addition, insurance and leasing companies will require new regulations and policies to address clean-fueled vehicle fleets' emergence into the marketplace. These policies may influence and partially determine the structure of the alternatively fueled vehicle industry, and the requirements, if any, imposed upon vehicle technologies. The report asseses the insurance and leasing industries' infrastructure/institutional barriers as they relate to the introduction of natural gas fueled vehicle fleets

  15. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  16. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  17. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  18. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  19. Comparative economics of natural gas vehicles and other vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuels for transportation applications is now a certainty. The only real questions that remain to be answered involve the type of fuel (or fuels) to be adopted most extensively. While some alternative fuel advocates suggest that a niche will exist for all alternative fuels, the most likely scenario will involve widespread use of only a few major fuel types. Undoubtedly, reformulated gasoline will be a major force as an interim fuel, due to inertia and a predominant bias toward liquid fuels. The prospects for utilization of ethanol, methanol, MTBE, and ETBE appear to be most promising in the area of blending with gasoline to meet the needs of reformulated gasoline and flexible fueled vehicles (FFV's). Propane fueled vehicles will continue to grow in popularity, especially with fleets, but will never become a major force in the transportation market in the U.S. due to unresolvable supply limitations. The clear winner in the alternative fuels transportation market appears to be natural gas. Either in compressed or liquefied form, natural gas enjoys low costs, tremendous availability, and impressive environmental benefits. As shown in this analysis, natural gas competes favorably with gasoline in terms of economics. Natural gas is also preferential to other alternative fuels in terms of safety and heath issues as well as operational issues. Adoption of natural gas as a standard transportation fuel will probably require market segmentation characterized by compressed natural gas utilization in light-duty vehicles and liquefied natural gas utilization in heavy-duty vehicles. The most significant barrier to natural gas utilization will continue to be the creation of a refueling infrastructure. As these problems are resolved, however, natural gas will emerge as the transportation fuel of the future

  20. The greenhouse advantage of natural gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombe, N.

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle report prepared recently by Energetics for the AGA, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas, demonstrates clearly the greenhouse advantage natural gas has over coal in generating electricity. This study also goes one step further in applying this life cycle approach to the use of space and water heating within the home. The study shows the significant green-house advantage that natural gas appliances have over electric appliances. Findings from other studies also support this claim. The natural gas suppliers are encouraged to take advantage of the marketing opportunity that these studies provide, offering the householders the fuel that will significantly reduce their contribution to greenhouse emission

  1. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  2. Natural gas applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  3. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries: an example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries are facing an important increase of electricity demand; in order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most of these countries are planning gas fired power stations due to important natural gas resources. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructures to produce and transport the natural gas is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean sea: technical assistance programs, joint financing and management of the infrastructures. 3 figs

  4. Systematic risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructure elements - Oil and Gas subsectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, A.-D.; Ozunu, A.

    2012-04-01

    The concern for the protection of critical infrastructure has been rapidly growing in the last few years in Europe. The level of knowledge and preparedness in this field is beginning to develop in a lawfully organized manner, for the identification and designation of critical infrastructure elements of national and European interest. Oil and gas production, refining, treatment, storage and transmission by pipelines facilities, are considered European critical infrastructure sectors, as per Annex I of the Council Directive 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. Besides identifying European and national critical infrastructure elements, member states also need to perform a risk analysis for these infrastructure items, as stated in Annex II of the above mentioned Directive. In the field of risk assessment, there are a series of acknowledged and successfully used methods in the world, but not all hazard identification and assessment methods and techniques are suitable for a given site, situation, or type of hazard. As Theoharidou, M. et al. noted (Theoharidou, M., P. Kotzanikolaou, and D. Gritzalis 2009. Risk-Based Criticality Analysis. In Critical Infrastructure Protection III. Proceedings. Third Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, March 23-25, 2009: revised selected papers, edited by C. Palmer and S. Shenoi, 35-49. Berlin: Springer.), despite the wealth of knowledge already created, there is a need for simple, feasible, and standardized criticality analyses. The proposed systematic risk assessment methodology includes three basic steps: the first step (preliminary analysis) includes the identification of hazards (including possible natural hazards) for each installation/section within a given site, followed by a criterial analysis and then a detailed analysis step

  5. Development of natural gas ocean transportation chain by means of natural gas hydrate (NGH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, T.; Oya, N.; Ishida, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies in Japan have suggested that natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation of natural gas is more economical than liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation systems for small, medium and remote gas fields. Researchers in Japan have built a 600 kg per day NGH production and pelletizing plant and regasification facility. This paper discussed feasibility studies conducted in southeast Asia to determine the unit's commercialization potential with large natural gas-related businesses including shipping companies and electric power utilities. The total supply chain was compared with the corresponding liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) supply chains. The study also examined natural gas reserves, energy policies, the positioning of natural gas supplies, and future forecasts of natural gas demand. A conceptual design for an NGH supply chain in Indonesia was presented. Results of the study have demonstrated that the NGH chain is an appropriate and economically feasible transportation method for many areas in southeast Asia. 8 refs., 10 figs

  6. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  8. Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guohua; Jing Youyin; Wang Songling; Zhang Xutao

    2010-01-01

    With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As the liquid form of natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has also been paid more attention in the country. This paper explores main motives for the fast development of China's LNG industry. An overview of the industry is also described, covering LNG receiving terminals, plants and transportation. Despite a relatively short development history of LNG industry in China, there are many remarkable successes. City-gas supply by LNG is widely applied in many small to medium cities, and LNG vehicles and cold energy utilization are growing rapidly with governmental supports. At the end, the developmental trends of China's LNG industry are introduced. All the discussions show that LNG is strategically important in China's future energy infrastructure. - Research highlights: →Explore main momentums for the fast development of China's LNG industry→Analyze detailedly current states and future prospects of LNG infrastructure in China→Introduce and analyze the wide application of LNG-based gas supply mode in China→Discuss new developmental trends in China's LNG industry

  9. Natural gas distribution in Brazil - opportunities of improvement; Distribuicao de gas natural no pais - oportunidades de melhoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Silvia R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintella, Odair M.; Farias Filho, Jose R. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Great are the challenges established by the Brazilian Government related to goals to be achieved for the increment of the Natural Gas participation in brazilian energetic matrix, from current 5% to 12%, up to 2010. The enlargement of the distribution infrastructure of the gas (gas-pipelines 'mesh') in Brazil is considered one of the greatest challenges for the growth of the Brazilian market of Natural Gas, accomplishment that involves elevated investments. This paper presents a model of Management System for the good organizational performance of the small Natural Gas Supplying Brazilian Companies focused on criteria of Leadership, Strategies and Plans and Results, established by the Premio TOP Empresarial and by the 'Rumo a Excelencia', held by the 'Progama Qualidade Rio' and 'Fundacao para o Premio Nacional da Qualidade', respectively. The management practices of these companies were reviewed, considering the context of the energetic Brazilian scenario, subjected to the political and operational definitions and uncertainties, the available financial resources, limited or not prioritized, and actual barriers to be surpassed by the Gas Supplying Companies in order to achieve the pre-established government goals for this segment. The implementation of the proposed simplified Model, seen as improvement opportunities for the segment of Natural Gas distribution, will lead the Gas Distribution Companies to a intermediary stage envisioning the real steps towards the excellence of the performance. (author)

  10. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabo, Kristian; Scitovski, Rudolf; Vazler, Ivan; Zekic-Susac, Marijana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of natural gas consumption hourly forecast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas consumption in the preceding period. There are various methods and approaches for solving this problem in the literature. Some mathematical models with linear and nonlinear model functions relating to natural gas consumption forecast with the past natural gas consumption data, temperature data and temperature forecast data are mentioned. The methods are tested on concrete examples referring to temperature and natural gas consumption for the area of the city of Osijek (Croatia) from the beginning of the year 2008. The results show that most acceptable forecast is provided by mathematical models in which natural gas consumption and temperature are related explicitly.

  11. All quiet on the eastern front? Disruption scenarios of Russian natural gas supply to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Philipp M.; Holz, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Russian–Ukrainian crisis reignited European concerns about natural gas supply security recalling the experiences of 2006 and 2009. However, the European supply situation, regulation and infrastructure have changed, with better diversified import sources, EU member states being better connected and a common regulation on the security of supply has been introduced. Nevertheless, European dependency on natural gas remained high. This paper investigates different Russian natural gas export disruptions scenarios and analyses short- and long-term reactions in Europe. We use the Global Gas Model (GGM), a large-scale mixed complementarity representation of the natural gas sector with a high level of technical granularity with respect to storage and transportation infrastructure. While we find that most of the EU member states are not severely affected by Russian disruptions, some East European countries are very vulnerable. Prioritizing the removal of infrastructure bottlenecks is critical for securing a sufficient natural gas supply to all EU member states. - Highlights: • We analyze disruption scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe. • Most EU countries are only weakly affected by a complete Russian supply disruption. • We find that Eastern Europe is vulnerable to Russian supply disruptions. • We identify infrastructure bottlenecks in the European natural gas network. • We find that the large EU LNG import capacity is not sufficiently connected

  12. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  13. Annual report 1978. [Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    In the 1978 annual reports of the Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW), the Bundesverband der deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft (BGW), and the Technische Vereinigung der Firmen im Gas- und Wasserfach e.V. (FIGAWA), the activities of organisations and Laender groups are dealt with, as well as tasks, work, and sales promotion measures.

  14. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  15. Natural gas and electric power, coordination to improve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    In development of energy diversification strategy, so much in the use of available sources as in the supply of alternative to the final consumer, one comes advancing in Colombia, for several years, the national plan of gas overcrowding. The growing use of natural gas for the new projects of thermal generation has put in evidence the strong link and the existent dependence among of the gas and electric sub sectors. Such a nexus is manifested in four aspects: The electric power substitution for gas affects the demand of both products. The development of the production infrastructure and transport of the natural gas depends in a large part of the electric generation with gas. The costs of electric generation depend directly on the costs of the gas, included that of their transport. The regulation of the natural gas affects the costs of the electric power and vice versa. In this article the nexus and the coordination of both sectors are analyzed and they think about some actions to improve this last one

  16. Natural gas passenger vehicles: challenges and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, B. B.; Hamouda, A. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas vehicles have been used in the world for many years: at present, there are about 3 million vehicles running on natural gas and many governments and vehicle manufactures are involved in programs for further developing the market for natural gas vehicles. In comparison to other forms of energy for vehicles, natural gas (NG) engenders low pressures on the environment. At the same time, because of its technical characteristics, NG is very suitable for motor use. The economic advantage of converting a vehicles (NGVs) would be expected to attract the interest of a great number of people, and achieve rapid and widespread diffusion. On the contrary, traditional fuels still dominate the scene, and show no sign of going out of fashion. The use of natural gas as automotive fuel has become of national and worldwide interests particularly so with the recent increase in petrol price, depleting petrol reserves and stringent control of exhaust emission levels. For automotive applications, shifting from petrol to gas needs technological research and development. Within the framework of the reciprocating piston based engine this development is very challenging with technological issues of low range, refueling infrastructure, heavy fuel storage, safety, emissions control and gas operating pressures. Other issues include available expertise and experience in research management. This paper describes the advances being made with passenger vehicles natural gas engines worldwide and in Malaysia more specific. The significant milestones in the development of NGV in Malaysia and the rationale behind the choice of NGV industry including the NGV vehicle population growth, the development of service station as well as the expansion of the sales volume will be illustrated. The presentation presents also development stages and advances in development, fabrication and testing a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection vehicle and NGV refueling station. This presentation discuses the

  17. Natural gas as an automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, A I; Vasiliev, Y N; Jankiewicz, A [VPO ' Soyuzgastekhnologiya' All-Union Scientific Research Inst. of Natural gases (VNIIGAS) (SU)

    1990-02-01

    The review presented covers mass production of gas-petrol and gas-diesel automobiles in the USSR, second generation auto gas filling compressor stations, principal exhaust toxicants, and tests indicating natural gas fired autos emit >5 times less NO{sub x} and 10 times less hydrocarbons excluding methane. The switch over to gas as auto fuel and ensuing release of petrol and diesel for other uses are discussed. (UK).

  18. Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the 'energy corridor' in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase remarkably in coming years, with the prime consumers, expected to be industry and power plants. Energy demand of Turkey is growing by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. In addition, natural gas consumption is the fastest growing primary energy source in Turkey. Gas sales started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters), in 1987 and reached approximately 22 bcm in 2003. This article deals with energy policies and natural gas consumption of Turkey. Besides modernization of present lines and realization of capacity increase, new lines will also be needed. In this context, Turkey, due to its geographical location is, in an important position to vary European supply. Therefore, Turkey's role as a transitory area gains importance

  19. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  20. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today's natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  2. Natural gas vehicles in Europe: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettori, P.; Merigo, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper tables numerous statistical data to evidence that whereas the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles is growing in Asia, North and South America, in Europe this trend is currently being followed only in Italy. However, with the relatively recent expansion of the European Communities' natural gas distribution network, coupled with growing interest in this fuel as a cost effective and environmentally compatible alternative to petroleum, the demand for natural gas automotive fuels is expected to increase even in this continent. The trucking industry in particular should derive significant benefits from the switch to natural gas

  3. Suggestion for a natural gas development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    First, this work presents some aspects concerning the reserves and the future of natural gas consumption in Brazil. Then, from the results of a case-study about the implementation of a natural gas distribution company in Fortaleza (Ceara), we analyse under which conditions the business of natural gas distribution is economically interesting (subject of the M.Sc. thesis developed by the author). In possession of this results, the author proposes directions for a Natural Gas Policy in Brazil, approaching also aspects of Tariffs Policy. (author)

  4. Evaluation And Analysis of Natural Gas Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Ali Akbar

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas is considered as a preferred fuel and its utility is growing every day in the country (Iran). The usage of natural gas has increased from 3.5 to 44 billion cubic meters from 1980 to 1997, respectively. Currently, 4 million residences and most of the industrial sector are being provided with the pipelined natural gas. Because of the tremendous increase in consumption, it is necessary to give the needed considerations to natural gas rate structure. The objective of the paper is to 1.Evaluate the fundamentals and principal methods used for rate structures. 2. Identification of effective components. 3. Analyze the current rates including connection fees and other customer charges

  5. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Natural gas supply, demand and price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas consumption in the US grew 15.9 percent between 1986 and 1989. Its share of total primary energy use in the US grew from 22.5 percent to 23.8 percent. Despite unusually warm weather and an economic downturn, natural gas use in the first eight months of 1990 fell only modestly from its 1989 pace - while its market share of US total primary energy use has remained stable. The American Gas Association's Total Energy Resource Analysis energy modeling system (A.G.A.-TERA) projects continued growth in natural gas demand and supply. Natural gas is projected to gain a growing share of total US primary use. Natural gas prices are projected to be sufficient to encourage growth in well completions and reserve additions, yet competitive with electricity, fuel oil and other alternative forms of energy

  10. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  11. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  12. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, LaTonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myerly, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  13. Risks in global natural gas markets: Investment, hedging and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Ruud; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Recent supply security concerns in Europe have revived interest into the natural gas market. We investigate infrastructure investment and trade in an imperfect market structure for various possible risks for both supply and demand. We focus on three possible scenarios in a stochastic global gas market model: (i) transit of Russian gas via Ukraine that may be disrupted from 2020 on; (ii) natural gas intensity of electricity generation in OECD countries that may lead to higher or lower natural gas demand after 2025; and (iii) availability of shale gas around the globe after 2030. We illustrate how the timing of investments is affected by inter-temporal hedging behavior of market agents, such as when LNG capacity provides ex-ante flexibility or an ex-post fallback option if domestic or nearby pipeline supply sources are low. Moreover, we find that investment in LNG capacities is more determined by demand side pull – due to higher needs in electric power generation – than by supply side push, e.g. higher shale gas supplies needing an outlet. We focus on Europe, North America, and China that are the world's most important gas consuming and supplying regions. - Highlights: •We use the stochastic variant of the multi-period Global Gas Model. •We investigate the effects of uncertainty in Russian exports, demand, and shale gas. •We find that LNG is preferred as hedging option in anticipation of uncertain events. •Pipelines may be chosen as recourse decision after uncertain events realized. •China will dominate the global natural gas market regardless the scenario.

  14. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  15. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  16. The natural gas as integration element in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Maria Elizabeth; Dutra, Luis Eduardo; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following global aspects of natural gas development: natural gas and worldwide energetic integration; natural gas consumption rates in the world; natural gas industry development in Latin America; and natural gas industry in Brazil. The article concludes that the natural gas can integrate Latin-american economies since the Governments adopt coherent energetic politicians articulated to each other

  17. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders Of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long- term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries. (author)

  18. The chain of the Natural gas in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    For the planning of the natural gas sector in the mark of the analysis integrated energy planning, it is required of the simultaneous study of a great quantity of present factors in the development of this industry, which could give an idea of the diversity of circumstances that it allow a successful evolution of the gas sector. The national market of the natural gas, was limited by offer restrictions and for lack of an appropriate infrastructure of production and transport of this energy. The existent markets until the present time (1997) they have been developed around to the discovered locations in three defined areas that is: Atlantic Coast, where they are the most important producing fields in free gas; Santander and Huila departments, and the center of the country. The readiness of new discovered reserves of gas in Cusiana, Cupiagua, Opon and the perspectives of others in Volcanero, Florena and Pauto, they have strengthened the politics of overcrowding of gas consumption, whose fundamental objective is to develop a efficient and more convenient energy consumption for the country, by means of the energy resources substitution of high cost, initially for GLP and later on for the overcrowding of the natural gas

  19. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  20. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  1. Natural gas : a highly lucrative commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration and production of natural gas has become highly profitable as natural gas is becoming a leading future commodity. With new technology, high demand and environmental benefits, natural gas is the preferred choice over petroleum as the leading source of energy to heat home and businesses. Canada is the world's third largest producer of natural gas with its Sable Offshore Energy Project being the fourth largest producing natural gas basin in North America. The basin will produce high quality sweet natural gas from 28 production wells over the course of the next 20 to 25 years. The gas will be transported to markets through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and into the Northeastern United States via the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline. The 1051 kilometer underground gas pipeline is currently running laterals to Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick. Market studies are being conducted to determine if additional lines are needed to serve Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and northern New Brunswick. A recent survey identified the following 5 reasons to convert to natural gas: (1) it is safe, (2) it is reliable, (3) it is easy to use, (4) it is cleaner burning and environmentally friendly compared to other energy sources, and (5) it saves the consumer money

  2. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T Oe; Einang, P M; Stenersen, D [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  3. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A)

  4. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  5. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  6. Natural gas industry at the 2020 prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas was for a long time reserved to the most noble uses in the industry. However, natural gas, which get a priori no captive market, has progressively imposed itself in all possible energy uses. The gas resources and abundant enough to represent the main contribution of the energy industry of the 21 century. With intrinsic qualities which make it an energy less polluting than the other fossil fuels, natural gas is the commercial energy source with the highest potential growth in the energy status of the future. (J.S.)

  7. Natural gas situation between 1970 and 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, H; Trillhose, A

    1986-03-01

    Trends in production, consumption, reserves, international trade, and transport of natural gas are described and illustrated by tables. Natural gas today contributes about 20% to the total primary energy supply worldwide. The construction of two new pipelines is being planned, from Jamburg and Jakutsk to Japan via Sachalin.

  8. Natural gas foothold in world energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Forli, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the expansion of natural gas from the '50s to the early '80s is analyzed. Following its positive success in industrial, residential and thermoelectric uses, natural gas still has new market spaces to win both in conventional and technical and process innovation-oriented industries

  9. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  10. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  11. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  12. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  13. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994

  14. Liberalising the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.

    2002-01-01

    Europe's natural gas market is changing radically. The several national markets dominated by monopolistic suppliers are integrating into one European market in which production and trade are subject to competition, while transport through the networks will be unbundled and placed under regulatory influence. What will be the consequences of these changes on natural gas prices, supply security and the environment?

  15. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  16. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  17. Natural gas developments in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas opportunities in Latin America are discussed with reference to the Bolivia to Brazil Gas Pipeline Project. This fully integrated natural gas project extends from reserves development to market consumption and involves cooperation between countries and between the public and private sector. The project's success will depend, it is argued on the thorough integration and cooperation of all stages from reserve exploration, through pipeline construction, and distribution to power generation. (UK)

  18. Natural gas - Market and environmental needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the natural gas market and environmental needs with topics as follow: Importance of the North Sea region; sustainable development on the balance between economic use and environmental protection; role of natural gas in meeting energy demand: market needs, technologies, environmental aspects. According to the author, natural gas causes minimal pollutants because it contains virtually no pollutant-forming substances such as heavy metals, sulphur, chlorine or fluorine. No solid residues exist in the combustion space such as ash, slag, dust or soot, and the formation of thermal NO x through natural gas combustion has decreased to a very large extent as a result of technical advances. Natural gas can make a significant contribution towards reducing CO 2 emissions due to its very high hydrogen content. 12 figs

  19. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  20. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  1. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  2. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  3. The continuing natural gas revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    This was the keynote address of the Conference, delivered by the Chairman of the National Energy Board of Canada. Consistent with the Conference theme, the speaker reviewed the major issues and trends seen in the industry today, setting the stage for more detailed discussion of these challenges by other speakers. Among major issues identified were the possibility of further-developing downstream gas deregulation, gas/electricity convergence, changing marketing techniques, the industry's ability to respond to an expanding consumer market, adopt new procedures and technology and reduce supply costs, as well as as assure ongoing profitability at modest gas prices. 11 figs

  4. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  5. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling

  6. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... announce they have received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the...

  7. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be located approximately 16.2...

  8. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  9. The French wholesale electricity and natural gas markets. 2008 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    This second report on the operation of French wholesale electricity and natural gas markets deals with CRE wholesale market surveillance activities. It follows on from the different work undertaken or announced in the first surveillance report and in the proceedings of the CRE deliberation held on the 8 January 2009. It capitalizes on the experience gained in this area since the Law of the 7 December 2006 gave the CRE market surveillance powers. It is also based on feedback from discussions and interaction with the different stakeholders, through the public consultations held by CRE in 2008 and 2009. market surveillance applies to: - electricity and gas, - bilateral transactions, trading on exchanges and cross-border transactions, - all maturities, from short-term markets to long-term contracts, - all French wholesale market counter-parties, whatever nationality they may have, - contracts for physical delivery, as well as to financial products. The Law also allows extensive surveillance of market participants' behaviour, in that the CRE can oversee not only transactions between operators but also their bids and the correspondence between the prices charged and the position of each operator. In order to address these different subjects, the electricity and gas sections of this report are divided into four main chapters dealing with the development of trading, wholesale market price trends, the fundamentals (generation, infrastructures) and, finally, the analysis of electricity transactions and the supply of alternative gas operators. Contents: A - Methodology notice, Introduction, Summary of the report; B - Section 1 - Wholesale electricity markets: The development of the main wholesale market segments, Monitoring of price formation in France in terms of fundamentals and in comparison with the main interconnected European markets, Analysis and transparency of generation, The analysis of transactions; C - Section 2 - Wholesale natural gas markets: The

  10. Compressed natural gas for vehicles and how we can develop and meet the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state and federal legislation have mandated the use of clean burning fuels. Clean fuels include: compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol, methanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electricity, and reformulated gasoline. The Clean Air Amendments 1990 have created support for the rapid utilization of the compressed natural gas (CNG). Responsively, diverse occupations related to this industry are emerging. A coordinated infrastructure is vital to the successful promotion of clean fuels and synchronized endorsement of the law

  11. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  12. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  13. Natural gas: an environmental-friendly solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1970, the portion of natural gas in energy consumption in Western-Europe has grown by 6 percent per year on the average. About 20 percent of the energy demand in Western-Europe is now covered by natural gas. It is forecasted that this growth will continue at a rate of 2 percent per year until 2010. The natural gas consumption will increase from 325 billion cubic metres in 1993 to 450 billion cubic metres per year in 2010. For the coming 10 to 15 years, the natural gas demand is covered by long-term contracts with gas producing countries. From 2010 on, additional contracts, covering 70 to 120 billion cubic metres per year are required. A shift in geographic distribution of countries from which natural gas will be imported by Western-European countries is expected, which implies high investments and additional costs for transport and distribution of natural gas. Due to its qualities with respect to environmental impact, yield, availability, and advanced technology, natural gas is the energy vector of the 21 first century. (A.S.)

  14. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  15. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  16. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: Are we ready to natural gas price liberalization in Iran?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Hassan; Katircioglu, Salih Turan; Saeidpour, Lesyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Iran within a multivariate production model. We also investigate the effects of natural gas price on its consumption and economic growth using a demand side model. The paper employs bounds test approach to level relationship over the period of 1972–007. We find evidence of bidirectional positive relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in short-run and long-run, based on the production model. The findings also suggest that real GDP growth and natural gas have positive and negative impacts on gross fixed capital formation, respectively. Employment, however, was found to have negative but insignificant impact on gross fixed capital formation. Moreover, the estimation results of demand side model suggest that natural gas price has negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption only in the long-run, though there is insignificant impact on economic growth. These results imply that the Iranian government's decision for natural gas price liberalization has the adverse effects on economic growth and policy makers should be cautious in doing this policy. - Highlights: • Iran has been considered as a major natural gas producer in the world. • This paper examines the relationship between gas consumption and growth in Iran. • Positive impact of gas consumption on growth has been obtained. • The paper finds that gas consumption and income reinforce each other in Iran. • Natural gas price has also negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption in Iran

  17. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  18. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  20. Having our gas and selling it too : natural gas distribution in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, T.L.; Crowley, B.L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented an overview of the gas industry in Atlantic Canada, its history and development, with particular attention to the future of natural gas in Atlantic Canada, market pricing and rationalized regulation. It also includes a primer on the economic forces behind the industry. A regulatory framework was recommended that will provide gas to the greatest number of consumers at the lowest possible price. The report also describes 10 popular misconceptions regarding how the region believes it can best benefit from natural gas. The report dispels the idea that the greatest benefit comes from consuming natural gas locally. Other misconceptions are that gas can be sold locally at discount prices and at a premium to export markets. It was emphasized that Atlantic Canada needs the gas as much as New England markets, but the investment by consumers in the United States are a big driving force for offshore gas development. The author emphasized that even if Atlantic Canada never consumes its own natural gas, the royalties, economic growth, economic diversification and a new addition to the energy mix will generate benefits much greater than those which could come from local consumption alone. The author also suggests that the lack of market power in Atlantic Canada means that gas-specific provincial regulations to protect the public interest are not required. It was suggested that a gas distributor should be chosen to build the infrastructure and attract customers. This paper demonstrated that the greatest benefit to the region will come from deregulating the distribution industry while realizing the full market value of the gas for its owners. 15 refs

  1. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  2. Hydrogen-enriched natural gas; Bridge to an ultra low carbon world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Joshua; Oliver, Mike

    2010-09-15

    Natural gas is recognized as an important part of the solution to climate change, as it has the smallest carbon footprint among fossil fuels and can be used with high efficiency. This alone is not enough. Supplementing natural gas with hydrogen creating hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG), where the hydrogen comes from a low- or zero-carbon energy source. HENG, the subject of this paper, can leverage existing natural gas infrastructure to reduce CO2 and NOx, improve the efficiency of end-use equipment, and lower the overall carbon intensity of energy consumption.

  3. Land-based use of natural gas - distribution methods; Landbasert bruk av naturgass - distribusjonsloesninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian Government stimulates the use of natural gas in this country at the same time as the increase in the energy consumption should be reduced as much as possible. Thus increased use of natural gas for energy purposes may lead to reduced consumption of other energy carriers, and the use of existing infrastructure must be taken into consideration. The introduction of natural gas increases the need for optimization of the energy consumption with respect to costs and environmental consequences. The principle aim of this project is to evaluate how to implement the increased use of natural gas into existing and planned energy systems in an optimal way.

  4. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, H.; Eldegard, T.; Reve, T.; Sunnevaag, K.; Aarrestad, J.

    1995-06-01

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm 3 /yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  6. Annual survey 2013 - Natural gas in the World 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Edition of 'Natural Gas in the World' by CEDIGAZ is built on CEDIGAZ's unique natural gas statistical database. This 170-page study, published since 1983, provides an in-depth analysis of the latest developments in the gas markets along with the most complete set of statistical data on the whole gas chain covering close to 130 countries. Topics covered by Natural Gas in the World 2013 include: proved natural gas reserves; unconventional gas status in the world; gross and marketed natural gas production; the international gas trade; existing and planned underground gas storage facilities in the world; natural gas consumption; natural gas prices

  7. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  8. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  9. Cost function for the natural gas transmission, industry: further considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the cost function for the natural gas transmission industry. 60 years ago, Hollis B. Chenery published an important contribution that demonstrated how, in that particular industry, the production function of micro-economic theory can be rewritten with engineering variables (Chenery, 1949). In 2008, an article published in The Engineering Economist (Yepez, 2008) provided a refreshing revival on Chenery's seminal thoughts. In addition to a tribute to the late H.B. Chenery, this document offers some further comments and extensions on Yepez (2008). It provides a statistically estimated characterisation of the long-run scale economies and a discussion on the short-run economics of the duplication of existing equipments. As a first extension, we study the optimal design for infrastructure that is planned to transport a seasonally-varying flow of natural gas. The second extension analyzes the optimal degree of excess capacity to be built into a new infrastructure by a firm that expects a random rise in its output during the infrastructure's lifetime. (author)

  10. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  11. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  12. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  14. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  15. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  16. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  17. Natural gas commoditization - evolution and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albon, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation dealt with issues of deregulation in the natural gas industry. The commoditization process, the effect of deregulation as reflected by changes in the percentage distribution of market participation by profession in NYMEX in 1994 and for the first quarter of 1998, the natural gas supply and demand from 1990 to 1996, and natural gas market activities (i.e. swaps, EFPs, spreads, transportation look-alikes, triggers) were reviewed. An Alberta supply and demand forecast for the winter heating season of 1998-1999 and its impact on prices was also provided. tabs., figs

  18. The geopolitics of natural gas in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, natural gas has been the fastest-growing component of primary world energy consumption. This study seeks to examine the recent efforts by the Islamic Republic of Iran, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia to develop their natural gas resources and capture a large share of the Asian market, particularly in Turkey, India, China, Japan and South Korea. Counter-efforts by rivals, such as the Russian Federation and the Caspian Basin states, are analysed. Finally, international ventures to transport natural gas from producers to consumers, including the Dolphin Project, the Trans-Caspian Pipeline and Blue Stream, are discussed. (author)

  19. Natural gas for power generation : issues and implications : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report presented a historical examination of trends in natural gas-fired generation as well as a perspective on the issues and potential implications of increasing reliance on natural gas. Potential changes to Canadian energy consumers were reviewed in addition to natural gas infrastructure and services. Electricity prices relating to natural gas generation were examined. A broad regional and continental perspective was employed to account for energy market integration and the fact that gas trends reflect developments outside of Canada. The report was divided into 2 sections: (1) an examination of the trend toward natural-gas fired generation of electricity in North America; and (2) an examination of issues in closer detail from a regional perspective followed by a discussion of the changes in generation and natural gas markets in western, eastern, and central North America. Questions arising from the analysis of specific regional supply, demand and infrastructure situations were also examined. Recommendations were presented for issues concerning the current gas market and the appropriate role of the government in ensuring adequate generation. Uncertainties in future natural gas supply were also considered. It was concluded that rapid industrial growth will continue to increase demand for natural gas and electricity supply. 5 figs

  20. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  1. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)

  2. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline network and

  3. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-10-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline

  4. Natural radioactivity at Podravina gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    2006-01-01

    In Croatia, natural gas is an important source of energy, where its use exceeds other sources by one third. Composed primarily of the methane, natural gas from Croatian Podravina gas fields, beside other impurities, contains small amounts of radioactive elements. At Gas Treatment Plant (GTP) Molve, technological procedures for purification of natural gas and its distribution are performed. With yearly natural gas production of 3.5 109 m3 GTP Molve is major Croatian energy resource. Its safety and environment impact is matter of concern. Using different radioactivity measuring techniques the exposure of population to ionizing radiation were calculated at Central Natural Gas Station Molve and the underground wells. The measurement techniques included in-situ gamma spectrometric measurements, from which contribution to absorbed dose of the natural radionuclide in soil were calculated. Exposure dose measurements were performed using T.L.-dosimeters, and L.A.R.A. electronic dosimeters as well as field dose rate meter. Comparing used different radioactivity measuring methods, the correlations have been calculated. (authors)

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  6. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  7. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  8. The new East Coast natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, I.; Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  9. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  10. Advanced ultrasonic technology for natural gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, due to rising environmental and safety concerns, increasing commodity prices, and operational inefficiencies, a paradigm shift has been taking place with respect to gas measurement. The price of natural gas depends on the location, time of the year, and type of consumer. There is wide uncertainty associated with an orifice meter. This paper presents the use of advanced ultrasonic technology for the measurement of natural gas. For many years, multi-path ultrasonic meters with intelligent sensor technology have been used for gas measurement. This paper gives the various applications of ultrasonic technology along with their advantages and a draws a comparison with orifice meters. From the study it can be concluded that extensive advances in the use of ultrasonic technology for gas measurement have widened the areas of application and that varying frequencies combined with sealed transducer designs make it possible to measure atmospheric and sour gas in custody transfer process control and flaring accurately.

  11. The future of European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausems, D.

    1991-01-01

    Western Europe's natural gas markets abound with opportunities. They also contain major challenges. This paper presents a revealing assessment of both the challenges and the opportunities that arise from those markets. It also explains some of the surprising ways in which the European Commission and Dutch gas industry will influence gas markets throughout the Continent. Gas consumption is well-established and expanding in a small group of European nations. These countries rely on an equally small collection of suppliers, both within and beyond the Community's borders, to provide the required volumes of natural gas. Because supply and demand are likely to grow at significantly different rates, it is suggested what a major market imbalance could materialize before the end of the decade. Averting major gas supply problems beyond the year 2000 will require multi-billion dollar commitments by producers and will necessitate long-term take-or-pay contacts backed by strong and financially healthy buyers

  12. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development

  13. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  14. The impact of regulation, privatization and competition on gas infrastructure investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed several reforms in network industries, as privatization, regulatory changes and opening to competition in certain segments of the value chain. In sectors such as electricity and gas, this opening to competition is possible only in certain activities (i.e. generation, storage of natural gas and supply), maintaining as a natural monopoly the activities of distribution and transmission, and therefore still subject to regulation. The performance of these regulated segments can have important effects on the operation of the competitive segments, because the regulated segments (i.e. the transmission and distribution networks) provide the infrastructure platform upon which the competitive activities rely. The motivation of this paper is to evaluate the effects of privatization, liberalization and regulation on investments, as components of the reform of the natural gas sector. An empirical analysis was carried out using a panel data of 11 European countries from 2001 to 2011, with the aim to better understand the determinants influencing investment, thus contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics of this sector and meet the investments needs established by energy policies. - Highlights: • We carried out an empirical analysis using a panel data of 11 European TSO's from 2001 to 2011. • Privatization has a significant impact on investments, “more privatization means less investment”. • Different forms of regulation seem to play an important role in transmission investment. • It was found that incentive regulation has a positive impact leading to a higher investment more than rate of return. • Efficiency is an effective driver to increased investment. TSO's “only” invests if they have good operational efficiency

  15. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Leading abstract. This book focuses on issues that are important for Norway as a major gas exporter and to the development of a liberalized European market. Chapter 2 explains main features of the European gas market. Natural gas is sold in regional markets with independent pricing structure and particularities. In Europe, this has led to large investments for the producers and long-term contracts. The strong market growth and EU's actions to liberalize the market may change this. The organization of the Norwegian gas production and sale is discussed, as well as the reorganization taking place in 2001. Pricing mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 3, both in the ''old'' / existing structure and how a liberalization of the market may change price formation. The increased importance of energy taxation in EU countries is covered in Chapter 4. Even though natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, the use of natural gas may be taxed far harder in the future. The report discusses price effects of such a development. Chapter 5 discusses whether or not a gas producer, like Norway, necessarily must earn a resource rent. With the use of economic theory for exhaustible resources it is shown how prices to consumers may increase at the same time as prices to producers drop, where the difference is made up by higher gas taxes to the consuming countries. Transportation of natural gas involves considerable scale advantages and there are often scope advantages from production, storage and sale, as well. Chapter 6 discusses how competition and regulation may influence the functioning and social efficiency of the market, and the concentration of market power. When companies become large, they may exploit market power, supported by the authorities of their respective countries. Chapter 7 focuses on regulatory challenges for the EU, and how the transporters may change between conflicting and cooperation with the EU. Chapter 8 focuses on schedules for

  16. Natural gas in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document briefly presents and comments the main data about natural gas in France: gas consumption, natural gas-based electricity production, refineries, energetic final consumption of natural gas, non-energetic final consumption of natural gas, gas imports and suppliers (countries), national production, and stocks

  17. Natural Gas : Physical Properties and Combustion Features

    OpenAIRE

    Corre, Olivier Le; Loubar, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    The actual composition of natural gas depends primarily on the production field from which it is extracted and limited variations in composition must therefore be accepted. Moreover, at a local distribution level, seasonal adjustments by the local gas distributor may cause significant variations in the gas composition. Consequently, physical properties and energy content are subject to variations and their calculation / estimation is of great importance for technical and economical aspects. I...

  18. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The study, 'Assesment of greenhouse gas emission from natural gas' by independent consultants Energetics Pty Ltd, shows that natural gas has significantly fewer greenhouses gas emissions than either black or brown cola for the defined life cycle stages. The life cycle emissions from natural gas use by an Australian Major User are approximately 50% less than the emissions from Victorian brown coal and approximately 38% less than the emissions from Australian average black coal. Australian Best Practice gas fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 514 and 658 kg CO 2 e/MWh. By comparison, Australian Best Practice coal-fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 907 and 1,246 kg CO 2 e/MWh for black and brown coal respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian Best Practice gas-fired electricity generation using combined cycle gas turbines (including full fuel cycle emissions) vary from 41% to 46% of the emissions from brown coal-fired electricity generation and 57% to 64% of emissions from black coal-fired electricity generation. Greenhouse gas emissions from direct gas supply water heating range from 1,470 to 2,042 kilograms per annum. This compares with emissions of 1,922 to 2,499 kg for electric heating from gas-fired electricity generation and 3,975 to 5,393 kg for coal-fired electricity generation. The implications for greenhouse policy nationally are also discussed, emphasising the need to review national energy policy, currently tied to 'fuel neutrality' doctrine

  19. Natural gas 1992: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1991 and 1992, focusing on trends in production, consumption, and pricing of natural gas and how they reflect the regulatory and legislative changes of the past decade (Chapter 1). Also presented are details of FERC Order 636 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as well as pertinent provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Chapter 2). In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: Trends in wellhead prices and natural gas supply activities (Chapter 3); Recent rate design changes for interstate pipeline companies (Chapter 4); Benefits to consumers from the more competitive marketplace (Chapter 5); Pipeline capacity expansions during the past 2 years (Chapter 6); Increasing role of the natural gas futures market (Chapter 7)

  20. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry

  1. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  2. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  3. Liquefied natural gas tender crashworthiness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Research is being conducted to develop technical : information needed to formulate effective natural gas fuel : tender crashworthiness standards. This research is being : performed for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRAs) : Office of Res...

  4. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  5. Price discovery in European natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Emma; Swieringa, John

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first high-frequency investigation of price discovery within the physical and financial layers of Europe's natural gas markets. Testing not only looks at short-term return dynamics, but also considers each security's contribution to price equilibrium in the longer-term. Results show that UK natural gas futures traded on the Intercontinental Exchange display greater price discovery than physical trading at various hubs throughout Europe. - Highlights: • We use intraday data to gauge price discovery in European natural gas markets. • We explore short and long-term dynamics in physical and financial market layers. • Results show ICE's UK natural gas futures are the main venue for price discovery

  6. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  7. Competition in trade with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 22 June 1998, the European Parliament and the Council of Europe adopted Directive 98/30/EC on common rules for the internal market for natural gas. The Natural Gas Market Directive is aimed at increasing the competition on the gas market and creating an internal market for natural gas. To achieve this, the Directive includes provisions for ensuring that owners of transmission and distribution networks will allow other players access to these networks. The Directive is much more far-reaching and comprehensive than the present Swedish legislation in the field of natural gas. The main task of the committee is to submit a proposal for natural gas legislation that will meet the requirements of the new Directive. According to the committee directives, the work on the new legislation should aim at the regulations serving as a basis for a socio economically efficient market. However, it should also be borne in mind that the Swedish natural gas market is less developed than the markets in most other European countries, and that a lack of equilibrium in the opening of the gas markets should be avoided. Current international deliberations concerning the natural gas network in the Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea region should also be taken into account. Chapter 1 gives more detailed particulars of the points of departure for the work of the committee and the implementation of the work. The report is arranged in the form three main parts, i.e. a background part, a part describing the points of departure, and a proposals part

  8. Canadian natural gas liquids : market outlook 2000 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, L.; Mortensen, P.

    2001-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the availability of Canadian natural gas liquids. The analysis was developed from production profiles and gas compositions for individual gas pools and takes into account the effects of market factors. On the demand side, the effects of new infrastructure and changes in corporate structures have been evaluated. The study was initiated at a time when energy prices were stable and the major concern was to see how the addition of the Alliance pipeline, the Aux Sable gas processing plant, the Empress V straddle plant and the Nova/UCC E3 ethylene plant would affect the Canadian liquids business. The study was complicated by the advent of unexpected factors affecting the supply and demand of natural gas liquids (NGLs). These included extremely high prices for natural gas, an apparent inability of the supply basin to respond to the high gas prices with increased supply, and the very high electricity costs in Alberta. The weak supply of NGLs coincides with the increase in ethane demand from the start-up of Alberta's fourth ethylene facility and the addition of the high vapour pressure Alliance pipeline. This weak supply suggests there will be an ethane shortage for at least the next few years. The longer term outlook, however, is less certain and will require an analysis of the outlook for gas production, gas composition and NGL extraction capacity. This study developed two forecasts for natural gas prices. Both presume rising gas demand across North America driven by increased gas use for power generation. The Low Case assumes modest growth in domestic Canadian gas demand and the High case predicts strong growth in domestic demand as higher levels of exports to the United States, resulting in a doubling in growth for Canadian gas production from 2000-2015 compared to the Low Case. Both High and Low Case scenarios suggest that prices will decline from current levels so that Alberta plant gate prices fall by 2005 and will then

  9. Canadian natural gas liquids : market outlook 2000 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, L.; Mortensen, P.

    2001-04-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the availability of Canadian natural gas liquids. The analysis was developed from production profiles and gas compositions for individual gas pools and takes into account the effects of market factors. On the demand side, the effects of new infrastructure and changes in corporate structures have been evaluated. The study was initiated at a time when energy prices were stable and the major concern was to see how the addition of the Alliance pipeline, the Aux Sable gas processing plant, the Empress V straddle plant and the Nova/UCC E3 ethylene plant would affect the Canadian liquids business. The study was complicated by the advent of unexpected factors affecting the supply and demand of natural gas liquids (NGLs). These included extremely high prices for natural gas, an apparent inability of the supply basin to respond to the high gas prices with increased supply, and the very high electricity costs in Alberta. The weak supply of NGLs coincides with the increase in ethane demand from the start-up of Alberta's fourth ethylene facility and the addition of the high vapour pressure Alliance pipeline. This weak supply suggests there will be an ethane shortage for at least the next few years. The longer term outlook, however, is less certain and will require an analysis of the outlook for gas production, gas composition and NGL extraction capacity. This study developed two forecasts for natural gas prices. Both presume rising gas demand across North America driven by increased gas use for power generation. The Low Case assumes modest growth in domestic Canadian gas demand and the High case predicts strong growth in domestic demand as higher levels of exports to the United States, resulting in a doubling in growth for Canadian gas production from 2000-2015 compared to the Low Case. Both High and Low Case scenarios suggest that prices will decline from current levels so that Alberta plant gate prices fall by 2005 and will

  10. Natural gas, energy with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauger, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Similar to the trend observed over the last thirty years, the production of electricity will likely account for much of the growth in natural gas consumption worldwide, regardless of the region. However transportation, storage and distribution make up, on the average, 70% of the total costs of producing gas

  11. ISO New England Dual Fuel Capabilities to Limit Natural Gas and Electricity Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adder, Justin M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Since 2000, natural gas has seen tremendous growth as a fuel source for electricity generation in the United States (U.S.) with annual installations exceeding 20 GW in all but four years. It also accounts for an increasingly significant share of the nation’s electricity generation, growing from around 15 percent in the early part of the 2000s to between 26 and 29 percent in the last three years. (1) Increasing reliance on natural gas has led to concerns that an extreme weather event – which may cause curtailments in gas delivery – or a natural gas infrastructure failure could lead to local or regional electric reliability issues. (2) These concerns stem from differences in delivery methods of natural gas to electric generating units (EGUs) contrasted with the fuel delivery and storage methods for traditional baseload power systems (i.e. coal and nuclear units).1 (3) Although it seems that there is an abundance of natural gas in a post-shale gas world, infrastructure limitations and differences in electric and natural gas markets persist that differentiate natural gas-fired generators from traditional baseload power generators. Such concerns can be partially mitigated by modifying natural gas EGUs for operation on secondary fuels and installing on-site fuel storage for the secondary fuel, thus ensuring continuity of operation in the case of a gas delivery problem.2 This report examines technical, regulatory, and market issues associated with operating power plants primarily fueled with natural gas, on a secondary fuel, such as fuel oil or liquefied natural gas (LNG). In addition, a regional case study was completed to identify the current and near-term potential for dual fuel operation in New England, along with a market impact analysis of potential cost savings during an extreme weather event. The New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE) was selected as the study area based on a preponderance of natural gas-fired generators contributing to the

  12. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohasseb, S.

    1998-01-01

    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  13. The - compromised? - future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    Will natural gas be the main loser of the January 2009 crisis between Ukraine and Russia? The demonstration is made that the European Union is not free from the risk of a severe supply disruption. This is a bad news considering that the power generation is the growth vector of natural gas. Even if the gas black-out cannot exist, the power black-out still can happen. As soon as the Russian-Ukrainian conflict has occurred, the other energy sources (nuclear and renewable) have been called for help in Europe while coal is in the expectation. Since some time now, gas has to face several trend changes. First, uncertainty is increasing considering its growth prospects. The new version of the gas pluri-annual indicative plan (PIP Gaz) would foresee a stagnation of gas consumption up to 2020 (consequence of the French environmental policy), while the previous plan had foreseen a 2.1% annual growth rate between 2005 and 2015. Second, the direct indexing of gas prices on oil prices can have undesirable effects. Finally, the u-turn of the USA with respect to liquefied natural gas (LNG) may penalize its development. What answers should the European Union give in front of these uncertainties? Have the companies modified their strategy? Is the future of gas still fine? These are the questions debated during a round table organized by the BIP, the French Bulletin of Petroleum Industry. (J.S.)

  14. Marketing of natural gas in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, D [Thyssengas G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.); Knapp, U [Westfaelische Ferngas-A.G., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    The exchange of experience with experts engaged in the US gas supply industry has shown that natural gas can be supplied there at a much lower price than in West Germany and that for this reason the price is not the main incentive to save energy. The low prices, which apply also to other forms of energy although not to the same extent, are a consequence of the energy policy pursued by the US government. The representatives of the gas supply industry are not in favour of this policy and attenpts have been made for some considerable time to effect a change in policy. As long as these attempts are not attended with success, the US gas supply industry is trying to achieve its aim by pointing out that natural gas is a national resource and that additional supplies will become available provided that present users adopt energy saving measures. The gas supply industry cooperates closely with the appliance manufacturers and retailers. Joint efforts have been made to help users reduce their energy bills by employing appliances that require less gas and by acquainting them with methods devised for making proper use of energy. The gas supply industry is further strongly interested in coal as a source of energy for largely substituting SNG for natural Gas.

  15. Resourceful utilization technology for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a description of new applications that will contribute in increasing the demand for natural gas. First, technical issues to turn natural gas into a more resourceful fuel (efficient transportation and storage, integrated utilization of energies, uses as non-fuel), and also pitch-based high performance carbon materials and utilization techniques in the field of energy (isotropic carbon fiber, activated carbon fiber, spherical carbon micro-beads, high modulus carbon fiber). (TEC)

  16. The eligibility of the natural gas consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The eligible consumers are allowed to chose freely their natural gas producers and negotiate the prices and the supply modalities. In this context this information paper presents the legislative and regulation framework of the natural gas consumers eligibility, a definition of the possible eligible consumers and a list at the 30 january 2004. It provides also recommendations and answers to the more often asked questions on the administrative procedures and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  17. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hans R.A. Koster; Jos N. van Ommeren

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced earthquakes that may occur only after a couple of decades. We show that induced earthquakes that are noticeable to residents generate substantial non-monetary economic effects, as measured by their effects o...

  19. Price Comovement Between Biodiesel and Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Kourilek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    We study relationship between biodiesel, as a most important biofuel in the EU, relevant feedstock commodities and fossil fuels. Our main interest is to capture relationship between biodiesel and natural gas. They are both used either directly as a fuel or indirectly in form of additives in transport. Therefore, our purpose is to �nd price linkage between biofuel and natural gas to support or reject the claim that they compete as alternative fuels and potential substitutes. The estimated p...

  20. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  1. The impact of natural hazard on critical infrastructure systems: definition of an ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimauro, Carmelo; Bouchon, Sara; Frattini, Paolo; Giusto, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    According to the Council of the European Union Directive (2008), 'critical infrastructure' means an asset, system or part thereof which is essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. Critical infrastructure networks are exposed to natural events, such as floods, storms, landslides, earthquakes, etc. Recent natural disasters show that socio-economic consequences can be very much aggravated by the impact on these infrastructures. Though, there is still a lack of a recognized approach or methodology to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructure assets against natural threats. The difficulty to define such an approach is increased by the need to consider a very high number of natural events, which differ in nature, magnitude and probability, as well as the need to assess the vulnerability of a high variety of infrastructure assets (e.g. bridges, roads, tunnels, pipelines, etc.) To meet this challenge, the objective of the THREVI2 EU-CIPS project is to create a database linking the relationships between natural hazards and critical infrastructure assets. The query of the database will allow the end-users (critical infrastructure protection authorities and operators) to identify the relevant scenarios according to the own priorities and criteria. The database builds on an ontology optimized for the assessment of the impact of threats on critical infrastructures. The ontology aims at capturing the existing knowledge on natural hazards, critical infrastructures assets and their related vulnerabilities. Natural phenomena that can threaten critical infrastructures are classified as "events", and organized in a genetic-oriented hierarchy. The main attributes associated to each event are the probability, the magnitude and the "modus". The modus refers to the

  2. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  3. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  4. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  5. The Pacific Rim and global natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is a growing interest in natural gas as a part of national or international strategies to moderate the environmental consequences of fuel use. Although the underutilized global gas resource justifies the interest, the future consumption of gas is likely to be constrained by the high capital costs of new transportation facilities to bring remote gas supplies into areas of growing energy demand. The Asian Pacific Rim countries include rapidly growing demand areas as well as significant reserves of gas. The region will continue to play a leading role in the evolution of a world trade in gas. Gas resources within the Asian Pacific region are adequate to serve the foreseeable demands, but historically the region has utilized liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. Financial constraints upon the gas producing countries of the region and political instability in some of them will probably continue to require the importing of sustantial quantities of gas from the Middle East and possibly from Alaska and the former USSR as the resources indigenous to the region itself are developed more slowly than demand. The financial arrangements and contractual approaches that evolve to meet the needs of the Asia Pacific Rim will shape the future of world LNG markets. (Author)

  6. Natural gas in 1951: Petroleum in 1951: Logs of wells for 1951. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1954-12-31

    The first part of this report summarises natural gas exploration activity, well drilling, infrastructure changes and improvements, production, distribution, consumption, and leakage during transmission or distribution of natural gas in Ontario. Includes lists of operators licensed to lease, prospect, drill or bore for, produce, and distribute natural gas in the province. The second part summarises oil industry activities, oil production, well drilling, petroleum and refined products imports, and petroleum refining operations. Relevant statistics are provided throughout both parts of the report. Also includes drillers` logs for oil and gas wells completed during the year.

  7. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  8. Natural gas: A bridge to the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, but never got the chance to develop its use. The reason for that is the notion that the natural gas supplies would last for only some decennia. That is only right for the conventional gas supplies. In ice crystals, some hundreds of meters deep in the oceans, enormous methane reserves, many times larger than the conventional supplies, are enclosed in so-called clathrates. From the literature it appears that other sources of natural gas or methane and new options to use these energy sources are considered or to be developed. Attention is paid to the methane reserves in geologic formations, methane produced by microbes, and methane in clathrates. It is estimated that the methane reserve is 8 x 10 2 3 Joule. By using natural gas as a fuel CO 2 emission will be reduced considerably. Methane emission however must be limited, because of the reducing effect of methane on the oxygen production in the troposphere. The large reserves of methane also offer good prospects for the production of hydrogen, large-scale applications to generate electric power or the use of CH 4 as a fuel in the transportation sector. New techniques and economic, social and institutional factors determine how fast the use of natural gas will increase. It is expected that 0.54 Tm 3 of natural gas will be needed for the twelve countries of the European Community. Main users in the year 2030 will be the electric power industry (39%), industry (26%), households and trade (18%), and transportation sector and supply (15%). In 2030 63% of natural gas has to be imported. 3 refs

  9. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  10. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  12. Liquefied natural gas storage at Ambergate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higton, C W; Mills, M J

    1970-08-19

    Ambergate works was planned in 1965-1966 and the decision was taken to install 4 ICI lean gas reformers using natural gas as feedstock, fuel, and enrichment. To cover the possible failure of natural gas supplies, petroleum distillate would be used as alternative feedstock and fuel. The choice for alternative enrichment lay between LPG or LNG. Since LNG would provide peak-on-peak storage facilities for either the East Midlands Board or the Gas Council when conversion was completed--and in the meantime would provide an additional source of LNG for local requirements when temporary LNG installations were used during conversion--agreement was reached with the Gas Council for it to build a 5,000-ton storage installation at Ambergate. The installation consists of 3 major sections: (1) the offloading bay and storage tank; (2) the reliquefaction system; and (3) the export system. The offloading bay and storage tank are for the reception and storage of liquefied Algerian natural gas, delivered to Ambergate by road tanker from the Canvey Is. Terminal. The reliquefaction system is to maintain the necessary storage tank conditions by reliquefying the boil-off natural gas. The export system delivers LNG from the storage tank at high pressure through a vaporization section in the national methane grid.

  13. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    .... PHMSA-2010-0226] Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas... safety standards for siting liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Those standards require that an..., and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas. That consensus [[Page 53372

  14. Modelling emissions from natural gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ezaina Umukoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The world today recognizes the significance of environmental sustainability to the development of nations. Hence, the role oil and gas industry plays in environmental degrading activities such as gas flaring is of global concern. This study presents material balance equations and predicts results for non-hydrocarbon emissions such as CO2, CO, NO, NO2, and SO2 etc. from flaring (combustion of 12 natural gas samples representing composition of natural gas of global origin. Gaseous emission estimates and pattern were modelled by coding material balance equations for six reaction types and combustion conditions with a computer program. On the average, anticipated gaseous emissions from flaring natural gas with an average annual global flaring rate 126 bcm per year (between 2000 and 2011 in million metric tonnes (mmt are 560 mmt, 48 mmt, 91 mmt, 93 mmt and 50 mmt for CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 respectively. This model predicted gaseous emissions based on the possible individual combustion types and conditions anticipated in gas flaring operation. It will assist in the effort by environmental agencies and all concerned to track and measure the extent of environmental pollution caused by gas flaring operations in the oil and gas industry.

  15. Progress in industrial utilization of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschetto, F.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, due to its intrinsic qualities, flexibility, cleanness, etc., natural gas has been one of the major energy sources used in industry. This paper examines gas appliances of a new conception which use ceramic products in order to reach temperatures of about 1400 degrees C: jet gas burners, counter-rotation burners, integrated preheating burners, high speed burners, double recuperation burners and regenerative ones. Furthermore, the paper deals with these burners applied to industrial furnaces, radiant panels, liquid heating systems and to thermal treatment and crucible furnaces. Particular reference to made to the steam pump, which permits reaching the highest efficiency, and to the gas combustion regulator. With the increased marketing of these new appliances, natural gas ill certainly consolidate its leading position in the industrial and energy fields

  16. Natural gas industry and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  17. Natural gas cooling: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the efficiencies and performance of a number of gas cooling systems with a comparable electric cooling system. The results show that gas cooling systems compare favorably with the electric equivalents, offering a new dimension to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The paper goes on to compare the air quality benefits of natural gas to coal or oil-burning fuel systems which are used to generate the electricity for the electric cooling systems. Finally, the paper discusses the regulatory bias that the author feels exists towards the use of natural gas and the need for modification in the existing regulations to provide a 'level-playing field' for the gas cooling industry

  18. Ideas and suggestions for marketing natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, D [Thyssengas G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-04-01

    The changes in the situation on the world energy market have also affected the gas supply business. This led to a re-examination of the marketing concept for natural gas. The impetus to this came from the procurement situation, the rational use of energy, the appearance of new technologies and the need to arrive at a pricing policy in line with the market. All this required a great deal of PR work and more extensive cooperation. Clarification of some points will require a market analysis to show how long-term plans will have to be established. Sales promotion activities for natural gas will have to show that the aim is to use natural gas as a substitute in high-efficiency applications rather than to increase the consumption of energy. The various activities must be closely coordinated.

  19. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  20. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012 AGENCY: Office of... LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY MARKETING L.P 12-03-NG WPX... granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized...

  1. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2012 AGENCY... International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company 12-41-NG Sequent... authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

  2. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE Docket Nos. FREEPORT LNG...-LNG QUICKSILVER RESOURCES INC 12-12-NG UNITED ENERGY TRADING CANADA, ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS... authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

  3. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and Vacating Prior Authority During December 2012 FE... granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior [[Page...

  4. Canadian natural gas : market review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual working paper provides summaries of trends within the North American natural gas industry and also reviews Canadian gas exports. It is designed to promote dialogue between industry and the government and to obtain feedback on natural gas issues. The main section of the report consists of graphs, with limited text comments on the side. It provides a structured look at supply and demand for the year 2000 as well as for the near term (2001) and long-term (2010). The sources of information included private consultants, industry associations and federal agencies in Canada and the United States. It was shown that gas demand had grown steadily in North America since 1997, at about 2.5 per cent annually, and then fell 3.4 per cent in 1998 and remained low in 1999, below 1997 demand. This was due mainly to mild winters. In 2000, the demand for natural gas increased again to 5 per cent as a result of a colder winter and increased gas use for power generation. The report also stated that the combination of various factors including low storage balances due to previously low drilling years and high oil prices, were responsible for natural gas price increases in 2000. The tight supply/demand balance was exacerbated by restraints in pipeline capacity. Producers and pipeline groups are now looking seriously at developing the large gas deposits in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta which were previously considered to be uneconomic. It was noted that in the near term, storage must be rebuilt to normal levels. Storage balances will be a good indicator of the relative strengths of gas production and demand growth. It was forecasted that Canada to U.S. gas exports should continue to increase in 2001 as a large new export pipeline was completed in 2000, but there is considerable uncertainty for the medium to longer-term. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Feeling the pressure from natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taffe, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The European directive establishing a competitive internal natural gas market will be the most important, though not the only, factor in advancing the rapid and far reaching changes which Europe's natural gas sector is undergoing. The knock-on effects which these changes will have on the chemical industry are examined. The benefits of opening up the gas market will be more consumer choice and a more efficient and globally competitive EU gas industry. But for the chemical industry it raises strategic issues surrounding gas procurement such as price risks and security of supply. These are especially acute where gas is used not just as a fuel but also as a feedstock. As the electricity market is progressively deregulated, independent power generation using combined heat and power could be an attractive choice in the chemical industry with the possibility of selling surplus electricity on the spot market. Other changes in the gas sector could arise from the environmental targets agreed in Kyoto which are likely to lead to an increase in fuel taxation, and the development of a spot market in gas as the link between oil and gas prices becomes less direct. (UK)

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  10. Probabilistic modelling of security of supply in gas networks and evaluation of new infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praks, Pavel; Kopustinskas, Vytis; Masera, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a probabilistic model to study security of supply in a gas network. The model is based on Monte-Carlo simulations with graph theory, and is implemented in the software tool ProGasNet. The software allows studying gas networks in various aspects including identification of weakest links and nodes, vulnerability analysis, bottleneck analysis, evaluation of new infrastructure etc. In this paper ProGasNet is applied to a benchmark network based on a real EU gas transmission network of several countries with the purpose of evaluating the security of supply effects of new infrastructure, either under construction, recently completed or under planning. The probabilistic model enables quantitative evaluations by comparing the reliability of gas supply in each consuming node of the network. - Highlights: • A Monte-Carlo algorithm for stochastic flow networks is presented. • Network elements can fail according to a given probabilistic model. • Priority supply pattern of gas transmission networks is assumed. • A real-world EU gas transmission network is presented and analyzed. • A risk ratio is used for security of supply quantification of a new infrastructure.

  11. A critical view on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the opinions of several players in the market for natural gas on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law, which is drafted within the framework of the liberalization of the European market for natural gas

  12. Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, M.S.; Marangon Lima, J.W. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Rua Dr. Daniel de Carvalho, no. 296, Passa Quatro, Minas Gerais, CEP 37460-000 (Brazil)

    2007-04-15

    The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market in terms of fuel consumption and energy conversion. Given that the transmission and distribution monopolistic activities are very similar to the natural gas transportation through pipelines, economic regulation related to the natural gas network should be coherent with the transmission counterpart. This paper shows the application of the main wheeling charge methods, such as MW/gas-mile, invested related asset cost (IRAC) and Aumman-Shapley allocation, to both transmission and gas network. Stead-state equations are developed to adequate the various pricing methods. Some examples clarify the results, in terms of investments for thermal generation plants and end consumers, when combined pricing methods are used for transmission and gas networks. The paper also shows that the synergies between gas and electricity industry should be adequately considered, otherwise wrong economic signals are sent to the market players. (author)

  13. Securing growth markets for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.

    1999-01-01

    The Industry Development Strategy 2000-2005 (IDS) identifies the major growth markets for natural gas, as the industry readies itself for the challenges of the new millenium. An integral part of this process is to examine the key barriers to market expansion, and to devise strategies that both The Australian Gas Association (AGA) and the wider industry can pursue to underpin improvement in overall gas consumption. This is the task of the IDS which examines the opportunities confronting the industry over the next five year period. The significant growth prospects of the gas industry both in the short term (2000-2005) and long term (2005-2015) are indicated in two comprehensive and independent studies. The first, Australian Energy Market Developments and Projections to 2014-15, was released earlier this year by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (the ABARE Energy Report). The second, Natural Gas Consumption in Australia to 2015-Prospects by State, Industry and Sector, was commissioned by the AGA, and was completed by the National Institute of Economic and Industry Research in September 1999 (NIEIR Report). Both reports indicate that in terms of consumption levels, in the period up to 2015 the gas industry is forecast to more than double its current size. Natural gas is also projected to increase its primary energy share ranking from third to second place

  14. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  15. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs.

  16. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  17. Case studies of scenario analysis for adaptive management of natural resource and infrastructure systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, M.C.; Thekdi, S.A.; Jenicek, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources and infrastructure systems for sustainability is complicated by uncertainties in the human and natural environment. Moreover, decisions are further complicated by contradictory views, values, and concerns that are rarely made explicit. Scenario analysis can play...... of emergent conditions and help to avoid regret and belated action. The purpose of this paper is to present several case studies in natural resources and infrastructure systems management where scenario analysis has been used to aide decision making under uncertainty. The case studies include several resource...... and infrastructure systems: (1) water resources (2) land-use corridors (3) energy infrastructure, and (4) coastal climate change adaptation. The case studies emphasize a participatory approach, where scenario analysis becomes a means of incorporating diverse stakeholder concerns and experience. This approach...

  18. Low-level radioactive gas monitor for natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1969-11-01

    A portable radioactivity detection system for monitoring the tritium content of natural gas under field conditions has been developed. The sensing device employed is a complex proportional counting assembly operated without the use of massive shielding previously employed with such low-level radiation detectors. The practical limit of detection for the system is a tritium content of 10 -9 microcurie per cc of natural gas. All components of the system are packaged in three waterproof cases weighing slightly less than 30 kg each. Power requirement is 500 watts of 120 volt, 60 Hz current. Operation is fully automatic with a printed record produced at predetermined time intervals

  19. Oil and gas to Europe - An overview of existing and planned infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, Susanne; Schuelke, Christian

    2011-04-01

    The European Union's Hydrocarbon energy supply depends heavily on imports. While the European Commission has recommended diversifying and increasing domestic resources, notably with renewable resources which should grow to 20 % by 2020, dependence on hydrocarbon imports will remain not only substantial, but will increase. Particular attention must thus be paid to the question of transportation, and also to the countries of origin, investments in infrastructures, their protection, relations with transit countries, 'competing consumers' (notably China and emerging countries, but also the United States), energy wastefulness in producing countries, and finally, price. Security of supply depends on adequate and reliable infrastructure, and must always be thought of in the long term. This entirely revised edition of the fourth study conducted by the European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy Program at Ifri includes discussions about pipeline routes and potential outputs, their current use and financial requirements for transportation, ongoing projects and those planned for the future, their cost, their financing and their probable operational start-up date. While all infrastructures are necessarily examined (including Norway, the United Kingdom, and North Africa), particular attention is paid to transportation infrastructure that connects Europe with Russia and the former Soviet Union (Central Asia, Caspian Sea). It will be immediately clear that the issue of gas is dominant in current discussions. Contents: 1. Setting up Gas and Oil Infrastructures in Europe. 2. EU Actions on Gas and Oil Infrastructure. 3. Oil Transport to the EU. IV. Gas from the North, South and East - European Demand for Gas and Sources of Supply. V. Turkey and Ukraine: Two Major Transit Countries for EU. VI. Conclusion and Prospectus. Appendix

  20. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  1. Revolution in the natural gas industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    1999-01-01

    The demand for cleaner automotive fuels has created an opening for converting natural gas to liquid transport fuels and blending agents using Fischer-Tropsch technology. While the technology is well established, it is not yet clear whether the conversion can compete with crude oil refining or with pipelines and liquefied natural gas. Although all the oil giants are interested in the technology, the only commercial-sized plant in the world was the Shell plant in Malaya which had capacity of 12,000 bpd, but the profitability of the plant came from the wax by-products. The plant has been closed since a fire and explosion in 1997. The process chain is described. The gas-to-liquid activities and achievements of Saol, Exxon and Texaco are reported. It was concluded that although there are still some problems to be ironed-out, there is a promising future for gas-to-liquid conversion. (UK)

  2. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  3. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  4. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  5. Canadian natural gas price debate : TCGS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding the Alberta supply of natural gas were debated. Factors considered include pipeline expansions, storage and foreign exchange. The influence of NYMEX was also cited as an important determinant of gas pricing. Currently, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin's (WCSB) market share is 22 per cent of the North American demand. The WCSB extends through Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon. The Basin's estimated reserves at the end of 1996 were 65 TCF. tabs., figs

  6. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  7. Regulatory reform in Mexico's natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In recent years Mexico has implemented remarkable structural changes in its economy. However, until recently its large and key energy sector was largely unreformed. This is now changing. In 1995 the Mexican Government introduced legislative changes permitting private sector involvement in natural gas storage, transportation and distribution. Subsequent directives set up a detailed regulatory framework. These developments offer considerable promise, not only for natural gas sector development but also for growth in the closely linked electricity sector. This study analyses the changes which have taken place and the rationale for the regulatory framework which has been established. The study also contains recommendations to assist the Government of Mexico in effectively implementing its natural gas sector reforms and in maximizing the benefits to be realised through the new regulatory framework. (author)

  8. Electricity/natural gas competition in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of energy market shares (electricity, natural gas and oil products) in Quebec's residential and commercial sectors in the 1980s shows that energy source relative prices have influenced consumer behavior as expected. A set of comparisons from space and water heating markets in these sectors with regard to prices paid by consumers and costs incurred by society in general is presented. For the residential sector, it is seen that consumers pay only a fraction of the cost for electric space and water heating; the same service could be provided at smaller cost by natural gas. For the commercial sector, the electricity and natural gas tariffs convey the appropriate message with respect to the cost incurred in providing the service. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  9. Challenges for the future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the closure talk from P. Gadonneix, president of Gaz de France (GdF) company, who draws out the perspectives of development of the French national company in the context of an increasing natural gas demand with new competition and with an evolution of the European regulations: perspectives of demand and production, the dependency of Europe, the competition with other energy sources, the European deregulation of natural gas market, the strategy of Gaz de France, the relation with consumers, the development of distribution systems, the promotion of new products, the environmental qualities of natural gas and the development of clean technologies, the construction of new pipelines within the national territory, the partnerships of GdF with other national companies, the socio-economical actions of GdF (employment etc..). (J.S.)

  10. Natural gas and electricity generation in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this article is on electricity generation in Queensland. Black coal accounted for 97 percent, while natural gas made up only 1 percent of the fuel used in thermal power generation in 1997-98. The share of natural gas in thermal electricity generation is expected to rise to 21 percent by 2014-2015, because of the emphasis on natural gas in Queensland's new energy policy. Since 1973-1974, Queensland has led the way in electricity consumption, with an average annual growth rate of 6.8 percent but the average thermal efficiency has fallen from 38.0 percent in 1991-1992, to 36.6 percent in 1997-1998

  11. Natural gas market a dream come true

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Predictions by the U.S. Energy Information Administration to the effect that the unprecedented high gas prices of recent months are here to stay are discussed. The key symptom of the tightening market are the reduced level of storage in both Canada and the United States. In late May gas in U.S. storage facilities stood at 1.2 trillion cubic feet or 25 per cent less than the same time last year, and Canada's storage facilities were only 34 per cent full compared to 45 per cent a year earlier, a strong suggestion that the markets are extremely tight. The combination of limited supply, increasing demand and expanding pipeline connections are considered to be a winning combination to ensure that gas prices will remain high for the foreseeable future. The most significant growth in demand for natural gas is for use in electric power generation. To illustrate the increased penetration of natural gas into the field of power generation, it is noted that 98 per cent of the 243 electricity generating plants announced for construction in the next five years are designed to be fired by natural gas

  12. Canada's looming infrastructure crisis and gas tax agreements : are strategic connections being made?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Roseland, M.; Connelly, S.; Markey, S.

    2008-03-01

    Canada's municipalities face multiple challenges in relation to the maintenance and development of services and infrastructure. This paper examined the growing infrastructure crisis in relation to sustainable community planning policies, gas tax agreements (GTA) and integrated community sustainability plans (ICSP). The study assessed the degree to which the GTA and ICSP may help to resolve the crisis and move towards the development of more sustainable infrastructure systems. The current need to upgrade or add to the infrastructure inventory represents an opportunity to adopt infrastructure technologies that are sustainable and more environmentally-friendly into municipal systems. The study demonstrated that the GTA and ICSP are financially insufficient. Jurisdictions with an existing capacity to plan and implement sustainability planning are the most successful at engaging with the ICSP process. However, there is no method of ensuring the transfer of innovative greener technologies. There is no overarching national strategy to eliminate or reduce the national infrastructure crisis. A serious national commitment is needed to address Canada's future infrastructure needs. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  13. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  14. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Green, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm 3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  16. Security of natural gas supply in Central Europe - Case study: Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepac, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Europe's dependence on imported hydrocarbons is increasing. Being the second largest consumer in the world, EU will need of billions of euro over the next 20 years to satisfy the expected energy demand and to replace the ageing infrastructure. Slovakia is the main transport corridor for the Russian gas delivered to the EU countries, 20% of the natural gas consumption in the EU countries is covered by transit through the Slovak territory. Slovakia is also almost 100% dependent on import of the Russian gas. Diversification of the natural gas resources therefore belongs to the key energy security issues in Slovakia.

  17. Marketing activities of a natural gas company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, D [Thyssengas G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The last 10 years have produced an extra ordinary upswing in the gas industry. Natural gas could, in part, satisfy the demands in fields previously reserved for heating oil. However, after these successes it seems necessary to analyze the new initial situation for future marketing activities and to find a new strategy. This investigation is concerned with those tasks. Crucial points are dealt with that represent interesting of activities for gas-supply initiatures, and the author tries to show by what means these efforts can be crowned with success. All important sectors of the market are discussed, new technological developments are dealt with briefly, and finally the special case of opening up new areas for natural gas-supply is examined. It is regarded as an absolute necessity that marketing information for new activities should be appreciably improved by market surveys. The whole article describes the activites that have arisen from the co-operation between Thyssen gas and the gas supply undertakings supplied by Thyssen gas.

  18. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Worldwide natural gas pipeline situation. Sekai no tennen gas pipeline jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, T [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    Constructing natural gas pipelines in wide areas requires investments of a huge amount. Many countries are building natural gas supply infrastructures under public support as nations' basic policy of promoting use of natural gas. This paper describes the present conditions of building pipelines in Western Europe, the U.S.A., Korea and Taiwan. In Western Europe, transporting companies established in line with the national policy own trunk pipelines and storage facilities, and import and distribute natural gas. The U.S.A. has 2300 small and large pipeline companies bearing transportation business. Pipelines extend about 1.9 million kilometers in total, with trunk pipelines accounting for about 440,000 kilometers. The companies are given eminent domain for the right of way. Korea has a plan to build a pipeline network with a distance of 1600 kilometers in around 2000. Taiwan has completed trunk pipelines extending 330 kilometers in two years. In Japan, the industry is preparing draft plans for wide area pipeline construction. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Market screening of natural gas reformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themsen, J.; Pagh Nielsen, M.; Knudsen Kaer, S.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents results from the project: Market screening of natural gas reformers. The project objective was to screen the natural gas reformers available on the international market. The technology is developing rapidly, and the results from this project will assist in determining the focus for the future Danish activities and in setting up ambitious and realistic targets. The reformer screening is partly based on AAU and Dantherm's experiences from previous studies, and the screening has been further extended with a number of activities, including seminars and contact with some of the most interesting suppliers. (BA)

  1. Natural gas utilization study : offshore Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the natural gas resources of Newfoundland and to identify production and transportation options. The objective was to create a development strategy for natural gas which is growing in global importance as an energy source and as a feedstock for the downstream industry. The growth is driven by general economic expansion and the fact that natural gas is far less polluting than its main fossil fuel alternatives of oil and coal. New use is dominated by the power generation sector. The natural gas industry is also evolving rapidly as new reserves are established and pipelines are being constructed. Proven world reserves of natural gas now stand in excess of 5000 Tcf, 70 per cent of which is in the Russian Federation (CIS) and Middle East regions. Production and consumption, however, is dominated by the industrialized countries of North America and western Europe. This difference between markets and reserves has major implications including the need to develop cost effective long-distance transportation technologies and delivery systems or to relocate downstream industries closer to the reserves. In Newfoundland, the estimated reserves total 61.9 Tcf, including 8.2 Tcf of discovered reserves and 53.7 Tcf of undiscovered reserves. Of the discovered reserves, 4.2 Tcf is on the Labrador Shelf and 4.0 Tcf is in the the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Grand Banks. The Hibernia development could play a major role in the development of the natural gas resources of fields within a radius of 50 km around the platform. The general conclusion from the first phase of this study is that Newfoundland's natural gas resources are valuable and potentially capable of supporting significant industrial activities. The undiscovered potential holds significant promise for both the Newfoundland offshore and onshore areas. Phase Two of the study will deal with the development and implementation of a Strategic Plan for Newfoundland's natural gas resources. A series of

  2. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  3. On modelling the market for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiesen, Lars

    2001-12-01

    Several features may separately or in combination influence conduct and performance of an industry, e.g. the numbers of sellers or buyers, the degree of economies of scale in production and distribution, the temporal and spatial dimensions, etc. Our main focus is on how to model market power. In particular, we demonstrate the rather different solutions obtained from the price-taking behavior versus the oligopolistic Coumot behavior. We also consider two approaches to model the transportation of natural gas. Finally, there is a brief review of previous modeling efforts of the European natural gas industry. (author)

  4. The transport system for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndalen, Joergen; Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the actors on the Norwegian shelf in cooperation with the authorities established a new regime for sale and transport of gas. This article deals with some issues of interest relating to this new regime. The transport system for natural gas shows clear signs of being a natural monopoly, which makes it difficult to use the system efficiently. Two main problems of the current way of organizing are pointed out: (1) lack of price and market signals in capacity allocation and (2) unclear incentive effects. The article indicates a possible solution based on the form of organization that is used in the power market

  5. Natural gas fuelling stations installation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrigar, C; Burford, G; Adragna, M; Hawryn, S

    2004-07-01

    This Canadian Standard applies to natural gas fuelling stations that can be used for fleet and public dispensing operations. This document is divided into 11 sections that address the scope of the Standard; definitions and reference publications; general requirements; compressors; storage; dispensing; flow control devices; storage vessel dispatch and receiving; design, installation and testing of piping, tubing and fittings; and installation of vehicle refuelling appliances (VRAs) connected to storage piping. The most recent revision to the Standard includes requirements for indoor fuelling of natural gas vehicles. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2004. tabs., figs.

  6. The domestic natural gas industry in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khan, R.A.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    The domestic natural gas industry has generally exhibited slow growth in most developing countries that are fortunate enough to have sufficient proved gas reserves to meet energy needs. But supportive government policies that promote the use of indigenous reserves are now beginning to have a positive impact in many parts of the world. Supply and distribution infrastructures are being built or modernized. And natural gas is now or will be available at prices that encourage the displacement of competitive fuels in the larger, energy-intensive industrial and power-generation markets of these countries. It is expected that the domestic gas industry in many developing countries will expand at higher rates than in the past. In the next few decades, the resulting benefits will include reductions in oil consumption per capita, improvements in the balance of payments for oil-importing and exporting developing countries, greater efficiency of energy usage and lower energy consumption per output unit, and improved environmental quality. The national economies and living standards will also undergo significant advancement

  7. Natural disaster risk analysis for critical infrastructure systems: An approach based on statistical learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis has historically been developed for situations in which measured data about the overall reliability of a system are limited and expert knowledge is the best source of information available. There continue to be a number of important problem areas characterized by a lack of hard data. However, in other important problem areas the emergence of information technology has transformed the situation from one characterized by little data to one characterized by data overabundance. Natural disaster risk assessments for events impacting large-scale, critical infrastructure systems such as electric power distribution systems, transportation systems, water supply systems, and natural gas supply systems are important examples of problems characterized by data overabundance. There are often substantial amounts of information collected and archived about the behavior of these systems over time. Yet it can be difficult to effectively utilize these large data sets for risk assessment. Using this information for estimating the probability or consequences of system failure requires a different approach and analysis paradigm than risk analysis for data-poor systems does. Statistical learning theory, a diverse set of methods designed to draw inferences from large, complex data sets, can provide a basis for risk analysis for data-rich systems. This paper provides an overview of statistical learning theory methods and discusses their potential for greater use in risk analysis

  8. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

  9. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Normalization of natural gas composition data measured by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Martin J T; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Andrew S; Cowper, Chris J

    2009-01-01

    The composition of natural gas determined by gas chromatography is routinely used as the basis for calculating physico-chemical properties of the gas. Since the data measured by gas chromatography have particular statistical properties, the methods used to determine the composition can make use of a priori assumptions about the statistical model for the data. We discuss a generalized approach to determining the composition, and show that there are particular statistical models for the data for which the generalized approach reduces to the widely used method of post-normalization. We also show that the post-normalization approach provides reasonable estimates of the composition for cases where it cannot be shown to arise rigorously from the statistical structure of the data

  11. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, L.; Vollmann, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply

  12. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, L. (Bentley College, Waltham, MA (United States)); Vollmann, T.E. (International Inst. for Management Development, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply.

  13. NATGAS. A Model of the European Natural Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M; Zwart, G.

    2006-02-01

    The NATural GAS model is an integrated model of the European wholesale gas market providing long-run projections of supply, transport, storage and consumption patterns in the model region, aggregated in 5-year periods, distinguishing two seasons (winter and summer). Model results include levels of investment in the various branches, output and consumption, depletion of reserves and price levels. The NATGAS model computes long-term effects of policy measures on future gas production and gas prices in Europe. NATGAS is an equilibrium model describing behaviour of gas producers, investors in infrastructure (pipeline, LNG capacity, as well as storage), traders and consumers. NATGAS covers the main European demand regions, including the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Italy. Moreover, it covers the main origins of supply on the European market, such as Russia, Norway, Algeria, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and LNG. In this memorandum, we first discuss the theoretical background as well as the model specifications. Afterwards, we describe the data we used, present some results and assess validity by computing sensitivities and comparing with current developments

  14. Overview of use of natural gas on heavy duty vehicles in Brazil; Panorama da utilizacao do gas natural veicular em veiculos pesados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos; Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante Cordeiro de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Area de Desempenho de Produtos em Motores; Lastres, Luiz Fernando Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Lubrificantes e Produtos Especiais

    2004-07-01

    The use of vehicular natural gas (VNG) was initiated in Brazil in he 80's seeking the replacement of diesel in heavy vehicles due to the oil crisis. In this season PETROBRAS participated, along with other companies, in the development of conversion technologies for replacement part of the diesel by natural gas through systems known as diesel-gas. Were made works to development bank of tests of engines and field tests on some bus companies, verifying if there are technical and economic viability of such conversion. Due to factors such as small mesh distribution of natural gas in Brazil, lack of infrastructure of technical support suitable for conversions and lack of culture in the use of natural gas, the program not progressed and experience was interrupted. Other experiments were conducted in Brazil with the use of engines dedicated to natural gas (Otto cycle) developed and manufactured in the country for use in urban buses. Currently there is a scenario favorable to the return of use of natural gas in weighed vehicles by the following factors: 1) increase the mesh distribution of VNG due to the high growth of the fleet light vehicles to VNG in the country, solving part of the problems of logistics; 2) pressure from environmental agencies by values of emissions of particles and gases ever less pollutants in urban centers; 3) excess supply of natural gas in the domestic market due to new discoveries in Brazil, contracts for the import of natural gas signed with Bolivia and low demand for current industrial consumption of gas; 4) need to replace the import of diesel, which weighs in trade of the country. This paper will be presented some experiences with the technology of diesel-gas and the engine dedicated the VNG in weighed vehicles in Brazil. Also some recommendations will be made to increase and spread the use of these technologies, aiming to increase the replacement of diesel by vehicular natural gas in weighed vehicles. (author)

  15. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  16. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  17. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation's largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses

  18. To fully exert the important role of natural gas in building a modern energy security system in China: An understanding of China's National l3th Five-Year Plan for Natural Gas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the introduction of 13th Five-Year Plans in succession for natural gas development programmed by governments at all levels and much more attention paid to haze governance by relevant departments, natural gas, as one of the major energy sources, has ushered in a strategic opportunity era. In view of this, based upon China's National 13th Five-Year Plan for Natural Gas Development formulated by the National Development and Reform Commission, the developing trend of natural gas sector was predicted in the period of 13th Five-Year Plan in terms of supply side, demand side, pricing system, infrastructure construction, etc. and some feasible proposals were made on the whole industrial chain. In terms of the supply side, natural gas will be of availability, accessibility, assurance, affordability, and accountability in the production and supply chains. In terms of the demand side, air pollution treatment will indirectly stimulate gas consumption increase. Gas power generation will become the dominant. Natural gas as a transportation fuel will bring a good new opportunity. Thus it is believed that as the present natural gas development is restricted by both gas pricing system and infrastructure construction, further reform should be strengthened to break the barriers of systems and mechanisms; and that due to many uncertainties in the natural gas market, the decisive role of market in the resource allocation should be fully exerted to ensure the main force of natural gas in building a dependable energy strategic system in present and future China.

  19. Natural gas markets in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzmark, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand appears to be surging again, but this time in the Southeast Asian countries. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow the oil market. This will be especially true as compressed natural gas and oxygenates start to take significant shares of the transportation fuel markets, while the role of residual fuel oil is increasingly usurped by gas for environmental reasons. Many new gas sources such as Papua New Guinea, Siberia, China, and Canada will fight for market share while domestic demand in Indonesia and Malaysia takes up increasing proportions of those countries' gas production. Extensive regional transportation schemes are likely to direct more of the gas output of Southeast Asia to intra-ASEAN uses. 2 tabs

  20. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)