WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural aging process

  1. The potential of artificial aging for modelling of natural aging processes of ballpoint ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyermann, Céline; Spengler, Bernhard

    2008-08-25

    Artificial aging has been used to reproduce natural aging processes in an accelerated pace. Questioned documents were exposed to light or high temperature in a well-defined manner in order to simulate an increased age. This may be used to study the aging processes or to date documents by reproducing their aging curve. Ink was studied especially because it is deposited on the paper when a document, such as a contract, is produced. Once on the paper, aging processes start through degradation of dyes, solvents drying and resins polymerisation. Modelling of dye's and solvent's aging was attempted. These processes, however, follow complex pathways, influenced by many factors which can be classified as three major groups: ink composition, paper type and storage conditions. The influence of these factors is such that different aging states can be obtained for an identical point in time. Storage conditions in particular are difficult to simulate, as they are dependent on environmental conditions (e.g. intensity and dose of light, temperature, air flow, humidity) and cannot be controlled in the natural aging of questioned documents. The problem therefore lies more in the variety of different conditions a questioned document might be exposed to during its natural aging, rather than in the simulation of such conditions in the laboratory. Nevertheless, a precise modelling of natural aging curves based on artificial aging curves is obtained when performed on the same paper and ink. A standard model for aging processes of ink on paper is therefore presented that is based on a fit of aging curves to a power law of solvent concentrations as a function of time. A mathematical transformation of artificial aging curves into modelled natural aging curves results in excellent overlap with data from real natural aging processes.

  2. The polymer–polymorphoid nature of glass aging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Minaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept of polymeric–polymorphous structure of glass and glass-forming liquid experimental data have been analyzed revealing the nature of glass aging. We show that the glass forming substance is a copolymer consisting of structural nano-fragments (polymorphoids in different polymorphous modifications (PM of the material having no translational symmetry (long-range order. The study revealed that the process and degree of glass aging influences the properties of glasses, including a change in enthalpy, manifested in the exothermic and endothermic effects observed in thermograms of differential scanning calorimetry of heated and cooled glasses. We have shown that the physicochemical essence of aging is the transformation of polymorphoids from high-temperature PM (HTPM to low-temperature PM (LTPM which results, under certain conditions, in LTPM crystallization.

  3. Natural and artificial aging response of semi-solid metal processed alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Möller, H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available oC between 1 and 5 hours without any prior natural aging. A natural aging period as short as 1 hour results in a hardness peak (rather than a plateau) to be reached during artificial aging after 4 hours at 180oC...

  4. Processing of prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, R; Lepistö, T; Makkonen, T; Kujala, T

    2012-12-01

    Speech prosody conveys information about important aspects of communication: the meaning of the sentence and the emotional state or intention of the speaker. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children (mean age 10 years) by recording the electroencephalogram, facial electromyography, and behavioral responses. The stimulus was a semantically neutral Finnish word uttered with four different emotional connotations: neutral, commanding, sad, and scornful. In the behavioral sound-discrimination task the reaction times were fastest for the commanding stimulus and longest for the scornful stimulus, and faster for the neutral than for the sad stimulus. EEG and EMG responses were measured during non-attentive oddball paradigm. Prosodic changes elicited a negative-going, fronto-centrally distributed neural response peaking at about 500 ms from the onset of the stimulus, followed by a fronto-central positive deflection, peaking at about 740 ms. For the commanding stimulus also a rapid negative deflection peaking at about 290 ms from stimulus onset was elicited. No reliable stimulus type specific rapid facial reactions were found. The results show that prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli activate pre-attentive neural change-detection mechanisms in school-age children. However, the results do not support the suggestion of automaticity of emotion specific facial muscle responses to non-attended emotional speech stimuli in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural and artificial aging response of semisolid metal processed Al–Si–Mg alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available aging at 180uC (Table 2). It can be seen from Table 2 that it takes approximately six times longer to reach peak hardness at 160uC compared to at 180uC. The diffusivity of silicon in aluminium is about double that of magnesium in aluminium... in the content of alloying elements. In Al–Mg–Si alloys containing an excess of silicon, the decomposition of the super- saturated solid solution (SSS) is believed to occur as follows7 SSS?(MgzSi)clusters=GP(I)spherical ?b=GP(II)needles?b0rodsz...

  6. Aspects of Degradability and Aging of Natural Rubber Latex Films Obtained by Induced Ionizing Radiation Processes of Latex Vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, D. F.

    2006-01-01

    This study refers to the degradability of NRLF, natural rubber latex films, obtained by ionizing radiation. Three types of NRLF were prepared: irradiated latex, irradiated latex with about 1% of soy lecithin and sulfur-vulcanized latex, by cold vulcanization process. The films were buried in vases of two different kinds of soil: common soil and common soil with earthworm humus. Fast aging tests in laboratory with exposition to ultraviolet rays were done in irradiated latex films and irradiated latex films with soy lecithin. The results obtained after ten months of tests with buried films agree with the results of the fast aging tests, showing singularities of each type of soil and each kind of latex process. It also shows how weather inclemency can induce the films degradation process. The sulfur-vulcanized films were weakly degraded when buried. The films with lecithin and buried in vase with only common soil showed the biggest mass loss, but the films with lecithin buried in vases with common earthworm humus and soil increased their weigh and dimensions due to fungi formation. The irradiated latex films are more degradable then the sulfur-vulcanized films. The irradiated latex film, unlike the sulfur vulcanized film, showed high fungi colonization when buried. We conclude that the irradiated latex films are more easily biodegradable than the sulfur vulcanized latex films. The biodegradability increases with the addition of small amounts of soy lecithin (∼1%). The mechanical resistance of the buried films decreased related to the non-buried ones, proving that the outdoor aging in soil and the presence of fungi in the films can modify the mechanical properties of the irradiated latex owing to the biodegradation

  7. Natural Information Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  8. Symbolic Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte , Eric

    2005-01-01

    The connection between language processing and combinatorics on words is natural. Historically, linguists actually played a part in the beginning of the construction of theoretical combinatorics on words. Some of the terms in current use originate from linguistics: word, prefix, suffix, grammar, syntactic monoid... However, interpenetration between the formal world of computer theory and the intuitive world of linguistics is still a love story with ups and downs. We will encounter in this cha...

  9. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  10. Forever young or ageing naturally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, R.P.J.; Naldini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Age and ageing can be felt as negative occurrences. For monuments however, old age is traditionally considered to be a positive quality. Without a certain age the nomination of monument hardly applies. Ageing can be seen as the work of time, which has always been valued: ageing was sometimes even

  11. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Jamaliah Sharif

    2006-01-01

    Radiation processing of natural polymer has been the subject of interest of countries in this region in the past 5 ∼ 7 years. Although some of the output of the research have been commercialized in particular for the applications in the agriculture and healthcare sectors, the potential applications of radiation processing of natural polymers in the medical sector are yet to be fully understood and developed. (author)

  12. Sustainable Food Processing Inspired by Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Blank, Imre; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Here, we elaborate on the natural origin and use of enzymes and cultures in sustainable food processing. We also illustrate how enzymatically treated or fermented food can contribute to solving challenges involving nutrition and health, such as aging, malnutrition, obesity, and allergy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Handbook of Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Indurkhya, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive, modern reference of practical tools and techniques for implementing natural language processing in computer systems. This title covers classical methods, empirical and statistical techniques, and various applications. It describes how the techniques can be applied to European and Asian languages as well as English

  14. Natural language processing with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java programmer who wants to learn about the fundamental tasks underlying natural language processing, this book is for you. You will be able to identify and use NLP tasks for many common problems, and integrate them in your applications to solve more difficult problems. Readers should be familiar/experienced with Java software development.

  15. Epidemic as a natural process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivu-Jolma, Mikko; Annila, Arto

    2018-05-01

    Mathematical epidemiology is a well-recognized discipline to model infectious diseases. It also provides guidance for public health officials to limit outbreaks. Nevertheless, epidemics take societies by surprise every now and then, for example, when the Ebola virus epidemic raged seemingly unrestrained in Western Africa. We provide insight to this capricious character of nature by describing the epidemic as a natural process, i.e., a phenomenon governed by thermodynamics. Our account, based on statistical mechanics of open systems, clarifies that it is impossible to predict accurately epidemic courses because everything depends on everything else. Nonetheless, the thermodynamic theory yields a comprehensive and analytical view of the epidemic. The tenet subsumes various processes in a scale-free manner from the molecular to the societal levels. The holistic view accentuates overarching procedures in arresting and eradicating epidemics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Natural language processing: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Prakash M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-01-01

    To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field.

  18. Natural resources and control processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mu-Hao; Hung, Yung-Tse; Shammas, Nazih

    2016-01-01

    This edited book has been designed to serve as a natural resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. This volume is part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. It complements two other books in the series including Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering and Integrated Natural Resources Management that serve as a basis for advanced study or specialized investigation of the theory and analysis of various natural resources systems. This book covers the management of many waste sources including those from agricultural livestock, deep-wells, industries manufacturing dyes, and municipal solid waste incinerators. The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for understanding the sources, treatment and control methods of toxic wastes shown to have harmful effects on the environment. Chapters provide information ...

  19. ERPs, semantic processing and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Katayama, J; Koyama, T

    1998-06-01

    ERPs (N400, LPC and CNV) were elicited in two sets of subjects grouped according to age (young vs. elderly) using a word-pair category matching paradigm. Each prime consisted of a Japanese noun (constructed from two to four characters of the Hiragana) followed by one Chinese character (Kanji) as the target, this latter representing one of five semantic categories. There were two equally probable target conditions: match or mismatch. Each target was preceded by a prime, either belonging to, or not belonging to, the same semantic category. The subjects were required to respond with a specified button press to the given target according to the condition. We found RTs to be longer in the elderly subjects and under the mismatch condition. N400 amplitude was reduced in the elderly subjects under the mismatch condition and there was no difference between match and mismatch response, which were similar in amplitude to that under match condition for the young subjects. In addition, the CNV amplitudes were larger in the elderly subjects. These results suggested that functional changes in semantic processing through aging (larger semantic networks and diffuse semantic activation) were the cause of this N400 reduction, attributing a subsidiary role to attentional disturbance. We also discuss the importance of taking age-related changes into consideration in clinical studies.

  20. Natural language processing techniques for automatic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions generation using discourse connectives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Journal of Computer Science and Its Application.

  1. Radiation processing of natural polymer in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Dahlan Hj. Mohd; Jamaliah Sharif

    2007-01-01

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer has been carried out by Nuclear Malaysia since 10 years ago. The progress of the research is at various stages. Radiation processing of sago hydrogel has been commercialized. Meanwhile ago film for packaging is at the pilot scale trial. Palm oil products are ready to be further developed for commercialization with any interested industrial partner. On the other hand, some new materials are being developed based on natural rubber such as liquid natural as compatibilizer, natural rubber thermoplastic nanoclay composites and natural rubber magnetic nano particles composites. (author)

  2. The golden age of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The experts of energy policy agree to predict a brilliant future for natural gas. Among fossil energies, natural gas produces the least quantity of CO 2 . Geological reserves are estimated to 65 years for gas and 43 years for petroleum. Throughout the world, industrial infrastructures of gas production, transport and distribution are being developed, for instance 430000 km of gas pipeline are planned. In western Europe half the increase of gas demand by 2010 will be due to electricity production. Innovative techniques using natural gas are studied in various fields: cogeneration, transport, urban heating and fuel cells. The gas-fed fuel cell is based on a reversed electrolysis: hydrogen produced by the decomposition of natural gas interacts with oxygen and yields electricity. (A.C.)

  3. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...and also English) natural language processing ( NLP ), containing code for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in Stephen Tratz’s

  4. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of brains of naturally aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Liu, T; Li, S; Zhang, X; Ding, Q; Que, H; Yan, X; Wei, K; Liu, S

    2008-06-26

    We used comparative proteomic techniques to identify aging-related brain proteins in normal mice from neonate to old age. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis, 39 proteins were identified, among which 6 stayed unchanged since 3 months, 6 increased and 27 decreased in various manners during aging. They are mainly involved in processes usually with destructive changes during aging, such as metabolism, transport, signaling, stress response and apoptosis. The 27 proteins' decrease may be responsible for brain aging. In particular, decrease of proteasome alpha subunits 3/6, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L3, valosin-containing protein and calreticulin may be responsible for the declination of protein quality control; glutamate dehydrogenase 1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase core protein 2 for the shortage of energy and reducing agent; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 for the increase of DNA damage and transcription detuning; calbindin 1 and amphiphysin for the disturbance of synaptic transport and ion signals. The six proteins' increase may be involved in anti-aging processes. In particular, transketolase, mitochondrial creatine kinase 1 and ribosomal protein L37 may help to enhance energy metabolism; triosephosphate isomerase 1 may help to resist oxidative stress. Moreover, most of these proteins were found for the first time to be involved in the natural senescence of brain, which would provide new clues about the mechanism of brain aging.

  6. Visual processing speed in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; vogel, asmus; Rostrup, Egill

    2013-01-01

    of the speed of a particular psychological process that are not confounded by the speed of other processes. We used Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to obtain specific estimates of processing speed in the visual system controlled for the influence of response latency and individual variations...... dramatic aging effects were found for the perception threshold and the visual apprehension span. In the visual domain, cognitive aging seems to be most clearly related to reductions in processing speed....

  7. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Green, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm 3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Natural versus artificial aging of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This program seeks to understand the aging of polymeric materials, in cables and other components in nuclear reactor containment, by comparing aging processes for a variety of materials under natural conditions with those under the accelerated laboratory conditions used in qualification. The first five-year phase has been completed in what is planned as a long-term study of up to 40 years. Data from the program can be used as a basis of forecasting more realistic lifetimes in reactor service. The program is of critical importance for utilities both for the safe operation of plants and for minimizing the cost of periodic replacements upon expiration of originally predicted qualified life. The first five-year period has involved the selection and acquisition of test specimens, their preparation for placement in the containment, the selection of plants and locations for the specimens, the establishment of methods for monitoring radiation and temperature levels at each site, development of plans for scheduled removals, test method development, and testing of the specimens by physical and mechanical methods. Specimens have been subjected to short-term accelerated aging, as well as to reactor containment aging for up to five years. They consist of many types of polymers in products of several different manufacturers. Environmental conditions cover a wide range of temperature and radiation levels at 17 locations in 9 reactors of participating utilities. Initial results, which include tests of special cases subject to 8 years of reactor aging at Northeast Utilities, indicate several instances of changes having statistical significance in density or tensile properties due to containment service, but none of these changes are large enough to be of any concern. 12 refs., 19 figs., 21 tabs

  9. Aging in comparative perspective: processes and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ian G; Halsall, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    .... This timely volume analyzes the aging process in various countries, with special focus on the stresses placed on their economies as the numbers of elders increase with fewer young people available...

  10. Experimental design of natural and accellerated bone and wood ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facorellis, Y.; Pournou, A.; Richter, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental design for natural and accelerated ageing of bone and wood samples found in museum conditions that was conceived as part of the INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF) investigating the effects of the environmental factors on natural organic materials....

  11. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  12. Potential role of natural compounds against skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, R; Loizzo, M R; Bonesi, M; Menichini, F

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon of human life. Advancing age brings changes to all components of the integumentary system with consequent signs on the skin. Skin aging is mainly due to intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic aging (photo-aging). Photo-aging is a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiations. Despite variable economic conditions, the skin care market based on natural products continues to see strong growth. In this context, the research of naturally occurring anti-aging agents is greatly expanding and in recent years numerous plant-derived products have been investigated. This review article focuses on highlighting recent advances in current knowledge on anti-aging natural products grouped and presented according to their family origin. Plants from 35 families were reviewed. A variety of phytomolecules, derived in particular from polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols classes, demonstrated a promising activity. Among them carnosic acid, curculigoside, curcumin, glycyrrhizic acid, mangiferin, mirkoin, asiaticoside, rosmarinic acid, tectorigenin, tyrosol etc., able to inhibit tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase, to scavenge free radicals from skin cells, to prevent trans-epidermal water loss, and to contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, were largely investigated and herein discussed. Extracts and pure compounds from Fabaceae, Asperaceae and Zingiberaceae families have shown particular interest and appear most promising in the development of anti-aging products.

  13. Mollified birth in natural-age-grid Galerkin methods for age-structured biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayati, Bruce P; Dupont, Todd F

    2009-01-01

    We present natural-age-grid Galerkin methods for a model of a biological population undergoing aging. We use a mollified birth term in the method and analysis. The error due to mollification is of arbitrary order, depending on the choice of mollifier. The methods in this paper generalize the methods presented in [1], where the approximation space in age was taken to be a discontinuous piecewise polynomial subspace of L 2 . We refer to these methods as 'natural-age-grid' Galerkin methods since transport in the age variable is computed through the smooth movement of the age grid at the natural dimensionless velocity of one. The time variable has been left continuous to emphasize this smooth motion, as well as the independence of the time and age discretizations. The methods are shown to be superconvergent in the age variable

  14. HUMAN GLOMERULAR VOLUME QUANTIFICATIONDURING THE AGING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Zdravković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney function is directly related to the changes of renal tissue, especially glomeruli, which is particularly distinct during the aging process. The impossibility of kidney function substitution points to the need for glomerular morphologic and functional characteristics estimation during the aging process.Human cadaveric kidney tissue samples were used as material during research. Age of cadavers ranged from 20 to 70 years and they were classified according to the scheme: I (20–29; II (30–39; III (40–49; IV (50–59; V (60–69 i VI (older than 70. After the routine histologic preparation of the renal tissue the slices were analized stereologicaly under the light microscope with projection screen (Reichert Visopan with 40 x lens magnification. M42 test system was used and 100, by unbased method selected glomeruli, were analyzed.Average glomerular capillary network volume shows significant increase (p< 0,001 as far as to the age of 50 years in regard to the age of 20 to 29 years. This parameter shows insignificant decrease after the age of 50 until the age of 70 years. This decrease was significant after the age of 70 years in regard to the period of the 20 to 29 (p< 0,05 and the period of 40 to 49 years (p<0,01.

  15. The social impact of natural language processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon

    Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... individually identifiable, and the outcome of NLP experiments and applications can have a direct effect on their lives. This change should spawn a debate about the ethical implications of NLP, but until now, the internal discourse in the field has not followed the technological development. This position paper...

  16. SOFC: Processes and characteristics of ageing behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, S.

    2005-01-01

    The high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is convenient for the environmental friendly and efficient conversion of chemical into electric energy. During the last decade the development of planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects has made considerable progress in both size and power density. The improvement of durability in long-term operation of planar SOFC components is one of the main fields for stationary applications. Ageing of stacks can be caused by various processes, e.g. corrosion of metallic plates, degradation of ceramic parts and chemical interactions on electrodes/electrolyte or interconnect/electrode interface. Namely, these processes are object of the overview in the present work. The most important characteristics of ageing behavior are subjected to analysis and discussion, as well. Moreover a correlation between ageing process and single cell performance will be given

  17. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  18. Visual processing speed in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Vogel, Asmus; Rostrup, Egill; Bundesen, Claus; Kyllingsbaek, Søren; Garde, Ellen; Ryberg, Charlotte; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-04-01

    Mental speed is a common concept in theories of cognitive aging, but it is difficult to get measures of the speed of a particular psychological process that are not confounded by the speed of other processes. We used Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to obtain specific estimates of processing speed in the visual system controlled for the influence of response latency and individual variations of the perception threshold. A total of 33 non-demented old people (69-87 years) were tested for the ability to recognize briefly presented letters. Performance was analyzed by the TVA model. Visual processing speed decreased approximately linearly with age and was on average halved from 70 to 85 years. Less dramatic aging effects were found for the perception threshold and the visual apprehension span. In the visual domain, cognitive aging seems to be most clearly related to reductions in processing speed. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Impact of nutrition on the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John C

    2015-01-01

    Human life expectancy has been increasing steadily for almost two centuries and is now approximately double what it was at the beginning of the Victorian era. This remarkable demographic change has been accompanied by a shift in disease prevalence so that age is now the major determinant of most common diseases. The challenge is to enhance healthy ageing and to reduce the financial and social burdens associated with chronic ill health in later life. Studies in model organisms have demonstrated that the ageing phenotype arises because of the accumulation of macromolecular damage within the cell and that the ageing process is plastic. Nutritional interventions that reduce such damage, or which enhance the organism's capacity to repair damage, lead to greater longevity and to reduced risk of age-related diseases. Dietary (energy) restriction increases lifespan in several model organisms, but it is uncertain whether it is effective in primates, including humans. However, excess energy storage leading to increased adiposity is a risk factor for premature mortality and for age-related diseases so that obesity prevention is likely to be a major public health route to healthy ageing. In addition, adherence to healthy eating patterns, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, is associated with longevity and reduced risk of age-related diseases.

  20. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  1. The social impact of natural language processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon

    Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... individually identifiable, and the outcome of NLP experiments and applications can have a direct effect on their lives. This change should spawn a debate about the ethical implications of NLP, but until now, the internal discourse in the field has not followed the technological development. This position paper...... identifies a number of social implications that NLP research may have, and discusses their ethical significance, as well as ways to address them....

  2. Quantum Algorithms for Compositional Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zeng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new application of quantum computing to the field of natural language processing. Ongoing work in this field attempts to incorporate grammatical structure into algorithms that compute meaning. In (Coecke, Sadrzadeh and Clark, 2010, the authors introduce such a model (the CSC model based on tensor product composition. While this algorithm has many advantages, its implementation is hampered by the large classical computational resources that it requires. In this work we show how computational shortcomings of the CSC approach could be resolved using quantum computation (possibly in addition to existing techniques for dimension reduction. We address the value of quantum RAM (Giovannetti,2008 for this model and extend an algorithm from Wiebe, Braun and Lloyd (2012 into a quantum algorithm to categorize sentences in CSC. Our new algorithm demonstrates a quadratic speedup over classical methods under certain conditions.

  3. Age-related perspectives and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchard, Nicholas A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2012-12-01

    Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-related perspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Changes of fatty acids content and vigor of sunflower seed during natural aging

    OpenAIRE

    Balešević-Tubić S.; Tatić M.; Miladinović J.; Pucarević M.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower seed aging during storage affects seed vigor and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigor tests were applied: standard laboratory germination test, cold test and Hiltner test. Five sunflower lines submitted to natural aging process for six and 12 months were tested under conventional storage and controlled conditions. The obtained results revealed that seed aging damaged the seed, which adversely affected seed vigor; most reliable r...

  5. Why and How We Age, and Is That Process Modifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arking, R.

    Aging is an almost-universal biological process that is better understood in terms of an evolutionary explanation than in terms of a medical or adaptationist explanation. The major advances in human longevity which took place in developed countries during the past century arose from decreases in external (e.g., environmental) sources of mortality, and not from any effect on the aging process. Laboratory studies show that the aging process is under genetic control, can be manipulated, and can be expressed in three different phenotypes. The adult lifespan consists of the health span (ages 20-55 yrs) and the senescent span (ages 55+), with a relatively short but variable transition phase between the two. The most socially desirable phenotype would be that where the transition phase is delayed and the health span extended with little effect on the senescent span. The genetic, nutritional, cell-signaling and pharmecutical interventions inducing this phenotype are discussed. The genetic architecture of senescence is discussed and its stochastic nature made clear. The social and ethical consequences of pharmecutical intervention into the aging process are briefly discussed.

  6. Cosmic secrets fundamental processes of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    We see objects in front of us, and experience a real material effect when we approach and touch them. Thus, we conclude that all objects are embedded in space and exist objectively. However, such experiences in everyday life cannot be transferred to the atomic level: within standard quantum theory, the material world is still embedded in space, but it no longer has an objective existence. How can objects be embedded in space without existing objectively? This book addresses this and similar issues in an illustrative and non-conventional way. Using up-to-date information, the following basic questions are contemplated: what is a particle, a quantum object; what can we say about the nature of time; how is reality, in particular the cosmos, formed; and, what is the influence of evolution on the discovery of new developments in this field. Like the philosophers Whitehead and Bergson, the primacy of process is advocated: we experience objects - both quantum objects and those we experience in everyday life - at cer...

  7. Sensitization of Naturally Aged Aluminum 5083 Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    5 - 1 - SENSITIZATION OF NATURALLY AGED ALUMINUM 5083 ARMOR PLATE INTRODUCTION Aluminum -magnesium alloys are important for both ship...boundaries [3,4]. The magnesium-rich phase (normally β-Al3Mg2) is highly anodic with respect to the surrounding aluminum phase, thus is susceptible... alloys , and with varying amounts of debris scattered about the surface consistent with corrosion product, Figure 2b, that often forms over time within

  8. The effect of proteins on the aging properties of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins on the aging properties of NRL films was investigated. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the rubber proteins in NRL (Sri-Lanka) indicated a total of 18 proteins. A sharp decrease in tensile strength was observed after aging when NRL films were leached in 1% NH 4 OH. However, when these films were soaked in ethanol prior to leaching, the aging properties approximated those of the unleashed samples. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteins present in the NH 3 extracts of leached RVNRL films showed a high concentration of the protein herein. This protein was not found in the NH 3 extracts of ethanol soaked films. NRL proteins were shown to decelerate the aging process of Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) films. Among the proteins, herein exhibited good anti-aging properties. The hydrolyzates from NR proteins also enhanced considerably the aging properties of RVNRL. (auth.). 8 refs.; 40 figs.; 30 tabs

  9. Successful aging - the nurse - aged person interaction process in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Soares Rodrigues de Sousa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aging population and the natural increase of nursing care within gerontology, there is increasing interest in how the nurse interacts with the aged person and utilizes their role to protect and promote successful aging behaviors. The goal lies in understanding the nurse−aged person interaction process. This is a naturalistic study of qualitative paradigm and inductive reasoning, developed in the context of primary health care. We observed the interaction process between nurse and older person in various Health Centers and Day/Socializing Centers and supplemented the information with an interview. The grounded theory analysis method of Corbin & Strauss was used, which provides the triangulation of data and uses theoretical sampling. The nurse−aged person interaction is established in a joint process of recreation of the gerontologic care predisposing, fostering and strengthening knowledge about the essence of life. The elderly person who is the object of nurse care, builds their lived experience by aiming towards integrity, establishing individual and social interaction and enhancing experiences. From this whole interaction process, a central concept emerges: clarification of the aged person’s lived experience.

  10. Study of the aging processes in polyurethane adhesives using thermal treatment and differential calorimetric, dielectric, and mechanical techniques ; 1, identifying the aging processes ; 2, quantifying the aging effect

    CERN Document Server

    Althouse, L P

    1979-01-01

    Study of the aging processes in polyurethane adhesives using thermal treatment and differential calorimetric, dielectric, and mechanical techniques ; 1, identifying the aging processes ; 2, quantifying the aging effect

  11. Natural processes as means to create local connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    and practical knowledge about how to apply natural processes to planning. This paper investigates how natural process thinking caters for a connection to the local and the site-specific in a Chinese context of transformation. Natural process thinking as a site-based urban design approach is understood...... and utilized conceptually within the Wuhan project by mapping-techniques and environmental simulation software. The result gives implications concerning method development for architects as how to develop design concepts based on natural process thinking. Furthermore, the result shows that natural processes...

  12. The Natural Aging Effect on Hardenability in Al-Mg-Si: A Complex Interaction between Composition and Heat Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Poznak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological relevance of Al-Mg-Si alloys has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Of particular interest to current and future applications is the problematic negative effect of prior natural aging on subsequent artificial age hardening. The influence of natural aging is dependent on both processing and compositional variables and has origins that are far from well-understood. This work examines the hardenability of 6000 series alloys under a wide range of conditions, paying particular attention to the natural aging effect. Experimental variables include alloy composition (Mg + Si, Mg/Si, cooling rate after solutionization, and duration of prior natural aging. Hardenability was evaluated with full hardness and conductivity aging curves for each condition, as well as select Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Results are discussed based on the actions of naturally aged solute clusters during artificial aging. In particular, a complex interaction between vacancy concentration, cluster stability, and precipitation driving force is suggested.

  13. Semantic structures advances in natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Waltz, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural language understanding is central to the goals of artificial intelligence. Any truly intelligent machine must be capable of carrying on a conversation: dialogue, particularly clarification dialogue, is essential if we are to avoid disasters caused by the misunderstanding of the intelligent interactive systems of the future. This book is an interim report on the grand enterprise of devising a machine that can use natural language as fluently as a human. What has really been achieved since this goal was first formulated in Turing's famous test? What obstacles still need to be overcome?

  14. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  15. Review of radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, natural polymers are being investigated with renewed interest because of their abundant quantity and unique characteristics such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and renewable. It is also known as green polymer. Natural polymers such as carrageen, alginate, chitin/chitosan and starch are traditionally used in food-based industry. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-driven areas such as healthcare, agro-technology and industry. Radiation degraded alginates, carrangeenan and chitosan as plant growth promoter and protector have been developed. Radiation degraded chitosan, carraneenan and starch have also been used together with synthetic polymers for hydrogel production to be used for wound dressing, skin moisturization and for biodegradable packaging films and foams. Radiation crosslinking of natural polymer derivatives such as carboxymethyl chitosan, carboxymethyl starch have been successfully developed in Japan and used for various applications such as removal of pollutants, removal of waters from liverstock excrete as well as for bedsores protection mat. (author)

  16. Ultraviolet light - nature's own disinfection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkeberg, T [Thorolf Gregersen a/s, Oslo (Norway)

    1978-05-18

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the means by which natural pollution products, as well as much of the smaller amount of pollution products produced by man, are converted and returned to the cycle of nature. Artificial ultraviolet radiation offers an optimum method for the disinfection of drinking water and can be used in the long term without undesireable effects on man or the enviromment. There is no evidence that ultraviolet irradiation leads to radiation resistant mutations of bacteria. The geometrical arrangement of ultraviolet disinfection units is described and the capacities of typical units is mentioned as being 600-800 m/sup 3/ /hr, though there is no reason why this should not be increased.

  17. Ultraviolet light - nature's own disinfection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkeberg, T.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the means by which natural pollution products, as well as much of the smaller amount of pollution products produced by man, are converted and returned to the cycle of nature. Artificial ultraviolet radiation offers an optimum method for the disinfection of drinking water and can be used in the long term without undesireable effects on man or the enviromment. There is no evidence that ultraviolet irradiation leads to radiation resistant mutations of bacteria. The geometrical arrangement of ultraviolet disinfection units is described and the capacities of typical units is mentioned as being 600-800 m 3 /hr, though there is no reason why this should not be increased. (JIW)

  18. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As10Se90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitska, V.; Golovchak, R.; Kozdras, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As 10 Se 90 reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network

  19. The natural aging of austenitic stainless steels irradiated with fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofman, O. V.; Maksimkin, O. P.; Tsay, K. V.; Koyanbayev, Ye. T.; Short, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Much of today's research in nuclear materials relies heavily on archived, historical specimens, as neutron irradiation facilities become ever more scarce. These materials are subject to many processes of stress- and irradiation-induced microstructural evolution, including those during and after irradiation. The latter of these, referring to specimens "naturally aged" in ambient laboratory conditions, receives far less attention. The long and slow set of rare defect migration and interaction events during natural aging can significantly change material properties over decadal timescales. This paper presents the results of natural aging carried out over 15 years on austenitic stainless steels from a BN-350 fast breeder reactor, each with its own irradiation, stress state, and natural aging history. Natural aging is shown to significantly reduce hardness in these steels by 10-25% and partially alleviate stress-induced hardening over this timescale, showing that materials evolve back towards equilibrium even at such a low temperature. The results in this study have significant implications to any nuclear materials research program which uses historical specimens from previous irradiations, challenging the commonly held assumption that materials "on the shelf" do not evolve.

  20. Effects of antioxidant supplementation on the aging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Fusco

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Fusco1, Giuseppe Colloca1, Maria Rita Lo Monaco1, Matteo Cesari1,21Department of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Physiatry; Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FLAbstract: The free radical theory of aging hypothesizes that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for the age-related damage at the cellular and tissue levels. In a normal situation, a balanced-equilibrium exists among oxidants, antioxidants and biomolecules. Excess generation of free radicals may overwhelm natural cellular antioxidant defences leading to oxidation and further contributing to cellular functional impairment. The identification of free radical reactions as promoters of the aging process implies that interventions aimed at limiting or inhibiting them should be able to reduce the rate of formation of aging changes with a consequent reduction of the aging rate and disease pathogenesis. Even if antioxidant supplementation is receiving growing attention and is increasingly adopted in Western countries, supporting evidence is still scarce and equivocal. Major limitations in literature are still needed to be addressed to better evaluate the potential benefits from antioxidant supplementation: 1 an improved understanding of oxidation mechanisms possibly at the basis of the aging process, 2 the determination of reliable markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status, 3 the identification of a therapeutic window in which an eventual antioxidant supplementation may be beneficial, 4 a deeper knowledge of the antioxidant molecules which in several conditions act as pro-oxidants. In the present paper, after a preliminary introduction to the free radical theory of aging and the rationale of antioxidant supplementation as an anti-aging intervention, we will present an overview of evidence relating antioxidant supplementations with

  1. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    .... Initiated in 2004 at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the SACOT knowledge engineering research project is currently investigating, developing and validating innovative natural language processing (NLP...

  2. Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, C.R.; Duffy, E.; Hosken, D.J.; Mokkonen, M.; Okada, K.; Oku, K.; Sharma, M.D.; Hunt, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely

  3. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals from corn cob with dispersion agent polyvinyl pyrrolidone in natural rubber latex film after aging treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, H.; Ridha, M.; Halimatuddahliana; Taslim; Iriany

    2018-02-01

    This study about the resistance of natural rubber latex films using nanocrystals cellulose filler from corn cob waste by aging treatment. Corn cob used as organic filler composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Each component has a potential for reuse, such as cellulose. Cellulose from corn cob has potential application as a filler prepared by hydrolysis process using a strong acid. The producing of natural rubber latex films through coagulant dowsing process. This research started with the pre-vulcanization process of natural rubber latex at 70 °C and followed by process of vulcanization at 110 °C for 20 minutes. Natural rubber latex films that have been produced continued with the aging treatment at 70 °C for 168 hours. The mechanical properties of natural rubber latex films after aging treatment are the tensile strength, elongation at break, M100 and M300 have performed.

  4. Using Card Games to Simulate the Process of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilliot, Matthew E.; Harden, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    In 1858, Darwin published "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." His explanation of evolution by natural selection has become the unifying theme of biology. We have found that many students do not fully comprehend the process of evolution by natural selection. We discuss a few simple games that incorporate hands-on…

  5. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  6. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of “cooling down” liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  7. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the...

  8. Molecular basis of retinol anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y; He, T; Fisher, G J; Voorhees, J J; Quan, T

    2017-02-01

    Retinoic acid has been shown to improve the aged-appearing skin. However, less is known about the anti-ageing effects of retinol (ROL, vitamin A), a precursor of retinoic acid, in aged human skin in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of ROL anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. Sun-protected buttock skin (76 ± 6 years old, n = 12) was topically treated with 0.4% ROL and its vehicle for 7 days. The effects of topical ROL on skin epidermis and dermis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, Northern analysis, real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis. Collagen fibrils nanoscale structure and surface topology were analysed by atomic force microscopy. Topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through three major types of skin cells: epidermal keratinocytes, dermal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Topical ROL significantly increased epidermal thickness by stimulating keratinocytes proliferation and upregulation of c-Jun transcription factor. In addition to epidermal changes, topical ROL significantly improved dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment; increasing dermal vascularity by stimulating endothelial cells proliferation and ECM production (type I collagen, fibronectin and elastin) by activating dermal fibroblasts. Topical ROL also stimulates TGF-β/CTGF pathway, the major regulator of ECM homeostasis, and thus enriched the deposition of ECM in aged human skin in vivo. 0.4% topical ROL achieved similar results as seen with topical retinoic acid, the biologically active form of ROL, without causing noticeable signs of retinoid side effects. 0.4% topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through improvement of the homeostasis of epidermis and dermis by stimulating the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and activating dermal fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that 0.4% topical ROL is a promising and safe treatment to improve the naturally aged human skin

  9. Natural and professional help: a process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, T J; Toro, P A

    1989-08-01

    Differences in the helping interactions formed by mental health professionals, divorce lawyers, and mutual help group leaders were examined. Fourteen members of each of these three helper groups (N = 42) met independently with a coached client presenting marital difficulties. Using ratings of ability to ameliorate the personal and emotional problems presented, the 42 helpers were divided (using a median split) into successful and less successful outcome groups. The responses of each of the pairs were coded using the Hill Counselor Verbal Response Category System. The sequence of client-helper responses were examined using log-linear analysis as they varied by type of helper and outcome. Results indicated that successful helpers (regardless of type of helper) tended to use directives (e.g., guidance and approval-reassurance) differently from less successful helpers. Successful helpers used directives following client emotional expression and not following factual description. In addition, clear differences in helper responses by helper type and outcome were found. Each helper type had unique patterns of responses that differentiated successful from less successful outcomes. Client responses were found to vary across helper type even when given the same helper preceding response. Results are discussed with respect to the unique goals of each helping relationship and the different shaping process involved in each.

  10. Telling a (good?) counterstory of aging: natural bodybuilding meets the narrative of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Cassandra; Smith, Brett

    2011-09-01

    In Western society, the narrative of decline dominates the aging process. We know very little about the complexities of how people resist this narrative. The purpose of this article is to understand how a group of mature natural bodybuilders resisted the narrative of decline. In-depth life story interviews were conducted with 13 natural bodybuilders aged between 50 and 73 years. Verbatim transcripts were produced and the data analyzed using a structural narrative analysis. A dialogical analysis was also utilized. The participants' experiences did not fit with stereotypical assumptions about decline and deterioration in older age. They all told counterstories to "natural" aging, yet what differed was how the participants' counterstories resisted the narrative of decline and the level of resistance that they provided. We advance knowledge in the fields of aging and narrative inquiry by revealing the multidimensionality of resistance. We demonstrated how participants storied resistance in different ways and the important implications this had for the way aging was understood and acted upon-by themselves and potentially by others. In addition to advancing theoretical knowledge, in this article, we also significantly contribute to understandings of the potential of narrative for changing human lives and behavior across the life course in more positive and nuanced ways.

  11. Archaeologic analogues: Microstructural changes by natural ageing in carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Esther Bravo; Fernandez, Jorge Chamon; Arasanz, Javier Guzman; Peces, Raquel Arevalo; Criado, Antonio Javier; Dietz, Christian; Martinez, Juan Antonio; Criado Portal, Antonio Jose

    2006-01-01

    When discussing the container material for highly active radionuclear waste, carbon steel is one of the materials most frequently proposed by the international scientific community. Evidently, security with respect to the container behaviour into deep geological deposits is fundamental. Among other parameters, knowledge about material mechanical properties is essential when designing the container. Time ageing of carbon steel, apart from possible alterations of the chemical composition (e.g. corrosion) involves important microstructural changes, at the scale of centuries and millenniums. The latter may cause variations of the mechanical properties of carbon steel storage containers, with the corresponding risk of possible leakage. In order to properly estimate such risk and to adjust the corresponding mathematical models to reality, the microstructural changes observed in this study on archaeologic samples are evaluated, comparing ancient and modern steels of similar chemical composition and fabrication processes

  12. Effect of natural ageing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–10Gd–2Y–0.8Zr Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.; Duan, H.B.; Wang, Z.H.; Guo, Y.C.; Gao, P.H.; Li, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of natural aging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–10 wt%Gd–2 wt%Y–0.5 wt%Zn–0.5 wt%Zr alloy (GW102) was investigated via optical microscopy (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that the natural placement had a significant effect on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and subsequent artificial aging behaviors of the extruded GW102 alloy. The α(Mg) isometric crystal of the as-extruded alloy was composed entirely of deformation structures, formed by several types of cross-slip. However, the deformation structure within α(Mg) was significantly reduced by performing a 3-year natural aging treatment after extrusion. Many strain-free zones were observed near the grain boundary. Moreover, the β″ phase precipitated within the α(Mg) crystalline grains. The alloy was subjected to a 3-year natural aging treatment, followed by artificial aging at 200 °C; the resulting hardness and tensile strength were relatively high during the early stage, but decreased significantly at peak aging and the time required to reach peak aging was shortened. In addition, an aging peak platform (44–132 h) was observed. Moreover, the formation of β″ and the reduction of the deformation zone at natural aging process promoted the subsequent artificial aging process.

  13. Effect of natural ageing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–10Gd–2Y–0.8Zr Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z., E-mail: yz750925@163.com; Duan, H.B.; Wang, Z.H.; Guo, Y.C.; Gao, P.H.; Li, J.P., E-mail: jp_li0416@163.com

    2015-11-11

    The effect of natural aging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–10 wt%Gd–2 wt%Y–0.5 wt%Zn–0.5 wt%Zr alloy (GW102) was investigated via optical microscopy (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that the natural placement had a significant effect on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and subsequent artificial aging behaviors of the extruded GW102 alloy. The α(Mg) isometric crystal of the as-extruded alloy was composed entirely of deformation structures, formed by several types of cross-slip. However, the deformation structure within α(Mg) was significantly reduced by performing a 3-year natural aging treatment after extrusion. Many strain-free zones were observed near the grain boundary. Moreover, the β″ phase precipitated within the α(Mg) crystalline grains. The alloy was subjected to a 3-year natural aging treatment, followed by artificial aging at 200 °C; the resulting hardness and tensile strength were relatively high during the early stage, but decreased significantly at peak aging and the time required to reach peak aging was shortened. In addition, an aging peak platform (44–132 h) was observed. Moreover, the formation of β″ and the reduction of the deformation zone at natural aging process promoted the subsequent artificial aging process.

  14. Sexual Patterns in the Process of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinazzola, Angelo J.

    1975-01-01

    The key to successful aging is successful living, and an important part of the strategy for successful living, in the later years, is the maintenance of an active sex life, concordant with the desires and abilities of the individuals who are involved. (RC)

  15. Modeling Creep Processes in Aging Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olali, N. V.; Voitovich, L. V.; Zazimko, N. N.; Malezhik, M. P.

    2016-03-01

    The photoelastic method is generalized to creep in hereditary aging materials. Optical-creep curves and mechanical-creep or optical-relaxation curves are used to interpret fringe patterns. For materials with constant Poisson's ratio, it is sufficient to use mechanical- or optical-creep curves for this purpose

  16. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    Natural products are defined as secondary metabolites produced by plants and form a vast pool of compounds with unlimited chemical and functional diversity. Many of these secondary metabolites are high value added chemicals that are frequently used as ingredients in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals...... and other consumer products. Therefore, process technology towards industrial scale production of such high value chemicals from plants has significant value. Natural products can be obtained in pure form via synthetic or semi-synthetic route, but due to their complicated nature these methods have not been...... developed to the extent of industrial production for majority of natural products. Thus, isolation and purification of such natural products from plants is the most viable way to obtain natural products in pure form. This PhD project is mainly concerned with the design of separation process to isolate...

  17. An Overview of Computer-Based Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…

  18. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  19. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    processes and capacity for developing, implementing and enforcing local policies and byelaws to improve the adoption ... and integrated agricultural research for development ..... agriculture and natural resource management (soil and water.

  20. UNLization of Punjabi text for natural language processing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaibhav Agarwal

    2018-05-26

    May 26, 2018 ... resent, and store information in a natural-language-inde- pendent format [8]. UNL is .... account semantic information available in words of the problem ...... Sentiment Analysis (SA) plays a vital role in decision making process.

  1. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  2. The Islamic State Battle Plan: Press Release Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Institute for the Study of Violent Groups NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NLP Natural Language Processing PCorpus Permanent Corpus PDF...approaches, we apply Natural Language Processing ( NLP ) tools to a unique database of text documents collected by Whiteside (2014). His collection...from Arabic to English. Compared to other terrorism databases, Whiteside’s collection methodology limits the scope of the database and avoids coding

  3. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, V. [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv State University of Vital Activity Safety, 35, Kleparivska Str., Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Golovchak, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Kozdras, A. [Faculty of Physics of Opole Technical University, 75, Ozimska Str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland)

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90} reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network.

  4. Energy efficient processing of natural resources; Energieeffiziente Verarbeitung natuerlicher Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlken, Alexandra [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Projekt FU2; Hans, Carl [Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Abt. Intelligente Informations- und Kommunikationsumgebungen fuer die kooperative Produktion im Forschungsbereich Informations- und Kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Inst. fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung; Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Forschungsbereich Informations- und kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Austing, Bernhard [Fa. Austing, Damme (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Energy efficiency is gaining high importance in production processes. High energy consumption is directly related to high costs. The processing of natural resources is resulting in additional energy input because of defined output quality demands. This paper discussed approaches and IT-solutions for the automatically adjustment of production processes to cope with varying input qualities. The intention is to achieve the lowest energy input into the process without quality restraints.

  5. Floating natural gas processing plants. Technical ideal or feasible technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H

    1977-04-01

    Realizability of floating natural gas processing plants is decisively influenced by the economy of the system. Illustrated by the example of the natural gas product LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), a model cost calculation is carried out. It is demonstrated that the increase in the price level during the 1973/1974 energy crisis is an important factor for the realiability in terms of economy of such complicated technical systems. Another aspect which the model calculation revealed is that the economy of floating natural gas processing plants and storage systems can only be estimated in connection with other system components.

  6. Natural language processing using online analytic processing for assessing recommendations in radiology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pragya A; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Blake, Michael A; Schultz, Thomas J; Stout, Markus; Lemay, Paul R; Freshman, David J; Halpern, Elkan F; Dreyer, Keith J

    2008-03-01

    The study purpose was to describe the use of natural language processing (NLP) and online analytic processing (OLAP) for assessing patterns in recommendations in unstructured radiology reports on the basis of patient and imaging characteristics, such as age, gender, referring physicians, radiology subspecialty, modality, indications, diseases, and patient status (inpatient vs outpatient). A database of 4,279,179 radiology reports from a single tertiary health care center during a 10-year period (1995-2004) was created. The database includes reports of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, radiography, mammography, angiography, special procedures, and unclassified imaging tests with patient demographics. A clinical data mining and analysis NLP program (Leximer, Nuance Inc, Burlington, Massachusetts) in conjunction with OLAP was used for classifying reports into those with recommendations (I(REC)) and without recommendations (N(REC)) for imaging and determining I(REC) rates for different patient age groups, gender, imaging modalities, indications, diseases, subspecialties, and referring physicians. In addition, temporal trends for I(REC) were also determined. There was a significant difference in the I(REC) rates in different age groups, varying between 4.8% (10-19 years) and 9.5% (>70 years) (P OLAP revealed considerable differences between recommendation trends for different imaging modalities and other patient and imaging characteristics.

  7. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing...

  8. How to analyse age effects in electrophysiological signatures of second language grammar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Sanne; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone; Brouwer, Susanne; Schmid, Monika

    2017-01-01

    There is a debate on the nature of the relationship between age of acquisition (AoA) and grammatical processing in second language (L2) learners (Birdsong, 2005). On the one hand, it has been argued that the ability to learn the grammar of an L2 decreases continuously with age due to general

  9. Current Status of Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramnani, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation processing is being used on commercial basis in India since 1974 with the operation of ISOMED plant for radiation sterilization of medical products and Electron beam machine (ILU-6) in 1986. Since then many new products and processes have been investigated and some of them have culminated into useful applications. Many Indian industries produce and process natural polymers for local consumption and export. India exports about 120,000 tons of polysaccharides every year. Natural polysaccharides like guar gum, gum acacia, gum tora, agar, psylium husk etc are treated with gamma radiation mainly for controlling microbial contamination and sterilization. Radiation processing has also been used to reduce molecular weight of the polysaccharides in some applications. Recently, a few new applications have emerged where natural polysaccharides are used as additives and which play important role in controlling basic radiation chemistry reactions to produce useful products. Developed at BARC, radiation processed wound dressings, superabsorbent materials and low molecular weight chitosan are the products which have been used and could find potential applications in health care and agriculture sector. Radiation processed hydrogel wound dressings containing natural polysaccharides have already been commercialized. Some of the applications recently developed at BARC using natural polymers are briefly described below

  10. Evaluation of aging and hydration in natural volcanic glass: magnetic property variations during artificial aging and hydration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J. A.; Patiman, A.

    2017-12-01

    The recorded geomagnetic field intensity is a function of magnetic mineralogy, grain size, and mineral concentration as well as material stability in nature and during laboratory experiments. Fresh, unhydrated, volcanic glasses are recognized as a nearly ideal natural material for use in paleointensity experiments because they contain the requisite single domain to pseudo-single-domain magnetic particles. Although alteration of magnetic mineralogy can be monitored during the experiments, it is unclear how mineralogy and hence magnetization might change with age as the metastable glass structure relaxes and/or the glass becomes hydrated. Bulk magnetic properties as a function of age show no clear trend, even over hundreds of millions of years. This may be due to the fact that even in fresh, unhydrated glass, there are small-scale differences in magnetic properties due to variation cooling rate or composition variations. Therefore, in order to better understand how magnetic mineralogy evolves with time and hydration, we conducted artificial aging and hydration experiments on fresh, unhydrated rhyolitic (South Deadman Creek, California, 650-yr) and basaltic (Axial Seamount, 2011) end-member glasses. Here, we present the results of artificial aging and hydration experiments. Elevated temperatures accelerate the glass relaxation process in a way that relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature. Aged samples are dry-annealed at 200, 300 and 400 °C for up to 240 days. A second set of samples are hydrated under pressure at 300°C and 450°C. In all cases, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition is monitored to assess changes in the coercivity spectrum and saturation IRM. Preliminary aging results show that in basaltic and rhyolitic glass there is one main peak coercivity at 150 mT and 35 mT, respectively. An increasing sIRM and decreasing peak coercivity trend is observed in basaltic glass whereas no trend is shown in the rhyolitic glass in both

  11. Use of Natural Zeolite to Upgrade Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanife Büyükgüngör

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve better efficiency of phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process by upgrading the system with different amounts of natural zeolite addition. The system performance for synthetic wastewater containing different carbon sources applied at different initial concentrations of phosphorus, as well as for municipal wastewater, was investigated. Natural zeolite addition in the aerobic phase of the anaerobic/aerobic bioaugmented activated sludge system contributed to a significant improvement of phosphorus removal in systems with synthetic wastewater and fresh municipal wastewater. Improvement of phosphorus removal with regard to the control reactors was higher with the addition of 15 than with 5 g/L of natural zeolite. In reactors with natural zeolite addition with regard to the control reactors significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand, ammonium and nitrate, while higher increment and better-activated sludge settling were achieved, without changes in the pH-values of the medium. It was shown that the natural zeolite particles are suitable support material for the phosphate-accumulating bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (DSM 1532, which were adsorbed on the particle surface, resulting in increased biological activity of the system. The process of phosphorus removal in a system with bioaugmented activated sludge and natural zeolite addition consisted of: metabolic activity of activated sludge, phosphorus uptake by phosphate-accumulating bacteria adsorbed on the natural zeolite particles and suspended in solution, and phosphorus adsorption on the natural zeolite particles.

  12. THE AGING SOCIETY, NATURAL RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. is undergoing a dramatic demographic transformation toward older adults, spearheaded by the aging Baby Boomers, but projected to last beyond the Boomer generation. In August 2004, EPA held a workshop on (1) the change in aging demographics over time, (2) key issues (i.e...

  13. Effects of quench rate and natural ageing on the age hardening behaviour of aluminium alloy AA6060

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, Katharina; Lay, Matthew D.H.; Easton, Mark A.; Sweet, Lisa; Zhu, Suming; Parson, Nick C.; Hill, Anita J.

    2016-01-01

    Quench sensitivity in Al–Mg–Si alloys has been largely attributed to the solute loss at the heterogeneous nucleation sites, primarily dispersoids, during slow cooling after extrusion. As such, the number density of dispersoids, the solute type and concentration are considered to be the key variables for the quench sensitivity. In this study, quench sensitivity and the influence of natural ageing in a lean Al–Mg–Si alloy, AA6060, which contains few dispersoids, have been investigated by hardness measurement, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is shown that the quench sensitivity in this alloy is associated with the degree of supersaturation of vacancies after cooling. Due to vacancy annihilation and clustering during natural ageing, the quench sensitivity is more pronounced after a short natural ageing time (30 min) compared to a longer natural ageing time (24 h). Therefore, prolonged natural ageing not only leads to an increase in hardness, but can also have a positive effect on the quench sensitivity of lean Al–Mg–Si alloys. - Highlights: • Significant quench sensitivity observed in AA6060 alloy after 30 min natural ageing • Prolonged natural ageing increased hardness and reduced QS. • Low dispersoid density leads to insignificant QS from non-hardening precipitates. • Vacancy supersaturation identified as a contributor to QS.

  14. Effects of quench rate and natural ageing on the age hardening behaviour of aluminium alloy AA6060

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.strobel@aol.com [CAST Co-operative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lay, Matthew D.H., E-mail: mlay@fbrice.com [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Easton, Mark A., E-mail: mark.easton@rmit.edu.au [CAST Co-operative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sweet, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.sweet@monash.edu [CAST Co-operative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Zhu, Suming, E-mail: suming.zhu@rmit.edu.au [CAST Co-operative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Parson, Nick C., E-mail: nick.parson@riotinto.com [Rio Tinto Alcan, Arvida Research and Development Centre, 1955, Mellon Blvd, Jonquière, Québec G7S 4K8 (Canada); Hill, Anita J., E-mail: anita.hill@csiro.au [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Quench sensitivity in Al–Mg–Si alloys has been largely attributed to the solute loss at the heterogeneous nucleation sites, primarily dispersoids, during slow cooling after extrusion. As such, the number density of dispersoids, the solute type and concentration are considered to be the key variables for the quench sensitivity. In this study, quench sensitivity and the influence of natural ageing in a lean Al–Mg–Si alloy, AA6060, which contains few dispersoids, have been investigated by hardness measurement, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is shown that the quench sensitivity in this alloy is associated with the degree of supersaturation of vacancies after cooling. Due to vacancy annihilation and clustering during natural ageing, the quench sensitivity is more pronounced after a short natural ageing time (30 min) compared to a longer natural ageing time (24 h). Therefore, prolonged natural ageing not only leads to an increase in hardness, but can also have a positive effect on the quench sensitivity of lean Al–Mg–Si alloys. - Highlights: • Significant quench sensitivity observed in AA6060 alloy after 30 min natural ageing • Prolonged natural ageing increased hardness and reduced QS. • Low dispersoid density leads to insignificant QS from non-hardening precipitates. • Vacancy supersaturation identified as a contributor to QS.

  15. Finite-State Methodology in Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korzycki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent mathematical and algorithmic results in the field of finite-state technology, as well the increase in computing power, have constructed the base for a new approach in natural language processing. However the task of creating an appropriate model that would describe the phenomena of the natural language is still to be achieved. ln this paper I'm presenting some notions related to the finite-state modelling of syntax and morphology.

  16. Benchmarking of Processes for the Biosynthesis of Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seita, Catarina Sanches

    putida GS1. (R)-perillic acid is a monoterpenoic acid with antimicrobial properties. It has a strong inhibitory effect on bacteria and fungus, which makes it an attractive compound to be used as a preservative for instance in cosmetic industry, but on the other hand makes the biosynthesis a complicated....... These biological activities can be of interest for use in different sectors of chemical industry, in particular pharmaceutical industry where several drugs are derived or inspired by natural products structure. However, the large scale production of natural products is hindered by its relatively poor abundance...... of the process in comparison with other sweeteners. The main benefit of this early-stage evaluation is putting the biosynthesis of natural products into context in relation to demands of an industrially feasible chemical process. Moreover, it can give very meaningful insight into process development and provides...

  17. The impact of natural aging on computational and neural indices of perceptual decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dully, Jessica; McGovern, David P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2018-02-10

    It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this work which is beginning to offer new insights into the core psychological processes that mediate age-related cognitive decline in adults aged 65 years and over. Mathematical modelling studies have consistently reported that older adults display longer non-decisional processing times and implement more conservative decision policies than their younger counterparts. However, there are limits on what we can learn from behavioural modeling alone and neurophysiological analyses can play an essential role in empirically validating model predictions and in pinpointing the precise neural mechanisms that are impacted by aging. Although few studies to date have explicitly examined correspondences between computational models and neural data with respect to cognitive aging, neurophysiological studies have already highlighted age-related changes at multiple levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy that are likely to be consequential for decision making behaviour. Here, we provide an overview of this literature and suggest some future directions for the field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-01-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment'. This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  19. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-03-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on "Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment". This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  20. Evolution of the ageing process, quality of life and physical fitness in western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro Jesús; Chiva, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    It is predicted that life expectancy will raise sharply in future stages, especially in western countries. In fact, life expectancy of developed countries is currently over the age of 70. Aging implies a series of physical, psychological, cognitive and social changes that condition one's self-concept, creating adaptive strategies and the knowledge to maintain one's well-being in spite of the changes. Albeit aging is a natural and inevitable process, the benefits of physical fitnes...

  1. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  2. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  3. Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Johansson, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill. We sought to clarify whether research supports the claim of increased risk in specific age-groups. First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications. We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.

  4. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2013-01-01

    ) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery......A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract...... in individual unit operations of maceration, flash column chromatography, and crystallization are 90.0%, 87.1, and 47.6%, respectively. Results showed that the crystallization step is dominant to the overall yield of the process which was 37.3%....

  5. Natural Origin Lycopene and Its "Green" Downstream Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is an abundant natural carotenoid pigment with several biological functions (well-known for its antioxidant properties) which is under intensive investigation in recent years. Lycopene chemistry, its natural distribution, bioavailability, biological significance, and toxicological effects are briefly outlined in the first part of this review. The second, major part, deals with various modern downstream processing techniques, which are assessed in order to identify promising approaches for the recovery of lycopene and of similar lipophilic compounds. Natural lycopene is synthesized in plants and by microorganisms, with main representatives of these two categories (for industrial production) tomato and its by-products and the fungus Blakeslea trispora, respectively. Currently, there is a great deal of effort to develop efficient downstream processing for large scale production of natural-origin lycopene, with trends strongly indicating the necessity for "green" and mild extraction conditions. In this review, emphasis is placed on final product safety and ecofriendly processing, which are expected to totally dominate in the field of natural-origin lycopene extraction and purification.

  6. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  7. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  8. Natural language processing and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of natural language processing tools to handle web-scale data, have recently arrived at models that remarkably match the expected features of human language processing under the Now-or-Never bottleneck framework. This provides additional support for said framework and highlights the research potential in the interaction between applied computational linguistics and cognitive science.

  9. Molecular-level insights into aging processes of skin elastin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora Huertas, Angela C; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is characterized by different features including wrinkling, atrophy of the dermis and loss of elasticity associated with damage to the extracellular matrix protein elastin. The aim of this study was to investigate the aging process of skin elastin at the molecular level by evaluating...... the influence of intrinsic (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (sun exposure) on the morphology and susceptibility of elastin towards enzymatic degradation. Elastin was isolated from biopsies derived from sun-protected or sun-exposed skin of differently aged individuals. The morphology of the elastin...... pronounced in sun-exposed tissue. Marker peptides were identified, which showed an age-related increase or decrease in their abundances and provide insights into the progression of the aging process of elastin fibers. Strong age-related cleavage occurs in hydrophobic tropoelastin domains 18, 20, 24 and 26...

  10. Natural Selection as an Emergent Process: Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Student reasoning about cases of natural selection is often plagued by errors that stem from miscategorising selection as a direct, causal process, misunderstanding the role of randomness, and from the intuitive ideas of intentionality, teleology and essentialism. The common thread throughout many of these reasoning errors is a failure to apply…

  11. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, Mascha van 't; Aleman, Andre; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Cahn, Wiepke; Haan, Edward H. F. de; Kahn, Rene S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  12. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Cahn, W.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Kahn, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  13. Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisl, Hermann

    It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

  14. Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Yıdırım; Şeker, Serhat

    2012-09-01

    Nonlinear systems like electrical circuits and systems, mechanics, optics and even incidents in nature may pass through various bifurcations and steady states like equilibrium point, periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic states. Although chaotic phenomena are widely observed in physical systems, it can not be predicted because of the nature of the system. On the other hand, it is known that, chaos is strictly dependent on initial conditions of the system [1-3]. There are several methods in order to define the chaos. Phase portraits, Poincaré maps, Lyapunov Exponents are the most common techniques. Lyapunov Exponents are the theoretical indicator of the chaos, named after the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov (1857-1918). Lyapunov Exponents stand for the average exponential divergence or convergence of nearby system states, meaning estimating the quantitive measure of the chaotic attractor. Negative numbers of the exponents stand for a stable system whereas zero stands for quasi-periodic systems. On the other hand, at least if one of the exponents is positive, this situation is an indicator of the chaos. For estimating the exponents, the system should be modeled by differential equation but even in that case mathematical calculation of Lyapunov Exponents are not very practical and evaluation of these values requires a long signal duration [4-7]. For experimental data sets, it is not always possible to acquire the differential equations. There are several different methods in literature for determining the Lyapunov Exponents of the system [4, 5]. Induction motors are the most important tools for many industrial processes because they are cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. In order to have healthy processes in industrial applications, the conditions of the machines should be monitored and the different working conditions should be addressed correctly. To the best of our knowledge, researches related to Lyapunov exponents and electrical motors are mostly

  15. In-plant natural versus artificial aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, M.

    1989-01-01

    A few years ago, cable specimens and small electrical components were placed in the reactor buildings of several operating nuclear plants in the United States. Temperature and radiation at the specimen locations are being monitored during the life of the plants. Measured physical properties of materials removed periodically during planned outages over the next 10 to 30 years will be compared with properties of artificially aged materials in identical specimens to assess artificial aging practice. This will also lead to improved lifetime predictions for cables and equipment. The study is being performed by the University of Connecticut's Institute for Materials Science in collaboration with U. S. utilities under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Cofunding is being provided by Northeast Utilities and Detroit Edison. This paper gives the status of the study, along with some preliminary results

  16. Cyclic polyalcohols: fingerprints to identify the botanical origin of natural woods used in wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alañón, M Elena; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto, Ignacio J; Vila-Lameiro, Pablo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-02-23

    Cyclic polyalcohol composition of 80 natural wood samples from different botanical species, with the majority of them used in the oenology industry for aging purposes, has been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after its conversion into their trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. Each botanical species showed a different and specific cyclic polyalcohol profile. Oak wood samples were characterized by the richness in deoxyinositols, especially proto-quercitol. Meanwhile, other botanical species showed a very low content of cyclic polyalcohols. The qualitative and quantitative study of cyclic polyalcohols was a useful tool to characterize and differentiate woods of different botanical origin to guarantee the authenticity of chips used in the wine-aging process. Monosaccharide composition was also analyzed, showing some quantitative differences among species, but cyclic polyalcohols were the compounds that revealed the main differentiation power.

  17. Effect of natural aging on the properties of heat-treated A356 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Paz, J.F.; Paray, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.; Emadi, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the heat treatment of aluminum alloys, there is usually a delay time between quenching and the final artificial aging. This delay is called natural aging or preaging at room temperature. This research was conducted in order to study the effect of various natural aging times (0, 6, 12 and 20 hours) on the properties of unmodified and strontium modified A356 aluminum alloys solution heat-treated 4 hours at 540 o C, water quenched and artificially aged 6 hours at 155 o C and 170 o C. The samples were tested for electrical conductivity, microhardness, and tensile properties. In the case of the samples artificially aged at 155 o C from the results it can be seen a decrease in the microhardness and yield strength with natural aging. Regarding the samples aged at 170 o C it is noticed that natural aging at 12 hours will result in the lowest electrical conductivity, yield strength and microhardness. However, there is evidence of recovery of those properties at 20 hours of natural aging. Regarding the elongation, natural aging seems to have a positive effect when artificial aging is carried out at 155 o C, but at 170 o C an optimum elongation is obtained only at 12 hours. (author)

  18. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-06-01

    Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions.

  19. THE WATER FROM NATURE AND THE EROSION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PANDI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The water from nature and the erosion process. Studying earth's surface erosion process is necessary for practical reasons. The theoretical approach requires knowledge of the alluvial system’s structure and operation as the cascade sequence of fluvial system’s mass and energy. Geosystem research methodology requires that the water energy and the role of adjacent surface must be expressed. The expression of water power can be grouped according to the shape of movement and action in the basin. A particular, important case is the energy variation in a basin-slope. An important role in energy expressions is considering the existence in nature of biphasic fluid - water as dispersion phase and solid particles as dispersed phase. The role of the adjacent surface is taken into account by using the erosion resistance indicator, which is calculated using the indicator of geological resistance and the indicator of plant protection. The evolution of natural systems, therefore of river basins too, leads to energy diminishing, thus affecting their dynamic balance. This can be expressed using the concept of entropy. Although erosion processes are usual natural phenomena for the evolution of river basins, they induce significant risks in certain circumstances. Depending on the circulated water energies, water basins can be ranked in terms of potential risks.

  20. The nature of behavioural correlates of healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    with ageing: smoking, drinking, diet and physical, social and intellectual activities. Standard biometric methods were used to analyse the twin data and determine the extent to which individual differences in each of the lifestyle factors are heritable. RESULTS: For each of the six lifestyle factors......, the estimate of heritability ranged from 32% (95% CI: 19-42%) for the diet scale to 69% (62-72%) for the smoking measure. Biometric estimates of the contribution of the twins' common rearing environment were uniformly small (≤6%). There was little evidence that standardized biometric estimates varied by gender...

  1. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(trademark) (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described

  2. Study of aging and ordering processes in titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, M.P.; Khaenko, B.V.; Kachkovskaya, Eh.T.

    1977-01-01

    Aging and ordering processes in titanium carbide were investigated on monocrystals (fragments of alloys) with the aid of roentgenographic method. The sequence of phase transformations during aging was ascertained,and a monoclinic structure of the carbon atoms ordering is suggested. The microhardness of titanium carbide was studied as a function of the heat treatment of alloys and the main factors (ordering and dislocation structure) which govern the difference in the microhardness of hardened and aged (annealed) specimens were determined

  3. The nature of innovation processes in Facility Management services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardelli, Giulia

    Purpose: This work investigates the dynamics of interaction between stakeholders of Facilities Management (FM) innovation and improvement processes. The aim is to understand how the complex value chain of FM services influences innovation processes within this field. Theory: This study combines...... theories on innovation in services with research focused on the empirical field of FM. More specifically, the analytical framework for this study applies the differentiation between reactive and proactive innovation processes by Toivonen and Tuominen (2009) to the value chain identified by Coenen...... has a threefold impact on the nature of innovation processes within this field. Firstly, end-users of FM services are usually not involved in innovation processes, although they might sometimes play a role as initial drivers. Secondly, FM services are intangible but more easily reproducible than other...

  4. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11 was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8 to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens

  5. Depth and Elaboration of Processing in Relation to Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eileen

    1979-01-01

    The recall effectiveness of semantic and phonemic cues was compared to uncover the pattern of deep and elaborate processing in relation to age and experimental treatment. It was concluded that aging results in poor elaboration, especially in inefficient integration of word events with the context of presentation. (Author/CP)

  6. Natural Modulators of Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the primary cause of dementia, with no cure currently available. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be primarily driven by Aβ, the principal component of senile plaques. Aβ is an ~4 kDa peptide generated from the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) through proteolytic secretases. Natural products, particularly those utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have a long history alleviating common clinical disorders, including dementia. However, the cell/molecular pathways mediated by these natural products are largely unknown until recently when the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disorders begin to be elucidated. Here, the mechanisms with which natural products modulate the pathogenesis of AD are discussed, in particular, by focusing on their roles in the processing of APP. PMID:22998566

  7. An overview of computer-based natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Computer based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  8. Influence of prior natural aging on the subsequent artificial aging response of aluminium alloy A356 with respective globular and dendritic microstructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available on the subsequent artificial aging response of SSM-HPDC A356 [9, 10]. An artificial aging treatment at 180◦C for 4 h can, however, negate the effects of any prior natural aging [10]. A recent review paper [15] on the heat treatment of Al- Si-Cu-Mg alloys (which..., 8]. The assumption is that these heat treatments are not necessarily the optimum treatments, as the difference in solidification history and microstructure of SSM processed components should be considered [7–11]. However, a recent paper...

  9. Correlations, Interactions and Differences between Radiation Effects on Longevity and Natural Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethel, H. [Institute of Genetics, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-06-15

    The non-genetic overall radiation response of insects is expressed by the fitness components 'developmental rate' and 'adult lifespan', and is hence related to natural aging. Based on Drosophila, with additional remarks on other insects, the paper demonstrates that, in the developmental stages, ionizing radiation affects the differentiation processes. Distinct sensitive phases are apparent for the induction of different injuries, as are effective phases during wnich the damage exhibits its lethal action. With increasing differentiation, the radiation sensitivity decreases. The primary biological damage is, at least in part, some kind of somatic mutation. A review of adult irradiation response is also based on Drosophila. At least two different types of induced mortality are evident. Type 1 occurs early after irradiation with high doses. It is probably due to central nervous injury and is a common effect in insects, as is indicated by a comparison of various species. Type 2 is a more delayed death at median and low doses. It is of different appearance in various insects, and this heterogeneity is even seen within one species. Thus, sterilizing Drosophila females may result in a considerable prolongation or in a drastic reduction of lifespan. Experimental evidence is found in Drosophila against the 'induced aging' hypothesis of radiation death. Type 1 mortality increases with increasing age at exposure. The amount of the increase in sensitivity depends indirectly on biological age. Both of these parameters are fixed by genotype, as is the mode of interaction between them. Type 2 mortality follows an initial latent period within an 'induced mortality' period. The latter lasts always the same time, independently of age at irradiation. The latent period, however, is shortened in general with increasing age at exposure. This effect seems to depend on metabolic properties rather than on aging itself, as is indicated especially by a prolongation in early adult life

  10. Silvicultural interpretation of natural vegetation dynamics in ageing Scots pine stands for their conversion into mixed broadleaved stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, V.; Geudens, G.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lust, N.

    2006-01-01

    In many West-European regions there is principal consensus on the conversion of homogeneous even-aged Scots pine plantations into mixed broadleaved stands. In recent years, interest is growing for conversion management in which managers try to maximise the use of natural processes by steering or

  11. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  12. Using of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Suicide Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Orooji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year many people, most of whom are teenagers and young adults die by suicide worldwide. Suicide receives special attention with many countries developing national strategies for prevention. Since, more medical information is available in text, Preventing the growing trend of suicide in communities requires analyzing various textual resources, such as patient records, information on the web or questionnaires. For this purpose, this study systematically reviews recent studies related to the use of natural language processing techniques in the area of people’s health who have completed suicide or are at risk. After electronically searching for the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases and studying articles by two reviewers, 21 articles matched the inclusion criteria. This study revealed that, if a suitable data set is available, natural language processing techniques are well suited for various types of suicide related research.

  13. Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2012-01-01

    A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters, but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science.

  14. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W; Hammond, Talisin T; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Walsh, Rachel E; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Martins, Felipe M; Crawford, Jeremy C; Mack, Katya L; Bloch, Luke M; Nachman, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the laboratory, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short timescales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances, evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  16. Rotating thermal flows in natural and industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lappa, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes provides the reader with a systematic description of the different types of thermal convection and flow instabilities in rotating systems, as present in materials, crystal growth, thermal engineering, meteorology, oceanography, geophysics and astrophysics. It expressly shows how the isomorphism between small and large scale phenomena becomes beneficial to the definition and ensuing development of an integrated comprehensive framework.  This allows the reader to understand and assimilate the underlying, quintessential mechanisms withou

  17. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  18. Method of optimization of the natural gas refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Bagirov, A.A.; Mardakhayev, I.M.; Razamat, M.S.; Tagiyev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The SATUM (automatic control system of technical operations) system introduced at the Shatlyk field should assure good quality of gas refining. In order to optimize the natural gas refining processes and experimental-analytical method is used in compiling the mathematical descriptions. The program, compiled in Fortran language, in addition to parameters of optimal conditions gives information on the yield of concentrate and water, concentration and consumption of DEG, composition and characteristics of the gas and condensate. The algorithm for calculating optimum engineering conditions of gas refining is proposed to be used in ''advice'' mode, and also for monitoring progress of the gas refining process.

  19. Nuclear processes in deuterium/natural hydrogen-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelensky, V.F.

    2013-01-01

    The survey presents the analysis of the phenomena taking place in deuterium - metal and natural hydrogen - metal systems under cold fusion experimental conditions. The cold fusion experiments have shown that the generation of heat and helium in the deuterium-metal system without emission of energetic gamma-quanta is the result of occurrence of a chain of chemical, physical and nuclear processes observed in the system, culminating in both the fusion of deuterium nuclei and the formation of a virtual, electron-modified excited 4He nucleus. The excitation energy of the helium nucleus is transferred to the matrix through emission of conversion electrons, and that, under appropriate conditions, provides a persistent synthesis of deuterium. The processes occurring in the deuterium/natural hydrogen - metal systems have come to be known as chemonuclear DD- and HD-fusion. The mechanism of stimulation of weak interaction reactions under chemonuclear deuterium fusion conditions by means of strong interaction reactions has been proposed. The results of numerous experiments discussed in the survey bear witness to the validity of chemonuclear fusion. From the facts discussed it is concluded that the chemonuclear deuterium fusion scenario as presented in this paper may serve as a basis for expansion of deeper research and development of this ecologically clean energy source. It is shown that the natural hydrogen-based system, containing 0.015% of deuterium, also has good prospects as an energy source. The chemonuclear fusion processes do not require going beyond the scope of traditional physics for their explanation

  20. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  1. STRUCTURE OF RAPIDLY QUENCHED RIBBONS AFTER NATURAL AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloy solidification at high cooling rates leads to significant changes in structure and phase composition. Conditions appear for a significant extension of solid solubility, grain refining, and formation of metastable phases or amorphous state. Due to this it is possible to obtain  unique combinations of physical, mechanical and other properties in rapidly quenched alloys. Undoubted scientific and practical interest is an application of  quenching processes from a liquid state for aluminum alloys with the purpose to improve their physical and mechanical properties.As the structure of such alloys is extremely unstable from a thermodynamic point of view the important issue is to study  temporal stability of the microstructure and phase composition of rapidly quenched aluminium alloys of various chemical composition. The paper has investigated an influence of various alloying elements on the structure, phase composition and durometric properties of aluminum foils obtained by liquid aluminum alloy melt-spinning on the disk rotating with various speed. Optical and electron microscopy  has been used to study structure and phase composition as well as X-ray structural analysis. It has been shown that alloying of aluminium with copper leads to an increase in micro-hardness up to 130–160 HV0.01, and alloying with chromium and zirconium provides micro-hardness up to 60–80 HV0.01. It has been shown that increasing in amount of alloying additions in the aluminum melt (Al–Cu system alloy rises the number of CuAl2 precipitates and is accompanied with an increase in micro-hardness of aluminum foils. An increase in cooling rate of the aluminum melt (Al–Cr–Zr system is accompanied with structure dispersion which increases micro-hardness of the casted foils. The obtained results have made it possible to establish the optimal percentage of alloying elements and the disk rotation speed providing the highest level of aluminium foils’ durometric

  2. Prospects of using natural antioxidants in radiation processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, S.R.; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of food is a serious concern both for food producer and consumer. Radiation processing of food is one of the most effective technologies that can extend the shelf-life and eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. However, wide acceptability of radiation processed food products will depend upon quality parameters such as oxidative changes, color stability and organoleptic attributes. Any food processing technique is known to accelerate lipid peroxidation and radiation processing is no exception. Irradiation does not adversely affect the overall nutritive value of food and the oxidative changes induced by irradiation are similar to those observed using conventional food processing methods. Combination of various processing conditions such as storage and cooking, results in accelerated oxidative deterioration. The growing demand for convenience foods and the evolving markets for pre cooked food, call for techniques to prevent lipid oxidation in prepared stored food. Products of lipid peroxidation adversely affect the color, flavor and texture of the food. It is therefore necessary to control these changes for better product development. Methods commonly employed by the food industry include the use of antioxidants. Presently, most of the antioxidants used are synthetic but consumer concern has become a driving force for exploring the use of natural antioxidants. The increase interest in substitution of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants has fostered research on screening of plant materials in order to identify new compounds. We have investigated the antioxidant potential of several plant extracts, herbs and waste generated by the food industry, such as potato peel, banana peel, mango peel, mint, cinnamon extracts and chitosan. Mint extract was found to have the maximum antioxidant activity as tested by several in vitro antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity of mint extract was comparable to that of BHT the commonly

  3. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  4. Natural leathers from natural materials: progressing toward a new arena in leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2004-02-01

    Globally, the leather industry is currently undergoing radical transformation due to pollution and discharge legislations. Thus, the leather industry is pressurized to look for cleaner options for processing the raw hides and skins. Conventional methods of pre-tanning, tanning and post-tanning processes are known to contribute more than 98% of the total pollution load from the leather processing. The conventional method of the tanning process involves the "do-undo" principle. Furthermore, the conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/ hide to a wide variation in pH (2.8-13.0). This results in the emission of huge amounts of pollution loads such as BOD, COD, TDS, TS, sulfates, chlorides and chromium. In the approach illustrated here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0, pickle-free natural tanning employing vegetable tannins, and post-tanning using environmentally friendly chemicals. Hence, this process involves dehairing, fiber opening, and pickle-free natural tanning followed by ecofriendly post-tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal and opening up of fiber bundles is comparable to that of conventionally processed leathers. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic analysis and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally chrome-tanned leathers through physical and hand evaluation. The process also exhibits zero metal (chromium) discharge and significant reduction in BOD, COD, TDS, and TS loads by 83, 69, 96, and 96%, respectively. Furthermore, the developed process seems to be economically viable.

  5. Is early natural menopause a biologic marker of health and aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Kane, R L; Beeson, W L; Burke, G L; Sprafka, J M; Potter, J; Iso, H; Jacobs, D R; Phillips, R L

    1989-01-01

    The relation between age at natural menopause and all-cause mortality was investigated in a sample of 5,287 White women, ages 55 to 100 years, naturally-postmenopausal, Seventh-day Adventists who had completed mailed questionnaires in 1976. The age-adjusted odds ratio of death during 1976-82 in women with natural menopause before age 40 was 1.95 (95% confidence interval = 1.24, 3.07), compared to the reference group of women reporting natural menopause at ages 50 to 54. Corresponding odds ratios of death were 1.39 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.81) for natural menopause at ages 40 to 44, and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.84, 1.25) for natural menopause at ages 45 to 49. Among 3,166 White, 55- to 100-year-old, surgically-postmenopausal, Adventist women, there was no relation between age at surgical menopause and mortality. Logistic regression analyses indicated that findings from this study were apparently not due to confounding by smoking, over- or underweight, reproductive history, or replacement estrogen use. PMID:2729468

  6. A brain network processing the age of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György A Homola

    Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.

  7. Clustering behaviour in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy during natural ageing and subsequent under-ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lingfei, E-mail: lingfei.cao@monash.edu [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, G68, Building 27, Welling Road, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Rometsch, Paul A.; Couper, Malcolm J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, G68, Building 27, Welling Road, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2013-01-01

    The clustering behaviour in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy in the T4 and T61 tempers has been investigated by hardness and electrical conductivity testing, along with nanostructural characterisation using 3-D atom probe (3DAP) analysis. The selection of parameters for the PoSAP and IVAS cluster analysis software tools is discussed. The results show that the T4 hardness increases significantly within one day of natural ageing, and then reaches a plateau after about a week. A contingency table analysis reveals that clustering between Mg and Si atoms already exists in the T4 condition with only 1.1 h of natural ageing. In the T61 condition (after 0.5 h at 170 Degree-Sign C), the hardness is greatest in samples aged immediately after quenching, and decreases very rapidly with increasing prior natural ageing times of up to 3 h. The initial hardness drop in the T61 condition is associated with decreases in the volume fraction, average size and maximum size of solute aggregates. Longer prior natural ageing times inhibit the formation of larger solute aggregates (with more than 75 detected Mg+Si+Cu atoms) and thus result in low levels of T61 hardness.

  8. Clustering behaviour in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy during natural ageing and subsequent under-ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lingfei; Rometsch, Paul A.; Couper, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    The clustering behaviour in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy in the T4 and T61 tempers has been investigated by hardness and electrical conductivity testing, along with nanostructural characterisation using 3-D atom probe (3DAP) analysis. The selection of parameters for the PoSAP and IVAS cluster analysis software tools is discussed. The results show that the T4 hardness increases significantly within one day of natural ageing, and then reaches a plateau after about a week. A contingency table analysis reveals that clustering between Mg and Si atoms already exists in the T4 condition with only 1.1 h of natural ageing. In the T61 condition (after 0.5 h at 170 °C), the hardness is greatest in samples aged immediately after quenching, and decreases very rapidly with increasing prior natural ageing times of up to 3 h. The initial hardness drop in the T61 condition is associated with decreases in the volume fraction, average size and maximum size of solute aggregates. Longer prior natural ageing times inhibit the formation of larger solute aggregates (with more than 75 detected Mg+Si+Cu atoms) and thus result in low levels of T61 hardness.

  9. Creation of structured documentation templates using Natural Language Processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul; Turchin, Alexander; Morin, Laura; Chang, Frank; Li, Qi; Hongsermeier, Tonya

    2006-01-01

    Structured Clinical Documentation is a fundamental component of the healthcare enterprise, linking both clinical (e.g., electronic health record, clinical decision support) and administrative functions (e.g., evaluation and management coding, billing). One of the challenges in creating good quality documentation templates has been the inability to address specialized clinical disciplines and adapt to local clinical practices. A one-size-fits-all approach leads to poor adoption and inefficiencies in the documentation process. On the other hand, the cost associated with manual generation of documentation templates is significant. Consequently there is a need for at least partial automation of the template generation process. We propose an approach and methodology for the creation of structured documentation templates for diabetes using Natural Language Processing (NLP).

  10. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal [Radioactive Waste Management Unit (RWMU), Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Altinsehir Yolu 5 km. Halkali, 34303K Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: Erdal.Osmanlioglu@taek.gov.tr

    2007-01-15

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.

  11. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite

  12. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.

  13. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(sup SM) (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H(sub 2)S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H(sub 2)S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H(sub 2)S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change

  14. Radiation processing of natural polymers for industrial and agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Diaa, D.A.; El-Barbary, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great efforts should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na/PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  15. Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  16. Modelling aging effects on a thermal cycling absorption process column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA/Valduc, F-21121 Is sur Tille (France); Baudouin, O. [ProSim SA, Stratege Bat. A, BP 27210, F-31672 Labege Cedex (France); Demoment, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA/Valduc, F-21121 Is sur Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    Palladium coated on alumina is used in hydrogen separation systems operated at CEA/Valduc, and more particularly in Thermal Cycling Absorption Process columns. With such materials, tritium decay is known to induce aging effects which have direct side effects on hydrogen isotopes absorption isotherms. Furthermore in a TCAP column, aging occurs in an heterogeneous way. The possible impacts of these intrinsic material evolutions on the separation performances are investigated here through a numerical approach. (authors)

  17. Encapsulation of natural ingredient for skin protection via nanoemulsion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha

    2017-04-01

    Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.

  18. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  19. Genetics of ovarian ageing : genetic association studies on natural menopause and primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhuis, M.

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is the endpoint of a process referred to as ovarian ageing. The mean age at menopause is approximately 51 years, but varies widely between 40 to 60 years of age. Approximately 1% of all women experience menopause before the age of 40, which is a condition known as primary ovarian

  20. Analogical reasoning and aging: the processing speed and inhibition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaiska, Aurélia; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of aging on analogical reasoning by manipulating the strength of semantic association (LowAssoc or HighAssoc) and the number of distracters' semantic analogies of the A:B::C:D type and to determine which factors might be responsible for the age-related differences on analogical reasoning by testing two different theoretical frameworks: the inhibition hypothesis and the speed mediation hypothesis. We compared young adults and two groups of aging people (old and old-old) with word analogies of the A:B::C:D format. Results indicate an age-related effect on analogical reasoning, this effect being greatest with LowAssoc analogies. It was not associated with the presence of semantic distractors. Moreover, the results show that the variance part of the analogy task due to age was mainly explained by processing speed (rather than by inhibition) in the case of old participants and by both processing speed and inhibition in the old-old group. These results are discussed in relation to current models of aging and their interaction with the processes involved in analogical reasoning.

  1. Molecular-level insights into aging processes of skin elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Huertas, Angela C; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Heyroth, Frank; Heinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is characterized by different features including wrinkling, atrophy of the dermis and loss of elasticity associated with damage to the extracellular matrix protein elastin. The aim of this study was to investigate the aging process of skin elastin at the molecular level by evaluating the influence of intrinsic (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (sun exposure) on the morphology and susceptibility of elastin towards enzymatic degradation. Elastin was isolated from biopsies derived from sun-protected or sun-exposed skin of differently aged individuals. The morphology of the elastin fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Mass spectrometric analysis and label-free quantification allowed identifying differences in the cleavage patterns of the elastin samples after enzymatic digestion. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to visualize differences between the samples and to determine the contribution of extrinsic and intrinsic aging to the proteolytic susceptibility of elastin. Moreover, the release of potentially bioactive peptides was studied. Skin aging is associated with the decomposition of elastin fibers, which is more pronounced in sun-exposed tissue. Marker peptides were identified, which showed an age-related increase or decrease in their abundances and provide insights into the progression of the aging process of elastin fibers. Strong age-related cleavage occurs in hydrophobic tropoelastin domains 18, 20, 24 and 26. Photoaging makes the N-terminal and central parts of the tropoelastin molecules more susceptible towards enzymatic cleavage and, hence, accelerates the age-related degradation of elastin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  3. The Arabic Natural Language Processing: Introduction and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhatem Nadera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is a Semitic language spoken by more than 330 million people as a native language, in an area extending from the Arabian/Persian Gulf in the East to the Atlantic Ocean in the West. Moreover, it is the language in which 1.4 billion Muslims around the world perform their daily prayers. Over the last few years, Arabic natural language processing (ANLP has gained increasing importance, and several state of the art systems have been developed for a wide range of applications.

  4. Box: Natural Language Processing Research Using Amazon Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Amittai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a publicly-available state-of-the-art research and development platform for Machine Translation and Natural Language Processing that runs on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. This provides a standardized research environment for all users, and enables perfect reproducibility and compatibility. Box also enables users to use their hardware budget to avoid the management and logistical overhead of maintaining a research lab, yet still participate in global research community with the same state-of-the-art tools.

  5. Novel design of LNG (liquefied natural gas) reliquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, S., E-mail: s.baek@kaist.ac.kr [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, G.; Lee, C. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, S., E-mail: skjeong@kaist.ac.kr [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, D. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ship/Plant System R and D Team, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 1, Ajoo, Koje, Kyungnam 656-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We performed experiments with LN2 to mock up the new LNG reliquefaction process. {yields} Subcooled liquid goes to heat exchanger, heater, and phase separator. {yields} Reliquefaction occurs when vapor enters heat exchanger and verified by experiments. {yields} Reliquefaction ratio increases when subcooling degree or system pressure increases. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of novel LNG reliquefaction process where the cold exergy of subcooled LNG is utilized to recondense the vaporized light component of LNG after it is separated from the heavier component in a phase separator. The regeneration of cold exergy is especially effective as well as important in thermodynamic sense when a cryogenic process is involved. To verify the proposed idea, we performed an experimental study by facilitating liquid nitrogen apparatus to mock up the LNG reliquefaction process. Subcooled liquid nitrogen is produced for a commercial transportation container with a house-made atmospheric liquid nitrogen heat exchanger and then, having subooled degree of up to 19 K, it simulates the behavior of subcooled LNG in the lab-scale reliquefaction experiment. Recondensation of the vaporized gas is possible by using the cold exergy of subcooled liquid in a properly fabricated heat exchanger. Effect of heat exchanger performance factor and degree of subcooling on recondensation portion has been discussed in this paper. It is concluded that utilizing pressurized subcooled liquid that is obtained by liquid pump can surely reduce the pumping power of the vaporized natural gas and save the overall energy expenditure in LNG reliquefaction process.

  6. Novel design of LNG (liquefied natural gas) reliquefaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S.; Hwang, G.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.; Choi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We performed experiments with LN2 to mock up the new LNG reliquefaction process. → Subcooled liquid goes to heat exchanger, heater, and phase separator. → Reliquefaction occurs when vapor enters heat exchanger and verified by experiments. → Reliquefaction ratio increases when subcooling degree or system pressure increases. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of novel LNG reliquefaction process where the cold exergy of subcooled LNG is utilized to recondense the vaporized light component of LNG after it is separated from the heavier component in a phase separator. The regeneration of cold exergy is especially effective as well as important in thermodynamic sense when a cryogenic process is involved. To verify the proposed idea, we performed an experimental study by facilitating liquid nitrogen apparatus to mock up the LNG reliquefaction process. Subcooled liquid nitrogen is produced for a commercial transportation container with a house-made atmospheric liquid nitrogen heat exchanger and then, having subooled degree of up to 19 K, it simulates the behavior of subcooled LNG in the lab-scale reliquefaction experiment. Recondensation of the vaporized gas is possible by using the cold exergy of subcooled liquid in a properly fabricated heat exchanger. Effect of heat exchanger performance factor and degree of subcooling on recondensation portion has been discussed in this paper. It is concluded that utilizing pressurized subcooled liquid that is obtained by liquid pump can surely reduce the pumping power of the vaporized natural gas and save the overall energy expenditure in LNG reliquefaction process.

  7. Age Differences in Text Processing: The Role of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Processing Speed

    OpenAIRE

    BORELLA ERIKA; GHISLETTA PAOLO; DE RIBAUPIERRE ANIK

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Age-related changes in the efficiency of various general cognitive mechanisms have been evoked to account for age-related differences between young and older adults in text comprehension performance. Using structural equation modeling, we investigate the relationship between age, working memory (WM), inhibition-related mechanisms, processing speed, and text comprehension, focusing on surface and text-based levels of processing. Methods. Eighty-nine younger (M = 23.11 years) and 10...

  8. A model for ageing-home-care service process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shu-Yan; Shie, An-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated model to improve service processes in ageing-home-care. According to the literature, existing service processes have potential service failures that affect service quality and efficacy. However, most previous studies have only focused on conceptual model development using New Service Development (NSD) and fail to provide a systematic model to analyse potential service failures and facilitate managers developing solutions to improve the se...

  9. Aging of theory of mind: the influence of educational level and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wang, Fan; Tao, Qian; Xie, Yu; Cheng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of theory of mind (ToM) in old age have provided mixed results. We predicted that educational level and cognitive processing are two factors influencing the pattern of the aging of ToM. To test this hypothesis, a younger group who received higher education (mean age 20.46 years), an older group with an education level equal to that of the young group (mean age 76.29 years), and an older group with less education (mean age 73.52 years) were recruited. ToM tasks included the following tests: the second-order false-belief task, the faux-pas task, the eyes test, and tests of fundamental aspects of cognitive function that included two background tests (memory span and processing speed) and three subcomponents of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting). We found that the younger group and the older group with equally high education outperformed the older group with less education in false-belief and faux-pas tasks. However, there was no significant difference between the two former groups. The three groups of participants performed equivalently in the eyes test as well as in control tasks (false-belief control question, faux-pas control question, faux-pas control story, and Eyes Test control task). The younger group outperformed the other two groups in the cognitive processing tasks. Mediation analyses showed that difficulties in inhibition, memory span, and processing speed mediated the age differences in false-belief reasoning. Also, the variables of inhibition, updating, memory span, and processing speed mediated age-related variance in faux-pas. Discussion focused on the links between ToM aging, educational level, and cognitive processing. Supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (number: 30870766) and Anhui Province Natural Science Foundation (number: 11040606M166).

  10. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pestian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  11. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-08-04

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25-34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15-25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient's thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  12. Processing LiDAR Data to Predict Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Ian; Crabtree, Robert; Hager, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    ELF-Base and ELF-Hazards (wherein 'ELF' signifies 'Extract LiDAR Features' and 'LiDAR' signifies 'light detection and ranging') are developmental software modules for processing remote-sensing LiDAR data to identify past natural hazards (principally, landslides) and predict future ones. ELF-Base processes raw LiDAR data, including LiDAR intensity data that are often ignored in other software, to create digital terrain models (DTMs) and digital feature models (DFMs) with sub-meter accuracy. ELF-Hazards fuses raw LiDAR data, data from multispectral and hyperspectral optical images, and DTMs and DFMs generated by ELF-Base to generate hazard risk maps. Advanced algorithms in these software modules include line-enhancement and edge-detection algorithms, surface-characterization algorithms, and algorithms that implement innovative data-fusion techniques. The line-extraction and edge-detection algorithms enable users to locate such features as faults and landslide headwall scarps. Also implemented in this software are improved methodologies for identification and mapping of past landslide events by use of (1) accurate, ELF-derived surface characterizations and (2) three LiDAR/optical-data-fusion techniques: post-classification data fusion, maximum-likelihood estimation modeling, and hierarchical within-class discrimination. This software is expected to enable faster, more accurate forecasting of natural hazards than has previously been possible.

  13. Extending topological surgery to natural processes and dynamical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Antoniou

    Full Text Available Topological surgery is a mathematical technique used for creating new manifolds out of known ones. We observe that it occurs in natural phenomena where a sphere of dimension 0 or 1 is selected, forces are applied and the manifold in which they occur changes type. For example, 1-dimensional surgery happens during chromosomal crossover, DNA recombination and when cosmic magnetic lines reconnect, while 2-dimensional surgery happens in the formation of tornadoes, in the phenomenon of Falaco solitons, in drop coalescence and in the cell mitosis. Inspired by such phenomena, we introduce new theoretical concepts which enhance topological surgery with the observed forces and dynamics. To do this, we first extend the formal definition to a continuous process caused by local forces. Next, for modeling phenomena which do not happen on arcs or surfaces but are 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional, we fill in the interior space by defining the notion of solid topological surgery. We further introduce the notion of embedded surgery in S3 for modeling phenomena which involve more intrinsically the ambient space, such as the appearance of knotting in DNA and phenomena where the causes and effect of the process lies beyond the initial manifold, such as the formation of black holes. Finally, we connect these new theoretical concepts with a dynamical system and we present it as a model for both 2-dimensional 0-surgery and natural phenomena exhibiting a 'hole drilling' behavior. We hope that through this study, topology and dynamics of many natural phenomena, as well as topological surgery itself, will be better understood.

  14. The Physiology of Exercise and the Process of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravetz, Patricia

    A physical fitness plan is considered desirable for young people, young adults, and especially older adults. This program for secondary level students focuses on the physiology of exercise and the process of aging, and stresses the need for physical fitness. Specific objectives include the following: (1) to let students become evaluators of their…

  15. The Relation of Age and Reading Ability to Memory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrach, Alexa; Fireman, Gary

    This study examined the relation of reading ability, age, and familiarity to iconic and short-term memory processing and how the familiarity of the stimuli affects recall. A total of 10 children in grades 2 through 6 and 10 adults were shown novel abstract forms, words, and non-words varying in order of approximation to English, for 50 msec., 500…

  16. Effects of acid deposition on microbial processes in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Biogeochemical processes mediated by microorganisms are not adversely affected by the acidification of natural waters to the same extent as are the life cycles of higher organisms. Basic processes, e.g., primary production and organic matter decomposition, are not slowed in moderately acidified systems and do not generally decline above a pH of 5. More specifically, the individual components of the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles are, with few exceptions, also acid resistant. The influence of acid deposition on microbial processes is more often stimulation of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, often leading to alkalinity production, which mitigates the effect of strong acid deposition. Bacterial sulfate reduction and denitrification in sediments are two of the major processes that can be stimulated by sulfate and nitrate deposition, respectively, and result in ANC (acid-neutralizing capacity) generation. One of the negative effects of acid deposition is increased mobilization and bioaccumulation of some metals. Bacteria appear to play an important role, especially in mercury cycling, with acidification leading to increased bacterial methylation of mercury and subsequent bioaccumulation in higher organisms

  17. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  18. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  19. Relaxation processes and physical aging in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Pineda, E.; Evenson, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, metallic glasses have continuously attracted much interest across the physics and materials science communities. In the forefront are their unique properties, which hold the alluring promise of broad application in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental science and engineering. However, a major obstacle to their wide-spread commercial use is their inherent temporal instability arising from underlying relaxation processes that can dramatically alter their physical properties. The result is a physical aging process which can bring about degradation of mechanical properties, namely through embrittlement and catastrophic mechanical failure. Understanding and controlling the effects of aging will play a decisive role in our on-going endeavor to advance the use of metallic glasses as structural materials, as well as in the more general comprehension of out-of-equilibrium dynamics in complex systems. This review presents an overview of the current state of the art in the experimental advances probing physical aging and relaxation processes in metallic glasses. Similarities and differences between other hard and soft matter glasses are highlighted. The topic is discussed in a multiscale approach, first presenting the key features obtained in macroscopic studies, then connecting them to recent novel microscopic investigations. Particular emphasis is put on the occurrence of distinct relaxation processes beyond the main structural process in viscous metallic melts and their fate upon entering the glassy state, trying to disentangle results and formalisms employed by the different groups of the glass-science community. A microscopic viewpoint is presented, in which physical aging manifests itself in irreversible atomic-scale processes such as avalanches and intermittent dynamics, ascribed to the existence of a plethora of metastable glassy states across a complex energy landscape. Future experimental challenges and the comparison with

  20. Stability of auditory discrimination and novelty processing in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Rundo, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Complex higher-order cognitive functions and their possible changes with aging are mandatory objectives of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials (ERPs) allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. N100, Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory ERP components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if N100, MMN and P3a parameters are stable in healthy aged subjects, compared to those of normal young adults. Normal young adults and older participants were assessed using standardized cognitive functional instruments and their ERPs were obtained with an auditory stimulation at two different interstimulus intervals, during a passive paradigm. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests. No significant differences were found for any ERP parameters obtained from the two age groups. This study shows that aging is characterized by a stability of the auditory discrimination and novelty processing. This is important for the arrangement of normative for the detection of subtle preclinical changes due to abnormal brain aging.

  1. Independent component processes underlying emotions during natural music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Zollinger, Nina; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the brain processes underlying emotions during natural music listening. To address this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from 22 subjects while presenting a set of individually matched whole musical excerpts varying in valence and arousal. Independent component analysis was applied to decompose the EEG data into functionally distinct brain processes. A k-means cluster analysis calculated on the basis of a combination of spatial (scalp topography and dipole location mapped onto the Montreal Neurological Institute brain template) and functional (spectra) characteristics revealed 10 clusters referring to brain areas typically involved in music and emotion processing, namely in the proximity of thalamic-limbic and orbitofrontal regions as well as at frontal, fronto-parietal, parietal, parieto-occipital, temporo-occipital and occipital areas. This analysis revealed that arousal was associated with a suppression of power in the alpha frequency range. On the other hand, valence was associated with an increase in theta frequency power in response to excerpts inducing happiness compared to sadness. These findings are partly compatible with the model proposed by Heller, arguing that the frontal lobe is involved in modulating valenced experiences (the left frontal hemisphere for positive emotions) whereas the right parieto-temporal region contributes to the emotional arousal. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Radiation processing of natural polymers using low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing is widely used in Japan and the economic scale of radiation application amounted to about 71 b$ (ratio relative to GDP: 1.7%) in total. It consisted of 60 b$ (85%) in industry, 10 b$ (14%) in medicine and 1 b$ (1%) in agriculture. Irradiation using gamma-ray from 60 Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Utilization of natural polymers by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. Low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation has a variety of applications and good safety. A self-shielded low energy electron accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a 60 Co facility. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective not only for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides but also for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  3. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively “mine” these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. “Intelligent” search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:26761536

  5. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016.

  6. Behind the scenes: A medical natural language processing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy T; Dernoncourt, Franck; Gehrmann, Sebastian; Tyler, Patrick D; Moseley, Edward T; Carlson, Eric T; Grant, David W; Li, Yeran; Welt, Jonathan; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities in medicine can help address many pressing problems in healthcare. However, AI research endeavors in healthcare may not be clinically relevant, may have unrealistic expectations, or may not be explicit enough about their limitations. A diverse and well-functioning multidisciplinary team (MDT) can help identify appropriate and achievable AI research agendas in healthcare, and advance medical AI technologies by developing AI algorithms as well as addressing the shortage of appropriately labeled datasets for machine learning. In this paper, our team of engineers, clinicians and machine learning experts share their experience and lessons learned from their two-year-long collaboration on a natural language processing (NLP) research project. We highlight specific challenges encountered in cross-disciplinary teamwork, dataset creation for NLP research, and expectation setting for current medical AI technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Building gold standard corpora for medical natural language processing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kaiser, Megan; Molnar, Katalin; Stoutenborough, Laura; Kouril, Michal; Marsolo, Keith; Solti, Imre

    2012-01-01

    We present the construction of three annotated corpora to serve as gold standards for medical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Clinical notes from the medical record, clinical trial announcements, and FDA drug labels are annotated. We report high inter-annotator agreements (overall F-measures between 0.8467 and 0.9176) for the annotation of Personal Health Information (PHI) elements for a de-identification task and of medications, diseases/disorders, and signs/symptoms for information extraction (IE) task. The annotated corpora of clinical trials and FDA labels will be publicly released and to facilitate translational NLP tasks that require cross-corpora interoperability (e.g. clinical trial eligibility screening) their annotation schemas are aligned with a large scale, NIH-funded clinical text annotation project.

  8. New treating processes for sulfur-containing natural gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislenko, N.; Aphanasiev, A.; Nabokov, S.; Ismailova, H. [VNIIGAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The traditional method of removing H{sub 2}S from sour natural gases is first to treat the gas with a solvent and then to recover the H{sub 2}S from the sour stream in a Claus plant. This method recovers up to 97% of the sulfur when a three-stage Claus unit is employed. Amine/Claus units have operating difficulties for small sulfur capacities (up to 5 tons/day) because the operation of the fired equipment (reaction furnace) is much more difficult. Therefore, for small scale sulfur recovery plants redox processes which exhibit a significant reduction in investment and operating costs are normally used. Many different factors influence the choice of gas desulfurization technology--composition and gas flow, environmental sulfur recovery requirements and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S ratio.

  9. Aging Effect on Audiovisual Integrative Processing in Spatial Discrimination Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration is an essential process that people employ daily, from conversing in social gatherings to navigating the nearby environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aging on modulating multisensory integrative processes using event-related potential (ERP, and the validity of the study was improved by including “noise” in the contrast conditions. Older and younger participants were involved in perceiving visual and/or auditory stimuli that contained spatial information. The participants responded by indicating the spatial direction (far vs. near and left vs. right conveyed in the stimuli using different wrist movements. electroencephalograms (EEGs were captured in each task trial, along with the accuracy and reaction time of the participants’ motor responses. Older participants showed a greater extent of behavioral improvements in the multisensory (as opposed to unisensory condition compared to their younger counterparts. Older participants were found to have fronto-centrally distributed super-additive P2, which was not the case for the younger participants. The P2 amplitude difference between the multisensory condition and the sum of the unisensory conditions was found to correlate significantly with performance on spatial discrimination. The results indicated that the age-related effect modulated the integrative process in the perceptual and feedback stages, particularly the evaluation of auditory stimuli. Audiovisual (AV integration may also serve a functional role during spatial-discrimination processes to compensate for the compromised attention function caused by aging.

  10. Accelerated aging, natural aging, and small punch testing of gamma-air sterilized polycarbonate urethane acetabular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Siskey, R; Reitman, M

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to determine the applicability of the small punch test to characterize Bionate 80A polycarbonate urethane (PCU) acetabular implants; (2) to evaluate the susceptibility of PCU acetabular implants to exhibit degradation of mechanical behavior following gamma irradiation in air and accelerated aging; and (3) to compare the oxidation of gamma-air sterilized PCU following accelerated aging and 5 years of natural shelf aging. In addition to attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we also adapted a miniature specimen mechanical test, the small punch test, for the deformable PCU cups. Accelerated aging was performed using ASTM F2003, a standard test that represents a severe oxidative challenge. The results of this study suggest that the small punch test is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to discriminate slight differences in the large-deformation mechanical behavior of Bionate 80A following accelerated aging. The gamma-air sterilized PCU had a reduction of 9% in ultimate load after aging. Five years of shelf aging had little effect on the mechanical properties of the PCU. Overall, our findings suggest that the Bionate 80A material has greater oxidative stability than ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene following gamma irradiation in air and exposure to a severe oxidative challenge. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of organic pro-degradant concentration in polypropylene exposed to the natural ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, L. S., E-mail: larissambiental@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br, E-mail: katiandry@hotmail.com, E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com, E-mail: ruth.santana@ufrgs.br; Catto, A. L., E-mail: larissambiental@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br, E-mail: katiandry@hotmail.com, E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com, E-mail: ruth.santana@ufrgs.br; Rossini, K., E-mail: larissambiental@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br, E-mail: katiandry@hotmail.com, E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com, E-mail: ruth.santana@ufrgs.br; Forte, M. M. C., E-mail: larissambiental@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br, E-mail: katiandry@hotmail.com, E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com, E-mail: ruth.santana@ufrgs.br; Santana, R. M. C., E-mail: larissambiental@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br, E-mail: katiandry@hotmail.com, E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com, E-mail: ruth.santana@ufrgs.br [Engineering School/Laboratory of Polymeric Materials, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The production and consumption of plastics in the last decade has recorded a remarkable increase in the scientific and industrial interest in environmentally degradable polymer (EDPs). Polymers wastes are deposited improperly, such as dumps, landfills, rivers and seas, causing a serious problem by the accumulation in the environment. The abiotic processes, like the photodegradation, are the most efficient occurring in the open environmental, where the polymers undergo degradation from the action of sunlight that result from direct exposure to solar radiation, however depend of the type of chemical ageing, which is the principal component of climatic ageing. The subject of this work is to study the influence of concentration of organic pro-degradant (1, 2 and 3 % w/w) in the polypropylene (PP) exposed in natural ageing. PP samples with and without the additive were processed in plates square form, obtained by thermal compression molding (TCM) using a press at 200°C under 2 tons for 5 min, and then were exposed at natural ageing during 120 days. The presence of organic additive influenced on PP degradability, this fact was assessed by changes in the thermal and morphology properties of the samples after 120 days of natural ageing. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) results of the morphological surface of the modified PP samples showed greater degradation photochemical oxidative when compared to neat PP, due to increase of rugosity and formation of microvoids. PP samples with different pro-degradant concentration under natural ageing presented a degree of crystallinity, obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) increases in comparing the neat PP.

  12. Natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Sun, Daqian; Li, Hongmei, E-mail: lihongmei@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-08-01

    By local thermal cycles and hardness measurements, supported by transmission electron microscopy, the post-weld natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy was investigated. The results show that the softening in the nugget zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone immediately after welding is mainly caused by the high peak temperatures and rapid cooling rates, resulting in the original β″ precipitates dissolving and restraining re-precipitation. On the one hand, the hardness recovery in both microstructural zones during post-weld natural aging is attributed to the formation of clusters or GP zones depending on the natural aging time. On the other hand, the softening in the heat-affected zone after welding is due to the transformation of the β′′ to β′ precipitates and the precipitation of Q′. Natural aging has little effect on the microstructure and hardness of the heat-affected zone. The mechanism of natural aging behaviour was discussed.

  13. Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Tomasz; Hajdyla-Banas, Iwona; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Niewegłowska, Dorota; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Ludwin, Artur; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Inga

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation. We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA. Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P menopause (P = 0.008). The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.

  14. Depth and elaboration of processing in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E

    1979-03-01

    Processing at encoding and retrieval was jointly manipulated, and then the retrieval effectiveness of different cues was directly compared to uncover the relative pattern of deep and elaborate processing in relation to both age and different experimental manipulations. In experiment 1 phonemic and semantic cues were effective retrieval aids for to-be-remembered words in the youngest group; with increasing age, semantic cues decreased in effectiveness more than phonemic cues. These data showed phonemic features to have an importance that is not recognized in the data generated by the typical levels paradigm. When elaboration of the words was induced in Experiment 2 by presenting them in sentences, semantic and context cues were most effective in the youngest group whereas phonemic cues were most effective in the oldest group. Since the pattern of cue effectiveness in the elderly was similar to that in Experiment 1, where the same words were presented alone, it was concluded that aging results in poor elaboration, in particular, in inefficient integration of word events with the context of presentation. These age effects were mimicked in young subjects in Experiment 3 by experimentally restricting encoding time. The present approach uses somewhat modified views of depth and elaboration.

  15. Framing the inborn aging process and longevity science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2010-06-01

    The medical sciences are currently dominated by the "disease-model" approach to health extension, an approach that prioritizes the study of pathological mechanisms with the goal of discovering treatment modalities for specific diseases. This approach has marginalized research on the aging process itself, research that could lead to an intervention that retards aging, thus conferring health dividends that would far exceed what could be expected by eliminating any specific disease of aging. This paper offers a diagnosis of how this sub-optimal approach to health extension arose and some general prescriptions concerning how progress could be made in terms of adopting a more rational approach to health extension. Drawing on empirical findings from psychology and economics, "prospect theory" is applied to the challenges of "framing" the inborn aging process given the cognitive capacities of real (rather than rational) decision-makers under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Prospect theory reveals that preferences are in fact dependent on whether particular outcomes of a choice are regarded as "a loss" or "a gain", relative to a reference point (or "aspiration level for survival"). And this has significant consequences for the way biogerontologists ought to characterise the central aspirations of the field (i.e. to prevent disease versus extend lifespan). Furthermore, it reveals the importance of shifting the existing reference point of the medical sciences to one that is shaped by the findings of evolutionary biology and biodemography.

  16. Arabic text preprocessing for the natural language processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awajan, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for processing vowelized and unvowelized Arabic texts in order to prepare them for Natural Language Processing (NLP) purposes is described. The developed approach is rule-based and made up of four phases: text tokenization, word light stemming, word's morphological analysis and text annotation. The first phase preprocesses the input text in order to isolate the words and represent them in a formal way. The second phase applies a light stemmer in order to extract the stem of each word by eliminating the prefixes and suffixes. The third phase is a rule-based morphological analyzer that determines the root and the morphological pattern for each extracted stem. The last phase produces an annotated text where each word is tagged with its morphological attributes. The preprocessor presented in this paper is capable of dealing with vowelized and unvowelized words, and provides the input words along with relevant linguistics information needed by different applications. It is designed to be used with different NLP applications such as machine translation text summarization, text correction, information retrieval and automatic vowelization of Arabic Text. (author)

  17. Natural gas from coal : the community consultation process in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    2005-01-01

    The community consultation process was examined with reference to natural gas from coal (NGC) development in Alberta. It was suggested that NGC has a huge potential in Canada, and can be developed in an environmentally responsible manner which considers all stakeholders. However, water supply shortages and the effects of development on groundwater remain key stakeholder concerns in Alberta. Issues concerning water protection and handling were discussed, along with issues concerning surface disruption during resource development activities. An outline of road needs and pipeline corridors was presented. An outline of a typical NGC compressor station were given. Issues concerning public anxiety over air quality were discussed with reference to flaring and landowner complaints. It was noted NGC is not sour and contains no liquid hydrocarbons or foreign contaminants. A review of government regulations and best practices was presented with regards to flaring. Multi-stakeholder advisory committee practices were reviewed. It was concluded that Alberta is currently using a variety of consultation processes to enable better communications between industry and stakeholders. figs

  18. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs, thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  19. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  20. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  1. Age Differences in Face Processing: The Role of Perceptual Degradation and Holistic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Isabelle; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

    2018-01-24

    We simultaneously investigated the role of three hypotheses regarding age-related differences in face processing: perceptual degradation, impaired holistic processing, and an interaction between the two. Young adults (YA) aged 20-33-year olds, middle-age adults (MA) aged 50-64-year olds, and older adults (OA) aged 65-82-year olds were tested on the context congruency paradigm, which allows measurement of face-specific holistic processing across the life span (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike & Meinhardt, 2014. Acta Psychologica, 151, 155-163). Perceptual degradation was examined by measuring performance with faces that were not filtered (FSF), with faces filtered to preserve low spatial frequencies (LSF), and with faces filtered to preserve high spatial frequencies (HSF). We found that reducing perceptual signal strength had a greater impact on MA and OA for HSF faces, but not LSF faces. Context congruency effects were significant and of comparable magnitude across ages for FSF, LSF, and HSF faces. By using watches as control objects, we show that these holistic effects reflect face-specific mechanisms in all age groups. Our results support the perceptual degradation hypothesis for faces containing only HSF and suggest that holistic processing is preserved in aging even under conditions of reduced signal strength. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Methodology to analysis of aging processes of containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, D. da Silva; Lava, D.D.; Moreira, M. de L.; Ferreira Guimarães, A.C.; Fernandes da Silva, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a contribution to the study of aging process of components in commercial plants of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The motivation for write this work emerged from the current perspective nuclear. Numerous nuclear power plants worldwide have an advanced operating time. This problem requires a process to ensure the confiability of the operative systems of these plants, because of this, it is necessary a methodologies capable of estimate the failure probability of the components and systems. In addition to the safety factors involved, such methodologies can to be used to search ways to ensure the extension of the life cycle of nuclear plants, which inevitably will pass by the decommissioning process after the operating time of 40 years. This process negatively affects the power generation, besides demanding an enormous investment for such. Thus, this paper aims to present modeling techniques and sensitivity analysis, which together can generate an estimate of how components, which are more sensitive to the aging process, will behave during the normal operation cycle of a nuclear power plant. (authors)

  3. Relationship between age at natural menopause and risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Iffat; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether younger age at natural menopause confers a risk of heart failure. We also examined a possible modifying effect of tobacco smoking. This study used the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort; 22,256 postmenopausal women with information on age at natural menopause were followed from 1997 through 2011. First event of heart failure was ascertained through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. During a mean follow-up of 13 years, we ascertained 2,532 first events of heart failure hospitalizations and deaths. The mean age at menopause was 51 years. Early natural menopause (40-45 y), compared with menopause at ages 50 to 54 years, was significantly associated with heart failure (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.64). In analyses stratified by smoking status, similar HRs were observed for this age group among never smokers (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.66) and ever smokers (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.78). Among ever smokers, increased incidence (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.47) of heart failure could be detected even among those who entered menopause at ages 46 to 49 years. We found a significant interaction between age at natural menopause and smoking (P = 0.019). This study indicates that women who experience early natural menopause are at increased risk for developing heart failure and that smoking can modify the association by increasing the risk even among women who enter menopause around ages 46 to 49 years.

  4. Vascular Ageing and Exercise: Focus on Cellular Reparative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mark D; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with an increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increased risk can be attributable to increased prolonged exposure to oxidative stress. Often, CVD is preceded by endothelial dysfunction, which carries with it a proatherothrombotic phenotype. Endothelial senescence and reduced production and release of nitric oxide (NO) are associated with "vascular ageing" and are often accompanied by a reduced ability for the body to repair vascular damage, termed "reendothelialization." Exercise has been repeatedly shown to confer protection against CVD and diabetes risk and incidence. Regular exercise promotes endothelial function and can prevent endothelial senescence, often through a reduction in oxidative stress. Recently, endothelial precursors, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), have been shown to repair damaged endothelium, and reduced circulating number and/or function of these cells is associated with ageing. Exercise can modulate both number and function of these cells to promote endothelial homeostasis. In this review we look at the effects of advancing age on the endothelium and these endothelial precursors and how exercise appears to offset this "vascular ageing" process.

  5. Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60+) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g. park). In event-related potential work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV-homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV-homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: high fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV-homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: high fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a tradeoff between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together, the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of fronto-temporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012). PMID:23687920

  6. Correlation of natural tooth colour with aging in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Polo, Cristina; Gómez Polo, Miguel; Montero, Javier; Martínez Vazquez De Parga, Juan Antonio; Celemin Viñuela, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    To analyse natural tooth colour in the Spanish population according to the colour coordinates lightness (L*), chroma (C*), hue (h*), red-green axis (a*) and yellow-blue axis (b*) in order to quantify the correlation and changes of tooth colour with age and sex. Natural tooth colour was measured in a sample of 1,361 Spanish participants of both sexes distributed within an age range of 16 to 89 years. The Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer was used and the CIELAB and CIELCh systems were followed. Pearson's bivariate correlations between age and colour coordinates were highly significant for L* (r=-0.674, P≤0.001), h* (r=-0.468, P≤0.001) and C* (r=0.417, P≤0.001). The correlation between age and colour coordinates was stronger for men than for women, for all colour coordinates. The results showed that C*, b* and a* increased by 0.60, 0.56 and 0.26 units/year on average, respectively, whereas L* and h* decreased progressively with age (by 0.60 units/year, on average), and colour differences increased in a systematic way as the gap between the ages being compared grew wider. The strongest correlation was found between age and L*, then between age and h* (both inverse relationships) and then between age and a*, C* and b* (direct relationships). In addition, a similar degree of change in the colour coordinates L*, C* and h* (of 0.60 units/year on average) was observed for natural tooth colour. Knowledge of the chromatic range of natural teeth may help to choose colour for the replacement of missing elements. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Automation of a problem list using natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical problem list is an important part of the electronic medical record in development in our institution. To serve the functions it is designed for, the problem list has to be as accurate and timely as possible. However, the current problem list is usually incomplete and inaccurate, and is often totally unused. To alleviate this issue, we are building an environment where the problem list can be easily and effectively maintained. Methods For this project, 80 medical problems were selected for their frequency of use in our future clinical field of evaluation (cardiovascular. We have developed an Automated Problem List system composed of two main components: a background and a foreground application. The background application uses Natural Language Processing (NLP to harvest potential problem list entries from the list of 80 targeted problems detected in the multiple free-text electronic documents available in our electronic medical record. These proposed medical problems drive the foreground application designed for management of the problem list. Within this application, the extracted problems are proposed to the physicians for addition to the official problem list. Results The set of 80 targeted medical problems selected for this project covered about 5% of all possible diagnoses coded in ICD-9-CM in our study population (cardiovascular adult inpatients, but about 64% of all instances of these coded diagnoses. The system contains algorithms to detect first document sections, then sentences within these sections, and finally potential problems within the sentences. The initial evaluation of the section and sentence detection algorithms demonstrated a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 100% when detecting sections, and a sensitivity of 89% and a positive predictive value of 94% when detecting sentences. Conclusion The global aim of our project is to automate the process of creating and maintaining a problem

  8. Evaluation of PHI Hunter in Natural Language Processing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steve; Meystre, Stephane; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Bolton, Dan; Heavirland, Julia; Weaver, Allison Lynn; Hope, Carol; Garvin, Jennifer Hornung

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and evaluate a new, easily accessible tool using a common statistical analysis and business analytics software suite, SAS, which can be programmed to remove specific protected health information (PHI) from a text document. Removal of PHI is important because the quantity of text documents used for research with natural language processing (NLP) is increasing. When using existing data for research, an investigator must remove all PHI not needed for the research to comply with human subjects' right to privacy. This process is similar, but not identical, to de-identification of a given set of documents. PHI Hunter removes PHI from free-form text. It is a set of rules to identify and remove patterns in text. PHI Hunter was applied to 473 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) text documents randomly drawn from a research corpus stored as unstructured text in VA files. PHI Hunter performed well with PHI in the form of identification numbers such as Social Security numbers, phone numbers, and medical record numbers. The most commonly missed PHI items were names and locations. Incorrect removal of information occurred with text that looked like identification numbers. PHI Hunter fills a niche role that is related to but not equal to the role of de-identification tools. It gives research staff a tool to reasonably increase patient privacy. It performs well for highly sensitive PHI categories that are rarely used in research, but still shows possible areas for improvement. More development for patterns of text and linked demographic tables from electronic health records (EHRs) would improve the program so that more precise identifiable information can be removed. PHI Hunter is an accessible tool that can flexibly remove PHI not needed for research. If it can be tailored to the specific data set via linked demographic tables, its performance will improve in each new document set.

  9. Effect of pre-ageing and natural ageing on the paint bake response of alloy AA6181A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lingfei, E-mail: lingfei.cao@monash.edu [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Rometsch, Paul A.; Couper, Malcolm J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2013-06-01

    A pre-ageing treatment of 20 s at 200 °C immediately after quenching effectively retards clustering during subsequent natural ageing in alloy 6181A. This results in a better paint-baking response in alloy 6181A than in 6022 with a 0.3 wt% Cu addition. The formation of solute aggregates with more than 22 detected Mg+Si+Cu atoms during the pre-ageing treatment was found to contribute to an enhanced age hardening response during a subsequent ageing treatment of 0.5 h at 170 °C. Based on a generalised regression model, it was found that for a given fraction of Mg+Si+Cu in solute aggregates, large solute aggregates with more than 75 detected Mg+Si+Cu atoms contribute about 2 times more to the yield strength than small solute aggregates with less than 23 atoms, while intermediately sized solute aggregates appear to have only a negligible strengthening effect. Also, based on another generalised regression analysis, it was confirmed that the electrical conductivity is influenced by both the solute concentration in solution and by differently sized aggregates. For a given volume fraction, small aggregates with less than 23 Mg+Si+Cu atoms were found to have a significantly more negative effect on the conductivity than larger aggregates.

  10. H, HM, and THM-C processes in natural barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javeri, V.; Le, T.T.; Cui, Y.J.; Delage, P.; Li, X.J.; Wieczorek, K.; Jockwer, N.; Romero, E.; Lima, A.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.; Francois, B.; Nuth, M.; Laloui, L.; Chen, W.; Jia, S.; Yu, H.; Wu, G.; Li, X.; Bernier, F.; Tan, X.; Wu, G.; Jia, S.; Giot, R.; Hoxha, D.; Giraud, A.; Homand, F.; Su, K.; Chavant, C.; Duveau, G.; Jia, Y.; Shao, J.F.; Peron, H.; Laloui, L.; Hueckel, T.; Hu, L.B.; Auvray, C.; Lequiller, B.; Cuisinier, O.; Ferber, V.; Cui, Y.J.; Deneele, D.; Uhlig, L.; Jobmann, M.; Polster, M.; Vaunat, J.; Garrite, B.; Wileveau, Y.; Sato, H.; Jacinto, A.; Sanchez, M.; Ledesma, A.; Morel, J.; Balland, C.; Armand, G.; Nguyen Minh, D.; Vales, F.; Pham, Q.T.; Gharbi, H.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Li, X.; Smets, St.; Valcke, E.; Karnland, O.; Nilsson, U.; Olsson, S.; Sellin, P.; Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.M.; Villar, M.V.; Turrero, M.J.; Garitte, B.; Guimaraes, L.D.N.; Gens, A.; Mayor, J.C.; Koliji, A.; Laloui, L.; Vulliet, L.; Hamdi, N.; Marzouki, A.; Srasra, E.; Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Birchall, D.J.; Marschall, P.; Mallet, A.; Ababou, R.; Matray, J.M.; Renaud, V.; Maison, T.; Enachescu, C.; Frieg, B.; Rohs, St.; Paris, B.; Robinet, J.C.; Bui, T.D.; Barnichon, J.D.; Plas, F.; Klubertanz, G.; Folly, M.; Hufschmied, P.; Frank, E

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 30 articles (posters) dealing with: the three Dimensional analyses of combined gas, heat and nuclide transport in a repository considering coupled thermo-hydro geomechanical processes; the experimental study on the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of boom clay; hydraulic in-situ measurements in the Opalinus clay in the frame of a heater test performed at the Mont Terri URL; the hydro-mechanical behaviour of natural boom clay in controlled-suction tests; a constitutive approach to address the thermal and hydric impacts in the concept of deep radioactive waste repositories; the numerical analysis on stability of boom clay tunnel by shield construction; a thermo-hydro-mechanical model for clay in unsaturated conditions; the 3D modelling of TER experiment accounting for fully anisotropic thermo-poro-elastic behaviour; the hydro-mechanical modeling of shaft excavation in Meuse/Haute-Marne laboratory; the modelling of drying damage in engineered and natural clay barriers for nuclear waste disposal; the elasto-viscoplastic behaviour of Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite: laboratory tests and modelling; the long-term behaviour of a lime treated soil under percolation conditions; the stress redistribution and hydro-mechanical effects due to excavation and drilling operations in TER experiment; a thermodynamic model on swelling of bentonite buffer and backfill materials; the 3D analysis of a heating test in the Opalinus clay; the THM analysis of a 'mock-up' laboratory experiment using a double-structure expansive model; the measurement of the effect of re-confinement on rock properties around a slot; a laboratory Study of desaturation - re-saturation effects on a clay-stone; the deformation induced by dissolution of salts in porous media; the bentonite swelling pressure in pure water and saline solutions; the mineralogy and sealing properties of various bentonites and smectite-rich clay materials; the evaluation of the geochemical processes occurring

  11. Age-related shifts in hemispheric dominance for syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Michelle; Federmeier, Kara D

    2017-12-01

    Recent ERP data from young adults have revealed that simple syntactic anomalies elicit different patterns of lateralization in right-handed participants depending upon their familial sinistrality profile (whether or not they have left-handed biological relatives). Right-handed participants who do not have left-handed relatives showed a strongly lateralized response pattern, with P600 responses following left-hemisphere-biased presentations and N400 responses following right-hemisphere-biased presentations. Given that the literature on aging has documented a tendency to change across adulthood from asymmetry of function to a more bilateral pattern, we tested the stability of this asymmetric response to syntactic violations by recording ERPs as 24 older adults (age 60+) with no history of familial sinistrality made grammaticality judgments on simple two-word phrases. Results showed that the asymmetric pattern observed in right-handed adults without familial sinistrality indeed changes with age, such that P600 responses come to be elicited not only with left-hemisphere-biased but also with right-hemisphere-biased presentations in older adults. These findings suggest that, as with many other cognitive functions, syntactic processing becomes more bilateral with age. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Natural language processing tools for computer assisted language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeventer Faltin, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.

  14. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance analysis of solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yifan; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process is proposed. • The two processes are modeled and simulated. • Performance analysis of the two processes are conducted. • The proposed process can cut down the greenhouse gas emission. • The proposed process can save natural gas consumption. - Abstract: Methanol is an important platform chemical. Methanol production using natural gas as raw material has short processing route and well developed equipment and technology. However, natural gas reserves are not large in China. Solar energy power generation system integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol (NGTM) process is developed, which may provide a technical routine for methanol production in the future. The solar energy power generation produces electricity for reforming unit and system consumption in solar energy integrated natural-gas-to-methanol system (SGTM). Performance analysis of conventional natural-gas-to-methanol process and solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process are presented based on simulation results. Performance analysis was conducted considering carbon efficiency, production cost, solar energy price, natural gas price, and carbon tax. Results indicate that solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process is able to cut down the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. In addition, solar energy can replace natural gas as fuel. This can reduce the consumption of natural gas, which equals to 9.2% of the total consumed natural gas. However, it is not economical considering the current technology readiness level, compared with conventional natural-gas-to-methanol process.

  16. The effects of surface aging on nanoparticle fate and transport in natural and engineered porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M.

    Nanomaterials will be subjected to various surface transformations in the environment and within water and wastewater treatment systems. A comprehensive understanding of the fate and transport behavior of "aged" nanomaterials in both natural and engineered porous media is required in order to accurately quantify ecological and human health risks. This research sought to (1) evaluate the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light aging on nanoparticle transport in water-saturated porous media; and (2) assess the effects of influent water quality on silver nanoparticle retention and dissolution in ceramic water filters. Additionally, the value of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) data in nanoparticle fate and transport studies was evaluated by comparing deposition behavior in complementary QCM-D and sand columns experiments. Silver (nAg) and iron oxide nanoparticles exposed to UV light were up to 50% more strongly retained in porous media compared with freshly prepared suspensions due to less negative surface charge and larger aggregate sizes. UV-aged nAg were more prone to dissolution in sand columns, resulting in effluent Ag+ concentrations as high as 1.2 mg/L. In ceramic water filters, dissolution and cation exchange processes controlled silver release into treated water. The use of acidic, high salinity, or high hardness water accelerated oxidative dissolution of the silver coating and resulted in effluent silver concentrations 5-10 times above international drinking water guidelines. Results support the recommendation for a regular filter replacement or silver re-application schedule to ensure ongoing efficacy. Taken in concert, these research findings suggest that oxidative aging of nanomaterial surfaces (either through exposure to UV light or aggressive water chemistries) will alter the fate of nanomaterials in the environment and may decrease the effective lifetime of devices which utilize nanotechnology. Corresponding QCM-D and column experiments revealed that

  17. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging

    OpenAIRE

    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  18. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions

  19. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions PMID:28761413

  20. Down Syndrome and the aging process: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sousa Lopes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify and update the knowledge about older people with Down Syndrome (DS, and to understand the peculiarities of the aging process in this population. Bibliographical research conducted by Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior and High Wire portal. Inclusion criteria were articles published in the last ten years with the words “Down Syndrome" and “Elderly”.  

  1. Age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); E. Asllanaj (Eralda); N. Avazverdi (Naim); L. Jaspers (Loes); N. Stringa (Najada); J. Milic (Jelena); S. Ligthart (Symen); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); M. Kavousi (Maryam); A. Dehghan (Abbas); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Aims/hypothesis__ In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes, and to assess whether this association is independent of potential mediators. __Methods__ We included 3639 postmenopausal women from the

  2. Natural (auto)antibodies in calves are affected by age and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khobondo, J.O.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural autoantibodies (N(a)ab) were found in every species tested so far, and are likely important in maintaining homeostasis. Objectives: (1) To determine N(a)ab in Bos taurus calves, (2) evaluate effects of diet and age on N(a)ab binding repertoires in calves, and (3) delineate bovine

  3. The relationship between variation in size of the primordial follicle pool and age at natural menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depmann, M.; Faddy, M. J.; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.; Peeters, P. H M; Broer, S. L.; Kelsey, T. W.; Nelson, S. M.; Broekmans, F. J M

    2015-01-01

    Context: Menopause has been hypothesized to occur when the nongrowing follicle (NGF) number falls below a critical threshold. Age at natural menopause can be predicted using NGF numbers and this threshold. These predictions support the use of ovarian reserve tests, reflective of the ovarian follicle

  4. Natural Arctium lappa fruit extract improves the clinical signs of aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anja; Reuschlein, Katja; Mielke, Heiko; Wensorra, Ursula; Mummert, Christopher; Koop, Urte; Kausch, Martina; Kolbe, Ludger; Peters, Nils; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    Subclinical, chronic tissue inflammation involving the generation of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) might contribute to the cutaneous aging process. This study aims to screen for an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory (i.e., reduction of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and matrix-stimulating efficacy which improves the clinical signs of skin aging in vivo. In vitro studies with pure Arctiin were performed investigating the inhibition of cytokine induction and stimulation of collagen neo-synthesis. In vivo home-in-use studies using an Arctium lappa fruit extract-containing formulation were carried out to determine procollagen and hyaluronan synthesis, hyaluronan synthase-2 gene expression, and reduction of wrinkle volume after treatment. In vitro studies on human dermal fibroblasts and monocyte-derived dendritic cells supplemented with pure Arctiin showed relative to untreated control cells a stimulation of collagen synthesis and a decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, respectively. In addition, topical in vivo application of an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation for 12 weeks significantly stimulated procollagen synthesis and increased hyaluronan synthase-2 expression as well as hyaluronan levels compared to vehicle-treated control areas. Similarly, after a 4-week treatment with an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation, wrinkle volume in the crow's feet area was significantly reduced as compared to treatment with the vehicle. Our data show that topical treatment with a natural A. lappa fruit extract significantly improves the metabolism of the dermal extracellular matrix and leads to a visible wrinkle reduction in vivo. In conclusion, A. lappa fruit extract represents a targeted means to regenerate dermal structures and, thus, offers an effective treatment option for mature skin.

  5. Calculation models for prediction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing during ship transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miana, Mario; Hoyo, Rafael del; Rodrigalvarez, Vega; Valdes, Jose Ramon [Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Area de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios Tecnologicos, Maria de Luna 7, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Llorens, Raul [ENAGAS SA, Direccion de Ingenieria y Tecnologia del Gas, Autovia A - 2, km. 306.4, 50012 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. (author)

  6. Nature of strain aging stages in bake hardening steel for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Alexander A.; Lee, Hu-Chul; Kuzmin, Nikolay L.

    2008-01-01

    Strain aging behavior of industrially produced ultra low carbon bake hardening (BH) steel for automotive application was investigated. The aging process was studied by the dynamic Young's modulus and amplitude-independent dislocation internal friction measurements with acoustic methods. Analysis of the revealed strain aging stages was carried out and has resulted in the conclusion that formation of interstitial atoms atmospheres on the dislocations is accompanied and substantially affected by the dissolution of their grain boundary segregations

  7. The role of proteins on the thermal oxidative aging of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Rosa, A. de la; Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Hevea latex proteins on the aging properties of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was investigated. Unpurified RVNRL films exhibited better aging properties than the purified RVNRL films. A sharp decrease in tensile strength was observed after aging when RVNRL films were leached in 1% NH sub 4 OH. However, when these films were soaked in ethanol prior to leaching, the aging properties approximated those of the unleached samples. Kjeldahl and FT-IR analyses of the leached and unleached RVNRL films indicated a higher protein content for both the unleached and ethanol-soaked films than for leached films. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteins present in the NH, extracts of leached RVNRL films showed a high concentration of hevein. This protein was not found in the ATH, extracts of ethanol soaked films. Hevein was shown to improve the aging properties of RVNRL

  8. Can we predict age at natural menopause using ovarian reserve tests or mother's age at menopause? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depmann, Martine; Broer, Simone L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Tehrani, Fahimeh R; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Mol, Ben W; Broekmans, Frank J

    2016-02-01

    This review aimed to appraise data on prediction of age at natural menopause (ANM) based on antimüllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), and mother's ANM to evaluate clinical usefulness and to identify directions for further research. We conducted three systematic reviews of the literature to identify studies of menopause prediction based on AMH, AFC, or mother's ANM, corrected for baseline age. Six studies selected in the search for AMH all consistently demonstrated AMH as being capable of predicting ANM (hazard ratio, 5.6-9.2). The sole study reporting on mother's ANM indicated that AMH was capable of predicting ANM (hazard ratio, 9.1-9.3). Two studies provided analyses of AFC and yielded conflicting results, making this marker less strong. AMH is currently the most promising marker for ANM prediction. The predictive capacity of mother's ANM demonstrated in a single study makes this marker a promising contributor to AMH for menopause prediction. Models, however, do not predict the extremes of menopause age very well and have wide prediction interval. These markers clearly need improvement before they can be used for individual prediction of menopause in the clinical setting. Moreover, potential limitations for such use include variations in AMH assays used and a lack of correction for factors or diseases affecting AMH levels or ANM. Future studies should include women of a broad age range (irrespective of cycle regularity) and should base predictions on repeated AMH measurements. Furthermore, currently unknown candidate predictors need to be identified.

  9. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  10. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  11. Linking human and natural systems in the planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin; Roger B. Hammer

    2012-01-01

    Planning links human and natural systems in the urban-rural interface by engaging people in consideration of the future of natural resources. We review evolving ideas about what planning entails, who it involves, and what its outcomes should be. Sense of place, collaboration, emergent planning, and other new developments in planning are discussed. Smaller plans,...

  12. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartig, T.; Berg, van den A.E.; Hagerhall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we consider how experiences of nature can affect human health and well-being. We first address the matter of ‘what has been’; that is, we sketch the development of theory and research concerned with health benefits of natural environments, from ancient times to the current situation.

  13. Natural variation in life history and aging phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial DNA deletion frequency in Caenorhabditis briggsae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Samson W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that impair mitochondrial functioning are associated with a variety of metabolic and age-related disorders. A barrier to rigorous tests of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging processes has been the lack of model systems with relevant, naturally occurring mitochondrial genetic variation. Toward the goal of developing such a model system, we studied natural variation in life history, metabolic, and aging phenotypes as it relates to levels of a naturally-occurring heteroplasmic mitochondrial ND5 deletion recently discovered to segregate among wild populations of the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae. The normal product of ND5 is a central component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and integral to cellular energy metabolism. Results We quantified significant variation among C. briggsae isolates for all phenotypes measured, only some of which was statistically associated with isolate-specific ND5 deletion frequency. We found that fecundity-related traits and pharyngeal pumping rate were strongly inversely related to ND5 deletion level and that C. briggsae isolates with high ND5 deletion levels experienced a tradeoff between early fecundity and lifespan. Conversely, oxidative stress resistance was only weakly associated with ND5 deletion level while ATP content was unrelated to deletion level. Finally, mean levels of reactive oxygen species measured in vivo showed a significant non-linear relationship with ND5 deletion level, a pattern that may be driven by among-isolate variation in antioxidant or other compensatory mechanisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ND5 deletion may adversely affect fitness and mitochondrial functioning while promoting aging in natural populations, and help to further establish this species as a useful model for explicit tests of hypotheses in aging biology and mitochondrial genetics.

  14. Vascular Ageing and Exercise: Focus on Cellular Reparative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with an increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The increased risk can be attributable to increased prolonged exposure to oxidative stress. Often, CVD is preceded by endothelial dysfunction, which carries with it a proatherothrombotic phenotype. Endothelial senescence and reduced production and release of nitric oxide (NO are associated with “vascular ageing” and are often accompanied by a reduced ability for the body to repair vascular damage, termed “reendothelialization.” Exercise has been repeatedly shown to confer protection against CVD and diabetes risk and incidence. Regular exercise promotes endothelial function and can prevent endothelial senescence, often through a reduction in oxidative stress. Recently, endothelial precursors, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, have been shown to repair damaged endothelium, and reduced circulating number and/or function of these cells is associated with ageing. Exercise can modulate both number and function of these cells to promote endothelial homeostasis. In this review we look at the effects of advancing age on the endothelium and these endothelial precursors and how exercise appears to offset this “vascular ageing” process.

  15. Change of the State of the Natural Antioxidant Barrier of a Body and Psychological Parameters in Patients Aged above 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Porzych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study is to assess the natural antioxidant barrier of the organism and selected psychological aspects of the aging process in patients above 60 years old. Methods. The study included a total of 52 patients aged above 60 (mean age 67 ± 3.4 and 32 healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 3.4 as a control group. All patients underwent psychological assessment using Test of Attentional Performance version 2.3 (TAP 2.3, four subtests: alertness, cross-modal integration, neglect with central task, and working memory and biochemical analysis of venous blood concerning values of the selected parameters of oxidative stress (HT, GSH, GPXOS, GPXRBC, GRRBC1, SODRBC1, MDARBC1, NO2−/NO3−, and CP. Results. Disorders of attention were observed mainly in elderly people, but an assumption that elderly people have developed more efficient ways of working memory use than younger people may be true. Results showed the reduced effectiveness of the body’s natural antioxidant barrier in elderly people. Moderate positive and negative correlations among parameters of oxidative stress and psychological parameters were observed in the control group. Discussion. Intensification of the attention deficits and oxidative stress may be observed as one of the pathogenic factors of age-dependent diseases.

  16. Effect of natural aging on quench-induced inhomogeneity of microstructure and hardness in high strength 7055 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengdan; Li, Chengbo; Han, Suqi; Deng, Yunlai; Zhang, Xinming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The quench-induced hardness inhomogeneity in 7055 Al alloy decreases by natural aging. • The reason is discussed based on natural aging effect on microstructural inhomogeneity. • Natural aging decreases the difference of hardening precipitates due to slow quenching. • GPII zones appear in the rapidly-quenched sample after natural aging for 17,280 h. - Abstract: The effect of natural aging on quench-induced inhomogeneity of microstructure and hardness in high strength 7055 aluminum alloy was investigated by means of end quenching technique, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis. The hardness inhomogeneity in the end-quenched specimens after artificial aging decreases with the increase of natural aging time prior to artificial aging. The quench-induced differences in the amount and size of η′ phase are large in the end-quenched specimen after artificial aging at 120 °C for 24 h, leading to high hardness inhomogeneity. Natural aging for a long time results in a larger amount of stable GPI zones in the slowly-quenched sample, and thus decreases such differences in the end-quenched specimens after subsequent artificial aging, leading to lower hardness inhomogeneity. The hardness inhomogeneity can be reduced from 14% to be 4% by natural aging for 17,280 h prior to artificial aging

  17. Aging, culture, and memory for categorically processed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Chen, Wenfeng; Ng, Andy H; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-11-01

    Literature on cross-cultural differences in cognition suggests that categorization, as an information processing and organization strategy, was more often used by Westerners than by East Asians, particularly for older adults. This study examines East-West cultural differences in memory for categorically processed items and sources in young and older Canadians and native Chinese with a conceptual source memory task (Experiment 1) and a reality monitoring task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants encoded photographic faces of their own ethnicity that were artificially categorized into GOOD or EVIL characters and then completed a source memory task in which they identified faces as old-GOOD, old-EVIL, or new. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a series of words, each followed either by a corresponding image (i.e., SEEN) or by a blank square within which they imagined an image for the word (i.e., IMAGINED). At test, they decided whether the test words were old-SEEN, old-IMAGINED, or new. In general, Canadians outperformed Chinese in memory for categorically processed information, an effect more pronounced for older than for young adults. Extensive exercise of culturally preferred categorization strategy differentially benefits Canadians and reduces their age group differences in memory for categorically processed information.

  18. Age effects on visual-perceptual processing and confrontation naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutherie, Audrey H; Seely, Peter W; Beacham, Lauren A; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William A; Moore, Anna Bacon

    2010-03-01

    The impact of age-related changes in visual-perceptual processing on naming ability has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 6 levels of spatial frequency and 6 levels of contrast on accuracy and latency to name objects in 14 young and 13 older neurologically normal adults with intact lexical-semantic functioning. Spatial frequency and contrast manipulations were made independently. Consistent with the hypotheses, variations in these two visual parameters impact naming ability in young and older subjects differently. The results from the spatial frequency-manipulations revealed that, in general, young vs. older subjects are faster and more accurate to name. However, this age-related difference is dependent on the spatial frequency on the image; differences were only seen for images presented at low (e.g., 0.25-1 c/deg) or high (e.g., 8-16 c/deg) spatial frequencies. Contrary to predictions, the results from the contrast manipulations revealed that overall older vs. young adults are more accurate to name. Again, however, differences were only seen for images presented at the lower levels of contrast (i.e., 1.25%). Both age groups had shorter latencies on the second exposure of the contrast-manipulated images, but this possible advantage of exposure was not seen for spatial frequency. Category analyses conducted on the data from this study indicate that older vs. young adults exhibit a stronger nonliving-object advantage for naming spatial frequency-manipulated images. Moreover, the findings suggest that bottom-up visual-perceptual variables integrate with top-down category information in different ways. Potential implications on the aging and naming (and recognition) literature are discussed.

  19. Age at menarche and age at natural menopause in East Asian women: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-12-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.

  20. Social learning Processes and Nature-Culture relations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beekeeping Practices as Small and Medium. Enterprise ... consider the relationships that exist between humans and nature/environment. At one ... scientific technological development in pursuit of satisfying human needs; while the other end.

  1. Mindful Processing in Psychotherapy - Facilitating Natural Healing Process within Attuned Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is non-judgmental, accepting awareness of what is going on in the present moment. The author proposes that mindfulness promotes natural healing of the organism, where the change comes spontaneously by acceptance and awareness of internal experience. Such process the author describes as ‘mindful processing’, because with mindful awareness disturbing experiences can be processed and integrated. The author’s interest in how mindfulness can be systematically applied in psychotherapy led to the development of the ‘mindful processing’ method, which invites the client to become aware of the moment-to-moment subjective experience. The method is used within attuned therapeutic relationship and thetheoretical framework of Integrative Psychotherapy. Mindful Processing is not goal-oriented and doesn’t strive to achieve a positive outcome. Such an outcome is a natural by-product of accepting awareness of both pleasant and unpleasant inner experience (body sensations, affects and/or thoughts. The method is illustrated with a transcript of a session with commentary.

  2. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase) space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  3. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  4. Role of Sirt1 during the ageing process: relevance to protection of synapses in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Juan A; Zolezzi, Juan M; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-01

    Ageing is a stochastic process associated with a progressive decline in physiological functions which predispose to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The intrinsic complexity of ageing remains a significant challenge to understand the cause of this natural phenomenon. At the molecular level, ageing is thought to be characterized by the accumulation of chronic oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids caused by free radicals. Increased oxidative stress and misfolded protein formations, combined with impaired compensatory mechanisms, may promote neurodegenerative disorders with age. Nutritional modulation through calorie restriction has been shown to be effective as an anti-ageing factor, promoting longevity and protecting against neurodegenerative pathology in yeast, nematodes and murine models. Calorie restriction increases the intracellular levels of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), a co-substrate for the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1, silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1) activity and a cofactor for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. Promotion of intracellular NAD(+) anabolism is speculated to induce neuroprotective effects against amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) toxicity in some models for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sirt1, has been implicated in the ageing process. Sirt1 serves as a deacetylase for numerous proteins involved in several cellular pathways, including stress response and apoptosis, and plays a protective role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  5. Effects of early age at natural menopause on coronary heart disease and stroke in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2017-08-15

    Menopause is identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease because of the change of estrogen. The objective of the study was to explore the associations between early age at natural menopause (menopause at an age≤45years) and the presence of CHD and stroke. The study subjects were from the first follow-up survey of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. A total of 16,515 postmenopausal women were included for the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between age at natural menopause (≤45, 45-52, >52years) and the presence of CHD and stroke adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive history and metabolic factors. In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-year delay in menopausal age, the prevalence of CHD and stroke was reduced by 3% (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and 5% (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), respectively. Women with early menopause (≤45years) had a higher prevalence of CHD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Similarly, women with early menopause (≤45years) was associated with higher prevalence of stroke (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.30) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Early age at natural menopause is significantly associated with the presence of CHD and stroke among Chinese women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Estimation of natural age of menopause in Iranian women: A meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Rajaeefard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mean age of menopause have been reported at the age of 51 in the world and regarding the increase in life expectancy in many countries more than a third of the life time of women i s in menopause period. The importance of menopause is due to its relationship with various diseases and quality of life. The present study was conducted to estimate the average natural age of menopause in women based on a meta-analysis study. Material and Methods: In a meta-analysis study on all the existing articles in the natural age o f menopause in Iran, 21 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. Begg and Egger tests fo r publication bias and Cochrane test were used to determine the heterogeneity among samples. ???? estimate of mean calculated based on Random effect model in Stata11 software. Results: The publication bias assumption was rejected by Begg and Egger tests with significant value s equal to 0.174 and 0.446 respectively. There was a heterogeneity among samples (Q=4626.3, df=20 , P<0.001. So based on random effect model the mean age of menopause was calculated as 48.183 with 95 % CI=47.457-48.91. Conclusion: The average age of natural menopause in Iranian women is favorable to some places of Middle East, but is less compared with developed countries and the world mean. Because of the importance of this period in women, educational programs seem to be necessary.

  7. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  8. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating....... In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......MRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more...

  9. Modified stochastic fragmentation of an interval as an ageing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2018-02-01

    We study a stochastic model based on modified fragmentation of a finite interval. The mechanism consists of cutting the interval at a random location and substituting a unique fragment on the right of the cut to regenerate and preserve the interval length. This leads to a set of segments of random sizes, with the accumulation of small fragments near the origin. This model is an example of record dynamics, with the presence of ‘quakes’ and slow dynamics. The fragment size distribution is a universal inverse power law with logarithmic corrections. The exact distribution for the fragment number as function of time is simply related to the unsigned Stirling numbers of the first kind. Two-time correlation functions are defined, and computed exactly. They satisfy scaling relations, and exhibit aging phenomena. In particular, the probability that the same number of fragments is found at two different times t>s is asymptotically equal to [4πlog(s)]-1/2 when s\\gg 1 and the ratio t/s is fixed, in agreement with the numerical simulations. The same process with a reset impedes the aging phenomenon-beyond a typical time scale defined by the reset parameter.

  10. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  11. Significant Variables in the Combustion Process of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Villaflor, Gloria; Morales, Graciela V; Velasco, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Se determinan las variables significativas del proceso de combustión de gas natural, aquellas más sensibles para producir cambios importantes desde punto de vista económico y medioambiental. Con este fin se realiza la simulación del proceso de combustión de gas natural, utilizando el simulador comercial HYSYS. Se determina que las variables de operación más sensibles para este proceso son la temperatura del aire, la temperatura de los gases de combustión y el exceso de aire usado en la combus...

  12. Radiation processing of natural rubber and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Hj. Mohd

    2007-01-01

    Research in natural rubber (NR) is still offering good and exciting opportunities especially in making NR into superior products and as a source for new chemicals by modification of its structure. As in the case of liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylic (LENRA), it has been shown that it has the ability to induce the interfacial interaction between NR and polyolefin i.e. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) as demonstrated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. For NR/HDPE blend, without deuteration technique, SANS was also to induce some scattering data leading to fruitful information on the interfacial interaction between the blend compositions. (author)

  13. Dynamic light absorption of biomass-burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2014-02-01

    Wood-burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross section (integrated between 280 and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood-burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time, indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of primary organic aerosol with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood-burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass-burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood-burning OC.

  14. Dynamic light absorption of biomass burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2013-08-01

    Wood burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross-section (integrated between 280 nm and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of POA with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line Wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood burning OC.

  15. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  16. Aspects of quality assurance in processing natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Natural sausage casings are produced from the intestines of various species and used as edible containers for many different types of sausage around the world. Casings must therefore be fit for human consumption and must meet all food safety and hygiene requirements that apply to food of animal

  17. Effects of aging on processing of novel musical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M P; Steffens, M L

    1994-07-01

    Musical processing involves long-term memory representations of invariant properties of auditory patterns and working memory representations of patterns heard in the present moment. Musical scales are formalized sets of pitches on which much of musical composition and improvisation is based, and frequency relations among scale notes are invariant within categorical boundaries. Studies of young adults have indicated that adjustments of frequency relations are better detected when melodies are based on culturally familiar scales than on culturally unfamiliar scales. A proposed account for this finding has been that knowledge about musical frequency relations is stored in long-term memory. In the present study, old and young adults performed equivalently well in detection of frequency relation adjustments in a culturally familiar scale context, but young adults performed better than old adults in culturally unfamiliar scale contexts. The performance of old adults in a culturally unfamiliar scale context was correlated with high-frequency (8 kHz) hearing sensitivity. These findings suggest that influences of aging on processing of auditory events involve relations of auditory cognition and hearing sensitivity.

  18. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Sik Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control. Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  19. Biodegradability and aging study of rubber films obtained by gamma radiation vulcanization processes of latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Carlos Felipe Pinto

    2005-01-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) is industrially crosslinked by the conventional process of vulcanization, which uses sulphur and heat. Otherwise, the network can also be done by the alternative process with ionizing radiation. In this work the crosslinking of NRL was studied by the comparison of the conventional vulcanization system and the ionizing radiation process of 60 C source. The products obtained, the irradiated latex, the irradiated latex with approximately 1% of soy lecithin and the sulphur vulcanized latex were tested by accelerated aging with ultraviolet (UV) and outdoor aging with compostage, tensile strength at break, swelling and gel fraction, fungi micro biota, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG and DSC). The results showed that the aging with microorganisms have a great influence in the physical properties of the samples. The thermal stability order observed showed that the sulphur vulcanized latex is more resistant, what is probably associated to a network more stable under the aging conditions. On the other hand, the irradiated latex showed intense biodegradation aspects, particularly with the presence of the soy lecithin. (author)

  20. Influence of Sex and Age on Natural Resistance to St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Arthur A.; Hanson, Robert P.

    1974-01-01

    A difference was observed in susceptibility of adult male and female mice to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus as measured by the death rate after intravenous challenge. Female mice that had susceptibility similar to that of males at 2 months of age had increased resistance to SLE virus at 3 and 4 months of age. The increased resistance occurred after sexual maturity, indicating that the resistance factor possibly was related to an aging process in the female. The susceptibility of male mice remained unchanged over the 2- to 4-month period. Neither pregnancy nor castration had any effect on resistance of adult mice to St. Louis encephalitis virus. PMID:4857422

  1. Formation and reversion of clusters during natural aging and subsequent artificial aging in an Al–Mg–Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruga, Yasuhiro, E-mail: aruga.yasuhiro@kobelco.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Kozuka, Masaya, E-mail: kozuka.masaya@kobelco.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Takaki, Yasuo, E-mail: takaki.yasuo@kobelco.com [Aluminum Sheets and Coils Research Department, Aluminum & Copper Business, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 15 Kinugaoka, Moka, Tochigi 321-4367 (Japan); Sato, Tatsuo, E-mail: sato.t.ap@m.titech.ac.jp [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259-R2-18, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2015-04-17

    The continuous changes in number density, size distribution and chemical composition of clusters during natural aging (NA), and subsequent artificial aging (AA) at 443 K, in an Al–0.62Mg–0.93Si (mass%) alloy have been evaluated using atom probe tomography. The data show almost no change in the average size and Mg/Si ratio (at% ratio) of clusters during NA. The highest hardness and most-dense clusters, following NA, and the largest drop in hardness, during AA for 1.2 ks, are observed in the material with the longest NA period. In contrast with the published literature, which suggests that only small clusters revert into solution, the number density of clusters decreased, with no dependence on the cluster size, during AA for 1.2 ks, resulting in a slight decrease in the average radius of clusters. Things to be emphasized are that the number density of clusters with the Mg/Si ratio below 0.4 stays pretty much the same during AA, whereas other clusters decrease during the first 1.2 ks and then increase again during the prolonged AA for up to 3.6 ks. This work is the first to reveal that the typical Si-rich clusters can neither be dissolved nor grow further, although the size is small. In other words, it is believed that the typical Si-rich clusters can lead to the retardation of the hardness increase during AA called as negative effect of NA.

  2. Formation and reversion of clusters during natural aging and subsequent artificial aging in an Al–Mg–Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruga, Yasuhiro; Kozuka, Masaya; Takaki, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The continuous changes in number density, size distribution and chemical composition of clusters during natural aging (NA), and subsequent artificial aging (AA) at 443 K, in an Al–0.62Mg–0.93Si (mass%) alloy have been evaluated using atom probe tomography. The data show almost no change in the average size and Mg/Si ratio (at% ratio) of clusters during NA. The highest hardness and most-dense clusters, following NA, and the largest drop in hardness, during AA for 1.2 ks, are observed in the material with the longest NA period. In contrast with the published literature, which suggests that only small clusters revert into solution, the number density of clusters decreased, with no dependence on the cluster size, during AA for 1.2 ks, resulting in a slight decrease in the average radius of clusters. Things to be emphasized are that the number density of clusters with the Mg/Si ratio below 0.4 stays pretty much the same during AA, whereas other clusters decrease during the first 1.2 ks and then increase again during the prolonged AA for up to 3.6 ks. This work is the first to reveal that the typical Si-rich clusters can neither be dissolved nor grow further, although the size is small. In other words, it is believed that the typical Si-rich clusters can lead to the retardation of the hardness increase during AA called as negative effect of NA

  3. The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M

    2013-09-01

    Forming the first line of defence against virally infected and malignant cells, natural killer (NK) cells are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. With age, significant impairments have been reported in the two main mechanisms by which NK cells confer host protection: direct cytotoxicity and the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines. In elderly subjects, decreased NK cell activity has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence and severity of viral infection, highlighting the clinical implications that age-associated changes in NK cell biology have on the health of older adults. However, is an increased susceptibility to viral infection the only consequence of these age-related changes in NK cell function? Recently, evidence has emerged that has shown that in addition to eliminating transformed cells, NK cells are involved in many other biological processes such as immune regulation, anti-microbial immune responses and the recognition and elimination of senescent cells, novel functions that involve NK-mediated cytotoxicity and/or cytokine production. Thus, the decrease in NK cell function that accompanies physiological ageing is likely to have wider implications for the health of older adults than originally thought. Here, we give a detailed description of the changes in NK cell biology that accompany human ageing and propose that certain features of the ageing process such as: (i) the increased reactivation rates of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (ii) the slower resolution of inflammatory responses and (iii) the increased incidence of bacterial and fungal infection are attributable in part to an age-associated decline in NK cell function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Leathers from Natural Materials:  Progressing toward a New Arena in Leather Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2004-01-01

    Globally, the leather industry is currently undergoing radical transformation due to pollution and discharge legislations. Thus, the leather industry is pressurized to look for cleaner options for processing the raw hides and skins. Conventional methods of pre-tanning, tanning and post-tanning processes are known to contribute more than 98% of the total pollution load from the leather processing. The conventional method of the tanning process involves the “do−undo” pri...

  5. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    pathological processes emphasizing that long-term stress-related insults can impair the maintenance of chromatin landscape and provoke cellular senescence and tissue fibrosis associated with aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27114850

  6. The process of natural succession in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2011-01-01

    Succession has been a fundamental concept in ecology. Its classical definition is the orderly change in vegetation at a site that is predictable and directional towards a climax state or end point (Clements 1916). A general assumption of succession is that early seres are governed by allogenic processes, environmental processes external to the site, and early seres...

  7. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD.

  8. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-12-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of thermally aged Egyptian linen dyed with organic natural dyestuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, N.; El-Gaoudy, H.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2013-08-01

    A number of organic natural dyestuffs used in dyeing in ancient times, i.e. indigo, madder, turmeric, henna, cochineal, saffron and safflower, have been used to colour Egyptian fabrics based on linen. Their physicochemical properties have been evaluated on thermally aged linen samples. The aged dyed linen samples were thoroughly examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile strength and elongation measurements. It was found that, in the molecular level, dyes interact mainly with the cellulose compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Tensile strength is positively related to the dye treatment while elongation depends specifically on the type of the dye used. Results converge that the dyed textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration.

  10. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W.; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-01-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD. PMID:26693513

  11. Age, growth and natural mortality of coney (Cephalopholis fulva from the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Burton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coney (Cephalopholis fulva sampled from recreational and commercial vessels along the southeastern coast of the United States in 1998–2013 (n = 353 were aged by counting opaque bands on sectioned sagittal otoliths. Analysis of otolith edge type (opaque or translucent revealed that annuli formed in January–June with a peak in April. Coney were aged up to 19 years, and the largest fish measured 430 mm in total length (TL. The weight-length relationship was ln(W = 3.03 × ln(TL − 18.05 (n = 487; coefficient of determination [r2] = 0.91, where W = whole weight in kilograms and and TL = total length in millimeters. Mean observed sizes at ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19 years were 225, 273, 307, 338, and 400 mm TL, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth equation for coney was Lt = 377 (1 − e(−0.20(t+3.53. Natural mortality (M estimated by Hewitt and Hoenig’s longevity-based method which integrates all ages was 0.22. Age-specific M values, estimated with the method of Charnov and others, were 0.40, 0.30, 0.26, 0.22, and 0.20 for ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19, respectively.

  12. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriazoula Chatzianagnostou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet’s (MeD beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and—even more important—healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails.

  13. Familial concordance for age at natural menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    Existing estimates of the heritability of menopause age have a wide range. Furthermore, few studies have analyzed to what extent familial similarities might reflect shared environment, rather than shared genes. We therefore analyzed familial concordance for age at natural menopause and the effects of shared genetic and environmental factors on this concordance. Participants were 2,060 individuals comprising first-degree relatives, aged 31 to 90 years, and participating in the UK Breakthrough Generations Study. Menopause data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using logistic regression and variance-components models. Women were at an increased risk of early menopause (≤45 y) if their mother (odds ratio, 6.2; P menopause. Likewise, women had an increased risk of late menopause (≥54 y) if their relative had had a late menopause (mother: odds ratio, 6.1; P menopause age attributed to environmental factors shared by sisters. We confirm that early menopause aggregates within families and show, for the first time, that there is also strong familial concordance for late menopause. Both genes and shared environment were the source of variation in menopause age. Past heritability estimates have not accounted for shared environment, and thus, the effect of genetic variants on menopause age may previously have been overestimated.

  14. Improving Agricultural Productivity with Radiation Processed Natural Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Through the power of irradiation to break and create chemical bonds, the natural polymer cassava starch is used to make super water absorbents (SWA), 1kg of which can absorb and hold 200 litres of water and release it slowly over time. Placed in the soil near plants’ roots, SWA can be used where there is little rain or frequent drought. After 9 months the crystals, which resemble sugar crystals, completely disintegrate, leaving no residue. (author)

  15. Natural-language processing applied to an ITS interface

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gisolfi; Enrico Fischetti

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that with a subset of a natural language, simple systems running on PCs can be developed that can nevertheless be an effective tool for interfacing purposes in the building of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). After presenting the special characteristics of the Smalltalk/V language, which provides an appropriate environment for the development of an interface, the overall architecture of the interface module is discussed. We then show how sentences are par...

  16. The role of natural analogs in the repository licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a permanent geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste (NLW) is implicitly based on analogy to natural systems that have been stable for millions or billions of years. The time of radioactive and chemical toxicity of HLW exceeds the duration of human civilization, and it is impossible to demonstrate the accuracy of predictions of the behavior of engineered or social systems over such long periods

  17. Identifying the age cohort responsible for transmission in a natural outbreak of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne H Long

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the major routes of disease transmission and reservoirs of infection are needed to increase our understanding of disease dynamics and improve disease control. Despite this, transmission events are rarely observed directly. Here we had the unique opportunity to study natural transmission of Bordetella bronchiseptica--a directly transmitted respiratory pathogen with a wide mammalian host range, including sporadic infection of humans--within a commercial rabbitry to evaluate the relative effects of sex and age on the transmission dynamics therein. We did this by developing an a priori set of hypotheses outlining how natural B. bronchiseptica infections may be transmitted between rabbits. We discriminated between these hypotheses by using force-of-infection estimates coupled with random effects binomial regression analysis of B. bronchiseptica age-prevalence data from within our rabbit population. Force-of-infection analysis allowed us to quantify the apparent prevalence of B. bronchiseptica while correcting for age structure. To determine whether transmission is largely within social groups (in this case litter, or from an external group, we used random-effect binomial regression to evaluate the importance of social mixing in disease spread. Between these two approaches our results support young weanlings--as opposed to, for example, breeder or maternal cohorts--as the age cohort primarily responsible for B. bronchiseptica transmission. Thus age-prevalence data, which is relatively easy to gather in clinical or agricultural settings, can be used to evaluate contact patterns and infer the likely age-cohort responsible for transmission of directly transmitted infections. These insights shed light on the dynamics of disease spread and allow an assessment to be made of the best methods for effective long-term disease control.

  18. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  19. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  20. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Intelligence Artificielle , France, May 2001, p. 109- 118 [Barrière, 2001] -----. “Investigating the Causal Relation in Informative Texts”. Terminology, 7:2...out of the flood of information, military have to create new ways of processing sensor and intelligence information, and of providing the results to...have to create new ways of processing sensor and intelligence information, and of providing the results to commanders who must take timely operational

  1. Building from a conceptual model of the resilience process during ageing, towards the Groningen Aging Resilience Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Abbema, Renske; Bielderman, Annemiek; De Greef, Mathieu; Hobbelen, Hans; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    Aim. To develop and psychometrically test the Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory. Background. Ageing is a process that is often accompanied by functional limitation, disabilities and losses. Instead of focusing on these negative events of ageing, there are opportunities in focusing on adaptation

  2. Process connectivity in a naturally prograding river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, Alicia; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-03-01

    River deltas are lowland systems that can display high hydrological connectivity. This connectivity can be structural (morphological connections), functional (control of fluxes), and process connectivity (information flow from system drivers to sinks). In this work, we quantify hydrological process connectivity in Wax Lake Delta, coastal Louisiana, by analyzing couplings among external drivers (discharge, tides, and wind) and water levels recorded at five islands and one channel over summer 2014. We quantify process connections with information theory, a branch of mathematics concerned with the communication of information. We represent process connections as a network; variables serve as network nodes and couplings as network links describing the strength, direction, and time scale of information flow. Comparing process connections at long (105 days) and short (10 days) time scales, we show that tides exhibit daily synchronization with water level, with decreasing strength from downstream to upstream, and that tides transfer information as tides transition from spring to neap. Discharge synchronizes with water level and the time scale of its information transfer compares well to physical travel times through the system, computed with a hydrodynamic model. Information transfer and physical transport show similar spatial patterns, although information transfer time scales are larger than physical travel times. Wind events associated with water level setup lead to increased process connectivity with highly variable information transfer time scales. We discuss the information theory results in the context of the hydrologic behavior of the delta, the role of vegetation as a connector/disconnector on islands, and the applicability of process networks as tools for delta modeling results.

  3. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  4. The Use of natural fatty acids in processing tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, A.K.; Abdelgeleel, M.; Eskander, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Natural unsaturated fatty acid (e.g cotton, corn, litmus, castor and palm oils) were used to fix tritium gas. The data obtained show that the affinity of the different used natural oils fixation of hydrogen (tritium) was in the following order: cotton oils> corn oil> litmus oil> castor oil> palm oil. The quantity of hydrogen (tritium) which can be fixed by one gram cotton oil is about 5.824 ml H 2 (5.56 x 10 1 1 Bq tritium) while one gram corn oil can fix only 5.04 ml H 2 (4.811 x 10 1 1 Bq tritium). Tritiated cotton oil and corn oil can be solidified using an epoxy resin (Araldite-B-W-1193), the polymer sample can contain up to 5% by weight from hydrogenated (tritiated) oils. The results obtained show that the compressive strength measurements of the final solid waste forms (fatty acid/epoxy) increased with increasing curing time and decreased with increasing fatty acid content. The leachability of tritium from the final solid waste forms increased with increasing fatty acid content in the polymer matrix. The cumulative leach fraction of tritium varied between 4.00 x 10 -3 cm and 6.60 x 10 -3 cm according to the experimental conditions. 15 figs., 1 tab

  5. Financial Performance of Mixed-Age Naturally Regenerated Loblolly-Hardwood Stands in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen Lee Abt

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the financial performance of a natural mixed species and mixed-age management in the loblolly-pine forest type, we examined 991 FIA plots in the south central states. The plots were of the loblolly pine forest type, mixed-age, and had been regenerated naturally. We gauged the financial performance of each plot from the equivalent annual income (EAI)...

  6. Several natural indicators of radial well ageing at the Belgrade groundwater source, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, M; Pusić, M; Vidovic, D; Petković, A; Boreli-Zdravković, D

    2011-01-01

    Over time, the radial collector wells of the Belgrade Groundwater Source, located in the alluvial sediments of the Sava River, exhibit a decline in discharge and a reduction in operating efficiency due to well ageing. An increase in hydraulic losses at the lateral screens, due to chemical and biochemical clogging, has been identified as the primary cause. Certain hydrogeological, hydrochemical and microbiological parameters reflect the well-ageing process and can, therefore, be considered as its indicators. An indicator-based determination of scale is an important aspect in the selection of appropriate well locations, structural characteristics, and maintenance approaches. Well ageing was studied over a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The objective was to investigate the causes of well ageing. The correlations established between the groundwater redox potential, the total iron concentration in groundwater, the grain-size distribution of the aquifer, and well discharge, are presented in the paper.

  7. Testing of a naturally aged nuclear power plant inverter and battery charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    A naturally aged inverter and battery charger were obtained from the Shippingport facility. This equipment was manufactured in 1974, and was installed at Shippingport in 1975 as part of a major plant modification. Testing was performed on this equipment under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program to evaluate the type and extent of degradation due to aging, and to determine the effectiveness of condition monitoring techniques which could be used to detect aging effects. Steady state testing was conducted over the equipment's entire operating range. Step load changes were also initiated in order to monitor the electrical response. During this testing, component temperatures were monitored and circuit waveforms analyzed. Results indicated that aging had not substantially affected equipment operation. On the other hand, when compared with original acceptance test data, the monitoring techniques employed were sensitive to changes in measurable component and equipment parameters indicating the viability of detecting degradation prior to catastrophic failure. 7 refs., 34 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2012-03-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries.

  9. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries. PMID:25089059

  10. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Perez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1 to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2 to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3 to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  11. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L D; Venza, Erin E; Chapman, Sandra B

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28-79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  12. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M.; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L. D.; Venza, Erin E.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations. PMID:29867641

  13. Natural variations and controlled changes in lignification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, C.; Boudet, A.M.; Ranjeva, R.

    1982-10-01

    Plant materials exhibit a great heterogeneity as far as the concentration and composition of lignins are concerned. Different examples of their natural variation, including taxonomic differences, developmental changes, mutations and responses to pathogen attack are presented. This variability suggests that lignin content and composition can be manipulated in plants, to a certain extent, by different treatments. Several possibilities are described to increase lignin concentrations. They mainly include hormonal or precursor treatments. Moreover light greatly affects the quantity and quality of lignins and such changes in environmental conditions can be used to produce specific radio-labelled lignins in view of biodegradation studies. Finally, induced mutants with modified lignins are described and attempts in inhibiting lignification through specific enzyme inhibitors are discussed. These data suggest that there is a good possibility of obtaining plants with modified lignins either genetically or by chemical inhibition. These strategies should be developed in the future in order to optimize plant biomass utilisation. (Refs. 44).

  14. Prediction of Mass Flow Rate in Supersonic Natural Gas Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass flow rate of natural gas through the supersonic separator was numerically calculated by various cubic equations of state. The numerical results show that the compressibility factor and specific heat ratio for ideal gas law diverge remarkably from real gas models at a high inlet pressure. Simultaneously, the deviation of mass flow calculated by the ideal and real gas models reaches over 10 %. The difference increases with the lower of the inlet temperature regardless of the inlet pressure. A higher back pressure results in an earlier location of the shock wave. The pressure ratio of 0.72 is the first threshold to get the separator work normally. The second threshold is 0.95, in which case the whole flow is subsonic and cannot reach the choked state. The shock position moves upstream with the real gas model compared to the ideal gas law in the cyclonic separation section.

  15. CREATIVE MEDITATION CENTERED ON NATURAL ELEMENTS: CONSEQUENCES ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the effects of a creative meditation centered on a natural element (fire on different aspects of cognitive functioning, commonly associated with well-being, either positively (self-esteem, or negatively (automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. The results showed that while self-esteem improves after the creative meditation, automatic negative thinking and thought suppression do not decrease significantly. The conclusion is that the creative meditation helps in getting in touch with Self, supporting a healthy self-esteem when taking into consideration the social standards, but this also means accepting both positive and negative aspects of self, including the automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. This recommends the technique as a useful tool for psychotherapeutic and personal development use, as the vulnerabilities may become the focus without unnecessary self-blame, but with an intuitive solution in mind to turn them into personal resources.

  16. Natural-language processing applied to an ITS interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gisolfi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show that with a subset of a natural language, simple systems running on PCs can be developed that can nevertheless be an effective tool for interfacing purposes in the building of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS. After presenting the special characteristics of the Smalltalk/V language, which provides an appropriate environment for the development of an interface, the overall architecture of the interface module is discussed. We then show how sentences are parsed by the interface, and how interaction takes place with the user. The knowledge-acquisition phase is subsequently described. Finally, some excerpts from a tutoring session concerned with elementary geometry are discussed, and some of the problems and limitations of the approach are illustrated.

  17. Influence of civilization processes on natural foodstuff resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattny, C

    1970-01-01

    An introduction to a symposium is presented. The goal of the symposium was to consider the qualitative damage to foodstuffs consumed by man which is caused by the polluting processes of industrial society. Also the symposium was to consider the unfavorable effects of pollution on the health of animals which serve as human food.

  18. The Linguistic and Embodied Nature of Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max M.; Jeuniaux, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Recent theories of cognition have argued that embodied experience is important for conceptual processing. Embodiment can be contrasted with linguistic factors such as the typical order in which words appear in language. Here, we report four experiments that investigated the conditions under which embodiment and linguistic factors determine…

  19. Advanced exergetic analysis of five natural gas liquefaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Palizdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergetic analysis was investigated for five LNG processes. • Avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous irreversibilities were calculated. • Advanced exergetic analysis identifies the potentials for improving the system. - Abstract: Conventional exergy analysis cannot identify portion of inefficiencies which can be avoided. Also this analysis does not have ability to calculate a portion of exergy destruction which has been produced through performance of a component alone. In this study advanced exergetic analysis was performed for five mixed refrigerant LNG processes and four parts of irreversibility (avoidable/unavoidable) and (endogenous/exogenous) were calculated for the components with high inefficiencies. The results showed that portion of endogenous exergy destruction in the components is higher than the exogenous one. In fact interactions among the components do not affect the inefficiencies significantly. Also this analysis showed that structural optimization cannot be useful to decrease the overall process irreversibilities. In compressors high portion of the exergy destruction is related to the avoidable one, thus they have high potential to improve. But in multi stream heat exchangers and air coolers, unavoidable inefficiencies were higher than the other parts. Advanced exergetic analysis can identify the potentials and strategies to improve thermodynamic performance of energy intensive processes

  20. Directed forgetting and aging: the role of retrieval processes, processing speed, and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogge, Michaël; Adam, Stéphane; Collette, Fabienne

    2008-07-01

    The directed forgetting effect obtained with the item method is supposed to depend on both selective rehearsal of to-be-remembered (TBR) items and attentional inhibition of to-be-forgotten (TBF) items. In this study, we investigated the locus of the directed forgetting deficit in older adults by exploring the influence of recollection and familiarity-based retrieval processes on age-related differences in directed forgetting. Moreover, we explored the influence of processing speed, short-term memory capacity, thought suppression tendencies, and sensitivity to proactive interference on performance. The results indicated that older adults' directed forgetting difficulties are due to decreased recollection of TBR items, associated with increased automatic retrieval of TBF items. Moreover, processing speed and proactive interference appeared to be responsible for the decreased recall of TBR items.

  1. [Natural infection by hemoparasites in calves submitted to chemoprophylaxis at 30 days of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosângela A; Corrêa, Fabíola do N; Botteon, Rita de Cássia C M; Botteon, Paulo de Tarso L

    2007-01-01

    The tick-borne disease (TBD) brings great damages to cattle breeding. The most important etiologic agents are Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale, being the tick Boophilus microplus the main vector. This work reports the occurrence of natural infection by hemoparasites of TBD in 36 calves with high ticks natural infestation submitted to chemoprophylaxis with 30 days year-old. The blood smears from animals of different ages were analized and were found B. bigemina (33.3%), B. bovis (11.1%) and A. marginale (13.9%). Six animals had clinical symptoms (16.7%) and one dead (2.8%). The number of clinical cases ocurred in consequence of an association of factors as high infestation of ticks and low passive immunity in period that calves had not developed enough active immunity.

  2. Natural Language Processing with Small Feed-Forward Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Jan A.; Pitler, Emily; Ma, Ji; Bakalov, Anton; Salcianu, Alex; Weiss, David; McDonald, Ryan; Petrov, Slav

    2017-01-01

    We show that small and shallow feed-forward neural networks can achieve near state-of-the-art results on a range of unstructured and structured language processing tasks while being considerably cheaper in memory and computational requirements than deep recurrent models. Motivated by resource-constrained environments like mobile phones, we showcase simple techniques for obtaining such small neural network models, and investigate different tradeoffs when deciding how to allocate a small memory...

  3. Sociolinguistically Informed Natural Language Processing: Automating Irony Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    interaction feature using the entire training dataset, and repeated this process 100 times to account for variation due to the SGD procedure. Table 6...Levy and Goldberg , 2014). We parsed the ukWaC corpus (Baroni et al., 2009) using the Stanford Dependency Parser v3.5.2 with Stanford Dependencies...bitrary and variable sizes. We pre-trained our own syntactic embeddings fol- lowing (Levy and Goldberg , 2014). We parsed the ukWaC corpus (Baroni et

  4. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties in naturally aged 7050 and 7075 Al friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Christian B., E-mail: christian.fuller@yahoo.com [Rockwell Scientific, 1049 Camino Dos Rios, Thousand Oaks, CA 93021 (United States); Mahoney, Murray W., E-mail: murraymahoney@comcast.net [Rockwell Scientific, 1049 Camino Dos Rios, Thousand Oaks, CA 93021 (United States); Calabrese, Mike [Rockwell Scientific, 1049 Camino Dos Rios, Thousand Oaks, CA 93021 (United States); Micona, Leanna [The Boeing Company, P.O. Box 3707 MC 19-HP, Seattle, WA 98124 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The microstructural and mechanical property evolution of friction stir welded 7050-T7651 and 7075-T651 Al alloys were examined as a function of room temperature (natural) aging for up to 67,920 h. During the range of aging times studied, transverse tensile strengths continuously increased, and are still increasing, with improvements of 24% and 29% measured for the 7050-T7651 and 7075-T651 Al alloy friction stir welds, respectively. Microstructural evolution within the weld nugget and heat-affected zone was evaluated with both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Formation of a high volume fraction of GP(II) zones produced a majority of the strength improvement within the weld nugget and HAZ regions. The rational for the microstructural changes are discussed in light of the mechanical properties.

  5. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2017-02-01

    Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10 percentile or highest 90 percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes.

  6. Learning and Teaching about the Nature of Science through Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget K.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation, a three-paper set, explored whether the process skills-based approach to nature of science instruction improves teachers' understandings, intentions to teach, and instructional practice related to the nature of science. The first paper examined the nature of science views of 53 preservice science teachers before and after a…

  7. Automated Trait Extraction using ClearEarth, a Natural Language Processing System for Text Mining in Natural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Thessen,Anne; Preciado,Jenette; Jain,Payoj; Martin,James; Palmer,Martha; Bhat,Riyaz

    2018-01-01

    The cTAKES package (using the ClearTK Natural Language Processing toolkit Bethard et al. 2014, http://cleartk.github.io/cleartk/) has been successfully used to automatically read clinical notes in the medical field (Albright et al. 2013, Styler et al. 2014). It is used on a daily basis to automatically process clinical notes and extract relevant information by dozens of medical institutions. ClearEarth is a collaborative project that brings together computational linguistics and domain scient...

  8. Subjective Age Bias: A Motivational and Information Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina

    2009-01-01

    There is broad empirical evidence, but still a lack of theoretical explanations, for the phenomenon that most older people feel considerably younger than their real age. In this article, a measurement model of subjective age was assessed, and two independent theoretical approaches are proposed: (1) a motivational approach assuming that the age…

  9. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus from the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Potts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136 from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June. Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95; W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95; TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99; and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99, where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79 (n = 136. Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42.

  10. [Comparative biochemistry of process of ageing in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V S; Berezina, D A; Borovkova, T A; Gavrilov, I V

    2014-01-01

    In the research of a number of biochemical indicators in 858 men and 899 women aged from 20 till 70 years divided into 6 compared groups depending on age and gender clear distinctions in the dynamics of the components of the lipid status, status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of the blood system, the content of middlemolecular peptides are revealed. Simultaneous determination of the biological age of the subjects also revealed a distinct gender differencies testifying to lower rate of aging of men, despite the probability of earlier, in comparison with women, development of dislipidemia and atherosclerosis. Association of the received gender distinctions both with changes of level of estrogen in women due to menopause and with the peculiarities of stressful impacts on male and female organism in different age periods is supposed.

  11. On the Nature of Electric Current in the Electrospinning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturalp Yalcinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric currents between electrodes in the electrospinning process are based on the movement of charge carriers through the spinning space. The majority of the charge carriers are formed by ionization of the air close to the metallic needle and to the polymer jet. The salt contained in the polymer solution contributes to the concentration of charge carriers, depending on its amount. The conductivity of polymer jets does not significantly affect the current since the jets do not link the electrodes.

  12. 'This is a natural process': managing menstrual stigma in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mary; Menger, Lauren M; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual stigma has been demonstrated in many societies. However, there is little research on menstrual attitudes in South Asia, despite religiously-based menstrual restrictions imposed on women. To understand menstrual stigma in this context, we conducted qualitative research with women in Nepal. Nepali Hinduism forbids menstruating women to enter a temple or kitchen, share a bed with a husband or touch a male relative. During menstruation, women are 'untouchable'. There has been virtually no research on how Nepali women make meaning of these practices. The current study employed focus groups and individual interviews to understand how some Nepali women experience menarche and menstrual stigma. We explored how women describe their experiences and the strategies they adopt to manage age-old stigma in a rapidly modernising society where they have multiple roles as workers, wives and mothers. Participants reported they experienced menarche with little preparation, which caused distress, and were subjected to ongoing stigmatisation as menstruating women. They described coping strategies to reduce the effects of this stigma. This study provides a unique perspective on coping with menstrual stigma in South Asia.

  13. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  14. Asymmetric localization of natural antisense RNA of neuropeptide sensorin in Aplysia sensory neurons during aging and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena eKadakkuzha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in our understanding of transcriptome, regulation and function of its noncoding components continue to be poorly understood. Here we searched for natural antisense transcript for sensorin (NAT-SRN, a neuropeptide expressed in the presynaptic sensory neurons of gill-withdrawal reflex of the marine snail Aplysia californica. Sensorin (SRN has a key role in learning and long-term memory storage in Aplysia. We have identified NAT-SRN in the central nervous system (CNS and have confirmed its expression by northern blotting and fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis of NAT-SRN in micro dissected cell bodies and processes of sensory neurons suggest that NAT-SRN is present in the distal neuronal processes along with sense transcripts. Importantly, aging is associated with reduced levels of NAT-SRN in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, we find that forskolin, an activator of CREB signaling, differentially alters the distribution of SRN and NAT-SRN. These studies reveal novel insights into physiological regulation of natural antisense RNAs.

  15. Asymmetric localization of natural antisense RNA of neuropeptide sensorin in Aplysia sensory neurons during aging and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakkuzha, Beena M; Liu, Xin-An; Narvaez, Maria; Kaye, Alexandra; Akhmedov, Komolitdin; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V

    2014-01-01

    Despite the advances in our understanding of transcriptome, regulation and function of its non-coding components continue to be poorly understood. Here we searched for natural antisense transcript for sensorin (NAT-SRN), a neuropeptide expressed in the presynaptic sensory neurons of gill-withdrawal reflex of the marine snail Aplysia californica. Sensorin (SRN) has a key role in learning and long-term memory storage in Aplysia. We have now identified NAT-SRN in the central nervous system (CNS) and have confirmed its expression by northern blotting and fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis of NAT-SRN in micro-dissected cell bodies and processes of sensory neurons suggest that NAT-SRN is present in the distal neuronal processes along with sense transcripts. Importantly, aging is associated with reduction in levels of NAT-SRN in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, we find that forskolin, an activator of CREB signaling, differentially alters the distribution of SRN and NAT-SRN. These studies reveal novel insights into physiological regulation of natural antisense RNAs.

  16. Alzheimer's disease and natural cognitive aging may represent adaptive metabolism reduction programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reser Jared

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article examines several lines of converging evidence suggesting that the slow and insidious brain changes that accumulate over the lifespan, resulting in both natural cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD, represent a metabolism reduction program. A number of such adaptive programs are known to accompany aging and are thought to have decreased energy requirements for ancestral hunter-gatherers in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Foraging ability in modern hunter-gatherers declines rapidly, more than a decade before the average terminal age of 55 years. Given this, the human brain would have been a tremendous metabolic liability that must have been advantageously tempered by the early cellular and molecular changes of AD which begin to accumulate in all humans during early adulthood. Before the recent lengthening of life span, individuals in the ancestral environment died well before this metabolism reduction program resulted in clinical AD, thus there was never any selective pressure to keep adaptive changes from progressing to a maladaptive extent. Aging foragers may not have needed the same cognitive capacities as their younger counterparts because of the benefits of accumulated learning and life experience. It is known that during both childhood and adulthood metabolic rate in the brain decreases linearly with age. This trend is thought to reflect the fact that children have more to learn. AD "pathology" may be a natural continuation of this trend. It is characterized by decreasing cerebral metabolism, selective elimination of synapses and reliance on accumulating knowledge (especially implicit and procedural over raw brain power (working memory. Over decades of subsistence, the behaviors of aging foragers became routinized, their motor movements automated and their expertise ingrained to a point where they no longer necessitated the first-rate working memory they possessed when younger and learning actively. Alzheimer

  17. Alzheimer's disease and natural cognitive aging may represent adaptive metabolism reduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reser, Jared Edward

    2009-02-28

    The present article examines several lines of converging evidence suggesting that the slow and insidious brain changes that accumulate over the lifespan, resulting in both natural cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), represent a metabolism reduction program. A number of such adaptive programs are known to accompany aging and are thought to have decreased energy requirements for ancestral hunter-gatherers in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Foraging ability in modern hunter-gatherers declines rapidly, more than a decade before the average terminal age of 55 years. Given this, the human brain would have been a tremendous metabolic liability that must have been advantageously tempered by the early cellular and molecular changes of AD which begin to accumulate in all humans during early adulthood. Before the recent lengthening of life span, individuals in the ancestral environment died well before this metabolism reduction program resulted in clinical AD, thus there was never any selective pressure to keep adaptive changes from progressing to a maladaptive extent.Aging foragers may not have needed the same cognitive capacities as their younger counterparts because of the benefits of accumulated learning and life experience. It is known that during both childhood and adulthood metabolic rate in the brain decreases linearly with age. This trend is thought to reflect the fact that children have more to learn. AD "pathology" may be a natural continuation of this trend. It is characterized by decreasing cerebral metabolism, selective elimination of synapses and reliance on accumulating knowledge (especially implicit and procedural) over raw brain power (working memory). Over decades of subsistence, the behaviors of aging foragers became routinized, their motor movements automated and their expertise ingrained to a point where they no longer necessitated the first-rate working memory they possessed when younger and learning actively. Alzheimer changes selectively and

  18. Evaluation of Cooking Oil as Processing Addtive for Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. SYAMIN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that high amount of aromatic ring  or number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds found in aromatic oil are carcinogenic. This paper discusses the work to evaluate the Malaysian cooking oil as an alternative option to be used as process oil since cooking oil is safe to use and non-toxic. The performance of cooking oil is compared againstaromatic and paraffinioils. The results showed that rubber compounds containing cooking oil produced almostsimilar cure characteristicsas those produced by aromatic and paraffinioils indicating that it did not interfere with the vulcanization reaction. The physical properties of the vulcanizates containing cooking oil were almostsimilar to those of vulcanizates containing aromatic and paraffinioils, except the rebound resilience. The vulcanizates containing cooking oil gave higher resilience than vulcanizates containing aromatic and paraffinioils. High resilience is one of the desired features for a low rolling resistance tyre. Cooking oil provided this extra advantage.

  19. Study of Aging ion exchange membranes used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellakhal, N.; Ghalloussi, R.; Dammak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the most important application of ion exchange membranes (IEM) is the electrodialysis. This technique consists of a membrane separation using a series of anion exchange membranes alternately and cations, often used for the desalination of brackish water. These membranes are confronted with problems of aging. Indeed, the more they are used more physical and chemical properties will change. A comparative study of the behavior of both EMI and new but the same treatment is carried out by measuring a magnitude transfer characteristic: ion permeability. Ionic permeability is a physical quantity can have an idea about the selectivity of the membrane towards the charged species and the p orosity o f the membrane. It is a transport of ions (cations + anions) through the membrane. Thus, determining the ion permeability is to determine the diffusion flux of a strong electrolyte through a membrane separating two compartments (one containing electrolytes and other water initially ultrapure who will gradually electrolyte through the membrane). The measurement technique used is that by conductimetric detection because of the ease of its implementation and its accuracy. Thus, the variation of the concentration of the electrolyte is continuously monitored by measuring the conductivity of the solution diluted with time. The curves s = f (t) MEA and MEC new and used varying concentration of the electrolyte membranes show that let in less waste of strong electrolyte (NaCl and HCl) than new ones. This can be explained by: - The functional sites are combined with polyvalent ions present even in trace amounts in the solution process and become inactive. The membrane loses its hydrophilic character and turns into a film almost hydrophobic. - The chemical attacks and electrodialysis operations have degraded and eliminated much of the fixed sites leading to the same effects on the hydrophilic membrane. - These two assumptions have been reinforced by the extent of exchange

  20. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and light-aging study of HPMC films functionalized with natural plant extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Javeed; Jacquot, Muriel; Jasniewski, Jordane; Jacquot, Charlotte; Imran, Muhammad; Jamshidian, Majid; Paris, Cédric; Desobry, Stéphane

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to functionalize edible hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films with natural coloring biomolecules having antioxidant capacity and to study their photo-aging stability in the films. HPMC films containing a natural red color compound (NRC) at the level of 1, 2, 3 or 4% (v/v) were prepared by a casting method. A slight degradation of films color was observed after 20 days of continuous light exposure. The antioxidant activity of NRC incorporated films was stable during different steps of film formation and 20 days of dark storage. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of samples stored under light was significantly affected after 20 days. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared) spectroscopy was used to characterize the new phenolic polymeric structures and to study the photo-degradation of films. The results showed a good polymerization phenomenon between NRC and HPMC in polymer matrix giving a natural color to the films. NRC showed an ability to protect pure HPMC films against photo-degradation. This phenomenon was directly proportional to the concentration of NRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The nature of behavioural correlates of healthy ageing: a twin study of lifestyle in mid to late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGue, Matt; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-06-01

    With the greying of the industrialized world has come increased interest in identifying the modifiable lifestyle factors that promote healthy and successful ageing. Whereas many of the behavioural correlates of late-life morbidity and mortality have been identified, relatively little is known about the origins of individual differences in these factors. A sample of 12,714 twins, including both members of 3806 pairs of known zygosity, ascertained through the Danish Twin Registry and aged 40 to 80 years, completed a self-report assessment of six lifestyle factors associated with ageing: smoking, drinking, diet and physical, social and intellectual activities. Standard biometric methods were used to analyse the twin data and determine the extent to which individual differences in each of the lifestyle factors are heritable. For each of the six lifestyle factors, the estimate of heritability ranged from 32% (95% CI: 19-42%) for the diet scale to 69% (62-72%) for the smoking measure. Biometric estimates of the contribution of the twins' common rearing environment were uniformly small (≤6%). There was little evidence that standardized biometric estimates varied by gender or age. Individuals likely construct lifestyles in part to complement and reinforce underlying genetically influenced dispositions and talents. The heritable nature of lifestyle factors implies that the behavioural and genetic contributors to ageing processes are not necessarily conceptually distinct but rather reflect the complexity of gene-environment interplay in ageing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Alison M. Perez; Jeffrey Scott Spence; L. D. Kiel; Erin E. Venza; Sandra B. Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in deci...

  4. Processes Driving Natural Acidification of Western Pacific Coral Reef Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, K. E.; Cohen, A. L.; Golbuu, Y.; McCorkle, D. C.; Lentz, S. J.; Barkley, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are acidifying the oceans, reducing seawater pH, aragonite saturation state (Ωar) and the availability of carbonate ions (CO32-) that calcifying organisms use to build coral reefs. Today's most extensive reef ecosystems are located where open ocean CO32- concentration ([CO32-]) and Ωar exceed 200 μmol kg-1 and 3.3, respectively. However, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and long residence times of water can result in carbonate chemistry conditions within coral reef systems that differ greatly from those of nearby open ocean waters. In the Palauan archipelago, water moving across the reef platform is altered by both biological and hydrographic processes that combine to produce seawater pH, Ωar, [CO32-] significantly lower than that of open ocean source water. Just inshore of the barrier reefs, average Ωar values are 0.2 to 0.3 and pH values are 0.02 to 0.03 lower than they are offshore, declining further as water moves across the back reef, lagoon and into the meandering bays and inlets that characterize the Rock Islands. In the Rock Island bays, coral communities inhabit seawater with average Ωar values of 2.7 or less, and as low as 1.9. Levels of Ωar as low as these are not predicted to occur in the western tropical Pacific open ocean until near the end of the century. Calcification by coral reef organisms is the principal biological process responsible for lowering Ωar and pH, accounting for 68 - 99 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water at our sites. However, in the Rock Island bays where Ωar is lowest, CO2 production by net respiration contributes between 17 - 30 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water. Furthermore, the residence time of seawater in the Rock Island bays is much longer than at the well flushed exposed sites, enabling calcification and respiration to drive Ωar to very low levels despite lower net ecosystem

  5. Connecting Students to Nature--How Intensity of Nature Experience and Student Age Influence the Success of Outdoor Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tina; Dierkes, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Nature connectedness counts as a crucial predictor of pro-environmental behavior. For counteracting today's environmental issues a successful re-connection of individuals to nature is necessary. Besides the promotion of knowledge transfer the aim of the educational program presented in this study is to connect students to their environment. This…

  6. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING PROCESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.

  7. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  8. Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls in Tanzania: the need to vaccinate child bearing aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirambo, Mariam M; Majigo, Mtebe; Scana, Seth D; Mushi, Martha F; Aboud, Said; Groß, Uwe; Kidenya, Benson R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2018-01-03

    Rubella primary infection during early stages of pregnancy is associated with high risk of congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS). Prevention of CRS in the resource-limited countries requires multiple strategies. Here, we document the data on the magnitude of Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls which is a crucial group in devising effective control strategies to prevent CRS. A cross sectional study involving 397 adolescent girls was conducted in the city of Mwanza involving five secondary schools. Socio-demographic and other relevant information were collected using pre-tested data collection tool. Rubella IgG antibodies were determined using enzyme immunoassay. The presence of Rubella IgG titers of >10 IU/ml indicated natural immunity. The mean age of the study participants was 15.18 ± 1.48 years. Of 397 girls, 340 (85.6%) and 57 (14.4%) were from secondary schools representing peri-urban and rural areas, respectively. Out of 397 girls, 90.4% (95% CI: 87-93) were found to be naturally immune with median Rubella IgG antibodies titers of 56.7 IU/ml interquartile range (IQR): 40.8-137. The median Rubella IgG antibodies titers were significantly high in adolescent girls from families with high socio-economic status (63.96 vs. 47.13 IU/ml, P girls from peri-urban areas of the city (63.33 vs. 39.9 IU/ml, P girls in the city of Mwanza are naturally immune to Rubella virus. There is a need to compare the effectiveness of screening and vaccinating susceptible adolescent girls with the effectiveness of vaccinating all women of childbearing in controlling CRS in low-income countries.

  9. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Aging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara F. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of organisms is characterized by a gradual functional decline of all organ systems. An appropriate theory must explain four main characteristics of aging: it is progressive, endogenous, irreversible, and deleterious for the individual. The aging of the immune system, or immunosenescence, is manifested by an increased susceptibility to infections with increased morbidity and mortality. Phagocytic capacity, synthesis of reactive oxygen intermediaries, and the intracellular killing efficiency of neutrophils are impaired in the elderly. Among all aging theories, the most updated one describes the free radicals. It implies that progressive aging is associated with higher levels of oxidative biomolecules reacted with free radicals. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS are predominantly implicated in causing cell damage, they also play a major physiological role in several aspects of intracellular signaling and regulation. ROS include a number of chemically reactive molecules derived from oxygen. Not only oxygen, but also nitrogen can be deleterious species. The overproduction of reactive nitrogen species (RNS is called nitrosative stress. ROS/RNS are known to play a dual role in biological systems since they can be either harmful or beneficial to living systems.

  10. DETERMINATION OF PROCESSES OF USE, PRESERVING AND REPRODUCTION IN THE SYSTEM OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Gazuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop factor model of renewable natural resources management, specifying the assessment of the amount of resource, including the natural factor, consumption level and intensity of reproduction. Methodology. The survey is based on highlighting factors influencing the reproductive capacity of natural environment. It allows, on the base of taking into consideration reproductive abilities of resources and intensity of consumption, to substantiate three models for their use, including: heavy exploitation of renewable natural resources as the most commonly used model at the current level of development of society; model of reproductive use of natural resources, stipulating for the interference from the side of authorities and management, and the model of simple reproduction of renewable natural resources, at which the resource itself and the amount of its reproduction for the next period remain constant. Practical implications. The need is substantiated in implementation of the new model for determination of the processes of managing balanced use of natural resources, which will stipulate processes of reproduction in the sphere of natural management, form new approaches to environmental protection and promote the optimal ratio between the consumption and reproduction of natural resources. At this, the processes of natural reproduction are influenced by the amount of resource itself, intensity of its reproduction and level of consumption. The main objective of the managing bodies in the sphere of the use of renewable natural resources should be securing optimal ratio between consumption and reproduction of such natural resources. The efficiency of the implementation process and reproduction of natural resources presupposes providing their simple and extended reproduction, economic effectiveness and sustainability in allocation and use of such resources. This will have positive effect on ecological and economic security

  11. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves. PMID:19058148

  12. Age differences in dual information-processing modes: implications for cancer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-12-15

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making, as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. The authors examined evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, reviewed the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making, and introduced how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves.

  13. Human uniqueness on the brink of a new axial age: From separation to reintegration of humans and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karl Jaspers’ Axial Age concept is used to depict the way humans interact with their environment. The first Axial Age (800-200 BC can be typified among others as the age in which humans started to objectify nature. Nature was dispossessed of spirits, gods and vital forces that humans previously feared and used as explanation for the origin of things. Secularised and objectified nature became a source of wealth for humans to use and abuse as they like. This has peaked in the post-industrial era which also introduced the Second Axial Age in which we presently live. The Second Axial Age can be typified by a new approach to nature mediated among others by insights from the side of the natural sciences, especially developments in cosmology, our understanding of the quantum world and new insights into the nature of consciousness. Another development in the Second Axial Age is the emergence of the nonhuman turn, new materialism, panpsychism, the notion of the post-human and theological concepts like the ‘entangled God’. These developments are discussed with reference to leading thinkers. The nonhuman turn is welcomed as it introduces respect for nature which may contribute to the survival of our planet.

  14. Senescence in the aging process [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard GA Faragher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of ‘senescent’ cells has long been proposed to act as an ageing mechanism. These cells display a radically altered transcriptome and degenerative phenotype compared with their growing counterparts. Tremendous progress has been made in recent years both in understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling entry into the senescent state and in the direct demonstration that senescent cells act as causal agents of mammalian ageing. The challenges now are to gain a better understanding of how the senescent cell phenotype varies between different individuals and tissues, discover how senescence predisposes to organismal frailty, and develop mechanisms by which the deleterious effects of senescent cells can be ameliorated.

  15. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  16. Integrating deep and shallow natural language processing components : representations and hybrid architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    We describe basic concepts and software architectures for the integration of shallow and deep (linguistics-based, semantics-oriented) natural language processing (NLP) components. The main goal of this novel, hybrid integration paradigm is improving robustness of deep processing. After an introduction to constraint-based natural language parsing, we give an overview of typical shallow processing tasks. We introduce XML standoff markup as an additional abstraction layer that eases integration ...

  17. Non-Destructive Failure Detection and Visualization of Artificially and Naturally Aged PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele C. Eder

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several series of six-cell photovoltaic test-modules—intact and with deliberately generated failures (micro-cracks, cell cracks, glass breakage and connection defects—were artificially and naturally aged. They were exposed to various stress conditions (temperature, humidity and irradiation in different climate chambers in order to identify (i the stress-induced effects; (ii the potential propagation of the failures and (iii their influence on the performance. For comparison, one set of test-modules was also aged in an outdoor test site. All photovoltaic (PV modules were thoroughly electrically characterized by electroluminescence and performance measurements before and after the accelerated ageing and the outdoor test. In addition, the formation of fluorescence effects in the encapsulation of the test modules in the course of the accelerated ageing tests was followed over time using UV-fluorescence imaging measurements. It was found that the performance of PV test modules with mechanical module failures was rather unaffected upon storage under various stress conditions. However, numerous micro-cracks led to a higher rate of degradation. The polymeric encapsulate of the PV modules showed the build-up of distinctive fluorescence effects with increasing lifetime as the encapsulant material degraded under the influence of climatic stress factors (mainly irradiation by sunlight and elevated temperature by forming fluorophores. The induction period for the fluorescence effects of the polymeric encapsulant to be detectable was ~1 year of outdoor weathering (in middle Europe and 300 h of artificial irradiation (with 1000 W/m2 artificial sunlight 300–2500 nm. In the presence of irradiation, oxygen—which permeated into the module through the polymeric backsheet—bleached the fluorescence of the encapsulant top layer between the cells, above cell cracks and micro-cracks. Thus, UV-F imaging is a perfect tool for on-site detection of module failures

  18. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  19. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  20. Seismic fragility testing of naturally-aged, safety-related, class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The concern over seismic susceptibility of naturally-aged lead-acid batteries used for safety-related emergency power in nuclear power stations was brought about by battery problems that periodically had been reported in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The Turkey Point Station had reported cracked and buckled plates in several cells in October 1974 (LER 75-5). The Fitzpatrick Station had reported cracked battery cell cases in October 1977 (LER 77-55) and again in September 1979 (LER 79-59). The Browns Ferry Station had reported a cracked cell leaking a small quantity of electrolyte in July 1981 (LER 81-42). The Indian Point Station had reported cracked and leaking cells in both February (LER 82-7) and April 1982 (LER 82-16); both of these LERs indicated the cracked cells were due to expansion (i.e., growth) of the positive plates

  1. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen

    2006-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women

  2. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  3. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability

  4. Age- and Wavelength-Dependency of Drosophila Larval Phototaxis and Behavioral Responses to Natural Lighting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Sprecher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals use various environmental cues as key determinant for their behavioral decisions. Visual systems are hereby responsible to translate light-dependent stimuli into neuronal encoded information. Even though the larval eyes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are comparably simple, they comprise two types of photoreceptor neurons (PRs, defined by different Rhodopsin genes expressed. Recent findings support that for light avoidance Rhodopsin5 (Rh5 expressing photoreceptors are crucial, while Rhodopsin6 (Rh6 expressing photoreceptors are dispensable under laboratory conditions. However, it remains debated how animals change light preference during larval live. We show that larval negative phototaxis is age-independent as it persists in larvae from foraging to wandering developmental stages. Moreover, if spectrally different Rhodopsins are employed for the detection of different wavelength of light remains unexplored. We found that negative phototaxis can be elicit by light with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV to green. This behavior is uniquely mediated by Rh5 expressing photoreceptors, and therefore suggest that this photoreceptor-type is able to perceive UV up to green light. In contrast to laboratory our field experiments revealed that Drosophila larvae uses both types of photoreceptors under natural lighting conditions. All our results, demonstrate that Drosophila larval eyes mediate avoidance of light stimuli with a wide, ecological relevant range of quantity (intensities and quality (wavelengths. Thus, the two photoreceptor-types appear more likely to play a role in different aspects of phototaxis under natural lighting conditions, rather than color discrimination.

  5. Applications Associated With Morphological Analysis And Generation In Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Yadav

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural Language Processing is one of the most developing fields in research area. In most of the applications related to the Natural Language Processing findings of the Morphological Analysis and Morphological Generation can be considered very important. As morphological study is the technique to recognise a word and its output can be used on later on stages .Keeping in view this importance this paper describes how Morphological Analysis and Morphological Generation can be proved as an important part of various Natural Language Processing fields such as Spell checker Machine Translation etc.

  6. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  7. Natural aging and plastic behavior of an Al-Mg-Si Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovachini, R; Cuniberti, A

    2004-01-01

    The effect of prior NA on the mechanical properties of an AlMgSi alloy submitted to artificial aging for 30 min at 180 o C was studied. The NA prior to the AA leads to decreased flow tension and increased deformation at the fracture for t NA ≤ 7 days, while this behavior seems to revert itself for greater t NA . The mechanical behavior is discussed based on the formation processes of MgSi conglomerates, pre-precipitation and precipitation. The different components of the flow tension are evaluated according to a lineal overlap (CW)

  8. Living long and ageing well: is epigenomics the missing link between nature and nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Irene Maeve; Dellet, Margaret; Mills, Ken I

    2016-02-01

    Human longevity is a complex trait and increasingly we understand that both genes and lifestyle interact in the longevity phenotype. Non-genetic factors, including diet, physical activity, health habits, and psychosocial factors contribute approximately 50% of the variability in human lifespan with another 25% explained by genetic differences. Family clusters of nonagenarian and centenarian siblings, who show both exceptional age-span and health-span, are likely to have inherited facilitatory gene groups, but also have nine decades of life experiences and behaviours which have interacted with their genetic profiles. Identification of their shared genes is just one small step in the link from genes to their physical and psychological profiles. Behavioural genomics is beginning to demonstrate links to biological mechanisms through regulation of gene expression, which directs the proteome and influences the personal phenotype. Epigenetics has been considered the missing link between nature and nurture. Although there is much that remains to be discovered, this article will discuss some of genetic and environmental factors which appear important in good quality longevity and link known epigenetic mechanisms to themes identified by nonagenarians themselves related to their longevity. Here we suggest that exceptional 90-year old siblings have adopted a range of behaviours and life-styles which have contributed to their ageing-well-phenotype and which link with important public health messages.

  9. Natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization in aged male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, P; Prado, F; Muñoz, A; Guerrero, M T; Macías, M C; Ridruejo, E; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess short-term natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization for acute disease in aged male patients after discharge. A group of 43 hypogonadal males, aged 86.7±5.7 year, was studied. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T) and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH, and luteinizing hormone, LH) were measured in every patient both at admission and one month after discharge. Mean serum T at entry was 115.4±48.0 ng/dl. Hypogonadism was hyper-, hypo-, and normogonadotropic in 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%), and 3 (7.0%) patients, respectively. One month after discharge serum T concentrations increased significantly (230.9±135.6 ng/dl, phypogonadism (n=16, 32.7%; 82.8±51.6 ng/dl, phypogonadism discovered during hospitalization spontaneously normalize their serum T concentrations one month after discharge. Serum gonadotropin concentrations also increased after discharge. Serum T levels at admission was an independent predictor for the normalization of serum T concentrations.

  10. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  11. Visemic Processing in Audiovisual Discrimination of Natural Speech: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Cyril; Otzenberger, Helene; Gounot, Daniel; Sock, Rudolph; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle

    2012-01-01

    In a noisy environment, visual perception of articulatory movements improves natural speech intelligibility. Parallel to phonemic processing based on auditory signal, visemic processing constitutes a counterpart based on "visemes", the distinctive visual units of speech. Aiming at investigating the neural substrates of visemic processing in a…

  12. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  13. The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Mostert, Adriaan K.; Castelein, René M.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Kerkhoff, Antoon

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type

  14. Organisational learning via Interactive Process Simulation in AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, N. B.; Roest, G. B.; Sklenar, J; Tanguy, A; Bertelle, C; Fortino, G

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of Interactive Process Simulation is introduced as a specialisation of Business Gaming. A specific gaming and agent development framework, based oil interactive simulation and a specific modelling langauge, is shortly presented. The concepts of the language are explained

  15. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processing and discusses how this evidence relates to two opposing theoretical accounts of older adults’ positivity effect. The aging-brain model [Cacioppo et al. in: Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind. New York, Oxford University Press, 2011] proposes that older adults’ positivity effect is a consequence of age-related decline in the amygdala, whereas the cognitive control hypothesis [Kryla-Lighthall and Mather in: Handbook of Theories of Aging, ed 2. New York, Springer, 2009; Mather and Carstensen: Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9:496–502; Mather and Knight: Psychol Aging 2005;20:554–570] argues that the positivity effect is a result of older adults’ greater focus on regulating emotion. Based on evidence for structural and functional preservation of the amygdala in older adults and findings that older adults show greater prefrontal cortex activity than younger adults while engaging in emotion-processing tasks, we argue that the cognitive control hypothesis is a more likely explanation for older adults’ positivity effect than the aging-brain model. PMID:21691052

  16. Characterizing natural organic matter in drinking water treatment processes and trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baghoth, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) generally influences water treatment processes such as coagulation, oxidation, adsorption, and membrane filtration. NOM contributes colour, taste and odour in drinking water, fouls membranes, serves as a precursor for disinfection by-products, increases the exhaustion

  17. An (even) broader perspective: Combining environmental processes and natural hazards education in a MSc programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Trappe, Martin; Cyffka, Bernd; Becht, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards are processes occurring in the natural environment that negatively affect human society. In most instances, the definition of natural hazards implies sudden events as different as earthquakes, floods or landslides. In addition, there are other phenomena that occur more subtly or slowly, and nevertheless may have serious adverse effects on the human environment. Hence, a comprehensive study programme in natural hazards has to include not only the conspicuous causes and effects of natural catastrophes, but of environmental processes in general. Geography as a discipline is located at the interface of natural, social and economic sciences; the physical geography programme described here is designed to include the social and economic dimension as well as management issues. Modules strengthening the theoretical background of geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological processes and hazards are complemented by practical work in the field and the laboratory, dealing with measuring and monitoring environmental processes. On this basis, modeling and managing skills are developed. Another thread in the transdisciplinary programme deals with sustainability and environmental policy issues, and environmental psychology (e.g. perception of and reaction to hazards). This will improve the communication and team working skills of students wherever they are part of an interdisciplinary working group. Through the involvement in research programmes, students are confronted ‘hands on' with the different aspects of environmental processes and their consequences; thus, they will be excellently but not exclusively qualified for positions in the ‘natural hazards' sector.

  18. Aging and Others’ Pain Processing: Implications for Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. While self-pain perception has been widely investigated in aging, the perception as well as memory of pain in others has received little attention. Methods. The study was designed as a cross-sectional behavioral study in which a group of 41 younger and a group of 41 older adults evaluated a series of valenced and pain-related pictures and were later required to recall them. Results. We found that older adults judge the stimuli as being less intense compared to their younger counterparts. However, older adults remembered a larger number of pictures with individuals expressing pain compared to pictures with individuals who have neutral or positive facial expressions. Conclusions. Older adults may underestimate emotional intensity in others, but they seem to remember painful information in others as well as younger adults. These data are discussed in terms of theories of pain perception and implications for hospitalization.

  19. Acceleration of the ageing process by ionizing radiation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.

    1976-01-01

    Transplants of spleen and kidney show changes in cell morphology with increasing age of the donor animals. In the group of juvenile donors the cell population emigrating from the spleen culture mainly consists of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In the group of adult animals there are a few polymorphonuclear and many mononuclear cells. From spleen transplants of old donor animals large mononuclear cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic and excentrically located nucleus are emigrating. Following whole-body X-irradiation of juvenile donor animals cells emigrate from tissue cultures depending on irradiation dose and time after irradiation. They show a morphology similar to that of non-irradiated old donors. Also in cultures of explants of adrenal cortex it was observed that X-irradiation of juvenile donor animals causes the migration of cells from the explants with a morphology which is typical of non-irradiated old donor animals. (author)

  20. Dynamical Processes in Ageing, Gene Regulation and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss

    is that unstable activation and stable repression is a requirement for the motif to produce oscillations. The last part of this thesis studies the emergence of communication networks. In this study we constructed a simple e-mail game. E-mails from two session with 16 players, who had never met before, showed how......My thesis consists of three parts. The first part covers ageing phenomena. In the first project I measured the mobility of two DNA repair proteins. Contrasting diffusion coefficients from literature I was able to classify DNA repair protein into either "scanners" or "responders". In a second...... project we constructed a mathematical model and showed that if DNA damage is primarily caused by geno-toxic agents, it would be advantageous for cells to have a fragile DNA repair mechanism. The second part of my Ph.D. thesis covers gene regulation. In the first project we show how RNA polymerase can...

  1. Acceleration of ageing processes by ionizing radiation. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.

    1976-01-01

    The behaviour of renal cells of young, old and irradiated young rats has been studied in cell cultures. There are differences between young and old donors in the cell counts obtained after trypsinization of equal amounts of renal tissue as well as in the behaviour of the cells in cell cultures. The intercellular substance in the kidney increases with increasing age and cellular output becomes smaller. Whereas cells of young donors grew in the culture and formed a monolayer cellular lawn after 14 days, cell cultures of old donors grew very sparsely and degenerated early. After irradiation of young donors with 600 R we found the following results depending on the time following irradiation: If the animals were killed immediately after irradiation neither the cellular output after trypsinization nor the behaviour of the cells in culture differed from those of non-irradiated young controls. With regard to the criteria studied cells obtained 7 days after irradiation resembled those of old donors. (author)

  2. Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R; Brownson, Carol; Bertani, Mariana F; Ruiz, Emilio; Ferro, Albert

    2002-04-01

    Cellular aging is often associated with an increase in protein carbonyl groups arising from oxidation- and glycation-related phenomena and suppressed proteasome activity. These "aged" polypeptides may either be degraded by 20S proteasomes or cross-link to form structures intractable to proteolysis and inhibitory to proteasome activity. Carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine) is present at surprisingly high levels (up to 20 mM) in muscle and nervous tissues in many animals, especially long-lived species. Carnosine can delay senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and reverse the senescent phenotype, restoring a more juvenile appearance. As better antioxidants/free-radical scavengers than carnosine do not demonstrate these antisenescent effects, additional properties of carnosine must contribute to its antisenescent activity. Having shown that carnosine can react with protein carbonyls, thereby generating "carnosinylated" polypeptides using model systems, we propose that similar adducts are generated in senescent cells exposed to carnosine. Polypeptide-carnosine adducts have been recently detected in beef products that are relatively rich in carnosine, and carnosine's reaction with carbonyl functions generated during amino acid deamidation has also been described. Growth of cultured human fibroblasts with carnosine stimulated proteolysis of long-labeled proteins as the cells approached their "Hayflick limit," consistent with the idea that carnosine ameliorates the senescence-associated proteolytic decline. We also find that carnosine suppresses induction of heme-oxygenase-1 activity following exposure of human endothelial cells to a glycated protein. The antisenescent activity of the spin-trap agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN) towards cultured human fibroblasts resides in N-t-butyl-hydroxylamine, its hydrolysis product. As hydroxylamines are reactive towards aldehydes and ketones, the antisenescent activity of N-t-butyl-hydroxylamine and other hydroxylamines may

  3. Parallel Distributed Processing theory in the age of deep networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely, that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format, and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated within cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks le...

  4. Mapping process and age of Quaternary deposits on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2016-12-01

    Employing a geomorphic process-age classification scheme, we mapped the Quaternary surficial geology of Santa Rosa (SRI) within the Channel Islands National Park. This detailed (1:12,000 scale) map represents upland erosional transport processes and alluvial, fluvial, eolian, beach, marine terrace, mass wasting, and mixed depositional processes. Mapping was motivated through an agreement with the National Park Service and is intended to aid natural resource assessments, including post-grazing disturbance recovery and identification of mass wasting and tectonic hazards. We obtained numerous detailed geologic field observations, fossils for faunal identification as age control, and materials for numeric dating. This GPS-located field information provides ground truth for delineating map units and faults using GIS-based datasets- high-resolution (sub-meter) aerial imagery, LiDAR-based DEMs and derivative raster products. Mapped geologic units denote surface processes and Quaternary faults constrain deformation kinematics and rates, which inform models of landscape change. Significant findings include: 1) Flights of older Pleistocene (>120 ka) and possibly Pliocene marine terraces were identified beneath younger alluvial and eolian deposits at elevations as much as 275 m above modern sea level. Such elevated terraces suggest that SRI was a smaller, more submerged island in the late Neogene and (or) early Pleistocene prior to tectonic uplift. 2) Structural and geomorphic observations made along the potentially seismogenic SRI fault indicate a protracted slip history during the late Neogene and Quaternary involving early normal slip, later strike slip, and recent reverse slip. These changes in slip mode explain a marked contrast in island physiography across the fault. 3) Many of the steeper slopes are dramatically stripped of regolith, with exposed bedrock and deeply incised gullies, presumably due effects related to past grazing practices. 4) Surface water presence is

  5. Do attentional capacities and processing speed mediate the effect of age on executive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsoul, Jessica; Simon, Jessica; Hogge, Michaël; Collette, Fabienne

    2018-02-06

    The executive processes are well known to decline with age, and similar data also exists for attentional capacities and processing speed. Therefore, we investigated whether these two last nonexecutive variables would mediate the effect of age on executive functions (inhibition, shifting, updating, and dual-task coordination). We administered a large battery of executive, attentional and processing speed tasks to 104 young and 71 older people, and we performed mediation analyses with variables showing a significant age effect. All executive and processing speed measures showed age-related effects while only the visual scanning task performance (selective attention) was explained by age when controlled for gender and educational level. Regarding mediation analyses, visual scanning partially mediated the age effect on updating while processing speed partially mediated the age effect on shifting, updating and dual-task coordination. In a more exploratory way, inhibition was also found to partially mediate the effect of age on the three other executive functions. Attention did not greatly influence executive functioning in aging while, in agreement with the literature, processing speed seems to be a major mediator of the age effect on these processes. Interestingly, the global pattern of results seems also to indicate an influence of inhibition but further studies are needed to confirm the role of that variable as a mediator and its relative importance by comparison with processing speed.

  6. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processi...

  7. The Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Cz) study: mobile natural organic matter identification, characterisation and link to PA relevant processes - 16341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlova, Vaclava; Cervinka, Radek; Noseck, Ulrich; Brasser, Thomas; Havel, Josef

    2009-01-01

    The Ruprechtov Natural Analogue (CZ) Programme has been focused on studying real system processes, relevant to performance assessment (PA) of sediment formations that can form the overburden of geological repository host rocks. The site has been extensively studied due to its geological constitution (granite - kaolin - clay - U mineralisation - organic matter). The presented study used Ruprechtov unique but well-described geological conditions in order to identify and characterise mobile organic matter (MOM) that can be easily released into groundwater and can influence PA relevant specie migration due to complexation/sorption reaction. The modem analytical method MALDI-TOF MS was used for characterisation. It was found that only a small fraction of sedimentary natural organic matter (NOM) from the site was easily releasable (max. 5%) as MOM, resulting in low organic substance concentration in natural groundwater. MOM amount released was decreasing with increasing NOM content. MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool to characterize organic substances, either natural ones or artificially released from natural organic matter samples. A noticeable fingerprint for all the MOM compounds analysed was found at MALDITOF MS spectra. This showed that MOM from the Ruprechtov site was in all cases composed of molecules with low molecular weight (under 1000 Da). As determined by the consequent geochemical analyses, despite groundwater reducing conditions MOM compounds would be mainly interacting with U(VI) in the groundwater, being present as more abundant U specie. Good correspondence of results enabled to consider the extracted humic acid HA 12/3 as a mobile organic matter fraction representative. (authors)

  8. Environmental persistence of pesticides and their ecotoxicity: A review of natural degradation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Valderrama, Jhon Fredy; Palacio Baena, Jaime Alberto; Molina Perez, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are allochthonous pollutants discharged in natural environments. Once in the environment, natural factors such as biodegradation, photodegradation and chemical hydrolysis trigger partial or total pesticide transformation and reduce their environmental persistence. However, some degraded compounds have a greater ecotoxicological effect on the biota that the parent compounds and the change in the physicochemical properties increase the bioaccumulation, toxicity and transference processes. Therefore, knowledge about degradation processes in the environment is crucial in studies related to the dynamics and behavior of these substances in the environment and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This review aims to show the influence of natural degradation processes on the persistence of pesticides, their ecotoxicity and dynamics. Also discuss the application of the degradation processes in water treatment and pesticides removal. While biodegradation processes have been improved by using genetically engineered microorganisms, in the photodegradation has been applied advanced oxidation technologies (TAOS) in the treatment of water contaminated with pesticides.

  9. False memory in aging resulting from self-referential processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-11-01

    Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self.

  10. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p counterfeit and defective products.

  11. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  12. Geomorphological processes in Britain in a periglacial age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitty, A.F.

    1988-12-01

    Significant changes in geomorphological processes can be anticipated over the timescales relevant to the Safety Assessments being formulated by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. The opening sections of this Report emphasise the intrinsic uncertainties concerning the study and interpretation of periglacial phenomena, both in their present-day setting, and as presumed relict features in the British Isles. A section illustrates how emphases have veered and varied in this area of study. An implication, with particular reference to the British Isles, is that the study of periglacial phenomena is, itself, subject to significant short-term changes. The Report reviews the climate of a periglacial environment, emphasising the difficulties involved in translations from present-day analogue areas, which often have intrinsic differences, when compared with the British Isles. The significance of frost penetration, microclimate and snow cover is explained. (Author)

  13. Parallel Distributed Processing Theory in the Age of Deep Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-01

    Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks. Given the close links between PDP and deep networks, it is surprising that research with deep networks is challenging PDP theory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The nature and position of processing determines why forgetting occurs in working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D; Harvey, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of potentially distracting processing within working memory was examined by varying the nature and position of processing across conditions of a Brown-Peterson-like task. Separate groups of participants carried out verbal or visuospatial processing operations on identical stimuli, while retaining lists of to-be-remembered words. The number of words presented either before or after the processing interval was varied systematically. Results showed that although verbal processing was no more demanding than visuospatial processing, it led to greater forgetting. However, forgetting was confined to items presented prior to processing, and the difference in degree of forgetting shown by the two groups was maximal when four items occurred before processing. Temporal isolation effects were more marked in the verbal processing group. These findings indicate that individuals can keep active a limited number of items in primary memory during processing, unless processing blocks rehearsal, in which case retrieval occurs from secondary memory.

  15. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  16. Effect of natural ageing on surface of silver loaded TPE and its influence in antimicrobial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomacheski, Daiane, E-mail: daitomacheski@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Laboratory of Polymers – LAPOL, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 9500 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Postal Code 15010, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA, 275 Edgar Hoffmeister Avenue, Campo Bom 93700-000 (Brazil); Pittol, Michele [Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA, 275 Edgar Hoffmeister Avenue, Campo Bom 93700-000 (Brazil); Simões, Douglas Naue; Ribeiro, Vanda Ferreira [Department of Materials Engineering, Laboratory of Polymers – LAPOL, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 9500 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Postal Code 15010, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA, 275 Edgar Hoffmeister Avenue, Campo Bom 93700-000 (Brazil); Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes [Department of Materials Engineering, Laboratory of Polymers – LAPOL, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 9500 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Postal Code 15010, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ag loaded TPE lost their antimicrobial efficacy after polymer degradation. • Modifications in Ag loaded TPE surface provide conditions to bacteria settlement. • Rough TPE surface and the low γ{sub S}{sup +} was more favorable for bacterial development. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to characterize the modifications in silver loaded TPE surfaces exposed to weathering and their relation to susceptibility to microbial attack. Silver loaded TPE materials were exposed to natural ageing for nine months and modifications in antimicrobial properties and surface characteristics were evaluated. Chemical changes were investigated by using the infrared spectra. The average surface roughness and topography were determined by atomic force microscopy. Contact angle was measured to verify wettability conditions and surface free energy (SFE). After nine months of exposure, a decrease in the antimicrobial properties of loaded TPE compounds was observed. A reduction in surface roughness and improvement in wettability and high values of polar component of SFE were verified. The best antibacterial action was noticed in the sample with high Lewis acid force, lower roughness and lower carbonyl index.

  17. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. Aims To

  18. Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called

  19. Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Peelle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color. The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers. All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

  20. Natural antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 commonly consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that common domestic methods of processing may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in commonly consumed Indian plant foods.

  1. Troubleshooting for the observed problems in processing latex concentrate from natural resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afreen, S; Haque, K R; Huda, M K

    2013-01-01

    Natural latex has special importance in the rubber industry for manufacturing different types of goods like gloves, balloons, male contraceptive and similar thin walled articles. This natural latex is much more sensitive a liquid to handle since it can easily become contaminated and thereby coagulated which makes it unfavourable for centrifuge and getting concentrate from it. Some other related measures also are included in consideration during the processing of concentrate latex from the natural raw latex. The problems that are being faced in a concentrate latex processing plant can be categorized in different groups like, problems related to the latex property, mechanical problems, electrical problems, handling and storage problems, transformation problems, problems related to environmental issues, etc. Among them, the most common and vital problems frequently observed in a concentrate latex processing plant are discussed here with a view to finding the measures for solution which will help to maintain the latex property in any latex processing plant.

  2. Development of energy-efficient processes for natural gas liquids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sekwang; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A new NGL (natural gas liquids) recovery process configuration is proposed which can offer improved energy efficiency and hydrocarbon recovery. The new process configuration is an evolution of the conventional turboexpander processes with the introduction of a split stream transferring part of the feed to the demethanizer column. In this way additional heat recovery is possible which improves the energy efficiency of the process. To evaluate the new process configuration a number of different NGL recovery process configurations are optimized and compared using a process simulator linked interactively with external optimization methods. Process integration methodology is applied as part of the optimization to improve energy recovery during the optimization. Analysis of the new process configuration compared with conventional turbo-expander process designs demonstrates the benefits of the new process configuration. - Highlights: • Development of a new energy-efficient natural gas liquids recovery process. • Improving energy recovery with application of process integration techniques. • Considering multiple different structural changes lead to considerable energy savings.

  3. Ageing without detailed balance in the bosonic contact and pair-contact processes: exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Florian; Henkel, Malte; Pleimling, Michel; Richert, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Ageing in systems without detailed balance is studied in the exactly solvable bosonic contact process and the critical bosonic pair-contact process. The two-time correlation function and the two-time response function are explicitly found. In the ageing regime, the dynamical scaling of these is analysed and exact results for the ageing exponents and the scaling functions are derived. For the critical bosonic pair-contact process, the autocorrelation and autoresponse exponents agree but the ageing exponents a and b are shown to be distinct

  4. Including natural systems into the system engineering process: benefits to spaceflight and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2014-03-01

    How did we get to the point where we don't have time to be inspired by the wonders of Nature? Our office walls, homes and city streets are so plain that even when we do escape to a retreat with nature all around us, we may be blind to its magnificence. Yet there are many who have applied what can be known of natural systems (NS) to create practical solutions, but often definite applications for them are lacking. Mimicry of natural systems is not only more possible than ever before, but the education and research programs in many major universities are churning out graduates with a real appreciation for Nature's complex integrated systems. What if these skills and perspectives were employed in the teams of systems engineers and the technology developers that support them to help the teams think "outside-the-box" of manmade inventions? If systems engineers (SE) and technology developers regularly asked the question, "what can we learn from Nature that will help us?" as a part of their processes, they would discover another set of potential solutions. Biomimicry and knowledge of natural systems is exploding. What does this mean for systems engineering and technology? Some disciplines such as robotics and medical devices must consider nature constantly. Perhaps it's time for all technology developers and systems engineers to perceive natural systems experts as potential providers of the technologies they need.

  5. Do Age and Anticoagulants Affect the Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Turner, Ryan C.; Josiah, Darnell; Knotts, Chelsea; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma is a serious complication following traumatic brain injury. Large volume hematomas or those with underlying brain injury can cause mass effect, midline shift, and eventually herniation of the brain. Acute subdural hematomas in the young are associated with high-energy trauma and often have underlying contusions, while acute subdural hematomas in the elderly are associated with minor trauma and an absence of underlying contusions, even though the elderly are more likely to be on anticoagulants or anti-platelet therapy. In the young patients with high impact injuries the hematomas tend to be small and the underlying brain injury and swelling is responsible for the increased intracranial pressure and midline shift. In the elderly, the injuries are low impact (e.g fall from standing), the underlying brain is intact, and the volume of the hematoma itself produces symptoms. In addition the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in the elderly population has been thought to be a poor prognostic indicator and is considered to be responsible for larger hematomas and poor outcome. When managed conservatively, acute subdural hematomas can sometimes progress to chronic subdural hematoma formation, further enlargement, seizures, and progressive midline shift. Another potential difference in the young and the elderly is brain atrophy, which increases the potential space to accommodate a larger hematoma. It is not known if these two groups differ in other ways that might have implications for treatment or prognosis. In this paper, we investigate the clinical course of 80 patients admitted to our institution with acute subdural hematomas, to identify differences in patients above or below the age of 65 years. The natural progression/resolution of acute subdural hematomas was mapped by measuring volume expansion/regression over time. In this retrospective chart review, we investigated clinical baseline metrics and subsequent volumetric expansion

  6. Do Age and Anticoagulants Affect the Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Josiah, Darnell; Knotts, Chelsea; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma is a serious complication following traumatic brain injury. Large volume hematomas or those with underlying brain injury can cause mass effect, midline shift, and eventually herniation of the brain. Acute subdural hematomas in the young are associated with high-energy trauma and often have underlying contusions, while acute subdural hematomas in the elderly are associated with minor trauma and an absence of underlying contusions, even though the elderly are more likely to be on anticoagulants or anti-platelet therapy. In the young patients with high impact injuries the hematomas tend to be small and the underlying brain injury and swelling is responsible for the increased intracranial pressure and midline shift. In the elderly, the injuries are low impact (e.g fall from standing), the underlying brain is intact, and the volume of the hematoma itself produces symptoms. In addition the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in the elderly population has been thought to be a poor prognostic indicator and is considered to be responsible for larger hematomas and poor outcome. When managed conservatively, acute subdural hematomas can sometimes progress to chronic subdural hematoma formation, further enlargement, seizures, and progressive midline shift. Another potential difference in the young and the elderly is brain atrophy, which increases the potential space to accommodate a larger hematoma. It is not known if these two groups differ in other ways that might have implications for treatment or prognosis. In this paper, we investigate the clinical course of 80 patients admitted to our institution with acute subdural hematomas, to identify differences in patients above or below the age of 65 years. The natural progression/resolution of acute subdural hematomas was mapped by measuring volume expansion/regression over time. In this retrospective chart review, we investigated clinical baseline metrics and subsequent volumetric expansion

  7. Toxicological evaluation of natural rubber films from vulcanized latex by the conventional process and the alternative process with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vania Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    The industrial vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) is made all over the world by conventional process using sulphur and heat but it can be made by an alternative process using ionizing radiation. In this research the NRL was tested by 13 physical, chemical and mechanical assays which showed its good quality. It was done a preliminary study of the toxicological properties of 4 natural rubber films obtained by casting process of NRL: one non vulcanized, other vulcanized by the conventional process and two vulcanized by the alternative process. In the alternative process the films were obtained by irradiation of NRL by gamma rays from the 60 Co source at 250 kGy in the absence of sensitizer and irradiated NRL at 12 kGy in the presence of 4ph r of n-butyl acrylate / 0.2 phr of KOH. These vulcanization doses were determined from broken tensile strength. In the conventional process, sulphur vulcanized NRL was made using a classical composition. Another film was made with non vulcanized NRL. The preliminary evaluation of the toxicological properties was made from in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity assays. The LBN films vulcanized by the alternative process have less cytotoxicity than the NRL film vulcanized by the conventional process. The sensitized vulcanized films by gamma rays and non vulcanized films showed similar cytotoxicity while the vulcanized films without sensitizer showed a slight lower cytotoxicity. The non vulcanized NRL film and the NRL films vulcanized by the alternative process did not show toxic effects int he 72 hours period of the systemic toxicity assay. However the NRL film vulcanized with sulphur induced effects like allaying and motor in coordination on the animals treated with an oil extract at the fourth hour and recovering after that. The alternative process promoted lower toxic effects than conventional process because there was no toxic substances present. (author)

  8. Body mass index and age at natural menopause: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingyong; Jiang, Anran; Yin, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hu, Huaqing

    2015-04-01

    There is no universal consensus on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and age at natural menopause (ANM). The primary bias was confounding by cigarette smoking because smoking was a strong confounding factor related to lower BMI and earlier menopause. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of BMI on ANM. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. Studies were selected for analysis based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI were extracted to assess the association between BMI and early ANM. Nine studies were selected for this meta-analysis. The HR of early ANM was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P < 0.01) in underweight women compared with women of normal BMI. Compared with women of normal BMI, overweight women (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96; P < 0.001) and obese women (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79-1.15; P = 0.59) were associated with late ANM. In addition, the HRs of early ANM in overweight and obese women were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94; P < 0.001) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95; P < 0.001), respectively, compared with underweight women. A separate meta-analysis indicated that the results (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90; P < 0.001) changed markedly in the comparison of obese versus normal-weight women in studies that controlled for smoking. The results of our study indicate that increased BMI modestly associates with later ANM. The relationship between BMI and ANM needs further clarification in well-designed studies, especially studies well-controlled for smoking status.

  9. Progress in R and D radiation processing of natural polymers in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.; Abad, L.; Relleve, L.; Aranilla, C.; Cabalfin, E.; Bisnar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation technology has emerged as an environment-friendly, commercially viable technology with broad applications that can essentially contribute to achieve the goal of sustainable development. Natural polymers are good raw materials since they are biodegradable, readily available in large quantity and at low cost. Radiation processing of natural polymers is a potential area to widen the prospect of industrial scale application of radiation technology in the Philippines. (author)

  10. Fatty acids and physiological quality of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam. seed during natural ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pichardo-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In México, 44 thousand hectares are planted with tomatillo or husk tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., which occupies fourth place among the country's vegetable species. However, research on this species is scarce, especially that related to the process of seed deterioration. We studied the effects of deterioration in tomatillo seed, var. CHF1-Chapingo, stored from 2-mo up to 7 yr with no climate control, 18.2 ± 5 °C and 41 ± 10% relative humidity, on physiological and biochemical variables during germination. It was found that germination, vigor, and respiratory activity decrease significantly from the first year of storage; thus, after 7 yr, germination and vigor decreased 99%, and respiratory activity of seed after 48 h imbibition decreased 78%. Linoleic acid (unsaturated content correlated positively with germination (R = 0.78** and with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.79**. Germination correlated with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.99** and with respiratory activity after 48 h of imbibition (R = 0.79**. Both respiratory activity and fatty acid content are involved in natural deterioration of tomatillo seed.

  11. Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  12. Process design analyses of co/sub 2/ capture from natural gas by polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A.; Nasir, H.; Ahsan, M. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-06-15

    Membrane-based natural gas separation has become one of the promising technologies due to its compactness, energy efficiency, environment friendliness and economic advantages. In this work, a three stage membrane process for the separation of CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ is proposed based on a novel fixed site carrier membrane which has the potential to meet the CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ separation and durability requirement. A simulation analysis, which utilizes the Aspen Hysys capabilities to calculate and couple energy balances in the process model, has been conducted to investigate the effect of process parameters on the gas processing cost. Two different natural gas mixtures containing 9.5% and 2.9% CO/sub 2/ have been simulated for various process conditions. This fixed site carrier membrane performs well when wetted with water. Therefore, natural gas feed streams are saturated with water. It is evident from the analysis that it is possible to maintain 2% CO/sub 2/ in retentate and methane loss in permeate below 2% by optimizing the process conditions. The analysis shows that fixed site carrier membrane offers a viable solution for natural gas sweetening. (author)

  13. Process design analyses of co/sub 2/ capture from natural gas by polymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Nasir, H.; Ahsan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-based natural gas separation has become one of the promising technologies due to its compactness, energy efficiency, environment friendliness and economic advantages. In this work, a three stage membrane process for the separation of CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ is proposed based on a novel fixed site carrier membrane which has the potential to meet the CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ separation and durability requirement. A simulation analysis, which utilizes the Aspen Hysys capabilities to calculate and couple energy balances in the process model, has been conducted to investigate the effect of process parameters on the gas processing cost. Two different natural gas mixtures containing 9.5% and 2.9% CO/sub 2/ have been simulated for various process conditions. This fixed site carrier membrane performs well when wetted with water. Therefore, natural gas feed streams are saturated with water. It is evident from the analysis that it is possible to maintain 2% CO/sub 2/ in retentate and methane loss in permeate below 2% by optimizing the process conditions. The analysis shows that fixed site carrier membrane offers a viable solution for natural gas sweetening. (author)

  14. Effects of Thermal and Humidity Aging on the Interfacial Adhesion of Polyketone Fiber Reinforced Natural Rubber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Han Ki; Kim, Dae Sik; Won, Jong Sung; Jin, Da Young; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Seung Goo

    2016-01-01

    Polyketone fiber is considered as a reinforcement of the mechanical rubber goods (MRG) such as tires, automobile hoses, and belts because of its high strength and modulus. In order to apply it to those purposes, the high adhesion of fiber/rubber interface and good sustainability to aging conditions are very important. In this study, polyketone fiber reinforced natural rubber composites were prepared and they were subjected to thermal and humidity aging, to assess the changes of the interfacia...

  15. A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, T.B.; Ju, Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel process was proposed to liquefy natural gas by utilizing the pressure exergy. • The process is zero energy consumption. • The maximum liquefaction rate of the process is 12.61%. • The maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. • The economic analysis showed that the payback period of the process is quit short. - Abstract: A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction is designed and presented. The novel process can utilize the pressure exergy of the pipeline to liquefy a part of natural gas without any energy consumption. The thermodynamic analysis including mass, energy balance and exergy analysis are adopted in this paper. The liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate are chosen as the objective functions. Several key parameters are optimized to approach the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate. The optimization results showed that the maximum liquefaction rate is 12.61% and the maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. What is more, the economic performances of the process are also discussed and compared by using the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate as indexes. In conclusion, the novel process is suitable for pressure exergy utilization due to its simplicity, zero energy consumption and short payback period

  16. Integrated treatment process using a natural Wyoming clinoptilolite for remediating produced waters from coalbed natural gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Vance, G.F.; Urynowicz, M.A.; Gregory, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in western U.S. states has resulted in an increase in an essential energy resource, but has also resulted in environmental impacts and additional regulatory needs. A concern associated with CBNG development relates to the production of the copious quantities of potentially saline-sodic groundwater required to recover the natural gas, hereafter referred to as CBNG water. Management of CBNG water is a major environmental challenge because of its quantity and quality. In this study, a locally available Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from Wyoming (WY) was examined for its potential to treat CBNG water to remove Na+ and lower the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, mmol1/2 L- 1/2). The zeolite material was Ca-modified before being used in column experiments. Column breakthrough studies indicated that a metric tonne (1000??kg) of Ca-WY-zeolite could be used to treat 60,000??L of CBNG water in order to lower SAR of the CBNG water from 30 to an acceptable level of 10??mmol1/2 L- 1/2. An integrated treatment process using Na-WY-zeolite for alternately treating hard water and CBNG water was also examined for its potential to treat problematic waters in the region. Based on the results of this study, use of WY-zeolite appears to be a cost-effective water treatment technology for maximizing the beneficial use of poor-quality CBNG water. Ongoing studies are evaluating water treatment techniques involving infiltration ponds lined with zeolite. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Building from a conceptual model of the resilience process during ageing, towards the Groningen Aging Resilience Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Abbema, Renske; Bielderman, Annemiek; De Greef, Mathieu; Hobbelen, Hans; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2015-09-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory. Ageing is a process that is often accompanied by functional limitation, disabilities and losses. Instead of focusing on these negative events of ageing, there are opportunities in focusing on adaptation mechanisms, like resilience, that are helpful to cope with those adversities. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted from 2011-2012. First, a conceptual model of resilience during the ageing process was constructed. Next, items were formulated that made up a comprehensive template questionnaire reflecting the model. Finally, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of this template 16-item questionnaire. Participants (N = 229) with a mean age of 71·5 years, completed the template 16-item Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory, and performance based tests and psychological questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a two factor solution of internal and external resources of resilience. Three items did not discriminate well between the two factors and were deleted, remaining a final 13-item questionnaire that shows evidence of good internal consistency. The direction and magnitude of the correlations with other measures support the construct validity. The Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory is a useful instrument that can help nurses, other healthcare workers, researchers and providers of informal care to identify the internal and external resources of resilience in individuals and groups. In a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial approach this knowledge provides tools for empowering older patients in performing health promoting behaviors and self-care tasks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mechanism and materialism British natural philosophy in the age of reason

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, Robert E

    1970-01-01

    Robert Schofield explores the rational elements of British experimental natural philosophy in the 18th century by tracing the influence of two opposing concepts of the nature of matter and its action-mechanism and materialism. Both concepts rested on the Newtonian interpretation of their proponents, although each developed more or less independently. By integrating the developments in all the areas of experimental natural philosophy, describing their connections and the influences of Continental science, natural theology, and to a lesser degree social and institutional changes, the author dem

  19. Failure of structural elements made of polymer supported composite materials during the multiyear natural aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkov, Pavel; Ogorodov, Leonid; Grabovyy, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Modern high-rise construction introduces a number of limitations and tasks. In addition to durability, comfort and profitability, projects should take into account energy efficiency and environmental problems. Polymer building materials are used as substitutes for materials such as brick, concrete, metal, wood and glass, and in addition to traditional materials. Plastic materials are light, can be formed into complex shapes, durable and low, and also possess a wide range of properties. Plastic materials are available in various forms, colors and textures and require minimal or no color. They are resistant to heat transfer and diffusion of moisture and do not suffer from metal corrosion or microbial attack. Polymeric materials, including thermoplastics, thermoset materials and wood-polymer composites, have many structural and non-structural applications in the construction industry. They provide unique and innovative solutions at a low cost, and their use is likely to grow in the future. A number of polymer composite materials form complex material compositions, which are applied in the construction in order to analyze the processes of damage accumulation under the conditions of complex nonstationary loading modes, and to determine the life of structural elements considering the material aging. This paper present the results of tests on short-term compression loading with a deformation rate of v = 2 mm/min using composite samples of various shapes and sizes.

  20. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  1. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-12-15

    A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD and the relation with abnormal SF processing. We investigated whether young ASD children show abnormalities in low spatial frequency (LSF, global) and high spatial frequency (HSF, detailed) processing and explored whether these are crucially involved in the early development of face processing. Three- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 22) were compared with developmentally delayed children without ASD (n = 17). Spatial frequency processing was studied by recording visual evoked potentials from visual brain areas while children passively viewed gratings (HSF/LSF). In addition, children watched face stimuli with different expressions, filtered to include only HSF or LSF. Enhanced activity in visual brain areas was found in response to HSF versus LSF information in children with ASD, in contrast to control subjects. Furthermore, facial-expression processing was also primarily driven by detail in ASD. Enhanced visual processing of detailed (HSF) information is present early in ASD and occurs for neutral (gratings), as well as for socially relevant stimuli (facial expressions). These data indicate that there is a general abnormality in visual SF processing in early ASD and are in agreement with suggestions that a fast LSF subcortical face processing route might be affected in ASD. This could suggest that abnormal visual processing is causative in the development of social problems in ASD. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The age, nature and likely genesis of the Cambrian Khantaishir arc, Lake Zone, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Jiang, Yingde; Schulmann, Karel; Buriánek, David; Hanžl, Pavel; Lexa, Ondrej; Ganchuluun, Turbat; Battushig, Altanbaatar

    2014-05-01

    /metasomatized mantle domain or, more likely, originated by remelting of a juvenile metabasic crust, presumably by the advected heat from the voluminous mantle-derived melts. The single gabbro yielded two zircon populations, 521 ± 6 Ma (avg. 238U-206Pb age, 3 grains) and 538 ± 3 Ma (8 grains). The zircons contain both components distinguished in the more felsic samples (ɛHf = +4 to +13), compatible with the field evidence for the presence of several generations of the basic magmas, as well as magma mixing/mingling between contrasting magma batches. Taken together, our data provide an evidence for a Cambrian (c.520-495 Ma) magmatic-arc activity in the Khantaishir Range. The lack of significant zircon inheritance and rather primitive ɛHfvalues (all > +3) imply that the arc was not funded on mature continental crust. On the contrary, a key role was played by depleted-mantle derived magmas, perhaps with some recycling of a juvenile metabasic crust. Financial support: Grant Agency of the CR (P210/12/2205), Ministry of Education of the CR (LK11202) and Hong Kong Research Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P). Ridolfi et al. 2010. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 45-66. Sengör et al. 1993. Nature 364, 299-307.

  3. Allostatic dysregulation of natural reward processing in prescription opioid misuse: autonomic and attentional evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O

    2015-02-01

    Chronic pain patients who misuse prescription opioids may suffer from allostatic dysregulation of natural reward processing. Hence, this study examined whether prescription opioid misusers with chronic pain (n=72) evidenced decreased natural reward responsiveness relative to non-misusers with chronic pain (n=26). Subjects completed a dot probe task containing pain-related, opioid-related, and natural reward stimuli while attentional bias (AB) scores and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were assessed. Compared to non-misusers, misusers evidenced significantly more attenuated HRV responses to opioid, pain, and natural reward cues presented during the dot probe task. These significant between-groups differences in HRV were largest during attention to natural reward cues, but became non-significant in a sensitivity analysis controlling for opioid dosing. In addition, non-misusers evidenced an AB toward natural reward cues, whereas misusers did not. Findings suggest that opioid misusers exhibit attentional and autonomic deficits during reward processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing (refining) of petroleum and natural gases. Pererabotka neftyanykh i prirodnykh gazov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, M A; Gorechenkov, V G; Volkov, N P

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the theoretical principles underlying the processes involved in the processing of natural and petroleum gases and gas condensate. Information is given on apparatus, engineering systems, and machine methods for the designing of gas refining plants. The book is intended for engineers and operation personnel of gas refining plants, and might also be useful to senior undergraduates at chemistry and petroleum institutes of higher learning. 278 references, 54 tables.

  5. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  6. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  7. Process for generating substitute natural gas. Verfahren zur Erzeugung von Erdgasersatzgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerschmidt, D

    1984-09-13

    The invention deals with a process for the production of a substitute for natural gas from coal gas or other feed gases containing hydrogen and methane. For a simpler and economically more efficient process it is suggested to separate the feed gas, purified or unpurified, by selection of the molar sieve in a PSA plant so that the sweep gas of the PSA plant can reach the quality of a substitute gas. (orig.).

  8. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  9. Models development for natural circulation and its transition process in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Cai Qi; Cai Zhangsheng; Xie Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nuclear power plant (NPP) best-estimate transient analysis code RELAP5/MOD3, the point reactor kinetics model in RELAP5/MOD3 was replaced by the two-group, 3-D space and time dependent neutron kinetic model, in order to exactly analyze the responses of key parameters in natural circulation and its transition process considering the reactivity feedback. The coupled model for three-dimensional physics and thermohydraulics was established and corresponding computing code was developed. Using developed code, natural circulation of NPP and its transiton process were calculated and analyzed. Compared with the experiment data, the calculated results show that its high precise avoids the shortage that the point reactor equation can not reflect the reactivity exactly. This code can be a computing and analysis tool for forced circulation and natural circulation and their transitions. (authors)

  10. Proceedings of the Takasaki symposium on radiation processing of natural polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Maekawa, Yasunari

    2001-03-01

    This Takasaki symposium was held as enlargement of the Takasaki workshop on bilateral cooperations for radiation processing of natural polymers in 1999. The attendants were increased from 61 to 80 due to the expansion from five bilateral cooperation countries last year to further 3 Asian countries. At the symposium, the enhancement effects of plant growth and antifungal activity by radiation-degraded carbohydrates, hydrogels as a wound dressing material, and production of an protein free natural rubber grove were of major concern. Many domestic and foreign attendants were especially interested in novel functionality of radiation treated natural polymers and exchanged their opinions actively. Furthermore, since outstanding researchers in this field were invited from the Asian countries, we could also exchange the opinions about the present situation of the research activities interregional cooperation of the radiation processing in Asia. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. R and D activities on radiation processing of natural polymers in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    The fishery industry in Pakistan is well established and is growing very fast. The annual production of shrimp is ∼45,000 metric ton, out of which ∼20,000 metric ton is exported. The annual production of crab is 250 metric ton. The estimated production of waste from these materials is approximately 20,000 metric ton, which is a huge quantity. This crustacean waste generated by fishery industries containing chitin, a natural polymer, can be extracted by chemical treatments. Deacetylation of chitin gives chitosan which is soluble in dilute mineral acids. Presently, the main consumer of this waste is animal feed industries. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has started research program on Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers in cooperation with IAEA and RCA in order to convert this sizable waste into value added products. This report describes some of our obtained results on radiation processing of natural polymer and its applications. (author)

  12. Identification of ageing-associated naturally occurring peptides in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Bhat, Akshay; Klein, Julie; Jankowski, Vera; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia; Dakna, Mohammed; Koeck, Thomas; Schanstra, Joost P.; Zürbig, Petra; Rudolph, Karl L.; Schumacher, Björn; Pich, Andreas; Mischak, Harald

    2015-01-01

    To assess normal and pathological peptidomic changes that may lead to an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying ageing, urinary peptidomes of 1227 healthy and 10333 diseased individuals between 20 and 86 years of age were investigated. The diseases thereby comprised diabetes mellitus, renal and cardiovascular diseases. Using age as a continuous variable, 116 peptides were identified that significantly (p age in the healthy cohort. The same approach was applied to the diseased cohort. Upon comparison of the peptide patterns of the two cohorts 112 common age-correlated peptides were identified. These 112 peptides predominantly originated from collagen, uromodulin and fibrinogen. While most fibrillar and basement membrane collagen fragments showed a decreased age-related excretion, uromodulin, beta-2-microglobulin and fibrinogen fragments showed an increase. Peptide-based in silico protease analysis was performed and 32 proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins, were predicted to be involved in ageing. Identified peptides, predicted proteases and patient information were combined in a systems biology pathway analysis to identify molecular pathways associated with normal and/or pathological ageing. While perturbations in collagen homeostasis, trafficking of toll-like receptors and endosomal pathways were commonly identified, degradation of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins was uniquely identified in pathological ageing. PMID:26431327

  13. Investigation of the Nature of Metaconceptual Processes of Pre-Service Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Selvi, Meryem; Yakisan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of pre-service biology teachers' metaconceptual processes that were active as they participated in metaconceptual teaching activities. Methods: Several instructional activities, including poster drawing, concept mapping, group and class discussions, and journal writing, were…

  14. The application of natural language processing to augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, D Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W; Moulton, Bryan J; Roark, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next generation of AAC technology.

  15. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  16. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  17. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  18. Production of gasoline from coal or natural gas by the methanol-to-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinritz-Adrian, M.; Brandl, A.; Zhoa, Xinjin; Tabak, S. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    After discussing the basis of the methanol-to-gas (MTG) process, the fixed bed and fluid bed versions are described. The Motunui and MTG complex near Montunui, New Zealand that methanol uses natural gas is briefly described. Shanxi Jincheng, Anthracite Coal Mining Co. is currently building its first coal-based MTG plant. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Combining Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing to Assess Literary Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Renu; McCarthy, Kathryn S.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how machine learning and natural language processing (NLP) techniques can be leveraged to assess the interpretive behavior that is required for successful literary text comprehension. We compared the accuracy of seven different machine learning classification algorithms in predicting human ratings of student essays about…

  20. A thermodynamic analysis of the environmental indicators of natural gas combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2010-07-01

    Environmental indicators of the natural gas combustion process are studied using the model of extreme intermediate states developed at the Melent’ev Institute of Power Engineering Systems. Technological factors responsible for generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide are revealed. Measures for reducing the amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxide, and other pollutants emitted from boilers are developed.

  1. Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Song; Chaoji Chen; Shuze Zhu; Mingwei Zhu; Jiaqi Dai; Upamanyu Ray; Yiju Li; Yudi Kuang; Yongfeng Li; Nelson Quispe; Yonggang Yao; Amy Gong; Ulrich H. Leiste; Hugh A. Bruck; J. Y. Zhu; Azhar Vellore; Heng Li; Marilyn L. Minus; Zheng Jia; Ashlie Martini; Teng Li; Liangbing Hu

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites)1–8. Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used...

  2. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  3. Effecting aging time of epoxy molding compound to molding process for integrated circuit packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachapitunsuk, Jirayu; Ugsornrat, Kessararat; Srisuwitthanon, Warayoot; Thonglor, Panakamon

    2017-09-01

    This research studied about effecting aging time of epoxy molding compound (EMC) that effect to reliability performance of integrated circuit (IC) package in molding process. Molding process is so important of IC packaging process for protecting IC chip (or die) from temperature and humidity environment using encapsulated EMC. For general molding process, EMC are stored in the frozen at 5°C and left at room temperature at 25 °C for aging time on self before molding of die onto lead frame is 24 hours. The aging time effect to reliability performance of IC package due to different temperature and humidity inside the package. In experiment, aging time of EMC were varied from 0 to 24 hours for molding process of SOIC-8L packages. For analysis, these packages were tested by x-ray and scanning acoustic microscope to analyze properties of EMC with an aging time and also analyzed delamination, internal void, and wire sweep inside the packages with different aging time. The results revealed that different aging time of EMC effect to properties and reliability performance of molding process.

  4. Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianwei; Chen, Chaoji; Zhu, Shuze; Zhu, Mingwei; Dai, Jiaqi; Ray, Upamanyu; Li, Yiju; Kuang, Yudi; Li, Yongfeng; Quispe, Nelson; Yao, Yonggang; Gong, Amy; Leiste, Ulrich H.; Bruck, Hugh A.; Zhu, J. Y.; Vellore, Azhar; Li, Heng; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jia, Zheng; Martini, Ashlie; Li, Teng; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used for millennia as a structural material for building and furniture construction. However, the mechanical performance of natural wood (its strength and toughness) is unsatisfactory for many advanced engineering structures and applications. Pre-treatment with steam, heat, ammonia or cold rolling followed by densification has led to the enhanced mechanical performance of natural wood. However, the existing methods result in incomplete densification and lack dimensional stability, particularly in response to humid environments, and wood treated in these ways can expand and weaken. Here we report a simple and effective strategy to transform bulk natural wood directly into a high-performance structural material with a more than tenfold increase in strength, toughness and ballistic resistance and with greater dimensional stability. Our two-step process involves the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose from the natural wood via a boiling process in an aqueous mixture of NaOH and Na2SO3 followed by hot-pressing, leading to the total collapse of cell walls and the complete densification of the natural wood with highly aligned cellulose nanofibres. This strategy is shown to be universally effective for various species of wood. Our processed wood has a specific strength higher than that of most structural metals and alloys, making it a low-cost, high-performance, lightweight alternative.

  5. ERP evidence for own-age effects on late stages of processing sad faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölster, Mara; Werheid, Katja

    2016-08-01

    Faces convey important information on interaction partners, such as their emotional state and age. Faces of the same age are, according to recent research, preferentially processed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the neural processes underlying this own-age effect are influenced by the emotional expression of the face, and to explore possible explanations such as the frequency or quality of contact to own-age versus other-age groups. Event-related potentials were recorded while 19 younger (18-30 years) and 19 older (64-86 years) observers watched younger and older sad and happy faces. Sad but not happy faces elicited higher late positive potential amplitudes for own-age than for other-age faces. This own-age effect was significant for older, but not for younger, observers, and correlated with the quality of contact with the own-age versus the other-age group. This pattern suggests that sad own-age faces are motivationally more relevant.

  6. A comparison of POPs bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida in natural and artificial soils and the effects of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The close relationship between soil organic matter and the bioavailability of POPs in soils suggests the possibility of using it for the extrapolation between different soils. The aim of this study was to prove that TOC content is not a single factor affecting the bioavailability of POPs and that TOC based extrapolation might be incorrect, especially when comparing natural and artificial soils. Three natural soils with increasing TOC and three artificial soils with TOC comparable to these natural soils were spiked with phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153 and studied after 0, 14, 28, and 56 days. At each sampling point, total soil concentration and bioaccumulation in earthworms Eisenia fetida were measured. The results showed different behavior and bioavailability of POPs in natural and artificial soils and apparent effects of aging on these differences. Hence, direct TOC based extrapolation between various soils seems to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic effects on information processing speed are moderated by age--converging results from three samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, M; Mather, K A; Zimmermann, P; Brückl, T; Höhne, N; Heck, A; Schenk, L A; Rujescu, D; Armstrong, N J; Sachdev, P S; Reppermund, S

    2014-06-01

    Information processing is a cognitive trait forming the basis of complex abilities like executive function. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a well-established test of information processing with moderate to high heritability. Age of the individual also plays an important role. A number of genetic association studies with the TMT have been performed, which, however, did not consider age as a moderating factor. We report the results of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on age-independent and age-dependent TMT performance in two population-representative community samples (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature, MARS: N1 = 540; Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU: N2 = 350). Age-dependent genome-wide findings were then evaluated in a third sample of healthy elderly subjects (Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, Sydney MAS: N3 = 448). While a meta-analysis on the GWAS findings did not reveal age-independent TMT associations withstanding correction for multiple testing, we found a genome-wide significant age-moderated effect between variants in the DSG1 gene region and TMT-A performance predominantly reflecting visual processing speed (rs2199301, P(meta-analysis) = 1.3 × 10(-7)). The direction of the interaction suggests for the minor allele a beneficial effect in younger adults turning into a detrimental effect in older adults. The detrimental effect of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism rs1426310 within the same DSG1 gene region could be replicated in Sydney MAS participants aged 70-79, but not in those aged 80 years and older, presumably a result of survivor bias. Our findings demonstrate opposing effects of DSG1 variants on information processing speed depending on age, which might be related to the complex processes that DSG1 is involved with, including cell adhesion and apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Golden age: marketers extract the most from oil and natural gas trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-04-01

    The complexity of the oil and natural gas markets, the complex factors which interact to produce the price of oil or natural gas on any given day, and the role of marketers in this high stakes game are discussed. While oil and natural gas prices are very good today compared to the low prices through much of the 1990s, marketers are now concerned about the ability of Canadian fields to produce enough to fill the expanded pipelines and meet the rising demand. As the oil and natural gas industry in Canada is moving from a pipeline-constrained environment to a resource-constrained environment, the question of declining reserves in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the resulting surplus in pipeline capacity is one of the most serious issues facing industry in the immediate future. This is especially true of natural gas where the cost of transportation, which can be as high as 30 per cent, is one of major importance to gas marketers. Locking in prices or allowing prices to float can make the difference between huge losses or gains depending on the interplay of the various factor that influence price fluctuations. Examples of how decisions about oil and gas prices are made, and the various outcomes that may result from marketer decisions are described to illustrate the vagaries of the natural gas market.

  9. Golden age: marketers extract the most from oil and natural gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity of the oil and natural gas markets, the complex factors which interact to produce the price of oil or natural gas on any given day, and the role of marketers in this high stakes game are discussed. While oil and natural gas prices are very good today compared to the low prices through much of the 1990s, marketers are now concerned about the ability of Canadian fields to produce enough to fill the expanded pipelines and meet the rising demand. As the oil and natural gas industry in Canada is moving from a pipeline-constrained environment to a resource-constrained environment, the question of declining reserves in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the resulting surplus in pipeline capacity is one of the most serious issues facing industry in the immediate future. This is especially true of natural gas where the cost of transportation, which can be as high as 30 per cent, is one of major importance to gas marketers. Locking in prices or allowing prices to float can make the difference between huge losses or gains depending on the interplay of the various factor that influence price fluctuations. Examples of how decisions about oil and gas prices are made, and the various outcomes that may result from marketer decisions are described to illustrate the vagaries of the natural gas market

  10. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  11. Transformation processes influencing physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and trace elements in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Riise, G.; Oughton, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides and trace elements introduced to aquatic systems, knowledge on source terms, key factors and key processes influencing the speciation is essential. The mobility, bioavailability and subsequent transfer into food chains depend on the physico-chemical forms on radionuclides and trace metals. In addition, transformation processes and especially the interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) influences the distribution pattern. Furthermore, the prevailing climate conditions, e.g. episodic events and temperature are vital for fluxes and for the kinetics of the transformation processes. In the present work processes in catchments and processes associated with acidification, episodic events, climate conditions (temperature) and mixing zone phenomena influencing the speciation of radionuclides and trace metals are highlighted. These processes should be highly relevant for assessing far field consequences of radionuclides potentially released from disposal sites. (authors). 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. The effect of whole-body radiation on the aging process in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous studies of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have provided no definite evidence of radiation-induced acceleration of aging in man, but several suggestive effects involving tissue markers of the aging process have been demonstrated. The effects have generally been more marked in those persons who were young at the time of exposure. In several studies which were conducted in both cities the age-related radiation effects were greater in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. (Auth.)

  13. The socialization of students in the process of art activity in a mixed-age organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomenko N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes the experience of pedagogical research of students’ socialization in the process of their art activity in a mixed-age organization. It also provides the characteristic of some results, obtained in the research.

  14. Building with Nature - an integrated approach for coastal zone solutions using natural, socio-economic and institutional processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, T.; Goot, van der F.; Debrot, A.O.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Building with Nature as a viable alternative to the traditional engineering approach, making the services that nature provides an integral part of the design of hydraulic infrastructure, thereby creating benefits for nature and society. In it we describe the necessary steps with

  15. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories…

  16. Personal identity processes from adolescence through the late 20s : Age trends, functionality, and depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Duriez, B.; van Petegem, S.; Beyers, W.

    2013-01-01

    Personal identity formation constitutes a crucial developmental task during the teens and 20s. Using a recently developed five-dimensional identity model, this cross-sectional study (N = 5834) investigated age trends from ages 14 to 30 for different commitment and exploration processes. As expected,

  17. Negotiations of the Ageing Process: Older Adults' Stories of Sports Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the talk of older athletes, with particular focus on how the context of sport helps them negotiate the ageing process. It draws on personal stories provided by 44 World Masters Games competitors (23 women; 21 men; aged 56-90 years; "M" = 72). Four themes emerged: "There's no such thing as…

  18. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THREE INDONESIAN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 1;8 AND 2;6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patuan Raja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are believed to employ universal processes in simplifying adult language words to match their developing phonology. The present paper is intended to describe the phonological processes used by three Indonesian children aged between 1;8 and 2;6. There is an indication that the utilization of the processes might be not only quantitatively but also qualitatively age-related, and that the processes might actually be of three types: universal (species-specific, local (language-specific, and idiosyncratic (individual-specific.

  19. Rainwater, a tool for development and maintenance of nature in the city - Three development projects illustrating the water as a support of natural processes in urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Piel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of manage urban stormwater are gradually taken into account by planners and landscapers. If the ecological potential of the temporary retention techniques is correctly operated in peri-urban areas, it is too little valued in a dense urban environment. Dense urban environment where the demand of nature is becoming stronger.Presented three projects in dense urban areas, where rainwater is treated as support nature, and as a factor in natural processes.These projects also aim to show how the problem of flood is a support social, legal, and financial, to implement these natural processes, so necessary in urban areas.

  20. Age effects on sensory-processing abilities and their impact on handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hus, Sari; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-processing abilities are known to deteriorate in the elderly. As a result, daily activities such as handwriting may be impaired. Yet, knowledge about sensory-processing involvement in handwriting characteristics among older persons is limited. To examine how age influences sensory-processing abilities and the impact on handwriting as a daily performance. The study participants were 118 healthy, independently functioning adults divided into four age groups: 31-45, 46-60, 61-75 and 76+ years. All participants completed the Adolescent/ Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Handwriting process was documented using the Computerized Handwriting Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Age significantly affects sensory processing and handwriting pressure as well as temporal and spatial measures. Both handwriting time and spatial organization of the written product were predicted by sensory seeking. When examining age contribution to the prediction of handwriting by sensory processing, sensory seeking showed a tendency for predicting handwriting pressure (p = .06), while sensory sensitivity significantly predicted handwriting velocity. Age appears to influence sensory-processing abilities and affect daily performance tasks, such as handwriting, for which sensitivity and seeking for sensations are essential. Awareness of clinicians to sensory-processing deficits among older adults and examining their impact on broader daily activities are essential to improve daily performance and quality of life.

  1. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs’ capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration...

  2. Hard and soft age discrimination: the dual nature of workplace discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypinska, Justyna; Turek, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    The paper concentrates on the problem of age discrimination in the labour market and the way it can be conceptualised and measured in a multi-disciplinary way. The approach proposed here combines two understandings of age discrimination-a sociological and legal one, what allows for a fuller and expanded understanding of ageism in the workplace. At the heart of the study is a survey carried out in Poland with a sample of 1000 men and women aged 45-65 years. The study takes a deeper and innovative look into the issue of age discrimination in employment. Confirmatory factor analysis with WLSMV estimation and logistic regressions were used to test the hypotheses. The study shows that age discrimination in labour market can take on different forms: hard and soft, where the hard type of age discrimination mirrors the legally prohibited types of behaviours and those which relate to the actual decisions of employers which can impact on the employee's career development. The soft discrimination corresponds with those occurrences, which are not inscribed in the legal system per se, are occurring predominantly in the interpersonal sphere, but can nevertheless have negative consequences. Soft discrimination was experienced more often (28.6% of respondents) than hard discrimination (15.7%) with higher occurrences among women, persons in precarious job situation or residents of urban areas. The role of education was not confirmed to influence the levels of perceived age discrimination.

  3. Comparison of Different Height–Diameter Modelling Techniques for Prediction of Site Productivity in Natural Uneven-Aged Pure Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshuang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of forest site productivity are a central element of forest management. The model of height-diameter relationship of dominant trees using algebraic difference approach (ADA is a commonly used method to measure site productivity of natural uneven-aged stands. However, the existing models of this method do not recognize site type or sample plot specific variability in height curves; thus, it cannot be effectively used to estimate site type or sample plot-related site productivity for natural uneven-aged stands. Two primary subject-specific approaches, ADA with dummy variable (DV (ADA + DV and ADA with combination of dummy variable and nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (CM (ADA + CM, were proposed for height–diameter modelling. Height–diameter models developed with ADA, ADA + DV and ADA + CM were compared using data from 4161 observations on 349 permanent sample plots of four major natural uneven-aged pure stands (Spruce, Korean Larch, Mongolian Oak, and White Birch in northeastern China. It was found that models developed with ADA + CM provided the best performance, followed by the models with ADA + DV, and the models developed with ADA performed the worst. Random effects at the plot level were substantial, and their inclusion greatly improved the model’s accuracy. More importantly, the models developed with ADA + CM provide an effective method for quantifying site type- and sample plot-specific forest site productivity for uneven-aged pure stands.

  4. Deep recurrent neural network reveals a hierarchy of process memory during dynamic natural vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junxing; Wen, Haiguang; Zhang, Yizhen; Han, Kuan; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-05-01

    The human visual cortex extracts both spatial and temporal visual features to support perception and guide behavior. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) provide a computational framework to model cortical representation and organization for spatial visual processing, but unable to explain how the brain processes temporal information. To overcome this limitation, we extended a CNN by adding recurrent connections to different layers of the CNN to allow spatial representations to be remembered and accumulated over time. The extended model, or the recurrent neural network (RNN), embodied a hierarchical and distributed model of process memory as an integral part of visual processing. Unlike the CNN, the RNN learned spatiotemporal features from videos to enable action recognition. The RNN better predicted cortical responses to natural movie stimuli than the CNN, at all visual areas, especially those along the dorsal stream. As a fully observable model of visual processing, the RNN also revealed a cortical hierarchy of temporal receptive window, dynamics of process memory, and spatiotemporal representations. These results support the hypothesis of process memory, and demonstrate the potential of using the RNN for in-depth computational understanding of dynamic natural vision. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Age-related peculiarities of tooth enamel as a natural EPR biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of age on tooth enamel as an EPR dosimeter has been investigated using a big collection of teeth extracted from several tens of persons living in different regions of Ukraine. The study was focused on two groups of teeth. The first one represented the urban population while the second corresponded to residents of rural settlements. Age dependences of two above groups were quite different: for example, doses for the 65-75 year age group were approximately 200 mGy higher for urban population compared to habitants of rural settlements. This effect was explained by contribution of medical X-ray exposure: the comparison of corresponding lingual and buccal doses revealed the more frequent presence of X-ray dose for urban population. Another observed effect was the difference between average intensities of native signals for two studied groups. At present time, no correlation with age was seen for this effect

  7. Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gilles Mathieu

    Full Text Available Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP, sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.

  8. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1964-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to help solve the problem of the selection of optimal sizes and sites for spent nuclear fuel processing plants associated with power capacity programmes already installed. Firstly, the structure of capital and running costs of irradiated natural uranium processing plants is studied, as well as the influence of plant sizes on these costs and structures. Shipping costs from the production site to the plant must also be added to processing costs. An attempt to reach a minimum cost for the production of a country or a group of countries must therefore take into account both the size and the location of the plants. The foreseeable shipping costs and their structure (freight, insurance, container cost and depreciation), for spent natural uranium are indicated. Secondly, for various annual spent fuel reprocessing programmes, the optimal sizes and locations of the plants are determined. The sensitivity of the results to the basic assumptions relative to processing costs, shipping costs, the starting up year of the plant programme and the length of period considered, is also tested. - this rather complex problem, of a combinative nature, is solved through dynamic programming methods. - It is shown that these methods can also be applied to the problem of selecting the optimal sizes and locations of processing plants for MTR type fuel elements, related to research reactor programmes, as well as to future plutonium element processing plants related to breeder reactors. Thirdly, the case where yearly extraction of the plutonium contained in the irradiated natural uranium is not compulsory is examined; some stockpiling of the fuel is then allowed some years, entailing delayed processing. The load factor of such plants is thus greatly improved with respect to that of plants where the annual plutonium demand is strictly satisfied. By including spent natural uranium stockpiling costs an optimal rhythm of introduction and optimal sizes for spent fuel

  9. Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Barnes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan.

  10. Proceedings of the FNCA 2006 workshop on application of electron accelerator. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masao; Kume, Tamikazu

    2007-08-01

    This workshop was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Malaysia and jointly organized by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objectives of the workshop were to discuss the commercial status of radiation processing of natural polymer in the participating countries and to prepare the work plan for the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) activities on radiation processing of natural polymer. The workshop was attended by experts on radiation processing from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The radiation processing of natural polymer is divided into radiation crosslinking and degradation of polysaccharides. The radiation crosslinking of polysaccharides is mainly used to prepare hydrogel for healthcare and environment. Several hydrogels were commercialized in Korea, Japan and Malaysia, respectively. Hydrogels containing chitosan and carrageenan are currently in trial in China, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. Cassava hydrogel is developing in Thailand. Radiation degraded chitosan is actually used in Vietnam and China in agriculture and aquaculture, respectively. Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand are trying in laboratory and pilot scale as plant growth promoter. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. (author)

  11. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  12. A simplified model of aerosol removal by natural processes in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.; Washington, K.E.; Sprung, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burson, S.B. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Simplified formulae are developed for estimating the aerosol decontamination that can be achieved by natural processes in the containments of pressurized water reactors and in the drywells of boiling water reactors under severe accident conditions. These simplified formulae were derived by correlation of results of Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses of detailed models of aerosol behavior under accident conditions. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses of decontamination by natural aerosol processes are reported for 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, and 4,000 MW(th) pressurized water reactors and for 1,500, 2,500, and 3,500 MW(th) boiling water reactors. Uncertainty distributions for the decontamination factors and decontamination coefficients as functions of time were developed in the Monte Carlo analyses by considering uncertainties in aerosol processes, material properties, reactor geometry and severe accident progression. Phenomenological uncertainties examined in this work included uncertainties in aerosol coagulation by gravitational collision, Brownian diffusion, turbulent diffusion and turbulent inertia. Uncertainties in aerosol deposition by gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and turbulent diffusion were examined. Electrostatic charging of aerosol particles in severe accidents is discussed. Such charging could affect both the coagulation and deposition of aerosol particles. Electrostatic effects are not considered in most available models of aerosol behavior during severe accidents and cause uncertainties in predicted natural decontamination processes that could not be taken in to account in this work. Median (50%), 90 and 10% values of the uncertainty distributions for effective decontamination coefficients were correlated with time and reactor thermal power. These correlations constitute a simplified model that can be used to estimate the decontamination by natural aerosol processes at 3 levels of conservatism. Applications of the model are described.

  13. Is Natural Language a Perigraphic Process? The Theorem about Facts and Words Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dębowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As we discuss, a stationary stochastic process is nonergodic when a random persistent topic can be detected in the infinite random text sampled from the process, whereas we call the process strongly nonergodic when an infinite sequence of independent random bits, called probabilistic facts, is needed to describe this topic completely. Replacing probabilistic facts with an algorithmically random sequence of bits, called algorithmic facts, we adapt this property back to ergodic processes. Subsequently, we call a process perigraphic if the number of algorithmic facts which can be inferred from a finite text sampled from the process grows like a power of the text length. We present a simple example of such a process. Moreover, we demonstrate an assertion which we call the theorem about facts and words. This proposition states that the number of probabilistic or algorithmic facts which can be inferred from a text drawn from a process must be roughly smaller than the number of distinct word-like strings detected in this text by means of the Prediction by Partial Matching (PPM compression algorithm. We also observe that the number of the word-like strings for a sample of plays by Shakespeare follows an empirical stepwise power law, in a stark contrast to Markov processes. Hence, we suppose that natural language considered as a process is not only non-Markov but also perigraphic.

  14. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  15. [Quantification of sclerotic renal glomeruli during the aging process in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vesna; Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladana; Pavlović, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our research was to quantify the presence of totally sclerotized glomeruli during the aging process. The study material were kidney tissue samples taken from fifty-six cadavers, their age ranging from 20 to over 70 years. They were classified in six age groups: I (20-29), II (30-39), III (40-49); IV (50-59); V (60-69) and VI (older than 70). The tissue samples were routinely histologically processed and then cut into the slices 5 mm thick, which were then stained and stereologically analyzed under the microscope with a projection screen (Reichert Visopan) with 10 x lens magnification and multipurpose test system M42 application. The analysis was carried out on 20 fields of vision per one sample. The numerical density of completely sclerotic and other glomeruli was measured, and the resulting percentages were obtained from this parameter. Completely sclerotic glomeruli were not found in the first group. They were observed in the II aging group (5%) for the first time. Their numerical density and percentage increased during the aging process and was 18% in the IV, 25% in the V and maximally 37.5% in the VI aging group. Finally, the above cited results pointed to the increase of completely sclerotized and the decreased presence of normal glomeruli during the aging process.

  16. Evaluation and analysis method for natural gas hydrate storage and transportation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Wenfeng; Wang Jinqu; Fan Shuanshi; Hao Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation and analysis method is presented to investigate an approach to scale-up a hydration reactor and to solve some economic problems by looking at the natural gas hydrate storage and transportation process as a whole. Experiments with the methane hydration process are used to evaluate the whole natural gas hydrate storage and transportation process. The specific contents and conclusions are as follows: first, batch stirring effects and load coefficients are studied in a semi-continuous stirred-tank reactor. Results indicate that batch stirring and appropriate load coefficients are effective in improving hydrate storage capacity. In the experiments, appropriate values for stirring velocity, stirring time and load coefficient were found to be 320 rpm, 30 min and 0.289, respectively. Second, throughput and energy consumption of the reactor for producing methane hydrates are calculated by mass and energy balance. Results show that throughput of this is 1.06 kg/d, with a product containing 12.4% methane gas. Energy consumption is 0.19 kJ, while methane hydrates containing 1 kJ heat are produced. Third, an energy consumption evaluation parameter is introduced to provide a single energy consumption evaluation rule for different hydration reactors. Parameter analyses indicate that process simplicity or process integration can decrease energy consumption. If experimental gas comes from a small-scale natural gas field and the energy consumption is 0.02 kJ when methane hydrates containing 1 kJ heat are produced, then the decrease is 87.9%. Moreover, the energy consumption evaluation parameter used as an economic criterion is converted into a process evaluation parameter. Analyses indicate that the process evaluation parameter is relevant to technology level and resource consumption for a system, which can make it applicable to economic analysis and venture forecasting for optimal capital utilization

  17. Parity History Determines a Systemic Inflammatory Response to Spread of Ovarian Cancer in Naturally Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzua, Ulises; Chacon, Carlos; Lizama, Luis; Sarmiento, Sebastián; Villalobos, Pía; Kroxato, Belén; Marcelain, Katherine; Gonzalez, María-Julieta

    2017-10-01

    Aging intersects with reproductive senescence in women by promoting a systemic low-grade chronic inflammation that predisposes women to several diseases including ovarian cancer (OC). OC risk at menopause is significantly modified by parity records during prior fertile life. To date, the combined effects of age and parity on the systemic inflammation markers that are particularly relevant to OC initiation and progression at menopause remain largely unknown. Herein, we profiled a panel of circulating cytokines in multiparous versus virgin C57BL/6 female mice at peri-estropausal age and investigated how cytokine levels were modulated by intraperitoneal tumor induction in a syngeneic immunocompetent OC mouse model. Serum FSH, LH and TSH levels increased with age in both groups while prolactin (PRL) was lower in multiparous respect to virgin mice, a finding previously observed in parous women. Serum CCL2, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, TNF-α, IL1-β and IL-12p70 levels increased with age irrespective of parity status, but were specifically reduced following OC tumor induction only in multiparous mice. Animals developed hemorrhagic ascites and tumor implants in the omental fat band and other intraperitoneal organs by 12 weeks after induction, with multiparous mice showing a significantly extended survival. We conclude that previous parity history counteracts aging-associated systemic inflammation possibly by reducing the immunosuppression that typically allows tumor spread. Results suggest a partial impairment of the M2 shift in tumor-associated macrophages as well as decreased stimulation of regulatory B-cells in aged mice. This long term, tumor-concurrent effect of parity on inflammation markers at menopause would be a contributing factor leading to decreased OC risk.

  18. Occurrence of 222Rn and progeny in natural gas processing plants in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, I.; Boucher, P.; Bradford, B.; Evans, H.; McLean, J.; Reczek, E.; Thunem, H.

    1990-01-01

    In Western Canada, there are many plants that process natural gas to remove impurities (CO 2 , H 2 S, H 2 O) and recover natural gas liquids (propane, butane, etc.). Trace quantities of 222 Rn present in the inlet stream are concentrated in streams rich with propane. Potential hazards to plant operators include direct inhalation of 222 Rn and progeny; exposure to gamma radiation from short-lived progeny deposited inside equipment; or inhalation of 210 Pb when contaminated equipment is opened for repair. Twenty-four plants operated by seven companies cooperated to assess these potential hazards. The findings indicate a substantial flux of 222 Rn and progeny passing through the plants, but little accumulation of radionuclides. In no case was there evidence of significant exposure of plant operators or maintenance personnel to ionizing radiation. Further investigation of pipeline operations, and chemical operations using natural gas liquids as feed stock, is recommended

  19. The Poco de Caldas project: Natural analogues of processes in a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Shea, M.E.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes by burial in deep geologic formations requires long-term predictions of the future behavior of the wastes nd their engineered repository. Such predictions can be tested by evaluating processes analogous to those which will occur in a repository, which have been long active in the natural geochemical environment. The title project is a comprehensive study of two ore deposits in Minas Gerais, Brasil, aimed at looking at uranium and thorium series radionuclide and rare earth element mobility, the development and movement of redox fronts, and the nature of natural groundwater colloids. A multidisciplinary team of experts from 27 laboratories carried out a fully integrated study of the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, hydrochemistry and geomicrobiology of the two sited for nearly four years. This book contains 20 papers covering the detailed findings, with particular emphasis on their significance for radioactive waste disposal, especially on the use of the data in testing models of radionuclide movement

  20. New Green Polymeric Composites Based on Hemp and Natural Rubber Processed by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica. The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  1. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  2. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging.

  3. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2001-01-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging

  4. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Bergeron, Patrick; Poirier, Roxane; Dusseault-Bélanger, Francis; Fülöp, Tamàs; Leroux, Maxime; Legault, Véronique; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging). The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.); we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally.

  5. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A Cohen

    Full Text Available Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.; we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally.

  6. Naturally green: Harnessing stone age psychological biases to foster environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; Griskevicius, V.; Schultz, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed that humans must reduce their environmental impact. We propose that an improved understanding of our evolved human nature can help to improve programs and policies to address environmental problems. Combining evolutionary and social psychological approaches, we argue that

  7. Thermoecological cost of electricity production in the natural gas pressure reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Usón, Sergio; Stanek, Wojciech; Bargiel, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel concept for thermodynamic evaluation of a selected energy system. The presented method has been developed by integration of the Thermo-Economic Analysis with the theory of Thermo-Ecological Cost. It can be applied as a thermodynamic evaluation method of rational resources management within any production system. It takes into account both the interrelation of irreversibility within the analyzed system and its influence on the global effects related to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The proposed method has been applied to evaluate the production of electricity in the process of natural gas transmission at pressure reduction stations. The expansion system is based on an existing plant integrated with a CHP module, characterized by a performance ratio of 89.5% and exergy efficiency of 49.2%. Within the paper, this expansion plant is supplied with natural gas transported from a natural deposit through a case-study transmission system with 4 compressor stations. The TEC (thermoecological cost) method was applied in conjunction with thermoeconomic analysis. As a result, TEC of the electricity generated in the expanders was determined at 2.42 kJ/kJ, TEC of electricity from the CHP module is 1.77, and the TEC of medium-pressure natural gas distributed to consumers is 1.022. - Highlights: • The chain of NG transmission with an exergy recovery expansion plant was analyzed. • New methodology coupling the TEC (thermoecological cost) and thermoeconomics. • Decomposition of the TEC formation process. • Case-study transmission system yields TEC of natural gas = 1.0222. • Expansion plant yields TEC of electricity 2.42 (expanders) and 1.77 (CHP module)

  8. Healthy aging and myocardium: A complicated process with various effects in cardiac structure and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakou, E S; Parthenakis, F I; Kallergis, E M; Marketou, M E; Nakos, K S; Vardas, P E

    2016-04-15

    It is known that there is an ongoing increase in life expectancy worldwide, especially in the population older than 65years of age. Cardiac aging is characterized by a series of complex pathophysiological changes affecting myocardium at structural, cellular, molecular and functional levels. These changes make the aged myocardium more susceptible to stress, leading to a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease) in the elderly population. The aging process is genetically programmed but modified by environmental influences, so that the rate of aging can vary widely among people. We summarized the entire data concerning all the multifactorial changes in aged myocardium and highlighting the recent evidence for the pathophysiological basis of cardiac aging. Keeping an eye on the clinical side, this review will explore the potential implications of the age-related changes in the clinical management and on novel therapeutic strategies potentially deriving from the scientific knowledge currently acquired on cardiac aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  10. [Perception, processing of visual information and resistance to emotional stresses in athletes of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeĭnikova, L H; Makarchuk, M Iu

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous studies devoted to the study of perception and information processing, no data available on the effects of age on these processes. In this paper we studied the influence of psycho-emotional stress and different levels of stress on the mental processes of perception and information processing in highly skilled athletes divided into two groups. The first group included the athletes aged 19-24 years (12 athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling), the second group included the athletes aged 27-31 years (7 highly skilled athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling). We revealed that the athletes of the first group had higher productivity and better visual perception and visual information processing efficiency, compared with athletes from the second group. This observation suggests a dependency of cognitive component of perception and information processing on the age of the athletes. Sportsmen from the second group had higher stress resistance compared to the older age group.

  11. Testing the effects of expression, intensity and age on emotional face processing in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Rhiannon J; Bick, Johanna; Westerlund, Alissa; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-06-21

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly show global deficits in the processing of facial emotion, including impairments in emotion recognition and slowed processing of emotional faces. Growing evidence has suggested that these challenges may increase with age, perhaps due to minimal improvement with age in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we explored the role of age, emotion type and emotion intensity in face processing for individuals with and without ASD. Twelve- and 18-22- year-old children with and without ASD participated. No significant diagnostic group differences were observed on behavioral measures of emotion processing for younger versus older individuals with and without ASD. However, there were significant group differences in neural responses to emotional faces. Relative to TD, at 12 years of age and during adulthood, individuals with ASD showed slower N170 to emotional faces. While the TD groups' P1 latency was significantly shorter in adults when compared to 12 year olds, there was no significant age-related difference in P1 latency among individuals with ASD. Findings point to potential differences in the maturation of cortical networks that support visual processing (whether of faces or stimuli more broadly), among individuals with and without ASD between late childhood and adulthood. Finally, associations between ERP amplitudes and behavioral responses on emotion processing tasks suggest possible neural markers for emotional and behavioral deficits among individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal hydraulic phenomenology for the heating process in a natural circulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Masotti, Paulo Henrique F.; Libardi, Rosani Maria P.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Conti, Thadeu N.; Silva Filho, Mauro F.S.; Melo, Gabriel R.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes thermal hydraulic phenomenology observed for the heating process in a natural circulation facility. Glass made circuit allows observations of the thermal hydraulic processes over several regions. Natural convection, natural circulation, nucleated sub-cooled, saturated boiling and some flow patterns such as, bubbly, slug and churn flow are observed and described. Facility heated and cooled parts are responsible for the natural circulation when in operation. An expansion tank accommodates the fluid density variations due to the temperature changes and void fraction. Instrumentation consists of thermocouples distributed along the circuit. Two differential pressure transducers are used for pressure and level measurements. Instrumentation signals and images are simultaneously acquired to help with phenomenon description. A CCD digital camera at a 250μs shutter speed is used for the images acquisition. Phenomenology described is based on a test under 1.1 x 10 5 W/m 2 of heat flux which corresponds to an electrical heater power of 7000 W and 0.0236 kg/s (85 l/h) of cooling flow rate. (author)

  13. Natural circulation analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor refueling process 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.F.; Dasardhi, S.; Elkassabgi, Y. [Texas A& M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States); Yoder, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    During the refueling process of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), the spent fuel elements must be moved from the primary coolant loop (containing D{sub 2}O), through a heavy water pool, and finally into a light water spent fuel storage area. The present refueling scheme utilizes remote refueling equipment to move the spent fuel elements through a D{sub 2}O filled stack and tunnel into a temporary storage canal. A transfer lock is used to move the spent fuel elements from the D{sub 2}O-filled interim storage canal to a light water pool. Each spent fuel element must be cooled during this process, using either natural circulation or forced convection. This paper presents a summary of the numerical techniques used to analyze natural circulation cooling of the ANSR fuel elements as well as selected results of the calculations. Details of the analysis indicate that coolant velocities below 10 cm/s exist in the coolant channels under single phase natural circulation conditions. Also, boiling does not occur within the channels if power levels are below a few hundred kW when the core transitions to natural circulation conditions.

  14. Plants as Natural Dyes for Jonegoroan Batik Processing in Jono Cultural Tourism Village, Bojonegoro, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizza Fauziyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Batik Jonegoroan is one of the potential tourism product in Jono Village, Bojonegoro. Batik was processed by traditional procedure using natural dyes from plants. In order to preserve the traditional batik which was colored by natural dyes from plant, the preservation of such plant were important. As far, there are no scientific data related to the species usage in Batik production. The aims of the research were identifying plant which were used as natural dyes in Batik processing. Data were collected ​​through observation, and  semi-structured interviews to batik craftsmen. Results of interviews were analyzed descriptively. The importance of plant was analyzed using Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC index. Based on the results, there are 12 plant species used as batik dye. It is consisted of Teak, Mahogany, Ketapang, Tamarind, Mangosteen, Mango, Suji, Pandan, Indigofera, Guava, Banana and Onion. Teak (Tectonagrandis L. and Mahogany (Swietenia mahogany L. have the highest value of RFC, 1.00. Both species were the most frequently cited species as sources of natural dyes. Extraction of Teak leaves produce red hearts and extraction of mahogany tree bark produces red-brown dye. Both of the color is the most important color in batik motifs. Keywords: batik Jonegoroan, Jono Cultural Tourism Village, perception, quality, RFC

  15. Step-wise kinetics of natural physical ageing in arsenic selenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Balitska, V; Shpotyuk, O

    2012-01-01

    The long-term kinetics of physical ageing at ambient temperature is studied in Se-rich As-Se glasses using the conventional differential scanning calorimetry technique. It is analysed through the changes in the structural relaxation parameters occurring during the glass-to-supercooled liquid transition in the heating mode. Along with the time dependences of the glass transition temperature (T g ) and partial area (A) under the endothermic relaxation peak, the enthalpy losses (ΔH) and calculated fictive temperature (T F ) are analysed as key parameters, characterizing the kinetics of physical ageing. The latter is shown to have step-wise character, revealing some kinds of subsequent plateaus and steep regions. A phenomenological description of physical ageing in the investigated glasses is proposed on the basis of an alignment-shrinkage mechanism and first-order kinetic equations.

  16. Fast But Fleeting: Adaptive Motor Learning Processes Associated with Aging and Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M.; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly—and that has been linked to explicit memory—and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. PMID:25274819

  17. Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly-and that has been linked to explicit memory-and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413411-11$15.00/0.

  18. Manipulation of natural subsurface processes: Field research and validation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Often the only alternative for treating deep subsurface contamination is in situ manipulation of natural processes to change the mobility or form of contaminants. However, the complex interactions of natural subsurface physical, chemical, and microbial processes limit the predictability of the system-wide impact of manipulation based on current knowledge. This report is a summary of research conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State by introducing chemical reagents and microbial nutrients. The experiment would allow the testing of concepts and hypotheses developed from fundamental research in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Subsurface Science Program. Furthermore, the achievement of such control is expected to have implications for in situ remediation of dispersed aqueous contaminants in the subsurface environment at DOE sites nationwide, and particularly at the Hanford Site. This interim report summarizes initial research that was conducted between July 1990 and October 1991

  19. Constant-scale natural boundary mapping to reveal global and cosmic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable ...

  20. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process

  1. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetkoc@iyte.edu.tr

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process.

  2. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  3. Reactive processing of textile-natural fiber reinforced anionic polyamide-6 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Ze; Chen, Peng; Liu, Zhengying; Feng, Jianmin; Yang, Mingbo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays natural fiber, used in reinforced composites, is widely concerned. However, no natural fiber reinforced reactive thermoplastic polymer grades had been prepared so far. Through our studies, it was demonstrated that there was a severe retardation and discoloration occurred in the reactive processing between anionic polyamide-6 (APA-6) and natural fiber, which result in incomplete polymerization when put together. In order to solve the problem, two methods were adopted in this paper, which are fiber pretreatment and usage of a new-style initiator called caprolactam magnesium bromide. The former is to remove sizing agent and impurities on the surface of fiber, and the latter is to weaken the side reactions between APA-6 and natural fiber by the nature of its lower reactivity and weaker alkaline. In cooperation with both methods, the severe retardation and discoloration had been improved significantly, so that the polymerization of APA-6 in natural fiber was occurred smoothly. Following textile-natural fiber reinforced APA-6 composites with an average thickness of 2.5 mm and a fiber volume content of 50% was prepared by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The soxhlet extraction, dilute solution viscometry and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements respectively suggested the degree of conversion, viscosity-average molar mass and crystallization of composites was up to 94%, 11.3×104 and 50%. Remarkable improvement of mechanical properties were achieved through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile and three-point bending test. Favorable interfacial adhesion and wettability were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Therefore, all of the above good performance make this new-style and environmentally friendly composites have broad application prospects

  4. Reactive processing of textile-natural fiber reinforced anionic polyamide-6 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Ze; Chen, Peng; Liu, Zhengying; Feng, Jianmin; Yang, Mingbo

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays natural fiber, used in reinforced composites, is widely concerned. However, no natural fiber reinforced reactive thermoplastic polymer grades had been prepared so far. Through our studies, it was demonstrated that there was a severe retardation and discoloration occurred in the reactive processing between anionic polyamide-6 (APA-6) and natural fiber, which result in incomplete polymerization when put together. In order to solve the problem, two methods were adopted in this paper, which are fiber pretreatment and usage of a new-style initiator called caprolactam magnesium bromide. The former is to remove sizing agent and impurities on the surface of fiber, and the latter is to weaken the side reactions between APA-6 and natural fiber by the nature of its lower reactivity and weaker alkaline. In cooperation with both methods, the severe retardation and discoloration had been improved significantly, so that the polymerization of APA-6 in natural fiber was occurred smoothly. Following textile-natural fiber reinforced APA-6 composites with an average thickness of 2.5 mm and a fiber volume content of 50% was prepared by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The soxhlet extraction, dilute solution viscometry and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements respectively suggested the degree of conversion, viscosity-average molar mass and crystallization of composites was up to 94%, 11.3×104 and 50%. Remarkable improvement of mechanical properties were achieved through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile and three-point bending test. Favorable interfacial adhesion and wettability were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Therefore, all of the above good performance make this new-style and environmentally friendly composites have broad application prospects.

  5. Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

    2003-09-01

    Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

  6. Medical subdomain classification of clinical notes using a machine learning-based natural language processing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; McCray, Alexa T.; Szolovits, Peter; Chueh, Henry C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The medical subdomain of a clinical note, such as cardiology or neurology, is useful content-derived metadata for developing machine learning downstream applications. To classify the medical subdomain of a note accurately, we have constructed a machine learning-based natural language processing (NLP) pipeline and developed medical subdomain classifiers based on the content of the note. Methods We constructed the pipeline using the clinical ...

  7. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  8. A BRIEF STUDY ABOUT THE LEGAL NATURE OF PRECAUTIONA RY PRISONS (? IN BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paula Cruz de Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, even if soon, the legal nature of prison said as precautionary, that occur during the police investigation or criminal process. Over this study, prison in the act, preventive prison, according to each of its assumptions and, lastly, temporary prison will bel analyzed. At the end, will be presented the measures, which are effectively considered precautionary, serving to the utility of the final provision, like security measures

  9. On the Possibility of ESP Data Use in Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Knopp, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to explore this image label database coming from the ESP game from the natural language processing (NLP) point of view. ESP game is an online game, in which human players do useful work - they label images. The output of the ESP game is then a database of images and their labels. What interests us is whether the data collected in the process of labeling images will be of any use in NLP tasks. Specifically, we are interested in the tasks of automatic corefere...

  10. Effect of Composition and Pre-Ageing on the Natural Ageing and Paint-Baking Behaviour of Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rometsch, Paul A.; Gao, Sam X.; Couper, Malcolm J.

    Two 6xxx series aluminium alloys were designed to have the same total solute content but very different Mg/Si ratios. An excess Mg alloy (Al-1.2Mg-0.5Si) and an excess Si alloy (Al-0.5Mg-1.2Si) were cast and rolled to 1 mm thick sheet. Both were naturally aged for 30 days and then artificially aged for 0.5 h at 170°C to simulate an automotive body panel paint-baking cycle. In order to improve the paint-bake response, pre-ageing treatments of 20 s at 200°C and 2 h at 100°C were tested and evaluated using atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results show that the excess Mg alloy tends to have coarser clusters/precipitates than the excess Si alloy, and that the Mg/Si ratio of the smaller clusters is closer to the alloy composition than that of the larger clusters and precipitates. Depending on the pre-ageing treatment, both alloys can give good paint-baking responses.

  11. When speaker identity is unavoidable: Neural processing of speaker identity cues in natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Alba; Chládková, Kateřina; Peter, Varghese; Schiller, Niels O; Escudero, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, native and nonnative speakers of Dutch were exposed to naturally-produced Dutch vowels varying in speaker, sex, accent, and phoneme identity. Unexpectedly, the analysis of mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes elicited by each type of change shows a large degree of early perceptual sensitivity to non-linguistic cues. This finding on perception of naturally-produced stimuli contrasts with previous studies examining the perception of synthetic stimuli wherein adult listeners automatically disregard acoustic cues to speaker identity. The present finding bears relevance to speech normalization theories, suggesting that at an unattended level of processing, listeners are indeed sensitive to changes in fundamental frequency in natural speech tokens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a BR-UASB-DHS system for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Takahiro; Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Tsuruoka, Natsumi; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Kuroda, Kyohei; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Hai, Huynh Trung; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-21

    Natural rubber processing wastewater contains high concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen, and other contaminants. In this study, a treatment system composed of a baffled reactor (BR), an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used to treat natural rubber processing wastewater in Vietnam. The BR showed good total suspended solids removal of 47.6%, as well as acidification of wastewater. The UASB reactor achieved a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 92.7% ± 2.3% and energy recovery in the form of methane with an organic loading rate of 12.2 ± 6.6 kg-COD·m -3 ·day -1 . The DHS reactor showed a high performance in residual organic matter removal from UASB effluent. In total, the system achieved high-level total COD removal of 98.6% ± 1.2% and total suspended solids removal of 98.0% ± 1.4%. Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the retained sludge in the UASB reactor showed the predominant microbial phyla to be Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, WWE1, and Euryarchaeota. Uncultured bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes and Phylum WWE1 were predominant in the UASB reactor. This microbial assemblage utilizes the organic compounds contained in natural rubber processing wastewater. In addition, the methane-producing archaea Methanosaeta sp. and Methanolinea sp. were detected.

  13. Investigation of Natural Radioactivity in a Monazite Processing Plant in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Yajima, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Yonehara, Hidenori; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Kanda, Reiko

    2017-09-01

    Monazite is a naturally occurring radioactive material that is processed for use in a variety of domestic applications. At present, there is little information available on potential radiation doses experienced by people working with monazite. The ambient dose rate and activity concentration of natural radionuclides in raw materials, products, and dust in work sites as well as the Rn and Rn concentrations in work sites were measured in a monazite processing plant in Japan. Dose estimations for plant workers were also conducted. The activity concentration of the U series in raw materials and products for the monazite processing plant was found to be higher than the relevant values described in the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Standards. The ambient dose rates in the raw material yard were higher than those in other work sites. Moreover, the activity concentrations of dust in the milling site were higher than those in other work sites. The Rn concentrations in all work sites were almost the same as those in regular indoor environments in Japan. The Rn concentrations in all work sites were much higher than those in regular indoor environments in Japan. The maximum value of the effective dose for workers was 0.62 mSv y, which is lower than the reference level range (1-20 mSv y) for abnormally high levels of natural background radiation published in the International Commission of Radiological Protection Publication 103.

  14. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  15. A Tool and Process that Facilitate Community Capacity Building and Social Learning for Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Raymond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a self-assessment tool and process that facilitate community capacity building and social learning for natural resource management. The tool and process provide opportunities for rural landholders and project teams both to self-assess their capacity to plan and deliver natural resource management (NRM programs and to reflect on their capacities relative to other organizations and institutions that operate in their region. We first outline the tool and process and then present a critical review of the pilot in the South Australian Arid Lands NRM region, South Australia. Results indicate that participants representing local, organizational, and institutional tiers of government were able to arrive at a group consensus position on the strength, importance, and confidence of a variety of capacities for NRM categorized broadly as human, social, physical, and financial. During the process, participants learned a lot about their current capacity as well as capacity needs. Broad conclusions are discussed with reference to the iterative process for assessing and reflecting on community capacity.

  16. Natural history of diabetes mellitus with special reference to age of onset and vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Y; Toyota, T; Masuda, M; Komatsu, K; Kuriki, A

    1976-06-01

    Age and sex distribution of diabetics, seasonal incidence of diabetes, grade of hyperglycemia, frequency of vascular complications and daily living conditions were studied of 2771 diabetic patients experienced at five clinics. The cases consisted of 1587 male and 1184 female diabetics. The distribution of age of diabetes onset revealed that males predominate among diabetics but females predominate among child diabetics, and that the precentage of child was extremely low. This pattern was emphasized as characteristic of Japanese diabetic population. Distribution of fasting blood sugar at the diagnosis of diabetes was compared among the age groups of diabetes-onset and the results showed that percentage of the value exceeding 300 mg/100 ml was highest in the under 10 year-onset cases and decreased with age. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy and of ischemic ECG changes was analysed from the view point of age of diabetes onset and also the duration of the disease. The frequency of the retinopathy at the diabetes-onset was zero in the under 10 year-onset cases, 4.2% in the 10s-onset cases and increased with age. The longer the duration of the disease the higher the frequency of the retinopathy was. This increase along with the duration was most remarkable in the 10s- and 20s-onset cases and less remarkable in the 30s-onset cases. The retinopathy was significantly more frequent in female diabetics. Daily of the patients were studied by a questionnaire and the analysis of 1022 cases with diabetes of more than three years revealed that cases of patients working uneventfully and/or feeling fit were most frequent among the 30s- or 40s-onset cases and that cases of bed-disability were frequent among the cases whose diabetes was found in their twenties or younger. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients is quite different according to whether their diabetes occurred before of after 30 years of age.

  17. Confocal Raman study of aging process in diabetes mellitus human voluntaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Liliane; Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; dos Santos, Laurita; Ali, Syed Mohammed; Fávero, Priscila Pereira; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of AGEs [Advanced Glycation End - products] occurs slowly during the human aging process. However, its formation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, we perform a noninvasive analysis of glycation effect on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. This technique uses a laser of 785 nm as excitation source and, by the inelastic scattering of light, it is possible to obtain information about the biochemical composition of the skin. Our aim in this work was to characterize the aging process resulting from the glycation process in a group of 10 Health Elderly Women (HEW) and 10 Diabetic Elderly Women (DEW). The Raman data were collected from the dermis at a depth of 70-130 microns. Through the theory of functional density (DFT) the bands positions of hydroxyproline, proline and AGEs (pentosidine and glucosepane) were calculated by using Gaussian 0.9 software. A molecular interpretation of changes in type I collagen was performed by the changes in the vibrational modes of the proline (P) and hydroxyproline (HP). The data analysis shows that the aging effects caused by glycation of proteins degrades type I collagen differently and leads to accelerated aging process.

  18. Fast Oxidation Processes in a Naturally Reduced Aquifer Zone Caused by Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Jemison, N. E.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is quite common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. The naturally reduced zones are heterogeneously dispersed in such aquifers and are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and reduced phases, including iron sulfides and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases that are found in association with these natural reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Three field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO wherein groundwater associated with naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in these field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Small concentrations of nitrate were also observed in the previously nitrate-free groundwater, and Fe(II) decreased to the detection limit. These results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS) rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table, and seasonal variations

  19. The Nature of Age-Related Differences in Knee Function during Walking: Implication for the Development of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Boyer

    Full Text Available Changes in knee kinematics have been identified in the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA. However, there is a paucity of information on the nature of kinematic change that occur with aging prior to the development of OA, This study applied a robust statistical method (Principal Component Analysis to test the hypothesis that coupling between primary (flexion and secondary (anterior-posterior translation, internal-external rotation joint motions in walking would differ for age groupings of healthy subjects.Seventy-four healthy participants divided into three groups with mean ages of 24 ± 2.3 years (younger, 48 ± 4.7years (middle-age and 64 ± 2.4 years (older were examined. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize and statistically compare the patterns of knee joint movement and their relationships in walking.There were significant differences between the younger group and both the middle-age and older groups in the knee frontal plane angle and the coupling between knee flexion (PC1, p≤0.04 and the relative magnitudes of secondary plane motions in early and late stance (PC3, p<0.01. Two additional principal components (PC2, p = 0.03 and PC5, p<0.01 described differences in early stance knee flexion and relationship with secondary plane motion through-out stance for the older compared with middle-age group.It appears there are changes in knee kinematics that occur with aging. The kinematic differences were identified for middle-aged as well as older adults suggesting midlife changes in neuromuscular physiology or behavior may have important consequences. These kinematic measures offer the potential to identify early markers for the risk of developing knee OA with aging.

  20. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.