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Sample records for national patterns-of-care study

  1. Who Enrolls Onto Clinical Oncology Trials? A Radiation Patterns of Care Study Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean; Coia, Lawrence R.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Hanks, Gerald; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive. Conclusions: Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual

  2. The 1989 patterns of care study for prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuba, Paul J.; Moughan, Jennifer; Forman, Jeffrey D.; Owen, Jean; Hanks, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Five-year results from the 1989 patterns of care study (PCS) for prostate cancer are now ready for analysis. The PCS was initiated to determine national averages for treatments and examine outcomes prospectively; the 1989 prostate study is the first to have collected pre- and post-treatment serum PSA data. Methods and Materials: Six hundred patients treated with radiotherapy with curative intent for prostate cancer at 71 separate institutions in the year 1989 made up the study population. Three hundred ninety-one cases were fully analyzable. Pretreatment patient and tumor characteristics were as follows: of the 391 analyzable, 255 had pretreatment PSA values obtained, and 245 had a Gleason's sum (GS) reported. Three hundred fifty-eight were Caucasian, 24 African-American, and 3 Hispanic (also 6 unknown). One hundred three patients had PSA 20. Ninety-seven patients were from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Community Cancer Centers (CCC), or teaching institutions; 141 patients were from other hospital-based, nonteaching institutions; and 153 were from freestanding radiation oncology facilities. Seventy-one patients were T1, 203 T2, and 100 T3/4. Twenty-four out of 391 patients also received neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Survival curves were constructed using Kaplan-Meier methods, and differences between groups were tested for significance using the log-rank test. For cumulative incidence curves, Gray's test was used to investigate failure distributions between groups. The variables entering Cox model for multivariate analysis included age, race, T stage, pretreatment PSA, and GS. A patient was considered a PSA failure if the treating radiation oncologist reported it as such. Results: With a median follow-up of 5.7 years, the 5-year biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) and overall survival were 56% and 79% respectively for Stage T1, 52% and 81% for T2, and 36% and 63% for Stages T3 and T4 combined. As expected, higher pretreatment PSA, GS, and T

  3. Patterns of care study. Comparison of process of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Naoto; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Mssahiro; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Wilson, F.; Owen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Patterns of Care Study (USPCS) by the American College of Radiology (ACR) has made significant contributions to improvements in the procedures of care for patients with breast cancer in the USA. The purpose of this study was to identify problems associated with the process of care for patients undergoing post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Japan compared with those in the USA. The Japanese Patterns of Care Study Subgroup (JPCS) conducted a national survey in 1998-2000, involving 79 institutions and using two-stage cluster sampling of institutions and patients, which showed that between 1995 and 1997 PMRT was performed on 258 patients. The survey of the USPCS, involving 55 institutions, found that 407 patients received PMRT between 1998 and 1999. More than three axillary positive nodes were detected in 54% of the patients covered by the JPCS and in 46% of those covered by the USPCS. The clinical set-up of radiation treatment was planned without the aid of computed tomography or X-ray simulation for 25% of the JPCS patients and for 6% of the USPCS patients. The chest wall of 31% of the JPCS patients and of 98% of the USPCS patients was irradiated. The JPCS showed that inappropriate radiation techniques such as parallel opposed fields for chest wall irradiation were used for 3% of the patients in academic facilities, but for 25% of those in non-academic facilities (P=0.0002). There is ample room for improvement in radiation treatment planning and chest wall irradiation techniques in Japan. (author)

  4. Patterns of care, predictors and outcomes of chemotherapy for ovarian carcinosarcoma: A National Cancer Database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; Gonzalez, Rafael; Bregar, Amy J; Clemmer, Joel; Hernández-Blanquisett, Abraham; Clark, Rachel M; Schorge, John O; Del Carmen, Marcela G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if outcomes of patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma (OCS) differ from those of women with high-grade papillary serous ovarian carcinoma (HG-PSOC) when compared by stage and treatment modalities. The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients with OCS and HG-PSOC diagnosed between 2003 and 2011. Demographic and clinical data were compared, and the impact of tumor histology on survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. The final study group consisted of 45,153 women. 2886 (6.39%) had OCS and 42,267 (93.61%) had HG-PSOC. The mean age at diagnosis was 65.43 (±12.21) years for women with OCS and 61.52 (±12.6) years for HG-PSOC (Pcarcinosarcoma histology was associated with decreased survival. OCS is associated with a poor prognosis compared to HG-PSOC. This difference was noted across all FIGO stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of care, predictors and outcomes of chemotherapy for uterine carcinosarcoma: a National Cancer Database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; Starbuck, Kristen D; Meyer, Larissa A; Clemmer, Joel; Schorge, John O; Lu, Karen H; Del Carmen, Marcela G

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate rates of chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivery in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma, and compare clinical outcomes of treated and untreated patients. The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients diagnosed with uterine carcinosarcoma between 2003 and 2011. The impact of chemotherapy on survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 10,609 patients met study eligibility criteria. Stages I, II, III, and IV disease accounted for 2997 (28.2%), 642 (6.1%), 2037 (19.2%), and 1316 (12.4%) of the study population, respectively. Most patients (91.0%) underwent definitive surgery, and lymphadenectomy was performed in 68.7% of the patients. Chemotherapy was administered in 2378 (22.4%) patients, radiotherapy to 2196 (20.7%), adjuvant chemo-radiation to 1804 (17.0%), and 4231 (39.9%) of women did not received adjuvant therapy. Utilization of chemotherapy became more frequent over time. Over the entire study period, after adjusting for race, period of diagnosis, facility location, facility type, insurance provider, stage, age, treatment modality, lymph node dissection, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity index, there was an association between treatment modality and survival. The lowest hazard ratio observed was in patients that received chemo-radiation. The strongest quantitative predictor of death was stage at the time of diagnosis. In addition, surgical treatment, lymph node dissection, most recent time-periods, lower comorbidity index, and higher socioeconomic status were associated with improved survival. The overall rates of chemotherapy use have increased over time. Adjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiation were associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer in Japan. A patterns of care study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2003-01-01

    The patterns of radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer are unclear in Japan. A Patterns of Care Study was performed throughout Japan to examine the patterns of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. From 1999 to 2000, extramural audits were performed on 50 randomly selected institutions (∼7% of all institutions in Japan). Detailed information was collected on a total of 311 prostate cancer patients without evidence of distant metastases, who were treated by radiation therapy between 1996 and 1998. Of these 311 patients, 162 treated radically using photon beams were analyzed in this study. Eighty percent of the patients had high-risk diseases defined as T3 or T4 tumors, a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/ml or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Androgen ablation was performed in 85.8% of patients and the median duration of hormonal therapy before and after radiation therapy was 5.3 and 21.4 months, respectively. The median total dose of radiation therapy to the prostate was 65.0 Gy (range: 20-74 Gy). The 3-year overall and biochemical relapse-free survival rates were 86.7 and 86.1%, respectively. Late toxicity was mild, with only nine patients (5.6%) exhibiting grade 2 late morbidity. The majority of the patients who received radical radiation therapy in Japan have high-risk disease. Androgen ablation plus radiation therapy was commonly used to treat these patients and resulted in high rates of initial control with a low risk of complications. (author)

  7. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer treatment: Results of the patterns of care study in Korea

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    Chang, Ah Ram; Park, Won [Division for Urologic Cancer, Korean Radiation Oncology Group, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe treatment patterns of radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer in Korea. A questionnaire about radiation treatment technique and principles in 2013 was sent to 83 radiation oncologists and data from 57 hospitals were collected analyzed to find patterns of RT for prostate cancer patients in Korea. The number of patients with prostate cancer treated with definitive RT ranged from 1 to 72 per hospital in 2013. RT doses and target volumes increased according to risk groups but the range of radiation doses was wide (60 to 81.4 Gy) and the fraction size was diverse (1.8 to 5 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used for definitive treatment in 93.8% of hospitals. Hormonal therapy was integrated with radiation for intermediate (63.2%) and high risk patients (77.2%). Adjuvant RT after radical prostatectomy was performed in 46 hospitals (80.7%). Indications of adjuvant RT included positive resection margin, seminal vesicle invasion, and capsular invasion. The total dose for adjuvant RT ranged from 50 to 72 Gy in 24–39 fractions. Salvage RT was delivered with findings of consecutive elevations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA level over 0.2 ng/mL, or clinical recurrence. The total radiation doses ranged from 50 to 80 Gy with a range of 1.8 to 2.5 Gy per fraction for salvage RT. This nationwide patterns of care study suggests that variable radiation techniques and a diverse range of dose fractionation schemes are applied for prostate cancer treatment in Korea. Standard guidelines for RT in prostate cancer need to be developed.

  8. Patterns of care and treatment outcomes for primary thyroid lymphoma: A single institution study

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    Cha, Hye Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June Won; Lee, Jeong Shim; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of care and treatment outcomes in patients with primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) in a single institution. Medical records of 29 patients with PTL treated between April 1994 and February 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy (n = 17) or thyroidectomy (n = 12). Treatment modality and outcome were analyzed according to lymphoma grade. The median follow-up was 43.2 months (range, 3.8 to 220.8 months). The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range, 21 to 83 years) and 24 (82.8%) patients were female. Twenty-five (86.2%) patients had PTL with stage IEA and IIEA. There were 8 (27.6%) patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the remaining patients had high-grade lymphoma. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 2), chemotherapy (n = 7), radiotherapy (n = 3) alone, or a combination of these methods (n = 17). Treatment modalities evolved over time and a combination of modalities was preferred, especially for the treatment of high-grade lymphoma in recent years. There was no death or relapse among MALT lymphoma patients. Among high-grade lymphoma patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) were 75.6% and 73.9%, respectively. Complete remission after initial treatment was the only significant prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.037) and PFS (p = 0.003). Patients with PTL showed a favorable outcome, especially with MALT lymphoma. Radiotherapy alone for MALT lymphoma and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy for high-grade lymphoma can be effective treatment options for PTL.

  9. Patterns of care and course of symptoms in palliative radiotherapy. A multicenter pilot study analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oorschot, Birgitt van; Geinitz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate patterns of care as well as effectiveness and side effects of palliative treatment in four German radiation oncology departments. All referrals in four German radiation oncology departments (two university hospitals, one academic hospital, one private practice) were prospective documented for 1 month in 2008 (2 months at one of the university hospitals). In palliatively irradiated patients, treatment aims and indications as well as treated sites and fractionation schedules were recorded. In addition, symptoms and side effects were analyzed with standardized questionnaires before and at the end of radiotherapy. During the observation period, 603 patients underwent radiation therapy in the four centers and 153 (24%, study popu-lation) were treated with palliative intent. Within the study, patients were most frequently treated for bone (34%) or brain (27%) metastases. 62 patients reported severe or very severe pain, 12 patients reported severe or very severe dyspnea, 27 patients reported neurological deficits or signs of cranial pressure, and 43 patients reported a poor or very poor sense of well-being. The most frequent goals were symptom relief (53%) or prevention of symptoms (46%). Life prolongation was intended in 37% of cases. A wide range of fractionation schedules was applied with total doses ranging from 3-61.2 Gy. Of the patients, 73% received a slightly hypofractionated treatment schedule with doses of > 2.0 Gy to ? 3.0 Gy per fraction and 12% received moderate to highly hypofractionated therapy with doses of > 3.0 Gy to 8.0 Gy. Radiation therapy led to a significant improvement of well-being (35% of patients) and reduction of symptoms, especially with regard to pain (66%), dyspnea (61%), and neurological deficits (60%). Therapy was very well tolerated with only 4.5% grade I or II acute toxicities being observed. Unscheduled termination was observed in 19 patients (12%). Palliative radiation therapy is effective in reducing symptoms, increases

  10. Patterns of care and course of symptoms in palliative radiotherapy. A multicenter pilot study analysis

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    Oorschot, Birgitt van [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schuler, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Psychotherapy and Medical Psychology; Simon, Anke [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schleicher, Ursula [Center for Radiotherapy, Dueren (Germany); Geinitz, Hans [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate patterns of care as well as effectiveness and side effects of palliative treatment in four German radiation oncology departments. All referrals in four German radiation oncology departments (two university hospitals, one academic hospital, one private practice) were prospective documented for 1 month in 2008 (2 months at one of the university hospitals). In palliatively irradiated patients, treatment aims and indications as well as treated sites and fractionation schedules were recorded. In addition, symptoms and side effects were analyzed with standardized questionnaires before and at the end of radiotherapy. During the observation period, 603 patients underwent radiation therapy in the four centers and 153 (24%, study popu-lation) were treated with palliative intent. Within the study, patients were most frequently treated for bone (34%) or brain (27%) metastases. 62 patients reported severe or very severe pain, 12 patients reported severe or very severe dyspnea, 27 patients reported neurological deficits or signs of cranial pressure, and 43 patients reported a poor or very poor sense of well-being. The most frequent goals were symptom relief (53%) or prevention of symptoms (46%). Life prolongation was intended in 37% of cases. A wide range of fractionation schedules was applied with total doses ranging from 3-61.2 Gy. Of the patients, 73% received a slightly hypofractionated treatment schedule with doses of > 2.0 Gy to ? 3.0 Gy per fraction and 12% received moderate to highly hypofractionated therapy with doses of > 3.0 Gy to 8.0 Gy. Radiation therapy led to a significant improvement of well-being (35% of patients) and reduction of symptoms, especially with regard to pain (66%), dyspnea (61%), and neurological deficits (60%). Therapy was very well tolerated with only 4.5% grade I or II acute toxicities being observed. Unscheduled termination was observed in 19 patients (12%). Palliative radiation therapy is effective in reducing symptoms, increases

  11. Radiation therapy for benign diseases: patterns of care study in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Katalinic, Alexander; Makoski, Hans-Bruno; Haase, Wulf; Gademann, Guenther; Hassenstein, Eckhard

    2000-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy of benign diseases is controversial and rarely applied in Anglo-American countries, whereas in other parts of the world it is commonly practiced for several benign disorders. Similar to a European survey, a pattern of care study was conducted in Germany. Method: Using a mailed questionnaire, radiation equipment, treatment indication, number of patients, and treatment concepts were assessed in 1994, 1995, and 1996 in 134 of 152 German institutions (88%): 22 in East and 112 in West Germany; 30 in university hospitals and 104 in community hospitals. Average numbers of each institution and of all institutions were analyzed for frequencies and ratios between regions and among institutions. Radiation treatment concepts were analyzed. Results: A mean of 2 (range 1-7) megavoltage and 1.4 (range 0-4) orthovoltage units were available per institution; 32 institutions (24%) had no orthovoltage equipment. A mean of 20,082 patients were treated annually: 456 (2%) for inflammatory diseases (221 hidradenitis, 78 local infection, 23 parotitis; 134 not specified) 12,600 (63%) for degenerative diseases (2711 peritendinitis humeroscapularis, 1555 epicondylitis humeri; 1382 plantar/dorsal heel spur; 2434 degenerative osteoarthritis; 4518 not specified); 927 (5%) for hyperproliferative diseases (146 Dupuytren's contracture, 382 keloids; 155 Peyronie's disease; 244 not specified); 1210 (6%) for functional disorders (853 Graves' orbitopathy; 357 not specified); and 4889 (24%) for other disorders (e.g., 3680 heterotopic ossification prophylaxis). In univariate analysis, there were geographic (West vs. East Germany) differences in using radiation therapy (RT) for inflammatory and degenerative disorders, and institutional differences (university versus community hospitals) in using RT for hyperproliferative and functional disorders (p < 0.05). The prescribed dose concepts were mostly in the low dose range, <10 Gy but varied widely and inconsistently within

  12. Patterns of care study for brachytherapy: results of the questionnaire for the years 2002 and 2007 in The Netherlands

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    Bradley Londres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the ESTRO Patterns of Care study for Brachytherapy in Europe (PCBE 2002 was to develop an aid to analyse brachytherapy practices. A 2nd version of the PCB questionnaire was created for 2007. Data over 2007 were collected at the radiotherapy institutions in The Netherlands and compared with those from 2002. The aim of this study is to describe national brachytherapy practices, to demonstrate trends, and to provide data for rational health care planning.Material and methods: Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire. For each centre, a local coordinator, responsible for coordinating the questionnaires and support of the further analysis was assigned. Data from the national cancer incidence registry was used for comparison with the data from the 21 Dutch departments.Results: There was a decrease in low-dose rate equipment in parallel to an increase in both pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate equipment. The use of 3D CT and MR based imaging techniques showed a slow rise. The most common clinical procedures were for prostate, gynaecological, and oesophageal tumours. A large increase (146% in permanent implant prostate applications using 125I seeds was observed. The numbers of oesophageal and gynaecological treatmentsremained stable. There is concern on the low numbers of cases treated in some institutions for a few complex treatment sites. For head and neck, anal canal, paediatrics, bladder and eye interventions it ranged from 3-20 patients per year per institution.Conclusions: The increase in number of patient treated with brachytherapy is in accordance with the increases in cancer incidence. The percentage of all radiotherapy patients treated with brachytherapy (approximately 5% remained stable. The survey identified certain trends in resources and techniques, as well as areas of expected improvement and possible gain in clinical outcome. Data reported from this survey can be used for further planning of resources

  13. A web-based 'patterns of care study' system for clinical radiation oncology in Korea: development, launching, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, II Han; Chie, Eui Kyu; Oh, Do Hoon

    2003-01-01

    We report upon a web-based system for Patterns of Care Study (PCS) devised for Korean radiation oncology, This PCS was designed to establish standard tools for clinical quality assurance, to determine basic parameters for radiation oncology processes, to offer a solid system for cooperative clinical studies and a useful standard database for comparisons with other national databases. The system consisted of a main server with two back-ups in other locations. The program uses a Linux operating system and a MySQL database. Cancers with high frequencies in radiotherapy departments in Korea from 1998 to 1999 were chosen to have a developmental priority. The web-based clinical PCS system for radiotherapy in www.pcs.re.kr was developed in early 2003 for cancers of the breast, rectum, esophagus, larynx and lung, and for brain metastasis. The total number of PCS study items exceeded one thousand. Our PCS system features user-friendliness, double entry checking, data security, encryption, hard disc mirroring, double back-up, and statistical analysis. Alphanumeric data can be input as well as image data. In addition, programs were constructed for IRB submission, random sampling of data, and departmental structure. For the first time in the field of PCS, we have developed a web-based system and associated working programs. With this system, we can gather sample data in a short period and thus save, cost, effort and time. Data should be performed to validate input data. We propose that this system should be considered as a standard method for PCS or similar types of data collection systems

  14. Carcinoma of the cervix: patterns of care studies: review of 1978, 1983, and 1988-1989 surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, Gustavo S.; Hanlon, A. L.; Brickner, T. J.; Owen, J. B.; Hanks, G. E.; Ling, C. C.; Komaki, R.; Marcial, V. A.; Lanciano, R.; Thomas, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the Patterns of Care Studies Process Survey data on carcinoma of the cervix conducted on patients in 1978, 1983, and 1988-89 was carried out to identify changes or trends in the demographics, evaluation, and treatment that might have occurred over this time period. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Studies conducted surveys on patients treated by radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma in 1978, 1983, and 1988-89. These surveys have compiled demographic and treatment data on a total of 993 patients. There is outcome data for the 1978 and 1983 surveys, but not for the 1988-89 survey because follow-up has not been collected yet. The demographic and treatment delivery data on all three surveys has been reviewed and analyzed and is the subject of this study. Results: There was no difference in the age distribution at the time of diagnosis of the patients in these surveys. The percentage of black patients remained constant in the three surveys, 19%, 17%, and 21%, respectively. The percentage of white patients was 76%, 78%, and 67%, but that of nonwhite/nonblack patients was 3%, 4%, and 12% (p 60 Co units decreased from 35 to 2% from the first to the third survey [6 to 0% for short source-surface distance (SSD) 60 Co units]. Point dose calculations for the intracavitary therapy increased from 78% in the 1978 survey to 95% in the third survey. As determined by the total dose delivered to the paracentral points, more patients (75.1%) were treated according to the Patterns of Care recommended guidelines in the 1988-89 survey than in the 1983 survey (63.6%). Chemotherapy was given to 12% of the patients undergoing radiation therapy during the period of the third survey, but these data are not available for the first and second surveys. Conclusion: Review of the Carcinoma of the Cervix Patterns of Care studies discloses significant changes in the demographics, patient evaluation, and radiation therapy techniques during the period of the studies. The

  15. Treatment systems guidelines for primary rectal cancer from the 1996 patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.; Coia, Lawrence; Haller, Daniel; Hoffman, John; John, Madhu; Landry, Jerome; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Willett, Christopher; Mahon, Irene; Owen, Jean; Hanks, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The Patterns of Care Rectal Cancer Committee was formed to develop consensus recommendations for patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum limited to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: The Committee was composed of a multidisciplinary group of oncologists, and clinical scenarios were chosen to address most of the major treatment controversies in the combined modality treatment of rectal cancer. A literature search was then conducted and the major articles were identified. A modified Delphi technique was used to arrive at consensus. Serial surveys were conducted by distributing questionnaires to the Committee members to consolidate expert opinion. Voting was conducted using a scoring system and opinions were unified to the highest degree possible. Results: Consensus voting was performed for 4 clinical scenarios. Acceptability ratings for treatment were grouped into 3 broad categories: not acceptable, acceptable, and most acceptable. Based on the treatment options, a decision tree was developed that reflects the consensus of the committee. Conclusion: These options may help guide treatment decisions in rectal cancer

  16. Investigation of study items for the patterns of care study in the radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Ahn, Sung Ja; Kim, Il Han

    2003-01-01

    the use of combined modality treatments between glottic and supraglottic cancers (p=0.20). In all patients, 6 MV X-ray was used with conventional fractionation. The fraction size was 2 Gy in 80% of glottic cancer patients compared with 1.8 Gy in 59% of the patients with supraglottic cancers. The mean total dose delivered to primary lesions were 65.98 Gy and 70.15 Gy in glottic and supraglottic patients treated, respectively with radiation alone. Based on the collected data, 12 modules with 90 items were developed for the study of the patterns of care in laryngeal cancer. The study items for laryngeal cancer were developed. In the near future, a web system will be established based on the items investigated, and then a nation-wide analysis on laryngeal cancer will be processed for the standardization and optimization of radiotherapy

  17. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen values in patients with prostate cancer: 1989 patterns of care study process survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Hanlon, Alexandra M.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A Patterns of Care Study (PCS) national survey was conducted to show the national averages for processes of radiation therapy care for prostate cancer patients in 1989. In the current study we report an analysis of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by stage, grade, and ethnic origin. Methods and Materials: Process data were collected from 672 patients treated in 1989 at 71 separate institutions. Four hundred and twenty-seven (64%) of these patients had a pretreatment PSA value recorded. Three hundred and forty-three of the 427 patients were treated with external beam irradiation alone and were selected for the current analysis. The 1992 AJCC staging system was used. Results: There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with increasing stage. The median values of PSA were 8.3 ngm/ml in the T1 group (n = 65), 11.2 ngm/ml in the T2 group (n = 178), and 20.9 ngm/ml in the T3 group (n = 90) (p < 0.001). Ten patients were not staged. There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with decreasing differentiation. The median pretreatment PSA was 9.7 ngm/ml in well-differentiated tumors (n = 109), 13.0 ngm/ml in moderately differentiated tumors (n = 163), and 22.0 ngm/ml in poorly differentiated tumors. (n = 61) (p < 0.001). Ten patients had no differentiation recorded. African Americans (24) showed a significant increase in pretreatment PSA compared to Caucasians (304). The respective medians were 23.2 ng/ml and 11.9 ng/ml (p = 0.04). They also show more poorly differentiated tumors (33% vs. 17%) and more T3 tumors (46% vs. 25%). Other minorities, although small in number (n = 9) were similar to African Americans. Conclusion: Pretreatment PSA levels were established for patients treated with external beam irradiation in 1989 in the United States. They increase with stage and decreasing differentiation. African Americans and other minorities show a doubling of median values compared to Caucasians' pretreatment PSA with an increase in stage

  18. Literature analysis of radiotherapy in uterine cervix cancer for the processing of the patterns of care study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Eun Seog; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Yang, Dae Sik; Kang, Seung Hee; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Il Han

    2005-01-01

    Uterine cervix cancer is one of the most prevalent women cancer in Korea. We analysed published papers in Korea with comparing Patterns of Care Study (PCS) articles of United States and Japan for the purpose of developing and processing Korean PCS. We searched PCS related foreign-produced papers in the PCS homepage (212 articles and abstracts) and from the Pub Med to find Structure and Process of the PCS. To compare their study with Korean papers, we used the internet site 'Korean Pub Med' to search 99 articles regarding uterine cervix cancer and radiation therapy. We analysed Korean paper by comparing them with selected PCS papers regarding Structure, Process and Outcome and compared their items between the period of before 1980's and 1990's. Evaluable papers were 28 from United States, 10 from the Japan and 73 from the Korea which treated cervix PCS items. PCS papers for United States and Japan commonly stratified into 3 ∼ 4 categories on the bases of the scales characteristics of the facilities, numbers of the patients, doctors. Researchers restricted eligible patients strictly. For the process of the study, they analysed factors regarding pretreatment staging in chronological order, treatment related factors, factors in addition to FIGO staging and treatment machine. Papers in United States dealt with racial characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, tumor size (6), and bilaterality of parametrial or pelvic side wall invasion (5), whereas papers from Japan treated of the tumor markers. The common trend in the process of staging work-up was decreased use of lymphangiogram, barium enema and increased use of CT and MRI over the times. The recent subject from the Korean papers dealt with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (9 papers), treatment duration (4), tumor markers (8) and unconventional fractionation. By comparing papers among 3 nations, we collected items for Korean uterine cervix cancer PCS. By consensus meeting and close communication

  19. Patterns of Care in Elderly Head-and-Neck Cancer Radiation Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaohui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Lockwood, Gina; Bayley, Andrew; Kim, John; Cummings, Bernard; Dawson, Laura A.; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Witterick, Ian; Chen, Eric X.; Ringash, Jolie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of care for elderly head-and-neck cancer patients with those of younger patients. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of all new mucosal head-and-neck cancer referrals to radiation oncology between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007 at our institution. The clinical characteristics, treatment pattern, tolerance, and outcomes were compared between the elderly (aged ≥75 years) and younger (aged <75 years) cohorts. Results: A total of 2,312 patients, including 452 (20%) elderly and 1,860 (80%) younger patients, were studied. The elderly patients were more likely to be women (36% vs. 27%, p <.01) and to have other malignancies (23% vs. 13%, p <.01), Stage I or II disease (38% vs. 32%, p <.01), and N0 status (56% vs. 42%, p <.01). Treatment was less often curative in intent (79% vs. 93%, p <.01). For the 1,487 patients who received definitive radiotherapy (RT), no differences were found between the elderly (n = 238) and younger (n = 1,249) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. Within the subset of 760 patients who received intensified treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy or hyperfractionated accelerated RT), no difference was seen between the elderly (n = 46) and younger (n = 714) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year cause-specific survival rate after definitive RT was 72% (range, 65-78%) for the elderly vs. 86% (range, 84-88%) for the younger patients (p <.01). Conclusion: Elderly head-and-neck cancer patients exhibited different clinical characteristics and experienced different patterns of care from younger patients. Although age itself was an adverse predictor of cause-specific survival, its effect was modest. Elderly patients selected for definitive RT or intensified RT showed no evidence of impaired treatment tolerance.

  20. Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe radiotherapeutic practice in the treatment of vulvar cancer in member study groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to representatives of the member study groups of the GCIG, targeting the use...... of radiotherapy (RT) in vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-two surveys were returned from 12 different cooperative groups. The most common indications for neoadjuvant RT include unresectable disease or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage >/=III. For the neoadjuvant treatment of vulvar cancer...... of a broadly accepted standard. This underscores the importance of international cooperation as in GCIG to gather more reliable data for uncommon tumors in gynecologic oncology....

  1. Treatment planning for adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid: a patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, Robert W.; Smith, Alfred R.; Coia, Lawrence R.; Owen, Jean B.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Wallace, Marsha; Hanks, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a study of the process of treatment planning and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid in the United States, and to compare survey results to consensus guidelines. Methods and Materials: A consensus committee developed guidelines for the radiotherapeutic management of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid, and also developed a survey form that was used to gather data to evaluate the practice patterns for patients treated in 1989 and 1990 against the consensus guidelines. Seventy-three facilities were randomly selected for site visits from the 1321 radiation therapy facilities in the US: 21 academic, 26 hospital based, and 26 free standing. During the site visits, the radiotherapy records were examined by the surveyor physicist and radiation oncologist to extract and record the required data. Data collected included items related to treatment specific parameters, including treatment planning considerations. Analyses included stratification as to the types of institutions, academic, hospital based, or free standing. Results: For many treatment parameters there are discrepancies between the patterns of practice determined by the surveys and the consensus guidelines for radiotherapy treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid. Significant differences in practice among the stratified institution types were found in only a few parameters

  2. Radiotherapy in the management of high-grade gliomas diagnosed in Western Australia: a patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Melanie; Taylor, Mandy; Bydder, Sean; Maujean, Eric; Nowak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays an integral role in the management of high-grade glioma (HGG). However, there is little information on the patterns of care in unselected Australian patients with HGG. This prospective cohort study collected information on patients with a diagnosis of HGG managed in Western Australia over a 25-month period from 2006 to 2008. RT treatment and survival data were analysed. 86% of Western Australian patients with HGG were treated at the study site over this period. Of these, 80% were reviewed by a radiation oncologist with RT recommended in 88% of cases. One hundred eighty-seven patients proceeded to have RT, with most receiving 60 Gy in 30 fractions with limited field external beam radiotherapy (LFRT). Median survival from diagnosis was 13.6 months for all patients and 15.4 months for those planned for treatment with 60 Gy in 30 fractions. The median time from surgery to the start of RT was 41 days. Longer waiting times were not predictors of poor survival. Failure to receive all planned treatment (13% of patients) predicted for poor survival (hazard ratio 0.38). Dose and fractionation practices show concordance with published data and guidelines. Survival is also consistent with clinical trial data for patients planned for aggressive therapy. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients are not suited to aggressive therapy or fail to complete planned therapy, and these patients have poor outcomes. Treatment delays did not affect survival outcomes but are confounded by earlier treatment of those unsuited to LFRT.

  3. Patterns of care study of radiation therapy for uterine cervix cancer in Japan. The influence of age on the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    To improve the quality of radiation oncology in Japan, a Patterns of Care Study (PCS), a quality assurance program widely known in the United States, was introduced to Japan. In this study, the process, including work-up and treatment for uterine cervix cancer patients, was investigated to show nationwide variation by age. From July 1996 through February 1997, PCS extramural audits were performed for 29 institutions nationwide. Medical charts for 432 patients with uterine cervix cancer treated between 1992 and 1994 were reviewed based on the PCS data format used in the US. The processes of radiation therapy for these patients were compared in two age groups those aged ≥75 years (n=132) and those aged <75 years (n=300). There were significant differences by age group in medical background, indicating the fragility of the elderly and a relatively higher incidence of early-stage disease in the elderly by patient selection. Lower pelvic radiation doses were used for the elderly with advanced stage disease. There were no significant differences in unplanned breaks in external irradiation between the two age groups. Brachytherapy was used less commonly in the elderly group than in younger group (p=0.0187). The dose range for brachytherapy did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Preliminary survival rates for the elderly were similar to those for the younger group. Radiation therapy was found to play an important role in the treatment of uterine cervix cancer in elderly as well as younger patients. (author)

  4. Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer in Japan: Results of the Patterns of Care Study 1999-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenjo, Masahiro; Uno, Takashi; Murakami, Yuji; Nagata, Yasushi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Saito, Susumu; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Mitsumori, Michihide

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe patient characteristics and the process of radiotherapy (RT) for patients with esophageal cancer treated between 1999 and 2001 in Japan. Methods and Materials: The Japanese Patterns of Care Study (PCS) Working Group conducted a third nationwide survey of 76 institutions. Detailed information was accumulated on 621 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who received RT. Results: The median age of patients was 68 years. Eighty-eight percent were male, and 12% were female. Ninety-nine percent had squamous cell carcinoma histology. Fifty-five percent had the main lesion in the middle thoracic esophagus. Fourteen percent had clinical Stage 0-I disease, 32% had Stage IIA-IIB, 43% had Stage III, and 10% had Stage IV disease. Chemotherapy was given to 63% of patients; 39% received definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) without surgery and 24% pre- or postoperative CRT. Sixty-two percent of the patients aged ≥75 years were treated with RT only. Median total dose of external RT was 60 Gy for definitive CRT patients, 60 Gy for RT alone, and 40 Gy for preoperative CRT. Conclusions: This PCS describes general aspects of RT for esophageal cancer in Japan. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for the majority of patients. The standard total external RT dose for esophageal cancer was higher in Japan than in the United States. Chemoradiotherapy had become common for esophageal cancer treatment, but patients aged ≥75 years were more likely to be treated by RT only.

  5. Using Large Institutional or National Databases to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Patterns of Care: Possibilities and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Su

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non–skin-related cancer in men. With advances in technology, the care and treatment for men with this disease continues to become more complex. Large databases offer researchers a unique opportunity to conduct prostate cancer research in various areas, and provide important information that helps patients and providers determine prognosis after treatment. Furthermore, the studies using these databases may provide information on how side effects from various treatments can affect one's quality of life. Finally, information from these datasets can help to identify factors that determine why patients receive the treatments they do. Despite this, these databases are not without limitations. In this review, we discuss various available, national, multicenter, and institutional databases in the context of prostate cancer research, citing numerous important studies that have impacted on our understanding of prostate cancer outcomes.

  6. A Patterns of Care Study of the Various Radiation Therapies for Prostate Cancer among Korean Radiation Oncologists in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan

    2008-01-01

    To conduct a nationwide academic hospital patterns of the practice status and principles of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The survey will help develop the framework of a database of Korean in Patterns of Case Study. A questionnaire about radiation treatment status and principles was sent to radiation oncologists in charge of prostate cancer treatment at thirteen academic hospitals in Korea. The data was analyzed to find treatment principles among the radiation oncologists when treating prostate cancer. The number of patients with prostate cancer and treated with radiation ranged from 60 to 150 per academic hospital in Seoul City and 10 to 15 outside of Seoul City in 2006. The primary diagnostic methods of prostate cancer included the ultrasound guided biopsy on 6 to 12 prostate sites (mean=9), followed by magnetic resonance imaging and a whole body bone scan. Internal and external immobilizations were used in 61.5% and 76.9%, respectively, with diverse radiation targets. Whole pelvis radiation therapy (dose ranging from 45.0 to 50.4 Gy) was performed in 76.9%, followed by the irradiation of seminal vesicles (54.0∼73.8 Gy) in 92.3%. The definitive radiotherapy doses were increased as a function of risk group, but the range of radiation doses was wide (60.0 to 78.5 Gy). Intensity modulated radiation therapy using doses greater than 70 Gy, were performed in 53.8% of academic hospitals. In addition, the simultaneous intra-factional boost (SIB) technique was used in three hospitals; however, the target volume and radiation dose were diverse. Radiation therapy to biochemical recurrence after a radical prostatectomy was performed in 84.6%; however, the radiation dose was variable and the radiation field ranged from whole pelvis to prostate bed. The results of this study suggest that a nationwide Korean Patterns of Care Study is necessary for the recommendation of radiation therapy guidelines of prostate cancer

  7. Radiotherapy in oncological emergencies - final results of a patterns of care study in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Elmar; Adamietz, Irinaeus A.; Willich, Normann; Schaefer, Ulrich; Micke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an important treatment option for emergencies in oncology. A multicenter patterns of care study (PCS) was conducted in all RT institutions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In 2003 a standardized structured questionnaire was sent to all RT institutions. Number and type of staff involved, number of patients, over time distribution and expense, treatment indications and concepts of emergency RT were assessed. In addition, treatment outcome for the different indications was evaluated. The PCS was structured and analyzed according to the model for quality assessment set up by Donabedian in three major components: structure, process and outcome. One hundred and forty institutions (70%) answered the questionnaire. For the baseline of 2003 a total of 3 244 emergency radiotherapy indications with a mean of 28 per institution were reported. Forty percent of all institutions provide a special 24 h service at night or weekends. Seventy percent of the emergency indications were irradiated between Monday and Thursday, 30% between Friday and Sunday. Ninety percent of all emergencies were referred to RT between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., 10% between 6 p.m. and 8 a.m. The applied doses for emergency RT ranged between 2 Gy and 8 Gy (median: 3.5 Gy). Time expense was reported with a median of 90 min. The outcome analysis based on the treatment results of 1 033 patients: There was an improvement of myelocompression in 50% of the cases, vena cava superior compression in 70%, bronchial obstruction in 70% and bleedings in 80%. A clear dose-response relationship could not be established, but single doses of over 3 Gy in vena cava superior syndrome exhibited a significant advantage. This study represents the largest database in literature on emergency RT. RT was shown to be fast, time sparing and a very effective treatment option for special oncological emergencies

  8. Radiotherapy in oncological emergencies - final results of a patterns of care study in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Elmar (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Paracelsus Hospital, Glueckstadt (DE)); Adamietz, Irinaeus A. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Marienhospital, Herne (DE)); Willich, Normann; Schaefer, Ulrich (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Muenster Univ. Hospital, Muenster (DE)); Micke, Oliver (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (DE))

    2008-01-15

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an important treatment option for emergencies in oncology. A multicenter patterns of care study (PCS) was conducted in all RT institutions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In 2003 a standardized structured questionnaire was sent to all RT institutions. Number and type of staff involved, number of patients, over time distribution and expense, treatment indications and concepts of emergency RT were assessed. In addition, treatment outcome for the different indications was evaluated. The PCS was structured and analyzed according to the model for quality assessment set up by Donabedian in three major components: structure, process and outcome. One hundred and forty institutions (70%) answered the questionnaire. For the baseline of 2003 a total of 3 244 emergency radiotherapy indications with a mean of 28 per institution were reported. Forty percent of all institutions provide a special 24 h service at night or weekends. Seventy percent of the emergency indications were irradiated between Monday and Thursday, 30% between Friday and Sunday. Ninety percent of all emergencies were referred to RT between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., 10% between 6 p.m. and 8 a.m. The applied doses for emergency RT ranged between 2 Gy and 8 Gy (median: 3.5 Gy). Time expense was reported with a median of 90 min. The outcome analysis based on the treatment results of 1 033 patients: There was an improvement of myelocompression in 50% of the cases, vena cava superior compression in 70%, bronchial obstruction in 70% and bleedings in 80%. A clear dose-response relationship could not be established, but single doses of over 3 Gy in vena cava superior syndrome exhibited a significant advantage. This study represents the largest database in literature on emergency RT. RT was shown to be fast, time sparing and a very effective treatment option for special oncological emergencies

  9. National patterns of care and outcomes after combined modality therapy for stage IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aalok P; Crabtree, Traves D; Bell, Jennifer M; Guthrie, Tracey J; Robinson, Clifford G; Morgensztern, Daniel; Colditz, Graham A; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, A Sasha; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Patterson, G Alexander; Meyers, Bryan F; Puri, Varun

    2014-05-01

    The role of surgery in addition to chemotherapy and radiation for stage IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. Because there are limited data on the benefit from surgery in this setting, we evaluated the use of combined modality therapy nationally and explored the outcomes with and without the addition of surgery. Patient variables and treatment-related outcomes were abstracted for patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC from the National Cancer Database. Patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation were compared with those undergoing chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery (CRS) in any sequence. Between 1998 and 2010, 61,339 patients underwent combined modality treatment for clinical stage IIIA NSCLC. Of these, 51,979 (84.7%) received chemotherapy and radiation while 9360 (15.3%) underwent CRS. Patients in the CRS group were younger, more likely female patients and Caucasians, and had smaller tumors and lower Charlson comorbidity scores. The 30-day surgical mortality was 200 of 8993 (2.2%). The median overall survival favored the CRS group in both unmatched (32.4 months versus 15.7 months, p therapy seem to have better long-term survival.

  10. Patterns of care and survival of glioblastoma patients: a comparative study between 2004 and 2008 in Lyon, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaoui, N; Meyronet, D; Cartalat-Carel, S; Guyotat, J; Jouanneau, E; d'Hombres, A; Sunyach, M P; Jouvet, A; Louis-Tisserand, G; Archinet, A; Frappaz, D; Bauchet, L; Honnorat, J; Ducray, F

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of glioblastomas (GBMs) has changed significantly since 2005. However, the extent to which this change has improved overall survival (OS) of patients treated outside clinical trials remains to be determined. We compared the patterns of care and OS of all GBM patients diagnosed in 2004 (n=105) and in 2008 (n=130) in our center. Younger patients (aged<70 years) diagnosed in 2008 received temozolomide radiochemotherapy as the initial treatment and bevacizumab at recurrence more frequently than those diagnosed in 2004 (69% vs 26% P<10(-4) and 41% vs 3%, P<10(-4), respectively). Elderly patients (aged≥70 years) diagnosed in 2008 received an oncological treatment (radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy) more frequently than those diagnosed in 2004 (67% vs 38%, P=0.006). The patients diagnosed in 2008 had longer OS than those diagnosed in 2004 (10.5 months vs 5.3 months, P=0.001). This finding was true for both younger and elderly patients (15.3 months vs 8.9 months, P=0.02 and 6.4 months vs 3.2 months, P=0.0002, respectively) and when considering only IDH1 wild-type patients (8.9 months vs 5.3 months, P=0.004). In our center, the change in the patterns of care for GBMs between 2004 and 2008 has been associated with a significant improvement in OS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Process of care and preliminary outcome in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the 1995-1997 patterns of care study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Sumi, Minako; Sawa, Yoshihide M.S.; Teshima, Teruki; Hara, Ryusuke; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the practice process using the national average (Na); to compare differences in the process of care by age group; and to provide a preliminary outcome data for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: The Patterns of Care Study conducted a nationwide survey of the care process for Stage I-III small-cell lung cancer in Japan. Patients were divided into three age groups: <65 years (younger group, n = 73); between 65 and 74 years (intermediate group, n = 81); and ≥75 years (elderly group, n = 20). Results: The NA for the total dose was 49.0 Gy, and for use of photon energy ≥6 MV, chemotherapy, and prophylactic cranial irradiation was 77.3%, 93.2%, and 1.69%, respectively. Age stratification had no impact on the variables of radiotherapy (RT) such as total dose and field size. Only 37% of patients received chemotherapy and thoracic RT concurrently. The proportion of patients who received chemotherapy and RT concurrently was 44%, 27%, and 25% of the younger, intermediate, and elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.029). Etoposide and cisplatin were less frequently used in the elderly group (≥75 years old). Overall survival at 3 years for the entire group was 26%. The 3-year survival rate was 30% in the younger group, 28% in the intermediate group, and 9% in the elderly group. Variables found to have a significant impact on survival by multivariate analysis were the use of chemotherapy (p = 0.030), age (p 0.032), and T stage (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Calculated NAs showed that the results of clinical study had favorably penetrated into the practice process in Japan. The results demonstrated that patient age significantly influenced the process of chemotherapy such as the use of etoposide and cisplatin for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in Japan. More concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic RT and the application of prophylactic cranial irradiation for complete responders need to be investigated in the future

  12. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care

  13. Patterns of radiotherapy practice for patients with squamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifel, Patricia J.; Owen, Jean; Stouffer, Nicole O.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of evolving technology and the influence of published findings from retrospective and prospective studies on the patterns of radiotherapy practice for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Materials and Methods: 66 institutions were randomly selected for the National Survey (NS) from a master list of all radiation facilities in the United States, proportionally stratified according to practice type. To study the potential influence of patient ethnicity on practice patterns, 12 additional facilities were selected for a Minority-Rich Survey (MRS) from a list of institutions that reported a high proportion of minority patients in their census. Each facility submitted a list of patients treated in 1992-94 with radiation for squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Patients who had clinical evidence of distance metastases or who were treated with initial hysterectomy were excluded. Patients were randomly selected from each institution for review. A total of 601 patients' records were reviewed in the treating institution by one of two trained research associates. Information was recorded about patients' characteristics, diagnostic evaluation, tumor extent, treatment approach, and radiotherapy techniques. Results: Of 601 patients, 31%, 40%, 24% and 4% had FIGO Stage I, II, III, or IV disease, respectively. 79% of women had a Karnofsky status ≥90 and 76% had a pre-treatment Hgb ≥10. Black women tended to have lower hemoglobin levels and a poorer performance status than Hispanic or non-Hispanic white patients although the distribution of tumors according to FIGO stage was similar for women of different ethnic groups. Diagnostic work-up included a CT scan in (411(516)) patients for whom information was available (80%). Of these, 61 (15%) were interpreted as showing evidence of nodal metastasis in either the abdomen or pelvis. Lymphangiogram or MRI were obtained in only 4% and 5% of patients, respectively. 104 patients had surgical

  14. Patterns of pretreatment diagnostic assessment and staging for patients with cervical cancer (1999-2001). Patterns of care study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Kodaira, Takeshi; Uno, Takashi; Shinoda, Atsunori; Akino, Yuichi; Teshima, Teruki; Mitsumori, Michihide

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the patterns of pretreatment diagnostic assessment in uterine cervical cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy in Japan. The Japanese Patterns of Care Study working group conducted a second extramural audit survey of 68 institutions and collected specific information on 631 patients with cervical cancer. All patients were treated with radiotherapy in 1999-2001. Of these, 324 patients treated without surgery were the subjects of this study. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics-prescribed diagnostic procedures were performed at moderate rates in our study cohort. The performance rates of chest X-ray, intravenous urography, cystoscopy, and proctoscopy were 74, 54, 53, and 33%, respectively. Cross sectional imaging studies were frequently performed. Pelvic CT, abdominal CT, and pelvic MRI were performed in 88, 80, and 76%, respectively. Lymphangiography (1%) and surgical evaluation (1%) were rarely done. Only one patient underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scans in this survey period. This study demonstrated the patterns of pretreatment diagnostic assessment in cervical cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy in Japan. (author)

  15. Patterns of care and survival after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis: A population-based nested cohort study in Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Andrea L; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Dobbins, Timothy A; Er, Chuang C; Ward, Robyn L; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about patterns of care after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe and compare the treatment, health service use and survival of patients with CUP and metastatic cancer of known primary among 143,956 Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients, 2004-2007. We randomly matched clients with CUP (C809; n=252) with clients with a first diagnosis of metastatic solid cancer of known primary (n=980). We ascertained health services from the month of diagnosis up to 2 months post-diagnosis for consultations, hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and up to 1 year for treatment. We compared cancer treatments using conditional logistic regression; consultation rates using negative binomial regression; and survival using stratified Cox regression. 30% of CUP patients and 70% of patients with known primary received cancer treatment and the median survival was 37 days and 310 days respectively. CUP patients received fewer cancer medicines (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.89) and less cancer-related surgery (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.41); males with CUP received more radiation therapy (OR=2.88, 95% CI 1.69-4.91). CUP patients had more primary care consultations (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), emergency department visits (IRR=1.86, 95% CI 1.50-2.31) and hospitalizations (IRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.35), and a higher risk of death within 30 days (hazard ratio=3.30, 95% CI 1.69-6.44). Patients with CUP receive less treatment but use more health services, which may reflect underlying patient and disease characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craighead, Peter S.; Smulian, Hubert G.; Groot, Henk J. de; Toit, Pierre F.M. du

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  17. A preliminary outcome analysis of the patterns of care study in Japan for esophageal cancer patients with special reference to age: non surgery group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanisada, Kazuaki; Teshima, Teruki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Owen, Jean B.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Yamashita, Takashi; Nishio, Masamichi; Yamada, Shogo; Sakai, Kunio; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Oguchi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2000-01-01

    Background: The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) was imported to Japan from the United States in July 1996. A preliminary outcome analysis of the PCS for esophageal cancer patients in Japan was made with special reference to age, because the elderly population is rapidly increasing in Japan. Patients and Methods: From July 1996 to February 1998, external PCS audits were performed for 37 institutions nationwide and detailed information of 561 esophageal cancer patients treated during the period 1992-1994 was collected by using the fifth PCS data format developed in the United States. This format was provided courtesy of the American College of Radiology. For this study, patients who had not undergone surgery (n = 336) were selected. The patients were classified into three age groups: < 65 years old (n = 119), between 65 and 74 years (n = 93), and 75 years or older (n =123). Cox's proportional hazards model was used for the statistical analysis, with survival, acute/subacute complication and late complication of grade 3 or more based on RTOG criteria, as the endpoints. Results: Significant prognostic factors for the entire non-surgery group were Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (p 0.0007), stage (p = 0.0001), and external irradiation dose (p = 0.0001). For the younger group, KPS (p = 0.0004), stage (p = 0.0197), and utilization of brachytherapy (p = 0.0010) were significant, while for the intermediate age group it was KPS (p = 0.0027), history of pulmonary disease (p = 0.0339), stage (p = 0.0001), and external dose (p = 0.0001), and for the elderly group, stage (p = 0.0001) and external irradiation dose (p = 0.0224) were significant. Significant risk factors for complications for the entire group were stage (p = 0.0411), external dose (p = 0.0163), and stratification of institution (academic vs. nonacademic) (p = 0.0114). Significant risk factors for the younger group were history of pulmonary disease (p = 0.0495) and external dose (p = 0.0037), and the other age

  18. Comparative Analysis of Patterns of Care Study of Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer among Three Countries: South Korea, Japan and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Won Joo; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Jeung Kee; Lee, Hyung Sik; Choi, Seok Reyol; Choi, Seok Reyol; Kim, Il Han

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, a nationwide survey of the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for the various radiotherapy treatments of esophageal cancer was carried out in South Korea. In order to observe the different parameters, as well as offer a solid cooperative system, we compared the Korean results with those observed in the United States (US) and Japan. Two hundreds forty-six esophageal cancer patients from 21 institutions were enrolled in the South Korean study. The patients received radiation therapy (RT) from 1998 to 1999. In order to compare these results with those from the United States, a published study by Suntharalingam, which included 414 patients [treated by Radiotherapy (RT)] from 59 institutions between 1996 and 1999 was chosen. In order to compare the South Korean with the Japanese data, we choose two different studies. The results published by Gomi were selected as the surgery group, in which 220 esophageal cancer patients were analyzed from 76 facilities. The patients underwent surgery and received RT with or without chemotherapy between 1998 and 2001. The non-surgery group originated from a study by Murakami, in which 385 patients were treated either by RT alone or RT with chemotherapy, but no surgery, between 1999 and 2001. The median age of enrolled patients was highest in the Japanese non-surgery group (71 years old). The gender ratio was approximately 9:1 (male:female) in both the Korean and Japanese studies, whereas females made up 23.1% of the study population in the US study. Adenocarcinoma outnumbered squamous cell carcinoma in the US study, whereas squamous cell carcinoma was more prevalent both the Korean and Japanese studies (Korea 96.3%, Japan 98%). An esophagogram, endoscopy, and chest CT scan were the main modalities of diagnostic evaluation used in all three countries. The US and Japan used the abdominal CT scan more frequently than the abdominal ultrasonography. Radiotherapy alone treatment was most rarely used in the US study (9

  19. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Maria J; Kahn, Amy R; German, Robert R; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Cress, Rosemary D; Finch, Jack L; Fulton, John P; Shen, Tiefu; Stuckart, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival. The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively. Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%), radiation therapy (31.4%), hormone therapy (10.3%), or watchful waiting (18.6%). After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting): older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4), comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy), older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black race in patients under 60 years of age, were

  20. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton John P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival. Methods The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively. Results Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%, radiation therapy (31.4%, hormone therapy (10.3%, or watchful waiting (18.6%. After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting: older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4, comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black

  1. Low uptake of upfront autologous transplantation for myeloma in a jurisdiction with universal health care coverage: a population-based patterns of care study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Doo, Nicole; Coory, Michael; White, Victoria; Harrison, Simon J; Prince, H Miles; Millar, Jeremy L; Dimech, Margaret; Giles, Graham G

    2014-02-01

    Guidelines for the management of symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) recommend upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for transplant-eligible patients. Using population-based data, we examined the characteristics of transplant-eligible patients who do not undergo upfront ASCT. Altogether, 686 newly diagnosed MM cases were identified through the population-based central cancer registry in Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2009. We performed a detailed review of clinical notes and follow-up for at least 12 months after diagnosis for a subset of 225 patients who were aged < 70 years at diagnosis and had symptomatic MM. Of these 225 patients, 123 (55%) proceeded to receive upfront ASCT. Patient and disease factors associated with not receiving upfront ASCT were the presence of severe medical comorbidities, MM-associated renal impairment, and initial referral to a medical oncologist rather than a hematologist. Place of residence (rural vs. metropolitan) was not significant. Of 121 patients aged < 65 years at diagnosis who had minor or no comorbidities, only 75 (62%) proceeded to upfront ASCT. A substantial percentage of apparently transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed MM do not proceed to upfront ASCT. Community practice appears to diverge from clinical guidelines. The reasons for this divergence require further study but reasons may include perceptions of toxicity vs. benefits of upfront ASCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiotherapy for prevention and therapy of gynecomastia due to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer patients. A patterns-of-care-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Burkhard; Sautter, Verena; Melcher, Ute; Sautter-Bihl, Marie-Luise [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Momm, Felix [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Gynecomastia is a frequent side effect of antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer and may compromise quality of life. Although it has been successfully treated with radiotherapy (RT) for decades, the priority of RT as a preferred treatment option has recently been disputed as tamoxifen was also demonstrated to be effective. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of indications, frequency, and technique of RT in daily practice in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. On behalf of the DEGRO-AG GCG-BD (German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy of Benign Diseases) a standardized questionnaire was sent to 294 RT institutions. The questionnaires inquired about patient numbers, indications, RT technique, dose, and - if available - treatment results. Moreover, the participants were asked whether they were interested in participating in a prospective study. From a total of 294 institutions, 146 replies were received, of which 141 offered RT for gynecomastia. Seven of those reported prophylactic RT only, whereas 129 perform both preventive and symptomatic RT. In 110 of 137departments, a maximum of 20 patients were treated per year. Electron beams (76%) were used most often, while 24% of patients received photon beams or orthovolt x-rays. Total doses were up to 20 Gy for prophylactic and up to 40 Gy for therapeutic RT. Results were reported by 19 departments: prevention of gynecomastia was observed in 60-100% of patients. Only 13 institutions observed side effects. Prophylactic and symptomatic RT is widely used in the German-speaking countries, but patient numbers are small. The clinical results indicate that RT is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment.

  3. Socioeconomic characteristics of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiotherapy in the 1992 to 1994 patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Angela; Eifel, Patricia J.; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean B.; Mahon, Irene; Hanks, Gerald E.

    2000-01-01

    , minority-rich institutions differed in several respects from that of white, higher income patients. Larger, more detailed studies will be needed to clarify the reasons for these differences and to define any influence on treatment outcome

  4. Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, A.; Vinod, S.K.; Jalaludin, B.; Yuile, P.; Delaney, G.P.; Barton, M.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

  5. Patterns of care for metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daphne; Kanjanapan, Yada; Kwan, Edmond; Yip, Desmond; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Andrews, Miles; Davis, Ian D; Azad, Arun A; Rosenthal, Mark; Wong, Shirley; Johnstone, Alice; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2015-10-01

    To examine the patterns of care and outcomes for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in Australia, where there are limited reimbursed treatment options. In particular, we aim to explore prescribing patterns for first-line systemic treatment, the practice of an initial watchful-waiting approach, and the use of systemic treatments in elderly patients. Patients with mRCC undergoing treatment between 2006 and 2012 were identified from four academic hospitals in Victoria and Australian Capital Territory. Demographic, clinicopathological, treatment, and survival data were recorded by chart review. Descriptive statistics were used to report findings. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The study was supported by a grant from Pfizer Australia. Our study identified 212 patients with mRCC for analysis. Patients were predominantly of clear cell histology (75%), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 90 days before initiating treatment; these patients had a median OS of 56.3 months. Elderly patients (50 patients aged ≥70 years) were more likely to receive BSC alone than younger patients (46% vs 16%, P < 0.001). Of those who received systemic therapy, elderly patients were also more likely to have upfront dose reductions (30% vs 8%, P = 0.03). Our study of patients with mRCC treated in Australian centres showed that sunitinib was the most commonly prescribed systemic treatment between 2006 and 2012, associated with survival outcomes similar to pivotal studies. We also found that an initial watchful-waiting approach is commonly adopted without apparent detriment to survival. And finally, we found that age has an impact on the prescribing of systemic therapy. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patterns of care and persistence after incident elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Matthew F; Sinaiko, Alan R; Reifler, Liza M; Tavel, Heather M; Glanz, Jason M; Margolis, Karen L; Parker, Emily; Trower, Nicole K; Chandra, Malini; Sherwood, Nancy E; Adams, Kenneth; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Greenspan, Louise C; Lo, Joan C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Magid, David J

    2013-08-01

    Screening for hypertension in children occurs during routine care. When blood pressure (BP) is elevated in the hypertensive range, a repeat measurement within 1 to 2 weeks is recommended. The objective was to assess patterns of care after an incident elevated BP, including timing of repeat BP measurement and likelihood of persistently elevated BP. This retrospective study was conducted in 3 health care organizations. All children aged 3 through 17 years with an incident elevated BP at an outpatient visit during 2007 through 2010 were identified. Within this group, we assessed the proportion who had a repeat BP measured within 1 month of their incident elevated BP and the proportion who subsequently met the definition of hypertension. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with follow-up BP within 1 month of initial elevated BP. Among 72,625 children and adolescents in the population, 6108 (8.4%) had an incident elevated BP during the study period. Among 6108 with an incident elevated BP, 20.9% had a repeat BP measured within 1 month. In multivariate analyses, having a follow-up BP within 1 month was not significantly more likely among individuals with obesity or stage 2 systolic elevation. Among 6108 individuals with an incident elevated BP, 84 (1.4%) had a second and third consecutive elevated BP within 12 months. Whereas >8% of children and adolescents had an incident elevated BP, the great majority of BPs were not repeated within 1 month. However, relatively few individuals subsequently met the definition of hypertension.

  7. Recurrent glioblastoma: Current patterns of care in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Sagun; Thursfield, Vicky; Cher, Lawrence; Dally, Michael; Drummond, Katharine; Murphy, Michael; Rosenthal, Mark A; Gan, Hui K

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective population-based survey examined current patterns of care for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) who had previously undergone surgery and post-operative therapy at original diagnosis. The patients were identified from the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2006 to 2008. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and oncological management were extracted using a standardised survey by the treating clinicians/VCR staff and results analysed by the VCR. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) at diagnosis and progression were calculated. A total of 95 patients (48%) received treatment for first recurrence; craniotomy and post-operative treatment (38), craniotomy only (34) and non-surgical treatment (23). Patients receiving treatment at first progression had a higher median OS than those who did not (7 versus 3 months, pera where post-operative "Stupp" chemo-radiation is standard. First and second line therapy for rGBM is common and associated with significant benefit. Treatment generally includes re-resection and/or systemic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. External Beam Radiotherapy for Colon Cancer: Patterns of Care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Emily F.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Moody, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Despite its common and well characterized use in other gastrointestinal malignancies, little is known about radiotherapy (RT) use in nonmetastatic colon cancer in the United States. To address the paucity of data regarding RT use in colon cancer management, we examined the RT patterns of care in this patient population. Methods and Materials: Patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer, diagnosed between 1988 and 2005, were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Univariate and multivariate methods were used to identify factors associated with RT use. Results: On univariate analysis, tumor location, age, sex, race, T stage, N stage, and geographic location were each associated with differences in RT use (all p < 0.01). In general, younger patients, male patients, and patients with more advanced disease were more likely to receive RT. On multivariate analysis, tumor location, age, gender, T and N stage, time of diagnosis and geographic location were significantly associated with RT use (all p < 0.001). Race, however, was not associated with RT use. On multivariate analysis, patients diagnosed in 1988 were 2.5 times more likely to receive RT than those diagnosed in 2005 (p = 0.001). Temporal changes in RT use reflect a responsiveness to evolving evidence related to the therapeutic benefits of adjuvant RT. Conclusions: External beam RT is infrequently used for colon cancer, and its use varies according to patient and tumor characteristics. RT use has declined markedly since the late 1980s; however, it continues to be used for nonmetastatic disease in a highly individualized manner.

  9. FAMILY PRESENCE DURING RESUSCITATION AND PATTERNS OF CARE DURING IN-HOSPITAL CARDIAC ARREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Zachary D.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Nichol, Graham; Chan, Paul S.; Curtis, J. Randall; Cooke, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of hospitals have begun to implement policies allowing for family presence during resuscitation (FPDR); the safety of these policies and their affect on patterns of care is unknown. Objective To measure the association between FPDR and processes and outcomes of care following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Get With the Guidelines–Resuscitation (GWTG–R) a large, multicenter observational registry capturing in-hospital cardiac arrests. Participants 41,568 adult patients at 252 hospitals in the United States. Measurements The exposure was a hospital-level policy to allow FPDR. Primary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge. Secondary outcomes included the quality, interventions, and self-reported potential systems errors associated with resuscitation. Results There were no significant differences in ROSC or survival to discharge in hospitals with and without a FPDR policy in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. There was a small, borderline significant decrease in the mean time to defibrillation at hospitals with a FPDR policy compared to hospitals without a FPDR policy during adjusted analysis (p=0.05). Similarly, there was a significant increase in the risk-adjusted median duration of resuscitation among non-survivors in hospitals with FPDR (P=0.04). Other resuscitation quality, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, and potential self-reported systems-level resuscitation errors did not meaningfully differ between hospitals with and without a FPDR policy. Limitation GWTG–R may not be representative of all hospitals. Furthermore, it does not collect information on whether families were actually present during the arrests recorded. Conclusion Hospitals with a policy allowing families to be present during resuscitation generally have similar outcome and processes of case as hospitals without a FPDR policy suggesting such policies do not

  10. Patterns of Care in Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Central Nervous System Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odei, Bismarck; Frandsen, Jonathan E.; Boothe, Dustin; Ermoian, Ralph P.; Poppe, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) potentially allows for improved sparing of normal tissues, hopefully leading to decreased late side effects in children. Using a national registry, we sought to perform a patterns-of-care analysis for children receiving PBT for primary malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS). Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified pediatric patients with primary CNS malignancies that were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012. We used a standard t test for comparison of means and χ 2 testing to identify differences in demographic and clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression was applied to identify predictors of PBT use. Results: We identified 4637 pediatric patients receiving radiation therapy from 2004 to 2012, including a subset of 267 patients treated with PBT. We found that PBT use increased with time from <1% in 2004 to 15% in 2012. In multivariate logistical regression, we found the following to be predictors of receipt of PBT: private insurance, the highest income bracket, younger age, living in a metropolitan area, and residing >200 miles from a radiation treatment facility (P<.05). Conclusions: We noted the proportion of children receiving PBT to be significantly increasing over time from <1% to 15% from 2004 to 2012. We also observed important disparities in receipt of PBT based on socioeconomic status. Children from higher-income households and with private insurance were more likely to use this expensive technology. As we continue to demonstrate the potential benefits of PBT in children, efforts are needed to expand the accessibility of PBT for children of all socioeconomic backgrounds and regions of the country.

  11. Patterns of Care in Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odei, Bismarck [University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Frandsen, Jonathan E.; Boothe, Dustin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Ermoian, Ralph P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: Matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) potentially allows for improved sparing of normal tissues, hopefully leading to decreased late side effects in children. Using a national registry, we sought to perform a patterns-of-care analysis for children receiving PBT for primary malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS). Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified pediatric patients with primary CNS malignancies that were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012. We used a standard t test for comparison of means and χ{sup 2} testing to identify differences in demographic and clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression was applied to identify predictors of PBT use. Results: We identified 4637 pediatric patients receiving radiation therapy from 2004 to 2012, including a subset of 267 patients treated with PBT. We found that PBT use increased with time from <1% in 2004 to 15% in 2012. In multivariate logistical regression, we found the following to be predictors of receipt of PBT: private insurance, the highest income bracket, younger age, living in a metropolitan area, and residing >200 miles from a radiation treatment facility (P<.05). Conclusions: We noted the proportion of children receiving PBT to be significantly increasing over time from <1% to 15% from 2004 to 2012. We also observed important disparities in receipt of PBT based on socioeconomic status. Children from higher-income households and with private insurance were more likely to use this expensive technology. As we continue to demonstrate the potential benefits of PBT in children, efforts are needed to expand the accessibility of PBT for children of all socioeconomic backgrounds and regions of the country.

  12. Policies allowing family presence during resuscitation and patterns of care during in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Zachary D; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nichol, Graham; Chan, Paul S; Curtis, J Randall; Cooke, Colin R

    2015-05-01

    A growing number of hospitals have begun to implement policies allowing for family presence during resuscitation (FPDR). However, the overall safety of these policies and their effect on resuscitation care is unknown. We conducted an observational cohort study of 252 hospitals in the United States with 41,568 adults with cardiac arrest. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were used to evaluate patterns of care at hospitals with and without an FPDR policy. Primary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge. Secondary outcomes included resuscitation quality, interventions, and facility-reported potential resuscitation systems errors. There were no significant differences in facility characteristics between hospitals with and without an FPDR policy, nor were there significant differences in return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted risk ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.06) or survival to discharge (adjusted risk ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.15). There was a small, borderline significant decrease in the mean time to defibrillation at hospitals with an FPDR policy compared with hospitals without the policy (mean difference, 0.32 minutes; 95% confidence interval, -0.01 to 0.64). Resuscitation quality, interventions, and facility-reported potential resuscitation systems errors did not meaningfully differ between hospitals with and without an FPDR policy. Hospitals with an FPDR policy generally have no statistically significant differences in outcomes and processes of care as hospitals without this policy, suggesting such policies may not negatively affect resuscitation care. Further study is warranted about the direct effect of FPDR attempts on adult patients with an in-hospital cardiac arrest and their families. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Patterns of Care Among Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases at a Large Academic Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, Susannah G. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Alcorn, Sara R., E-mail: salcorn2@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hales, Russell K.; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Smith, Thomas J. [Department of Medical Oncology and Harry J. Duffey Family Program in Palliative Care, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates outcomes and patterns of care among patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for bone metastases at a high-volume academic institution. Methods and Materials: Records of all patients whose final RT course was for bone metastases from April 2007 to July 2012 were identified from electronic medical records. Chart review yielded demographic and clinical data. Rates of complicated versus uncomplicated bone metastases were not analyzed. Results: We identified 339 patients whose final RT course was for bone metastases. Of these, 52.2% were male; median age was 65 years old. The most common primary was non-small-cell lung cancer (29%). Most patients (83%) were prescribed ≤10 fractions; 8% received single-fraction RT. Most patients (52%) had a documented goals of care (GOC) discussion with their radiation oncologist; hospice referral rates were higher when patients had such discussions (66% with vs 50% without GOC discussion, P=.004). Median life expectancy after RT was 96 days. Median survival after RT was shorter based on inpatient as opposed to outpatient status at the time of consultation (35 vs 136 days, respectively, P<.001). Hospice referrals occurred for 56% of patients, with a median interval between completion of RT and hospice referral of 29 days and a median hospice stay of 22 days. Conclusions: These data document excellent adherence to American Society for Radiation Oncolology Choosing Wisely recommendation to avoid routinely using >10 fractions of palliative RT for bone metastasis. Nonetheless, single-fraction RT remains relatively uncommon. Participating in GOC discussions with a radiation oncologist is associated with higher rates of hospice referral. Inpatient status at consultation is associated with short survival.

  14. Patterns of care in geriatric cancer patients - An audit from a rural based hospital cancer registry in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, V M; Chakraborty, S; Dessai, S; Kumar, S S; Ratheesan, K; Bindu, T; Geetha, M; Sujith, K; Babu, S; Raghavan, V; Nair, C K; Syam, V; Surij, S; Sathessan, B

    2015-01-01

    There is deficit of data from India on elderly patients with cancer. Comprehensive geriatric assessment may lead to a better decision making capacity in this population. However, routine implementation of such assessment is resource consuming. The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of care in elderly patients treated at a tertiary rural cancer center in India. All patients with age 70 or above with solid tumors without any definitive treatment prior to the registration at our center and registered between 01/01/2010 and 31/12/2011 were selected for this study. The baseline demographic pattern and the pattern of care of treatment were analyzed. SPSS version 16 (IBM Inc, Armonk, New York, U.S.) was used for analysis. Descriptive data are provided. A total of 761 patients were evaluable subject to the aforementioned inclusion criteria. The median age of this cohort was 75 years (70-95 years). The most frequent primary sites of malignancies in 451 males were head neck (32.4%), lung (23.3%) and gastrointestinal (23.3%). In 310 females, the most common sites were head neck (31.6%), gynecological (18.4%) and gastrointestinal (24.5%). 228 (30%) of the patients had localized disease, 376 (49.4%) had loco-regionally advanced disease and 145 (19.1%) had distant metastases at presentation. 334 (46.32%) of patients were treated with curative intent. On logistic regression analysis the factors that predicted use of curative intent treatment were age <75 years, performance status 0-1, primary site and clinical extent of disease. Routine comprehensive geriatric assessment needs to be implemented in our setting as almost 50% of our geriatric patients undergo curative intent treatment.

  15. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  16. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approaches to dealing with a critical issue associated with educational quality in South Africa, teachers' knowledge and ... priorities and structures; and business planning to ensure a sustainable intervention that will .... of both international and affiliated national teacher education networks and programmes such as the one ...

  17. Estimation of the optimal brachytherapy utilisation rate in the treatment of vaginal cancer and comparison with patterns of care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Stephen R.; Delaney, Geoff P.; Gabriel, Gabriel S.; Barton, Michael B.; Jacob, Susannah

    2012-01-01

    Having previously modelled the optimal proportion of uterine cervix and corpus cancers that should be treated with brachytherapy (BT), we aimed to complete the assessment of the role of BT for gynaecological cancers by estimating the optimal proportion of vaginal cancer cases that should be treated with BT, the optimal BT utilisation (BTU) rate for vaginal cancer. We compared this with actual vaginal BTU and assessed quality of BT for vaginal cancer by a Patterns-of-Care Study (POCS). Evidence-based guidelines were used to construct an optimal BTU decision tree for vaginal cancer. Searches of the epidemiological literature to ascertain the proportion of patients who fulfilled the criteria for BT were conducted. The robustness of the model was tested by sensitivity analyses and by peer review. A retrospective POCS of BT in New South Wales (NSW) for 2003 was conducted, and actual BTU for vaginal cancer was determined. Differences between optimal and actual BTU were assessed. Quality of BT for vaginal cancer was compared with published benchmarks. The optimal vaginal cancer BTU rate was estimated to be 85% (range 81–87%). In NSW in 2003, actual vaginal cancer BTU was only 42% (95% confidence interval 22–62%). In NSW, only nine patients were treated, all with intra-vaginal cylinders, and two of four to lower than recommended doses. BT for vaginal cancers is under utilised in NSW compared with the proposed optimal models of care. BT quality may have been suboptimal and this may relate to the rarity of this disease.

  18. Radiation therapy of benign diseases: patterns of care study in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Katalinic, A.; Makoski, H.B.; Haase, W.; Gademann, G.; Hassenstein, E.

    1999-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed in 3 years (1994, 1995, 1996) to all radiation facilities in Germany, which assessed equipment, indications, number of patients and treatment concepts. A total of 134 (88%) institutions returned all requested data: 22 in East and 112 in West Germany; 30 in university and 104 in community/private hospitals. The average data of each institution and of all institutions were analyzed for frequencies and ratios between different regions and institutions. A mean of 2 (range 1 to 7) megavoltage (Linac/Cobalt 60) and 1.4 (range 0 to 4) orthovoltage units were available per institution; 32 (24%) institutions had no orthovoltage equipment. A mean of 20,082 patients were treated per year: 456 (2%) for inflammatory diseases (221 hidradenitis, 78 nail bed infection, 23 parotitis, 134 not specified), 12,600 (63%) for degenerative diseases (2,711 peritendinitis humeroscapularis, 1,555 epicondylitis humeri, 1,382 heel spur, 2,434 degenerative osteoarthritis, 4,518 not specified), 927 (5%) for hypertrophic diseases (146 Dupuytren's contracture, 382 keloids, 155 Peyronie's disease, 244 not specified), 1,210 (6%) for functional disorders (853 Graves' orbitopathy, 357 not specified), and 4,889 (24%) for other disorders (e.g. 3,680 heterotopic ossification prophylaxis). In univariate analysis, there were significant geographical (West vs East Germany) differences in the use of radiotherapy for inflammatory and degenerative disorders and institutional differences (university vs community/private hospitals) in the use of radiotherapy for hypertrophic and functional disorders (p [de

  19. Breast cancer diagnosis, patterns of care and burden of disease in Queensland, Australia (1998-2004): does being Indigenous make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Green, Adèle C; Garvey, Gail; Martin, Jennifer; Valery, Patricia C

    2016-05-01

    We compared patterns of care, comorbidity, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and survival in Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with breast cancer in Queensland, Australia (1998-2004). A cohort study of Indigenous (n = 110) and non-Indigenous women (n = 105), frequency matched on age and remoteness. We used Pearson's Chi-squared analysis to compare proportions, hazard models to assess survival differences and calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Indigenous women were more likely to be socially disadvantaged (43 vs. 20 %, p breast cancer received comparable treatment to their non-Indigenous counterparts. The higher proportion of DALYs related to early death in Indigenous women suggests higher fatality with breast cancer in this group. Later stage at diagnosis and higher comorbidity presence among Indigenous women reinforce the need for early detection and improved management of co-existing disease.

  20. National Plan for Graduate Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education and Culture, Brasilia (Brazil).

    The Brazilian National Plan for Graduate Studies aims at achieving a combination of training activities at the graduate level to be developed at the various institutions of higher education and research. The current situation is reviewed in terms of stabilization, performance, and development problems. Objectives and general directives include:…

  1. Patterns of Care for Biologic-Dosing Outliers and Nonoutliers in Biologic-Naive Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delate, Thomas; Meyer, Roxanne; Jenkins, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Although most biologic medications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have recommended fixed dosing, actual biologic dosing may vary among real-world patients, since some patients can receive higher (high-dose outliers) or lower (low-dose outliers) doses than what is recommended in medication package inserts. To describe the patterns of care for biologic-dosing outliers and nonoutliers in biologic-naive patients with RA. This was a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with RA who were not pregnant and were aged ≥ 18 and 110% of the approved dose in the package insert at any time during the study period. Baseline patient profiles, treatment exposures, and outcomes were collected during the 180 days before and up to 2 years after biologic initiation and compared across index biologic outlier groups. Patients were followed for at least 1 year, with a subanalysis of those patients who remained as members for 2 years. This study included 434 RA patients with 1 year of follow-up and 372 RA patients with 2 years of follow-up. Overall, the vast majority of patients were female (≈75%) and had similar baseline characteristics. Approximately 10% of patients were outliers in both follow-up cohorts. ETN patients were least likely to become outliers, and ADA patients were most likely to become outliers. Of all outliers during the 1-year follow-up, patients were more likely to be a high-dose outlier (55%) than a low-dose outlier (45%). Median 1- and 2-year adjusted total biologic costs (based on wholesale acquisition costs) were higher for ADA and ETA nonoutliers than for IFX nonoutliers. Biologic persistence was highest for IFX patients. Charlson Comorbidity Index score, ETN and IFX index biologic, and treatment with a nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) before biologic initiation were associated with becoming high- or low-dose outliers (c-statistic = 0.79). Approximately 1 in 10 study patients with RA was identified as a

  2. Paediatric medulloblastoma: patterns of care and radiotherapy quality assurance in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, V.; Koh, E-S.; Gebski, V.; Sathiyaseelan, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to document how children in Australia with medulloblastoma are being treated and to evaluate the quality of radiotherapy (RT) delivered. The Radiotherapy Database of the Australian and New Zealand Children's Haematology and Oncology Group was used to identify 46 children with medulloblastoma younger than the age of 15 years treated with radical intent by craniospinal irradiation between 1997 and 1999 inclusively. Twenty-six patients had completely resected disease without evidence of disease spread. Of these, 16 patients received a craniospinal RT dose of <25 Gy in addition to chemotherapy. RT treatment immobilization methods varied, as did planning methods. RT dose to critical structures was recorded on treatment plans for only 15% of patients. The average systematic error in shield placement at the posterior orbit was 5.2 mm, and two-thirds of patients were 'overshielded' at this site. Adequate coverage of the distal end of the thecal sac was achieved in fewer than 50% of on-treatment verification films for 21 of 45 patients. With a reduction in RT dose to the craniospinal axis for paediatric medulloblastoma, greater attention is needed for patient immobilization, documentation of RT dose to critical structures and the placement and reproducibility of shielding

  3. Radiation therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease: Australasian patterns of care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Michael; Boyages, John; Crennan, Elizabeth; Davis, Sidney; Fisher, Richard J.; Hook, Carolyn; Johnson, Neva; Joseph, David; Liew, Kuen H.; Morgan, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Pendlebury, Sue; Pratt, Gary; Quong, George; Thornton, Deborah; Walker, Quenten; Wallington, Margaret; Trotter, Grant

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of treatment outcome for Stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease treated solely by irradiation in Australia and New Zealand. Methods and Materials: Patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease only who were treated by irradiation alone with curative intent between 1969 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand contributed patient data to the study. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were recorded. Disease-free interval, survival, and complications were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and twenty patients were reviewed. The median age was 29 years. There were 437 men and 383 women. The distribution of 310 clinically staged patients was 170 stage IA, 5 IB, and 135 IIA. Five hundred and ten patients received laparotomies, and pathologic staging was as follows: IA 214, IB 13, IIA 283. The 10-year acturial disease-free rate was 69% and overall survival rate was 79%. Increasing age, male sex, higher number of involved sites, the use of involved field irradiation, no staging laparotomy, and earlier year of treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse and lower survival. Actuarial 10-year survival following recurrence was 48%. Acute complications requiring interruption to treatment occurred in 46 patients (6%), but < 1% had their treatment permanently suspended. Actuarial complication rates at 10 years were: cardiac 2%, pulmonary 3% and thyroid 5%. There were 44 second malignancies including 10 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 3 leukemias, 7 lung, and 6 breast cancers. Mean delay to the development of a second cancer was 6 years. The 10-year actuarial rate of second malignancy was 5%. Conclusions: The Australasian experience of early stage Hodgkin's disease is consistent with the results in the published literature and confirms that irradiation produces a high cure rate with minimal toxicity

  4. Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R.; Aucott, John; Lemke, Klaus W.; Weiner, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is the most frequently reported vector borne infection in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control have estimated that approximately 10% to 20% of individuals may experience Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome – a set of symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and neurocognitive complaints that persist after initial antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Little is known about the impact of Lyme disease or post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) on health care costs and utilization in the United States. Objectives 1) to examine the impact of Lyme disease on health care costs and utilization, 2) to understand the relationship between Lyme disease and the probability of developing PTLDS, 3) to understand how PTLDS may impact health care costs and utilization. Methods This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Results Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, pLyme disease, having one or more PTLDS-related diagnosis is associated with $3,798 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 3,542-4,055, pLyme disease is associated with increased costs above what would be expected for an easy to treat infection. The presence of PTLDS-related diagnoses after treatment is associated with significant health care costs and utilization. PMID:25650808

  5. Patterns of care among patients receiving sequential targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: A retrospective chart review in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sumanta K; Signorovitch, James E; Li, Nanxin; Zichlin, Miriam L; Liu, Zhimei; Ghate, Sameer R; Perez, Jose Ricardo; Vogelzang, Nicholas J

    2017-04-01

    To assess real-world treatment patterns of targeted therapies after failure of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. A large, retrospective review of medical charts of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma in the USA was carried out. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize physicians' and patients' characteristics, treatment sequences, and reasons for treatment choices. P-values were calculated using χ 2 -tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. A descriptive comparison was carried out between current results and those of a previous treatment pattern study conducted in 2012 to identify changes in treatment patterns over time. Sunitinib and everolimus remained the most commonly-used first and second targeted therapies, respectively. Among patients who continued to a third targeted therapy, everolimus and axitinib were the most commonly-used treatments after second targeted therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, respectively. The use of pazopanib as first targeted therapy, and of axitinib and sorafenib as second targeted therapies, increased over time. Efficacy, treatment guidelines and a different mechanism of action were the main reasons given by physicians for choosing among second targeted therapies after failure of a first tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The results of the present study document patterns of care during a period of rapid and ongoing therapeutic advancement in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Sequencing of therapies warrants ongoing analysis in light of new agents entering the advanced renal cell carcinoma treatment landscape. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Patterns of care and survival outcomes after treatment for uveal melanoma in the post-coms era (2004-2013: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS established modern treatment recommendations for uveal melanoma. We aim to evaluate patterns of care and survival outcomes in the time after COMS. Material and methods : The retrospective study population includes 2,611 patients in the SEER database treated for uveal melanoma between 2004-2013. Patients stage were T1-4N0M0. Data analyzed included age, clinical stage, tumor size, race, and treatment. Treatments included enucleation (EN and globe preserving therapy (GPT, which consisted of limited surgical resection or ablation (LSRA, external beam radiation (EBRT, or brachytherapy (BT. Patients treated with radiation may receive radiation therapy alone (RTA or radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy (RT+SLT. We evaluated disease specific survival (DSS and overall survival (OS using log-rank statistics, and Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results : The median follow-up was 44 months. Treatment strategy was EN in 538 (20.6% patients, LSRA in 80 (3.1%, EBRT in 609 (23.3%, and BT in 1,384 (53.0%. 1,876 patients received RTA and 117 received RT+SLT. Enucleation was associated with inferior DSS and OS compared to GPT in multivariate analysis (MVA (p < 0.01. Limited surgical resection or ablation and radiation had similar DSS and OS. Brachytherapy and EBRT had similar DSS and OS. Radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy was associated with improved DSS compared to RTA in UVA (p = 0.03, but not MVA. The 5-year DSS for enucleation, RTA, and RT+SLT were 66.7%, 87.0%, and 94.7% (p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions : Globe preserving treatments such as limited surgery or radiation are commonly utilized alternatives to enucleation, and resulted in favorable survival outcomes. Additional research is required to compare the outcomes of the various globe preserving treatment strategies.

  7. Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge alternative transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This study for the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) identifies and analyzes options for enhancing alternative transportation access to the Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge (Nantucket NWR) at Great Point in Nantucket, Massachusetts. The study team de...

  8. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  9. Alternative Transportation Study : Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-31

    This report provides an overview of the historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions related to Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge and the surrounding areas in Chatham, MA. The study defines transportation-related goal...

  10. Radiation therapy of benign diseases: patterns of care study in Germany; Strahlentherapie von gutartigen Erkrankungen: eine Bestandsaufnahme fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie, Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin; Katalinic, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Makoski, H.B. [Staedtische Kliniken Duisburg (Germany). Strahlenklinik; Haase, W. [St. Vincentius Krankenhaus Karlsruhe (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Gademann, G. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Hassenstein, E. [Krankenhaus Nordwest, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Radioonkologische Klinik

    1999-11-01

    A questionnaire was mailed in 3 years (1994, 1995, 1996) to all radiation facilities in Germany, which assessed equipment, indications, number of patients and treatment concepts. A total of 134 (88%) institutions returned all requested data: 22 in East and 112 in West Germany; 30 in university and 104 in community/private hospitals. The average data of each institution and of all institutions were analyzed for frequencies and ratios between different regions and institutions. A mean of 2 (range 1 to 7) megavoltage (Linac/Cobalt 60) and 1.4 (range 0 to 4) orthovoltage units were available per institution; 32 (24%) institutions had no orthovoltage equipment. A mean of 20,082 patients were treated per year: 456 (2%) for inflammatory diseases (221 hidradenitis, 78 nail bed infection, 23 parotitis, 134 not specified), 12,600 (63%) for degenerative diseases (2,711 peritendinitis humeroscapularis, 1,555 epicondylitis humeri, 1,382 heel spur, 2,434 degenerative osteoarthritis, 4,518 not specified), 927 (5%) for hypertrophic diseases (146 Dupuytren's contracture, 382 keloids, 155 Peyronie's disease, 244 not specified), 1,210 (6%) for functional disorders (853 Graves' orbitopathy, 357 not specified), and 4,889 (24%) for other disorders (e.g. 3,680 heterotopic ossification prophylaxis). In univariate analysis, there were significant geographical (West vs East Germany) differences in the use of radiotherapy for inflammatory and degenerative disorders and institutional differences (university vs community/private hospitals) in the use of radiotherapy for hypertrophic and functional disorders (p<0.05). The prescribed dose concepts were mostly in the low dose range (<10 Gy), but varied widely and inconsistently within geographic regions and institution types. (orig./MG) [German] 1994, 1995 und 1996 wurde an alle strahlentherapeutischen Institutionen in Deutschland ein Fragebogen verschickt, mit dem technische Ausstattung, Indikationsspektrum, Patientenzahl und Therapiekonzepte bei gutartigen Erkrankungen erhoben wurden. 134 (88%) Institutionen (22 in Ost-, 112 in Westdeutschland; 30 in Universitaets-, 104 in oeffentlichen/privaten Krankenhaeusern) beantworteten alle Fragen. Die Haeufigkeiten und Durchschnittswerte pro Institution und ueber alle Institutionen hinweg wurden hinsichtlich geographischer Region und Krankenhaustyp analysiert. Im Durchschnitt standen zwei (Spanne 1 bis 7) Linearbeschleuniger/Kobaltgeraete und 1,4 (Spanne 0 bis 4) Orthovoltgeraete pro Institution zur Verfuegung; 32 (24%) besassen kein Orthovoltgeraet. Pro Jahr wurden im Mittel 20 082 Patienten behandelt: 456 (2%) wegen Entzuendungen (221 Hidradenitis, 78 Panaritium, 23 Parotitis, 134 nicht differenziert), 12 600 (63%) wegen degenerativer Erkrankungen (2 711 Peritendinitis humeroscapularis, 1 555 Epicondylopathia humeri, 1 382 Fersensporn, 2 434 arthrotische Erkrankungen, 4 518 nicht differenziert), 927 (5%) wegen hypertrophischer Erkrankungen (146 Morbus Dupuytren, 382 Keloide, 155 Induratio penis plastica, 244 nicht differenziert), 1 210 (6%) wegen funktioneller Erkrankungen (853 endokrine Orbitopathie, 357 nicht differenziert), 4 889 (24%) wegen anderer Erkrankungen und institutionelle Unterschiede (Universitaets- vs. Versorgungskrankenhaeuser) bei hypertrophischen und funktionellen Erkrankungen (p<0,05). Die meisten Therapiekonzepte waren im Niedrigdosisbereich (<10 Gy) angelegt, schwankten aber im Detail unsystematisch und in weiten Grenzen. (orig./MG)

  11. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  12. Nonresident Suicides in England: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Kirsten; Bickley, Harriet; While, David; Williams, Alyson; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Appleby, Louis; Kapur, Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the numbers and characteristics of people who travel away from home before dying by suicide. Therefore, this studied attempts to identify the sociodemographic characteristics, location, and method of suicide in people who died distant from home, in a national sample. Data were collected on all English suicides and a patient…

  13. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  14. Leadership Coaching for Principals: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Donald; Cavazos, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Surveys were sent to a large representative sample of public school principals in the United States asking if they had received leadership coaching. Comparison of responses to actual numbers of principals indicates that the sample represents the first national study of principal leadership coaching. Results indicate that approximately 50% of all…

  15. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cohen, Roger B. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O' Malley, Bert W. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.lin@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  16. Are We Appropriately Selecting Therapy For Patients With Cervical Cancer? Longitudinal Patterns-of-Care Analysis for Stage IB-IIB Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Julie A., E-mail: Julie.A2.Carlson@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); DeWitt, Peter E. [Colorado Biostatistics Consortium, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Davidson, Susan A. [Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schefter, Tracey E.; Fisher, Christine M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We performed a patterns-of-care analysis evaluating the effects of newer technology and recent research findings on treatment decisions over 26 years to determine whether patients with cervical cancer are being appropriately selected for treatment to optimize the therapeutic ratio. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program from 1983 to 2009. We identified 10,933 women with stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma. Results: Of the 10,933 subjects identified, 40.1% received surgery, 26.8% received radiation (RT), and 33.1% received surgery plus RT. RT use increased after 2000 compared to prior to 2000, with a corresponding decrease in surgery and surgery plus RT. Among patients with risk factors including tumor size >4 cm, positive parametria, and positive lymph nodes, declining use of surgery plus RT was observed. However, 23% of patients with tumors >4 cm, 20% of patients with positive parametria, and 55% of node-positive patients continued to receive surgery plus RT as of 2009. Factors associated with increased use of surgery plus RT included patient age <50 and node-positive status. Conclusions: In this largest patterns-of-care analysis to date for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, we found a substantial proportion of patients continue to undergo surgery followed by radiation, despite randomized data supporting the use of definitive radiation therapy, with lower morbidity than surgery and radiation.

  17. The Danish National Youth Study 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica; Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    responded. Among the high school students, 61% were girls, and among vocational school students, 24% were girls. The average age was 17.9 years for high school students and 20.9 years for vocational school students. Participants were more likely than non-participants to be of Danish origin and to have...... parents with higher educational levels and a higher disposable income. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish National Youth Study 2014 contributes to knowledge on adolescent health behaviour, health and well-being. It is unique in its size, diversity of questionnaire content, high participation rate and possibility...

  18. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  19. Severe combined immunodeficiency: a national surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Anthony; De Ravin, Suk See; Elliott, Elizabeth; Ziegler, John B

    2008-06-01

    National immunodeficiency registers in several countries have reported prevalence but not incidence rates for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The objective of this study was to document the incidence and type of SCID in Australia, the age and clinical features at presentation and short-term management. The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit conducts active, monthly, national surveillance of rare disorders with reporting by child-health specialists. Between May 1995 and December 2001, clinicians provided clinical and laboratory data on children newly diagnosed with SCID. Thirty-three incident cases of SCID were identified [incidence 1.8/10(5) live births per annum; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.5]. Twenty-six children had classical SCID (1.45/10(5) live births; 95% CI, 0.9-2.0) and 20 (77%) of these were boys. Classical SCID was X-linked in 13 children, autosomal recessive (AR), not further classified in four, and attributed to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA) in four, interleukin-7 receptor alpha chain deficiency in one, Ommen syndrome in two, and Di George syndrome in two. Twenty-one (81%) received bone marrow/stem cell transplantation, three of whom died between 1 and 4 months after transplantation (two ADA deficient, one AR). Seven children had atypical SCID, five of whom died within 1-4 yr of diagnosis. Most children with SCID presented with failure to thrive and recurrent infections and there was no significant delay between presentation and diagnosis. The reported national incidence of classical SCID in Australia (1.45/10(5) or approximately 4 cases per year or 1/69,000 live births) is consistent with the rate (1.4/10(5)) previously reported in Victoria. Diagnosis is rarely delayed, and transplantation is associated with good short-term survival.

  20. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report is the Danish case study report in the EU-financed project INTERACTS, which analyses experience and expectations to the interaction between NGOs, Science Shops and universities. The report analyses potentials and barriers to NGO’s and similar civil society groups’ use of research...... and science through co-operation with Science Shops as a mediator between universities and civil society. The Danish national case study report analyses three projects carried out through the Science Shops at DTU and RUC. One case is a co-operation between two DTU students and an NGO, whom is working towards...... promoting the use of bicycles. The project addresses how different actors perceive and understand the bicycles as technology, and how this is incorporated in traffic strategies and planning. A second case is a co-operation between two DTU students and a day-care centre, aiming at investigating storage...

  1. Patterns of care in patients with cervical cancer 2012. Results of a survey among German radiotherapy departments and out-patient health care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, S.; Rauer, A.; Budach, V. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Koehler, C.; Schneider, A.; Mangler, M. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Gynecology, Berlin (Germany); Tsunoda, A. [Barretos Cancer Centre, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Barretos (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Platinum-based primary or adjuvant chemoradiation is the treatment of choice for patients with cervical cancer. However, despite national guidelines and international recommendations, many aspects in diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of patients with cervical cancer are not based on valid data. To evaluate the current patterns of care for patients with cervical cancer in Germany, a questionnaire with 25 items was sent to 281 radiooncologic departments and out-patient health care centers. The response rate was 51 %. While 87 % of institutions treat 0-25 patients/year, 12 % treat between 26 and 50 and only 1 % treat more than 50 patients/year. In 2011, the stage distribution of 1,706 treated cervical cancers were IB1, IB2, IIA, IIB, IIIA/IIIB, and IV in 11, 12, 11, 22, 28, and 16 %, respectively. CT (90 %) and MRI (86 %) are mainly used as staging procedures in contrast to PET-CT with 14 %. Interestingly, 27 % of institutions advocate surgical staging prior to chemoradiation. In the majority of departments 3D-based (70 %) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (76 %) are used for percutaneous radiation, less frequently volumetric arc techniques (26 %). Nearly all colleagues (99.3 %) apply conventional fractioning of 1.8-2 Gy for external-beam radiotherapy, in 19 % combined with a simultaneous integrated boost. Cisplatinum mono is used as a radiosensitizer with 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly by 90 % of radiooncologists. For boost application in the primary treatment, HDR (high-dose rate) brachytherapy is the dominant technique (84 %). In patients after radical hysterectomy pT1B1/1B2, node negative and resection in sound margins adjuvant chemoradiation is applied due to the occurrence of 1-4 other risk factors in 16-97 %. There is a broad spectrum of recommended primary treatment strategies in stages IIB and IVA. Results of the survey underline the leading role but also differences in the use of chemoradiation in the treatment of cervical cancer patients in Germany. (orig

  2. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  3. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  4. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  5. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.

  6. Co-morbidity and patterns of care in stimulant-treated children with ADHD in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Adrianne; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    This study aimed at investigating the use of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication among stimulant-treated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity. Stimulant users younger than 16 years were identified

  7. Co-morbidity and patterns of care in stimulant-treated children with ADHD in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H.; Faber, A.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Minderaa, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the use of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication among stimulant-treated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity. Stimulant users younger than 16 years were identified

  8. Floristic study of Kiasar National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiyasar National Park is a mountainous region in Mazandaran province, Kiyasar district, 70 kilometers far from Sari city, with an area of approximately 9530 hectares. The altitude of the area ranges from 883 m to 2775 m in Shahdeg pick. This park is located in the central Alborz. The mean annual rainfall is 650 mm and the mean annual temperature is 12˚C. Based on classical methods of regional floristic studies, approximately 720 specimens were collected during 2007 through 2008. The total number of 378 identified plant species belonged to 321 genera and 73 families. The dicots with 320 species were the richest group, following by monocots with 49 species, gymnosperms with 4 species and pteridophytes with 5 species respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (43 species, Lamiaceae (33 species, and the most diverse genera included Astragalus, Salvia and Stachys. There were 11 endemic species among the plants of the area. The life form of all plant species was determined via Raunkier,s method. Hemicryptophytes constituting 37% of the biological types were dominant, followed by therophytes and cryphtophytes with 31% and 16% respectively. The largest chorotype was Irano-Turanian, with 120 species.

  9. Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge Alternative Transportation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) is located along Virginia's Eastern Shore in Accomack County. The CNWR is comprised of several barrier beach islands, of which the Virginia portion of Assateague Is...

  10. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  11. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  12. Patterns of care, predictors, and outcomes of chemotherapy in elderly women with early-stage uterine carcinosarcoma: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Gunjal; Yee, Cecilia; Schwartz, Kendra; Mutch, David G; Morris, Robert T; Powell, Matthew A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the patterns of care, predictors, and impact of chemotherapy on survival in elderly women diagnosed with early-stage uterine carcinosarcoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to identify women 65 years or older diagnosed with stage I-II uterine carcinosarcomas from 1991 through 2007. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox-proportional hazards models were used for statistical analysis. A total of 462 women met the eligibility criteria; 374 had stage I, and 88 had stage II uterine carcinosarcomas. There were no appreciable differences over time in the percentages of women administered chemotherapy for early stage uterine carcinosarcoma (14.7% in 1991-1995, 14.9% in 1996-2000, and 17.9% in 2001-2007, P=0.67). On multivariable analysis, the factors positively associated with receipt of chemotherapy were younger age at diagnosis, higher disease stage, residence in the eastern part of the United States, and lack of administration of external beam radiation (Pcarcinosarcoma were treated with chemotherapy. This trend remained stable over time, and chemotherapy was not associated with any significant survival benefit in this patient population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Recommendations 11 Use Multiple Phenomenologies to the Maximum Extent Practical to Ensure Robust Availability Use ultiple Pheno enologies to the M m axi...Phenomenology and Applications Identify and Leverage Centers of Excellence for PNT Pheno enology and Applicationsm As part of the National PNT

  14. Medicaid and Childhood Immunizations: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Joseph Tiang-Yau; Rosenbaum, Sara

    In recent years, falling immunization rates in the United States have resulted in an increased number of cases of preventable diseases. For example, the United States ranks behind 16 other nations in proportion of infants immunized against polio. Reasons for the decline of immunizations include skyrocketing vaccine costs, rising poverty rates,…

  15. Impacts of national parks on tourism: a case study from a prominent alpine national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzner, M.

    2008-01-01

    National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term. [it

  16. The Study of Semantic Constructs Reflecting the Attitude towards Nationalities and Nationalism in Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurina O.D.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of xenophobia and hostility towards other nationalities among adolescents is a danger to society. The problem of relations of adolescents with illegal conduct towards nationalism and ethnic groups is poorly understood. Clarification of the nature of semantic constructs that reflect the attitude toward nationality and nationalism in juvenile offenders without nationalistic motivation, and those who have committed the crime of aggression on a national basis, is important to choose the right correction and rehabilitation work with juvenile offenders. The current study involved 62 adolescent males aged 14 to 18 years. We used color relations test as a psychosemantic technique. As a result, it was found that solidarisation with ideology of nationalism, negative attitudes towards other nationalities, and problematic gender identity formation increase the risk of delinquency on a national basis and contribute to them. At the same time, the lack of focus on the nationalism values and identification with the group of "skinheads" restrains offenses on a national basis.

  17. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  18. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-01-01

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H - , H + , and D + ). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H - cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes

  19. Adherence of pharmacoeconomic studies to national guidelines in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Bos, Jasper M.; Boersma, C.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.; Postma, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the adherence of Dutch pharmacoeconomic studies to the national guidelines of conducting a pharmacoeconomic evaluation. Methods: Dutch guidelines for pharmacoeconomic research were issued in 1999. All Dutch pharmacoeconomic studies that were published in English during

  20. Seismotectonic study in Merangin national geopark, Jambi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, A.; Kristyanto, T. H. W.; Syahputra, R.; Tempessy, A. S.; Rokhmatuloh

    2017-07-01

    The Merangin district, Jambi Province, is the national Geopark because it has unique geological diversity if compared to other areas due to the discovery of Permian rocks in Merangin district. However, the Merangin district has a high earthquake activity level. The aim of this research is to know the relationship between the geological conditions in the subsurface with earthquake activity level in the research area. The methods conducted in this research was direct measurement method in the field, in the form of geological structure mapping. The dip and strike data were then analyzed in order to know the main stress and strain of rocks. Studio analysis method was also conducted, which included three analyses. First, lineament analysis of the ridge and valley from DEM SRTM (Digital Elevation Model Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) satellite imagery. Second, the analysis of potential earthquakes using the records of past earthquakes and the geometry of the faults in the form of a seismotectonic map. Third, morphometry map analysis. The geological structure mapping in the area shows that the joint direction oriented Northeast-Southwest. Meanwhile, the analysis of geological structure through DEM SRTM and from the earthquake data displayed five earthquake epicenters with a depth of more than 100 km in the subsurface with magnitude scale 4.2-4.4 Richter Scale (RS). Thus, the earthquake which occurred in the research area were all due to the subduction zone. In the morphometric map, it shows that the geomorphology in the area of research is split into two main classifications, moderately steep in upper zone and sloping in the lower zone. In conclusion, though the Geopark Merangin has many high earthquake activity levels, but since they occur due to the subduction zone, the earthquake can be classified as a middle-scale and have less effect on the surface.

  1. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  2. National observational study to evaluate the "cleanyourhands" campaign (NOSEC): a questionnaire based study of national implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joanne; Cookson, Barry; Hayward, Andrew; Cooper, Ben; Duckworth, Georgia; Michie, Susan; Jeanes, Annette; Teare, Louise; Charlett, Andre; Stone, Sheldon Paul

    2015-01-01

    The number of national hand-hygiene campaigns has increased recently, following the World Health Organisation's (WHO) "Save Lives: clean your hands" initiative (2009), which offers hospitals a multi-component hand-hygiene intervention. The number of campaigns to be evaluated remains small. Most evaluations focus on consumption of alcohol hand rub (AHR). We are not aware of any evaluation reporting implementation of all campaign components. In a previously published report, we evaluated the effects of the English and Welsh cleanyourhands campaign (2004-8) on procurement of AHR and soap, and on selected healthcare associated infections. We now report on the implementation of each individual campaign component: provision of bedside AHR, ward posters, patient empowerment materials, audit and feedback, and guidance to secure institutional engagement. all 189 acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England and Wales (December 2005-June 2008). Six postal questionnaires (five voluntary, one mandatory) were distributed to infection control teams six-monthly from 6 to 36 months post roll-out. Selection and attrition bias were measured. Response rates fell from 134 (71 %) at 6 months to 82 (44 %) at 30 months, rising to 167 (90 %) for the final mandatory one (36 months). There was no evidence of attrition or selection bias. Hospitals reported widespread early implementation of bedside AHR and posters and a gradual rise in audit. At 36 months, 90 % of respondents reported the campaign to be a top hospital priority, with implementation of AHR, posters and audit reported by 96 %, 97 % and 91 % respectively. Patient empowerment was less successful. The study suggests that all campaign components, apart from patient empowerment, were widely implemented and sustained. It supports previous work suggesting that adequate piloting, strong governmental support, refreshment of campaigns, and sufficient time to engage institutions help secure sustained implementation

  3. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  4. Congenital Morgagni's hernia: a national multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, Ahmed H; Zamakhshary, Mohammed; Al Mohaidly, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Aayed; Abdulla, Mohamed Ramadan; Naga, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Congenital Morgagni's hernia (CMH) is rare and represents less than 5% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernias. This is a national review of our experience with CMH outlining clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, associated anomalies, treatment, and outcome. The medical records of all patients with the diagnosis of CMH treated at four pediatric surgery units in Saudi Arabia were retrospectively reviewed for age at diagnosis, sex, presenting symptoms, associated anomalies, diagnosis, operative findings, treatment, and outcome. During a 20-year period (January 1990-December 2010), 53 infants and children with CMH were treated. There were 38 males and 15 females. Their age at diagnosis ranged from 1 month to 9 years (mean 22.2 months). Forty-three (81%) presented with recurrent chest infection. Twenty-two (44.5%) had right CMH, 15 (28.3%) had left-sided hernia and 16 (30.2%) had bilateral hernia. In 7, the diagnosis of bilaterality was made at the time of surgery. Associated anomalies were seen in 38 (71.7%). Twenty-one (39.6%) had congenital heart disease, 8 (15%) had malrotation, and 15 (28.3%) had Down syndrome. All were operated on. Twenty-nine (54.7%) underwent repair via an open approach. The remaining 24 (45.3%) underwent repair using minimal invasive surgery, laparoscopic-assisted hernia repair (19 patients) or totally laparoscopic approach (5 patients). At the time of surgery, the hernia sac content included the colon in 33 (62.3%), part of the left lobe of the liver in 13 (24.5%), the small intestines in 11 (20.75%), the omentum in 5 (9.4%), and the stomach in 4 (7.5%). In 12 (22.6%), the hernia sac was empty. When compared to the open repair, the laparoscopic-assisted approach was associated with a shorter operative time, an earlier commencement of feeds, less requirement for postoperative analgesia, a shorter hospital stay, and better cosmetic appearance. There was no mortality. On follow-up, 2 (7%) of the open surgical group developed recurrence

  5. "EPA'S NATIONAL BEACHES STUDY: HUNTINGTON BEACH, 2003"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The original U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recreational water health studies, initiated in 1972 and completed in 1982, were designed to determine the relationship between swimming-associated gastroenteritis and the quality of the bathing water. However, these healt...

  6. Studying constructions of national identity across historical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Øland, Trine

    2018-01-01

    , and national self-imagery. The first setting is the first decade after World War II and the second setting is the post-9/11 era. The empirical focus is based on sources pertaining to the way police officers and related professionals of the Danish welfare nation-state construct disturbing behavior and how...... of the Danish community inside the Danish welfare nation-state, and 2) the transformations of these boundaries according to the Danish state’s changing (inter-state) relations within the regional and global community. After an introduction that discusses the historiographical landscape of studies in national...

  7. National Institute of Desert Studies, Un

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... the assessment of evaporation over Sudan and SS especially in areas where no records are available. This to be achieved though investigation of possible correlation between Piche evaporation over Sudan and. SS on one hand and latitudes, longitudes and altitudes on the other hand. Study Area.

  8. 75 FR 21223 - National Academy of Sciences Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD [Docket No. CSB-10-01] National Academy of Sciences... Board (CSB) provides funding for a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to examine the use... processes and an examination of the cost of alternatives at the Bayer CropScience facility in Institute...

  9. A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zambia. As national health systems in developing countries make progress toward achieving universal health service coverage, many face ethical challenges. In its 2010 World Health Report, the World Health Assembly called on the ...

  10. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  11. protective relay studies for the nigerian national electric 330 kv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1985-09-01

    Sep 1, 1985 ... PROTECTIVE RELAY STUDIES FOR THE NIGERIAN NATIONAL ELECTRIC. 330 KV TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. By. A.U. CHUKU. Electrical Engineering Department. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. D.A. OYEYELE, S.K. AFOLABI. National Electric Power Authority. Electricity Headquarters, Marina'.

  12. The national Thorotrast studies in comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Wesch, H. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Thorotrast, a colloidal solution of thorium dioxide was used as an X-ray contrast medium from 1930 to 1950 predominantly for angiography. Thorium-232 is an alpha-emitter (half-life 1,4 x 10{sup 10} y). The thorium dioxide particles are retained in the organs of the reticuloendothelial system causing a cumulative dose especially to liver, spleen and bone marrow. The most important epidemiological studies in Denmark, Germany, Japan, Portugal, Sweden and United States include nearly 5000 exposed persons who survived the thorotrast injection at least 1 year. Similar results in all studies describe high excess rates of primary liver tumours, liver cirrhosis, acute myloid leukemias, including myelodysplastic syndromes. Risk calculations of liver cancer are very similar in the Danish and the German study with 712 and 774 per 10{sup 4} person/Gy. Cumulative risk estimates for haematopoietic malignancies were calculated to be 173 per 10{sup 4} for the Danish and 135 per 10{sup 4} person/Gy for the German group. (orig.)

  13. A Seven Nations Study of Leadership Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mączyński Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall purpose of this paper was to compare a representative sample of Polish middle managers with a representative sample of chief executive officers (CEOs from six chosen countries, in regard to selected leadership traits and behaviors. We present a small portion of data collected under the GLOBE project, Phase 3, and longitudinal research findings concerning subordinates′ assessments of Polish middle managers in relation to their attributes from 2008 to 2012. The GLOBE, Phase 3 research is the first study to investigate several thousands of CEOs and senior management teams in 24 countries, to empirically and directly assess the relationship between culture and leadership traits and behaviors. We provide research evidence that the investigated CEOs from the United States, Austria, Germany, China, and Taiwan (with the exception of Russian CEOs and Polish middle managers were generally positively evaluated by their direct staff in regard to: inspirational, visionary, integrity, and performance-oriented leadership behaviors (constituents of charismatic leadership, team-oriented behavior, and participative leadership style. Empirical findings under the GLOBE project, Phase 3 revealed that the charismatic leadership behavior of CEOs has a huge influence on top management teams′ (TMTs dedication to organizational goals, and is the most predictive of all leadership behaviors for TMT commitment to organizations. The analyzed research findings indicate that CEOs in Russia and Polish middle managers display strong similarities. They tend to behave in less charismatic, team-oriented, and participative ways than CEOs in the remaining countries.

  14. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  15. Environment and Obesity in the National Children's Study Ambiente e obesidade no National Children's Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Trasande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the approach taken by the National Children's Study (NCS to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Although it is clear that obesity in an individual results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, control of the obesity epidemic will require understanding of factors in the modern built environment and chemical exposures that may have the capacity to disrupt the link between energy intake and expenditure. Through its embrace of the life-course approach to epidemiology, the NCS will be able to study the origins of obesity from preconception through late adolescence, including factors ranging from genetic inheritance to individual behaviors to the social, built, and natural environment and chemical exposures. It will have sufficient statistical power to examine interactions among these multiple influences, including geneenvironment and geneobesity interactions. A major secondary benefit will derive from the banking of specimens for future analysis.Descrevemos a abordagem do National Children's Study (NCS para entender o papel dos fatores ambientais no desenvolvimento da obesidade. Revisamos a literatura a respeito de duas hipóteses principais no NCS que se relacionam a origens ambientais da obesidade e descrevem estratégias que serão utilizadas para testar cada hipótese. Apesar de estar claro que a obesidade em um indivíduo é resultado de um desequilíbrio entre consumo e gasto de energia, o controle da epidemia de obesidade requer o entendimento de fatores no ambiente moderno e exposições químicas que podem ter a capacidade de interromper a ligação entre o consumo e gasto de energia. Através da aceitação da abordagem do curso de vida a epidemiologia, o NCS será capaz de estudar

  16. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  17. National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Architecture Study Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD/NII) and the Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy (UST/P) sponsored a National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Architecture Study to "provide more effe...

  18. Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site : transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This study provide concepts and ideas for a complementary transportation plan in support of the revised General Management Plan (GMP) for the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. The GMP sets forth a preferred plan of action for how Olmsted ...

  19. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  20. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jordan A.; Wang, Andrew Z.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Carpenter, William R.; Godley, Paul A.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of 50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with 50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3–T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely extraprostatic disease. Because more than half of prostate cancer patients do not consult with a radiation oncologist, a multidisciplinary consultation may affect the treatment decision-making process.

  1. Lessons from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Blaich, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Funded by the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts (CILA) at Wabash College, the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) is a multi-institution, multi-year, longitudinal study designed to identify the academic and non-academic collegiate experiences that foster liberal learning. This article describes how the study was done and…

  2. Does Nationality Matter in the B2C Environment? Results from a Two Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Different studies have explored the relations between different dimensions of e-commerce transactions and lots of models and findings have been proposed to the academic and business worlds. However, there is a doubt on the applications and generalization of such models and findings in different countries and nations. In other words, this study argues that the relations among the variables of a model ay differ in different countries, which raises questions on the findings of researchers collecting data in one country to test their hypotheses. This study intends to examine if different nations have different perceptions toward the elements of Website interface, security and purchase intention on Internet. Moreover, a simple model was developed to investigate whether the independent variables of the model are equally important in different nations and significantly influence the dependent variable in such nations or not. Since majority of the studies in the context of e-commerce were either focused on the developed countries which have a high e-readiness indices and overall ranks, two developing countries with different e-readiness indices and ranks were selected for the data collection. The results showed that the samples had different significant perceptions of security and some of the Website interface factors. Moreover, it was found that the significance of relations among the independent variables ad the dependent variable are different between the samples, which questions the findings of the researchers testing their model and hypotheses only based on the data collected in one country.

  3. National Trends in the Epidemiology of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A National Cancer Data Base Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Blackmon, Shanda H

    2018-02-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to cure. However, the treatment paradigm of MPM has evolved, and the national practice patterns are unknown. This study examined the national trends in the epidemiology, national treatment patterns, and survival of patients with this disease. We identified all patients (n = 19,134) with MPM from the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2013. We analyzed patient, tumor characteristics, and treatment patterns using descriptive statistics and used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate survival stratified by the type of therapy administered. Four histologic subtypes were represented in the National Cancer Data Base, these included sarcomatoid (n = 2,355 [12.3%]), epithelioid (n = 6,858 [35.8%]), biphasic (n = 13,617 [11%]), and not otherwise specified (n = 8,560 [44.7%]). Across all subtypes, the prevalence of mesothelioma was highest among white men. Sarcomatoid had the worst survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; p Data Base. Although survival remains poor, multimodality therapy with surgical resection is associated with the best survival for MPM. Further research is needed to improve survival and overall patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  5. Protective Relay Studies for the Nigerian National Electric 330 KV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An indepth study and analysis has been performed on the 330KV transmission protective relay schemes of the National Electric Power Authority. Some of the basic considerations taken into account in the study to optimize the settings on the existing protective relay schemes are presented. Typical calculations are ...

  6. Vegetation studies, National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the spring of 1992, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted surveys of the Avawatz and Granite mountains springs for the National Training Center (NTC) to evaluate the occurrence of sensitive plant species in these areas. PNNL also conducted a survey of the eastern outwash of the Paradise Range for the occurrence of Lane Mountain milk vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus). In spring of 1993, PNNL conducted an additional study of Lane Mountain milk vetch on the NTC to determine habitat characteristics for this plant and to develop a method for predicting its potential occurrence, based on simple habitat attributes. The results of these studies are itemized.

  7. QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has taken the lead, in consort with NIH, in developing the Quality Management Plan (QMP) for the National Children's Study (NCS); the QMP will delineate a systematic planning process for the implementation of the NCS. The QMP will state the goals and objectives of the NCS, th...

  8. Principal Selection: A National Study of Selection Criteria and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Despite empirical evidence correlating the role of the principal with student achievement, researchers have seldom scrutinized principal selection methods over the past 60 years. This mixed methods study investigated the processes by which school principals are selected. A national sample of top-level school district administrators was used to…

  9. Teaching's Next Generation: A National Study of Precollegiate Teacher Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruiting New Teachers, Inc., Belmont, MA.

    This study was conducted to identify, classify, and analyze the range of precollegiate teacher recruitment programs now in operation across the nation and to make recommendations to the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund on potential grantmaking opportunities. Information on programs; the role played by foundations; and activities of Federal,…

  10. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  11. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's StudyDanelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  12. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  13. Cultural Diplomacy and National Development: A Study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that, while cultural diplomacy promotes Nigeria.s image and international cooperation, it also enhances national development with income gotten from foreign investors and tourists. The study concludes that cultural diplomacy is a valuable, indeed, vital tool for Nigeria to win more friends, get international ...

  14. Prospective study to assess national institutes of health stroke scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability and predicting functional outcome early at presentation would guide treatment and rehabilitation plans. The aim of this study was to assess baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as predictor of functional outcome. Methods: Ninety consecutive ...

  15. Social Studies Education as Means to National Integration and Unity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current wave of ethnic sentiments, loyalties, and violence in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized and if not checked, it may undermine the unity of the entire country. Here, we explore the use of social studies education as means by which Nigeria can obtain the much needed national unity, integration and stability.

  16. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  17. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  18. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  19. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.

  20. 76 FR 71601 - Record of Decision, Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study/Abbreviated Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision, Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study/Abbreviated... Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study. SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, prepared by National Trails...

  1. Overview of the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csányi, Tamás; Finn, Kevin J; Welk, Gregory J; Zhu, Weimo; Karsai, István; Ihász, Ferenc; Vass, Zoltán; Molnár, László

    2015-06-26

    The 2012 Public Act on Education in Hungary made daily physical education (PE) a mandatory part of the school day starting in the 2012-2013 school year. This directive was linked to a significant reorganization of the Hungarian education system including a new National Core Curriculum that regulates the objectives and contents of PE. The Hungarian School Sport Federation (HSSF) recognized the opportunity and created the Strategic Actions for Health-Enhancing Physical Education or Testnevelés az Egészségfejlesztésben Stratégiai Intézkedések (TESI) project. Physical fitness assessments have been a traditional part of the Hungarian PE program; however, the TESI plan called for the use of a new health-related battery and assessment system to usher in a new era of fitness education in the country. The HSSF enlisted the Cooper Institute to assist in building an infrastructure for full deployment of a national student fitness assessment program based on the FITNESSGRAM® in Hungarian schools. The result is a new software-supported test battery, namely the Hungarian National Student Fitness Test (NETFIT), which uses health-related, criterion-referenced youth fitness standards. The NETFIT system now serves as a compulsory fitness assessment for all Hungarian schools. This article details the development process for the test battery and summarizes the aims and methods of the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study.

  2. Child welfare worker characteristics and job satisfaction: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Lloyd, E Christopher; Christ, Sharon L; Chapman, Mimi V; Dickinson, Nancy S

    2008-07-01

    The education, recruitment, training, and retention of a quality child welfare workforce is critical to the successful implementation of public policy and programs for the nation's most vulnerable children. Yet, national information about child welfare workers has never been collected. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being is a study of children who are investigated for child maltreatment that also offers information about the child welfare workers (unweighted N = 1,729) who serve them in 36 states and 92 counties. These cases represent the national population of child welfare workers, estimated at more than 50,000, serving children approximately 12 months after a case was opened. Child welfare workers having any graduate or social work degree in a nonurban setting were more satisfied than their peers. Regression results indicate that worker satisfaction is associated with quality of supervision and urban setting but does not have a clearly independent relationship with having a degree in social work. Practice implications are discussed.

  3. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  4. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  5. Air National Guard Women’s Sleep Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-23

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval \\I 7D 13 APR 201 7 1. Your paper, entitled Air National G uard Women’s Sleep Study...Introduction • Sleep is an essential part of life and considered a component of the Performance Triad (Lentino, Purvis, Murphy & Deuster, 2013). • Quality... sleep (number of hours and adequacy of those hours) con be considered port of overall health and well-being. . • Sleep disruptions hove been linked

  6. National logistics working groups: A landscape analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leab, Dorothy; Schreiber, Benjamin; Kasonde, Musonda; Bessat, Olivia; Bui, Son; Loisel, Carine

    2017-04-19

    Several countries have acknowledged the contributions made by national logistics working groups (NLWG) to ensure equitable access to the expanded program on immunization's (EPI) vaccines against preventable diseases. In order to provide key insights to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) supply chain hub - as well as other players, including national EPI - a landscape analysis study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016. This is a cross-sectional survey taken by 43 countries that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data was collected through a desk review, consultation, interviews, and distance questioning. References and guidance were used to determine and specify the underlying mechanisms of NLWGs. The key findings are:This study has provided a general overview of the status of NLWGs for immunization in various countries. Based on the key insights of the study, technical assistance needs have been identified, and immunization partners will be required to help countries create and reinforce their NLWGs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. “Whose nation?” : A study of nation-building in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Lagergren, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Using a critical discourse analysis this study focuses on the Namibian nation-building process. The former colony gained its independence in 1990 from the South African apartheid administration. It was this oppressing social structure that gave the people a common enemy to unite against. It was from this unity that the Namibian identity sprung.                                           This study took place during three month in Namibia where nine people were interviewed. They all had contrib...

  8. Review of epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; McInroy, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos are directed toward understanding potential health risks associated with activities pertaining to national energy and defense needs. Currently this research focuses on evaluating the effects of plutonium exposure in man. The major programs consist of (1) epidemiologic studies of the incidence of disease and mortality among plutonium and other workers at six Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities (Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, Mound, Savannah River, Hanford, and Oak Ridge), and (2) measurement of plutonium and other radionuclides in human tissues. Currently, investigations of mortality for Pantex workers and the surrounding general population are also being conducted for DOE in support of an Environment Impact Statement. This paper places emphasis on the activities of the national epidemiologic study of plutonium workers. The purpose of the plutonium workers study is to: (1) investigate whether adverse health effects are associated with exposures to plutonium, (2) explore whether adverse health effects are associated with exposure to transuranic elements, other radioisotopes, and hazardous substances that are found in nuclear facilities making routine use of plutonium, and (3) to describe in detail the nature of such health effects should they be discovered

  9. College women's experiences with rape disclosure: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-04-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed.

  10. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  11. A national multicenter registration study. Omalizumb in children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangberg, Katrien; Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Agertoft, Lone

    Background: In Denmark, Omalizumab is approved to treat children with severe persistent allergic asthma older than 6 years of age. No systematic registration of the efficacy in the Danish child population according to asthma symptoms or of the efficacy on co-morbid allergic symptoms exists. Results...... from a pilot study show that a broad panel of outcome measures is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of Omalizumab treatment as no change in lung function could be demonstrated Aim: To provide a standardized systematic registration in order to create a database enrolling children with severe allergic...... asthma treated with Omalizumab. Method and study design: A national multicenter registration and follow-up study based on children with clinical persistent severe allergic asthma including both retrospective and prospective registration. Inclusion criteria: • 6-18 years of age. • Severe persistent...

  12. Childhood Misfortune and Adult Health in a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between childhood misfortune and 10-year change in health and whether this relationship was mediated by the quality of social relations. We used data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) national longitudinal study, 1995-1996 (Time 1) and 2005-2006 (Time 2). Childhood misfortune was measured at Time 1 using indicators of financial strain, family structure, and abuse. Self-rated physical and mental health indicators were obtained at both occasions. The measure of quality of social relations was based on items relative to social support and social strain from spouse, friends, and family at Time 1. Mediational models showed that a higher level of childhood misfortune was associated with low-quality family relations which in turn tend to account for change in mental health. These findings suggest that childhood misfortune is associated with the quality of social relations, which in turn explain individual changes in mental health in adulthood.

  13. Injuries in national Olympic level judo athletes: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Suh; Park, Ki Jun; Lee, Jaekoo; Kang, Byung Yong

    2015-09-01

    To present an epidemiological study of injuries found among South Korea's National level Judo athletes as a foundation for future injury prevention and skill enhancement in this group. This study is a prospective study on a 4-year injury assessment held from January 2010 to December 2013 at the training centre in South Korea for National Level athletes. Athlete's weight class, gender, injury location and injury grade (grade I=1-3 treatment days, grade II=4-7 treatment days, and grade III ≥8 treatment days) were analysed. There were a total of 782 injuries recorded during this period, equalling to four injuries per athlete annually. Almost half of these injuries (47%) were grade I injuries. Injury occurrence was the highest in the Lower body (44.2%). This was then followed by injuries in the upper body (29.8%), trunk (20.3%) and head and neck (5.6%). Men and women showed similar, non-significantly different trends in the proportion of body parts injured. Women experienced more grade III injuries than males (p=0.0228). Comparison between women in different weight classes also showed that heavyweights incurred more grade III injuries than lightweights (p=0.0087). Lightweights had a higher rate of injury than heavyweights in males and females, although this was statistically significant only among males (p<0.001). Many body regions are prone to injury in the elite judo population. Women, especially those in the heavyweight classification, were more prone to severe injuries. Lightweights experienced more injuries than heavyweights among male athletes. Specifically, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to address the impact of rapid weight loss practices on injury risk to implement effective preventive measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for 99 Mo, the parent of 99m Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. 99m Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for 99 Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact

  15. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Regulatory Assessment Dept.] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for {sup 99}Mo, the parent of {sup 99m}Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. {sup 99m}Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for {sup 99}Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact.

  16. Directed Diffusion Modelling for Tesso Nilo National Parks Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasri, Indra; Safrianti, Ery

    2018-01-01

    — Directed Diffusion (DD has ability to achieve energy efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). This paper proposes Directed Diffusion (DD) modelling for Tesso Nilo National Parks (TNNP) case study. There are 4 stages of scenarios involved in this modelling. It’s started by appointing of sampling area through GPS coordinate. The sampling area is determined by optimization processes from 500m x 500m up to 1000m x 1000m with 100m increment in between. The next stage is sensor node placement. Sensor node is distributed in sampling area with three different quantities i.e. 20 nodes, 30 nodes and 40 nodes. One of those quantities is choose as an optimized sensor node placement. The third stage is to implement all scenarios in stages 1 and stages 2 on DD modelling. In the last stage, the evaluation process to achieve most energy efficient in the combination of optimized sampling area and optimized sensor node placement on Direct Diffusion (DD) routing protocol. The result shows combination between sampling area 500m x 500m and 20 nodes able to achieve energy efficient to support a forest preventive fire system at Tesso Nilo National Parks.

  17. National space transportation and support study/mission requirements and architecture studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, C. L.; Darwin, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The government approach to fulfilling the requirements of the National Space Transportation and Support Study is described. DOD and NASA were required to determine the architecture and technology that would be needed for civil and defense space transportation during the 1995-2010 time range. NASA collected data from the National Commission on Space and the DOD research focused on SDI requirements. The objectives and recommendations of the space transportation architecture, transportation and support systems, and technology assessment and planning tasks are discussed.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Jones, Lisa M; Wolak, Janis

    2012-01-01

    To obtain national estimates of youth involved in sexting in the past year (the transmission via cell phone, the Internet, and other electronic media of sexual images), as well as provide details of the youth involved and the nature of the sexual images. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey of 1560 youth Internet users, ages 10 through 17. Estimates varied considerably depending on the nature of the images or videos and the role of the youth involved. Two and one-half percent of youth had appeared in or created nude or nearly nude pictures or videos. However, this percentage is reduced to 1.0% when the definition is restricted to only include images that were sexually explicit (ie, showed naked breasts, genitals, or bottoms). Of the youth who participated in the survey, 7.1% said they had received nude or nearly nude images of others; 5.9% of youth reported receiving sexually explicit images. Few youth distributed these images. Because policy debates on youth sexting behavior focus on concerns about the production and possession of illegal child pornography, it is important to have research that collects details about the nature of the sexual images rather than using ambiguous screening questions without follow-ups. The rate of youth exposure to sexting highlights a need to provide them with information about legal consequences of sexting and advice about what to do if they receive a sexting image. However, the data suggest that appearing in, creating, or receiving sexual images is far from being a normative behavior for youth.

  19. Changing policies, changing patterns of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Szebehely, Marta

    2012-01-01

    countries tax-funded home care is used across social groups but targeting of resources at the most needy in Sweden creates other inequalities: Older people with shorter education are left with no one to resort to but the family, whilst those with higher education purchase help from market providers......Despite pursuing the policy of ageing in place, the two Nordic countries of Denmark and Sweden have taken diverse roads in regard to the provision of formal, public tax-financed home care for older people. Whilst Sweden has cut down home care and targeted services for the most needy, Denmark has...

  20. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Research priorities in medical education: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. The most important research priorities included faculty members' development methods, faculty members' motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members' promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

  2. Social Change and Anomie: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruohui; Cao, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    We apply Durkheim's social transitional theory to explain the variation of anomie in 30 nations in the world. Combining data from two sources--the 1995 "World Values Survey and the United Nations University's World Income Inequality Database" or WIID--we test the hypothesis that rapid sociopolitical change at the structural level disrupts social…

  3. Rethinking "energy nationalism": a study of the relationship between nation states and companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOELE DE FREITAS PEIGO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe term "energy nationalism" is frequently used by academic literature and media, but usually without adequate conceptual accuracy. Despite this, a set of papers deepens the discussion on the relationship between nation states and the energy industry, especially the oil sector. These papers allow identifying fundamental elements to understand the energy nationalism, either complementary or divergent between each other. Thus, this study aims at presenting an interpretation of the concept that fills the gaps left by the above mentioned literature based on a global analysis of the oil industry structure and its historical evolution since the mid-19thcentury.

  4. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Nuclear accident dosimetry studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, W.H.; Buhl, T.E.; Upp, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Two critical assemblies have been characterized at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) for use in testing nuclear accident dosimeters and related devices. These device, Godiva IV and SHEBA II, have very different characteristics in both operation and emitted neutron energy spectra. The Godiva assembly is a bare metal fast burst device with a hard spectrum. This spectrum can be modified by use of several shields including steel, concrete, and plexiglas. The modified spectra vary in both average neutron energy and in the specific distribution of the neutron energies in the intermediate energy range. This makes for a very favorable test arrangement as the response ratios between different activation foils used in accident dosimeters are significantly altered such as the ratio between gold, copper, and sulfur elements. The SHEBA device is a solution assembly which has both a slow ramp and decay period and a much softer spectrum. The uncertainly introduced in the response of fast decay foils such as indium can therefore be evaluated into the test results. The neutron energy spectrum for each configuration was measured during low power operations with a multisphere system. These measurements were extended to high dose pulsed operation by use of TLDs moderated TLDs, and special activation techniques. The assemblies were used in the testing of several accident dosimetry devices in studies modeled after the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Studies that were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for about 25 years using the Health Physics Research Reactor. It is our intention to conduct these studies approximately annually for the evaluation of the nuclear accident dosimeter systems currently in use within the DOE, alternative systems used internationally, and new dosimeter designs being developed or considered for field application. Participation in selected studies will be open to all participants

  6. Development of a biomarkers database for the National Children's Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, Danelle T.; Mendola, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is a federally-sponsored, longitudinal study of environmental influences on the health and development of children across the United States (www.nationalchildrensstudy.gov). Current plans are to study approximately 100,000 children and their families beginning before birth up to age 21 years. To explore potential biomarkers that could be important measurements in the NCS, we compiled the relevant scientific literature to identify both routine or standardized biological markers as well as new and emerging biological markers. Although the search criteria encouraged examination of factors that influence the breadth of child health and development, attention was primarily focused on exposure, susceptibility, and outcome biomarkers associated with four important child health outcomes: autism and neurobehavioral disorders, injury, cancer, and asthma. The Biomarkers Database was designed to allow users to: (1) search the biomarker records compiled by type of marker (susceptibility, exposure or effect), sampling media (e.g., blood, urine, etc.), and specific marker name; (2) search the citations file; and (3) read the abstract evaluations relative to our search criteria. A searchable, user-friendly database of over 2000 articles was created and is publicly available at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=85844. PubMed was the primary source of references with some additional searches of Toxline, NTIS, and other reference databases. Our initial focus was on review articles, beginning as early as 1996, supplemented with searches of the recent primary research literature from 2001 to 2003. We anticipate this database will have applicability for the NCS as well as other studies of children's environmental health

  7. Hiawatha National Forest Riparian Inventory: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian areas are dynamic, transitional ecotones between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with well-defined vegetation and soil characteristics. Riparian areas offers wildlife habitat and stream water quality, offers bank stability and protects against erosions, provides aesthetics and recreational value, and other numerous valuable ecosystem functions. Quantifying and delineating riparian areas is an essential step in riparian monitoring, riparian management/planning and policy decisions, and in preserving its valuable ecological functions. Previous approaches to riparian areas mapping have primarily utilized fixed width buffers. However, these methodologies only take the watercourse into consideration and ignore critical geomorphology, associated vegetation and soil characteristics. Other approaches utilize remote sensing technologies such as aerial photos interpretation or satellite imagery riparian vegetation classification. Such techniques requires expert knowledge, high spatial resolution data, and expensive when mapping riparian areas on a landscape scale. The goal of this study is to develop a cost effective robust workflow to consistently map the geographic extent and composition of riparian areas within the Hiawatha National Forest boundary utilizing the Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) v3.0 and open source geospatial data. This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional natures of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process and the results would suggests incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning to improve protection and restoration of valuable riparian functionality and biodiversity.

  8. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  9. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  10. Entrenched obesity in childhood: findings from a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Datar, Ashlesha; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    Given the high levels of obesity among U.S. children, we examine whether obesity in childhood is a passing phenomenon or remains entrenched into adolescence. Data are from the prospective nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (analytic sample = 6600). Anthropometrics were measured six times during 1998-2007. Overweight and obesity were defined using CDC cut-points. Entrenched obesity was defined as obesity between ages 5-9 coupled with persistent obesity at ages 11 and 14. Almost 30% of children experienced obesity at some point between ages 5.6 and 14.1 years; 63% of children who ever had obesity between ages 5.6 and 9.1 and 72% of those who had obesity at kindergarten entry experienced entrenched obesity. Children with severe obesity in kindergarten or who had obesity at more than 1 year during early elementary were very likely to experience obesity through age 14, regardless of their sex, race, or socioeconomic backgrounds. Prevention should focus on early childhood, as obesity at school entry is not often a passing phenomenon. Even one timepoint of obesity measured during the early elementary school years may be an indicator of risk for long-term obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  12. Gateway Arch Circulator Conceptual Feasibility Study : Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (JEFF) is undergoing major design changes as part of the City Arch River 2015 project (CAR) that will impact access for park visitors. The park and stakeholders are considering a circulator system to facilita...

  13. Images of Pre-WW II: National Language Policies as Reflected in the Field of "National Language Studies" Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej BEKEŠ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study I focus on the possible intellectual background regarding the scant attention paid by researchers and textbook writers to the establishment of the Japanese national language and pre-WWII language policies in Japan. This fact is surprising because the successful implementation of a modern standard language was one of the key factors in the process of the building of Japan as a modern nation-state. The central hypothesis of this research is that this conspicuous absence stems from the projection of the modern nation-state on the past, resulting in a perception of Japanese polity as a basically homogeneous and unchanged continuum in time and space. An analysis of several texts by prominent Japanese scholars of the national language has revealed important differences in perception. One group, mainly those preoccupied with the didactics of the national language, tends to view the past in the light of a “homogenised” present. On the other hand, those scholars researching Japanese in the wider context of general linguistics seem to treat national language related issues in a much more critical and theoretically informed way.

  14. National health services and family planning: Thailand, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachidha, C; Rosenfield, A G

    1975-08-01

    The family planning program of Thailand was organized, planned, and implemented by means of the rural health and hospital services of the Ministry of Public Health. Without this integration, the program would not have been allowed by the government. The Thai health system was reasonably well-established, the use of its personnel lessened cost and duplication of efforts, and the resulting integration was successful. The program operated very quietly between 1968 and 1970. No public information was allowed. There were no full-time family planning workers, and no goals and incentives were offered. Only in 1970 when the government announced a national population policy were the restrictions on public information removed. In the development of the program, more than 7600 employees of the Ministry of Public Health received the 1-week training program. After training, family planning clinics were opened in the provincial hospitals and in those rural health centers staffed with a physician. Initially, the auxiliary midwives were expected only to motivate and provide information to those in their areas, referring interested couples to the centers and hospitals for the IUDs, oral contraceptives, and sterilization programs that were available. However, after the successful completion of a pilot study in 1970, the midwives were permitted to prescribe the oral contraceptive. A postpartum program which attempted to motivate women in the use of family planning 2-4 days following delivery revealed that with proper motivation efforts a majority of women will accept family planning services postpartum. A special evaluation section was developed within the Ministry to assess the progress of the program. Many problems continue to require attention, such as the need for high level government support shown by a budget increase and the development of effective supervision for staff within the health system.

  15. Jail incarceration, homelessness, and mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2008-02-01

    This study sought to investigate the rates and correlates of homelessness, especially mental illness, among adult jail inmates. Data from a national survey of jail inmates (N=6,953) were used to compare the proportion of jail inmates who had been homeless in the previous year with the proportion of persons in the general population who had been homeless in the previous year, after standardization to the age, race and ethnicity, and gender distribution of the jail sample. Logistic regression was then used to examine the extent to which homelessness among jail inmates was associated with factors such as symptoms or treatment of mental illness, previous criminal justice involvement, specific recent crimes, and demographic characteristics. Inmates who had been homeless (that is, those who reported an episode of homelessness anytime in the year before incarceration) made up 15.3% of the U.S. jail population, or 7.5 to 11.3 times the standardized estimate of 1.36% to 2.03% in the general U.S. adult population. In comparison with other inmates, those who had been homeless were more likely to be currently incarcerated for a property crime, but they were also more likely to have past criminal justice system involvement for both nonviolent and violent offenses, to have mental health and substance abuse problems, to be less educated, and to be unemployed. Recent homelessness was 7.5 to 11.3 times more common among jail inmates than in the general population. Homelessness and incarceration appear to increase the risk of each other, and these factors seem to be mediated by mental illness and substance abuse, as well as by disadvantageous sociodemographic characteristics.

  16. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Willy

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E. The males (79.9/1,000 A-E sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E, followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E. Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E. All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E. However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E. Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E. Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E. Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction.

  17. National Computing Studies Summit: Open Learning Approaches to Computing Studies--An ACCE Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Australian Council for Computers in Education (ACCE) was successful in obtaining a grant from National Centre of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Mathematics Education for Rural and Regional Australia (SiMERR) to undertake the Computing Studies Teachers Network Rural and Regional Focus Project. The project had five…

  18. THE NATIONAL AND SHARIA ARBITRATIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia Fitriyanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, of course, many considerations that underlie the business actors to choose arbitration as a dispute resolution efforts for dispute that will or they face. Among the advantages of arbitration over court based on Arbitration Act are the parties can choose the arbitrator. Although in the arbitration the parties can select arbitrators who are experts in their fields, seem the consideration to establish BASYARNAS (The National Sharia Arbitration Board at first certainly raises the pros and cons. Based on the description of the background of the above problems then the formulation of the problem is how the comparison between national arbitration and sharia arbitration where the discussion focused on Rules and Procedures of BANI (The Indonesia National Board of Arbitration and BASYARNAS. The substance of similarities between National arbitration and Sharia arbitration in the same way of resolving disputes other than through the courts or alqadla. With regard to the legal basis for the enactment of a national arbitration refers to Law No.30 of 1999 concerning Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution, while sharia arbitration is not set explicitly in the Law No. 30 of 1999 even in this act there is no article that offends the existence of sharia arbitration.The existence of sharia arbitration is recognized in the elucidation of Article 59 paragraph 1 of Law Number 48 of 2009 concerning the judicial power, which reads referred to arbitration under the provisions of the law including the sharia arbitration.There are some differences between national arbitration and sharia arbitration, the differences are the source of law, the legal principle , the jurisdiction of authority, pre-hearing phase, hearing phase and enforcement of the arbitral award phase.

  19. Debt, Structural Adjustment and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Shandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present cross-national models that examine the determinants of deforestation from 1990 to 2005 for a sample of sixty-two poor nations. We test dependency theory hypotheses that both debt and structural adjustment affect forests. We find substantial support for this theoretical perspective. The results indicate that both factors increase deforestation. We also find support for world polity theory that international non-governmental organization density decreases deforestation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the findings, policy implications, and possible directions for future research.

  20. A study on strategy for strengthening national nuclear competitive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M. and others

    2002-02-01

    It is expected that world energy and electric power demand will continuously increase in the 21st century. To secure energy resources, therefore, is emerging as the major issue of national policy. Korea, because of his scarcity of energy resources, should improve the national energy security through expansion of nuclear energy utilization. This means that policy to strengthen nuclear energy competitiveness should have a high priority over other national policies. The USA is implementing the policy of expansion and activation of nuclear energy utilization to coping with national energy demand growth. To do this, the USA are carrying out the development of Generation IV Nuclear Energy System(Gen IV) with an international collaboration. IAEA also promote an international program to develop the future innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO). It is expected that Gen IV and INPRO will lead the future nuclear energy market. The Gen IV will have better economics and safety than existing nuclear energy systems and consider the non-proliferation and physical protection concepts. It is, therefore, essential to reinforce the R and D of proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. The enhancement of national competitiveness in nuclear energy field requires the integration of a policy of nuclear industrial competitiveness improvement with that of nuclear technological capability enhancement. This integration will be beneficial and essential to explore a foreign nuclear market and global competitiveness in association with domestic industrial development. In addition, international cooperation and nuclear diplomacy, coupled with the establishment of local institutional environment, is required to advance in foreign market with the domestic competitiveness enhanced. The enhancement of national competitiveness in the nuclear field directly connects with nuclear technology competitiveness, which should be initiated from activation of nuclear R and D and stable fund

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Before 1959 a private individual (Mr. Rene Abularach) is reported to have made an airborne radiometric survey of the Sierra de las Minas and Sierra Madre Ranges. Although many anomalies were detected by this survey, none were verified in the ground survey followup, despite apparently adequate flight control. In 1968 a United Nations Special Fund Mineral Survey Project completed over 1,000 km of carborne radiometric survey with geiger counter readings at 500 m intervals. No anomalies were detected, but background radioactivity for several formations and geologic environments was established. In 1969 the Guatemalan government solicited the IAEA for technical assistance In conducting a preliminary uranium favorability study designed to formulate recommendations for a national radioactive ore prospecting program. A carborne radiometric survey was made of environments theoretically favorable for uranium deposition, with spot geological and radiometric examinations being .conducted in the more favorable areas. All Important mining regions of Guatemala except the leterites and the ultrabasics were visited. No evidence of a uranium province was observed 1n these field investigations and the recommendation was made that the government not embark on a more detailed national prospecting program at that time. At the time of completion of the IAEA-Guatemalan government (GOG) reconnaissance program in 1971, no uranium reserves or resources were known. More recent information on uranium occurrences and resources 1n Guatemala does not appear to be available. Information on more recent uranium reconnaissance than that undertaken during 1971 IAEA-GOG study is lacking. However, in more recent years the country's mineral potential has been generally evaluated with the aid of the UN and ICAITI (Central American Research Institute for Industry). Except for quarry materials, the state owns all minerals. The state has priority on purchase of any mineral production needed for the country

  2. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  3. Study of national registration systems for health records of radiation workers. National radiation dose registration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Haruo; Kanda, Keiji

    1999-01-01

    A national radiation dose registration system is proposed in this paper. In Japan, only one radiation dose registration system is partly effective. It is applied for workers in nuclear power plants which are under control of regulatory laws for nuclear reactors. The total system was proposed previously by the Committee for Compensation Claims of Nuclear Accidents. The reason for the delay in establishing a registration system for all radiation workers is supposedly a lack of effort to adjust differences among items in radiation protection laws and the promotion of public acceptance to atomic power. Items about dose recordings, record keeping and dose-record reporting in all of the radiation regulatory laws are compared to each other, and items were extracted for revision. (author)

  4. White River National Forest Hanging Lake transportation and operations study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Hanging Lake is a recreation site located on land managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) under the jurisdiction of the White River National Forests Eagle-Holy Cross Ranger District. Due to its increasing popularity over the past few years, the ...

  5. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes

  6. Tribes and Nations: Emerging Africa, Social Studies: 6478.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, Herbert; Weinfeld, Herbert

    Materials and information in this quinmester curriculum guide for grades seven through nine focus on tribal living in Sub-Sahara, European influence in Africa, and the African's desire for independence. Activities are offered which stress discussion, inquiry strategies, and concept teaching on tribalism, colonialism, and nationalism in an attempt…

  7. Cybersecurity Strategy in Developing Nations: A Jamaica Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Kevin Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Developing nations have been slow to develop and implement cybersecurity strategies despite a growing threat to governance and public security arising from an increased dependency on Internet-connected systems in the developing world and rising cybercrime. Using a neorealist theoretical framework that draws from Gilpin and Waltz, this qualitative…

  8. Achieving best practices in national standardisation. A benchmarking study of the national standardisation systems of Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, P.; Potter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The national standardisation systems of Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Italy have been benchmarked in a study that has sought to identify best practices for improving the performance of all participating bodies. This study has been funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Finland with some assistance from the European Commission. It has involved a series of 27 interviews of some 120 participants at different levels in the standardisation and wider stakeholder communities. This report details the features of each national system and describes more than 50 best practices identified during the course of the study, together with more than 25 recommendations for further improvements that are drawn from best practices in other organisations. The report starts by identifying best practices in the national standardisation systems and their structures and processes before moving onto the participation in European and international standardisation, with their challenges of influence, management and delivery. The relationship with government, at national level and within European programmes, is then addressed before moving onto the financing of standardisation activities within each of the national systems. The focus then starts moving more towards the national standards bodies (SFS,SIS,DS,UNI/CEI) by looking into issues relating to publications and onto customer services, sales and marketing. Management issues and the benefits of a long term strategic approach are then covered before moving on to the issues associated with communications and outreach, not only to those outside of the standards community but also those within it and on its edges. Moreover, trends during the last five years and those expected within the next two are dealt with briefly. A number of recommendations are common to all of the participating bodies. More detailed recommendations and suggested priorities have been made privately in a further set of reports delivered to the participating bodies

  9. Massive, Open, Online, and National? A Study of How National Governments and Institutions Shape the Development of MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tømte, Cathrine E.; Fevolden, Arne Martin; Aanstad, Siri

    2017-01-01

    We explore interpretations of MOOCs around the globe and, in particular, interpretations of MOOCs in Norway. Based on a review of previous studies relevant to these topics, we present two contrasting views on the emergence and development of MOOCs, namely the global interruption view and the national mediation view. We suggest, based on previous…

  10. Social Studies Education as a Panacea for National Security in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria as a Nation is besieged with several national issues such as insecurity of life and property, kidnapping, robbery assassination etc. This problem has brought about retrogressiveness to sustainable national development. Based on this prevailing condition the paper try to examine how the knowledge of social studies ...

  11. Values, Ethics, and Attitudes Toward National Forest Management: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Manning; William Valliere; Ben Minteer

    1999-01-01

    This study measures environmental values and ethics and explores their relationships to attitudes toward national forest management. The principal research methods were literature review and a survey of Vermont residents concerning management of the Green Mountain National Forest. Descriptive findings suggest respondents (1) favor nonmaterial values of national forests...

  12. Afghanistan: A Study in Internal Conflict and National Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are caused by various reasons. When competing groups’ goals, objectives, needs or values clash the aggression and violence is a result. Afghanistan as multi ethnic state enjoyed internal flexibility till socialist revolution (1978 that changed its social fabric due to ideological clash. In bipolar world this conflict invited the involvement of external actors (USSR & USA. Even after the withdrawal of Soviet troops this conflict sustained till 1992. The Mujahidin who had become new masters of the war torn country added fuel to the fire by converting an ideological clash into an ethnic one. Taliban replaced the Mujahidin but their religious orthodoxy also failed to bring national cohesion. The long sustained conflict has direct bearings on national and individual life of people of Afghanistan who have lost their ability to work together. All attempts made on national cohesion and integration so far have failed. People do not rely and trust each other and they have lost their motivation to work together and to rebuild their institutions and economy. It is the legacy of the long war that is still going on. A closer look at the last 35 years traumatic history of the country clearly illustrates the complexity of the problem due to clash of divergent aims and objectives of several parties.

  13. National study of parental confidence in general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Spike, Neil; O'Hara, Jonathan; Hiscock, Harriet; Rhodes, Anthea L

    2018-02-01

    To assess a national sample of Australian parental confidence in general practitioner (GP) care for illness and injury for their children. Cross-sectional, internet-based survey of a national, representative sample of parents of children birth - 17 years in Australia was used. Purposeful recruitment was used to achieve a national, representative sample of 2100 Australian parents, reflective of demographic and geographic distribution based on census data. Parents were asked to indicate their degree of confidence in a GP to handle medical problems as well as their preference for, and use of, paediatric speciality care for their children. Fewer than half of parents (44%) reported that they were completely confident in a GP to provide general care as defined as 'can handle almost all general health issues for my child'. A slightly greater proportion of parents (56%) were completely confident in a GP to provide care for minor injuries, defined as injuries not requiring an X-ray. Greater confidence in general care was seen among parents >40 years of age and those whose GP is always bulk billed. Parental confidence in GPs is an important issue. Our findings that fewer than half of parents are completely confident in their GP to provide general care to their child may be an influencing factor on current health-care utilisation trends. The potential implications of low parental confidence in GPs are greater numbers of emergency department presentations for children with lower urgency conditions and increased referrals of children for specialty care. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Geologically speaking, Lebanon is a young country since the oldest rocks are of Upper Jurassic age. Two volcanic periods are included in the more recent rocks. The country is intersected by numerous faults mainly striking NNE but also including numerous small transverse faults. No prospecting for nuclear raw materials has been recorded and there is no known activity at the present time. Lebanon has no national geological organization to support uranium prospecting. From the geological standpoint, possibilities of occurrences of nuclear minerals in Lebanon are poor and the Speculative Potential is placed in the less than 1000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  15. National accessibility portal and facebook: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, LL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available networks in order to attract more viewers to a traditional website. This paper will describe how a Facebook application works, some of the problems which were encountered, and some statistics on traffic to the National Accessibility Portal.... The term “portal” can be ambiguous but in this context the author uses the term “portal” to mean a “single point of access to information on the Internet”. Facebook can be a type of user interface or frontend for another website by using the facility...

  16. National mutation study among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, P M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B

    2014-01-01

    carry mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes. Here, we report on the genetic heterogeneity in the Danish national HHT population and address the prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Probands of 107 apparently unrelated families received genetic testing, including sequencing...... and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of ENG, ACVRL1 and SMAD4. These 107 families included 320 patients confirmed to have HHT either clinically or genetically. In 89% of the probands (n=95), a mutation was identified. We detected 64 unique mutations of which 27 (41%) were novel....... Large deletions were identified in ENG and ACVRL1. The prevalence of PAVM was 52.3% in patients with an ENG mutation and 12.9% in the ACVRL1 mutation carriers. We diagnosed 80% of the patients clinically, fulfilling the Curaçao criteria, and those remaining were diagnosed by genetic testing...

  17. Case Study: Sandia National Laboratories Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Norm; Gerbo, Tom

    2005-08-01

    The Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is one of five new Department of Energy Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC). The CINT vision is to become a world leader in nanoscale science by developing the scientific principles that govern the design, performance, and integration of nanoscale materials, with emphasis on exploring the path from scientific discovery to the integration of nanostructures into the micro and macro worlds. The CINT design team faced the challenge of creating a state-of-the art research facility that is functional, flexible, and reflects the local history and environment. Drawing inspiration from Pre-Columbian Chacoan culture, the resulting design integrates scientific spaces with "communal" spaces to encourage the cross-discipline interaction that is essential to scientific research, particularly in the area of nanotechnology. Careful attention to design also produced a facility that conserves resources in the demanding Southwestern climate.

  18. Study of polyelectrolytes for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, N.

    1994-11-01

    To assess the safety of a potential radioactive waste repository, analysis of the fluid solution containing low levels of activity need to be performed. In some cases, the radioactivity would be so weak (3--30 pCi/L) that the solution must be concentrated for measurement. For this purpose, Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are synthesizing some water soluble polyelectrolytes, which, because they are strong complexing agents for inorganic cations, can concentrate the radioelements in solution. To assist in characterization of these polyelectrolytes, the author has performed experiments to determine physico-chemical constants, such as pKa values and stability constants. The complexation constants between both polyelectrolytes and europium were determined by two methods: solvent extraction and ion exchange. Results are presented

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Turkey has an area of 296 185 sq mi or 767 120 square kilometers. The geology is dominated lay Tertiary and post-Tertiary rocks which are very widespread but extensive outcrops of Mesozoic rocks also occur. Paleozoic rocks, mainly gneisses, mica schists and quartzites occur in the ancient massifs, principally the Istranca massif in Thrace, the Merideres massif in western Anatolia and the Karrshir massif in central Anatolia. Prospecting for uranium began in Turkey in 1953 and the Atomic Energy Raw Materials Division of the Maden Tetkikive Arama Enstitusu (M.T.A.) was founded in 1956. By 1962 a total of 78% of the whole country had been covered by serial radiometric reconnaissance prospecting. Uranium was discovered at Kasar in western Anatolia in 1961 and several hundred tons of reserves estimated two years later. Uranium prospecting was largely recessed from 1963 to 1967. IAEA/UNDP assistance was provided in 1962-63 and 1965 and between 1974 and 1977 in a detailed exploration programme in the Kasar area. In the whole country nearly 600 anomalies and occurrences had been identified by 1963. Several occurrences principally in Western Anatolia had been assigned a small reserve. A recent official estimate places the total national reserve at 3150 tonnes uranium in the less than 30% category of reasonably assured resources. A speculative Potential of between 30,000 and 50,000 tonnes uranium is considered to be reasonable. (author)

  20. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  1. The Danish National Health Survey 2010. Study design and respondent characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the five Danish regions and the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark conducted a national representative health survey among the adult population in Denmark. This paper describes the study design and the sample and study population as well as the content...

  2. Opportunities within the National Council for the Social Studies Geography Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    While the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) celebrated its 100th anniversary in August 2014 in Washington, DC, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2020 in Washington, DC. The mission of NCSS is to provide leadership, service, and support for all social studies educators; NCSS is…

  3. Faculty Members' Intentions to Leave: A National Study on Their Worklife and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Vicki J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the importance of faculty retention, there is little understanding of how demographic variables, professional and institutional worklife issues, and satisfaction interact to explain faculty intentions to leave at a national level. Using the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:1999) database, this study proposes (a) to extend our…

  4. National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Architecture Study [Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This primary objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive workflow to guide Oklahoma DOT to apply the LIDAR technology to landslide monitoring and risk assessment on Oklahoma highways. In addition to the primary objective, this study also ai...

  5. National Theatre historical monument of Brasilia. Case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Silva, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of an International Cooperation Agreement for the conservation of historical monuments made of reinforced concrete in Brasilia. This research is based on a routine inspection of the National Theatre of Brasilia, a city recognized by UNESCO in 1987 as world cultural heritage. The structure, entirely made of reinforced concrete, was conceived by architect Oscar Niemeyer, and has a total of 48 m of height and 42,000 m2 of constructed area. After examining the available documentation, the existing damage was then identified and mapped. The concrete shows a good state of conservation, with the exception of some regions of the structure: the damages found were exposed armature, oxidation of armature, infiltration, mold and efflorescence.

    Este trabajo es parte de un Acuerdo de Cooperación Internacional para la conservación de monumentos históricos de hormigón armado en Brasilia. Esta investigación es el resultado de una inspección rutinaria en el Teatro Nacional de Brasilia, ciudad reconocida por la UNESCO, en 1987, como patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. La estructura, toda en hormigón armado, fue concebida por el arquitecto Osear Niemeyer, con un total de 48 m de altura y 42.000 m2 de área construida. Tras investigar la documentación disponible, se procedió a la identificación y al estudio de los daños existentes. El hormigón presenta un buen estado de conservación, salvo en algunas regiones de la estructura: estructura armada expuesta, oxidación de la estructura armada, infiltración, moho y eflorescencia son algunos de los daños que se encontraron.

  6. National study of continuity clinic satisfaction in pediatric fellowship training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangat M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Gangat,1 Genna W Klein,1 Hillel W Cohen,2 Rubina A Heptulla1 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY, USA Background: A national online survey was conducted to evaluate pediatric subspecialty fellow satisfaction regarding continuity clinic experience. Methods: An anonymous online survey (SurveyMonkey™ was developed to evaluate demographics of the program, clinic organization, and patient and preceptor characteristics, and to compare fellow satisfaction when fellows were the primary providers with faculty supervision versus attending-run clinics assisted by fellows or a combination of the two models. Pediatric subspecialty fellows in a 3-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited program in the United States (excluding emergency medicine, neonatology, and critical care were invited to participate. Results: There were 644 respondents and nearly half (54% of these had fellow-run clinics. Eighty-six percent of fellows responded that they would prefer to have their own continuity clinics. Higher satisfaction ratings on maintaining continuity of care, being perceived as the primary provider, and feeling that they had greater autonomy in patient management were associated with being part of a fellow-run clinic experience (all P < 0.001. Additionally, fellow-run clinics were associated with a feeling of increased involvement in designing a treatment plan based on their differential diagnosis (P < 0.001. There were no significant associations with patient or preceptor characteristics. Conclusion: Fellow-run continuity clinics provide fellows with a greater sense of satisfaction and independence in management plans. Keywords: resident education/training, workforce, pediatric, patient-provider relationship, pediatric outpatient clinic

  7. Childhood Cruelty to Animals: A Tri-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Yeow, James; Hapidzal, Noor Fizlee Mohd; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yokoyama, Akimitsu; Nobuzane, Yosuke

    2009-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to…

  8. A Community-based feasibility study of National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a community based study at Legon in 1997, a valuation method was used to assess the willingness of students on study leave to pay a percentage premium of their income ... The premium level was found to be influenced positively by financier, sex, age, income, and negatively by health expenditure, but not occupation.

  9. Live from Your Neighborhood: A National Study of Outdoor Arts Festivals. Volume Two: Seven Case Studies. Research Report #51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This report complements a national survey of outdoor arts festivals (see "Live from Your Neighborhood: A National Study of Outdoor Arts Festivals, Volume One: Summary Report") by focusing on seven case study festivals: Houston International Festival; Piccolo Spoleto; Lowell Folk Festival; Santa Fe Indian Market; Chicago Jazz Festival;…

  10. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    About 20 percent of Panama has been covered by airborne radiometric surveys, largely in the Azuero-Petaquilia area. Essentially no ground examinations have been made. About one third of the country remains unmapped. Most of the rest has been examined only in rapid reconnaissance largely by the United Nations and oil companies. Detailed mapping has been confined to the Canal Zone. No uranium deposits or prospects of economic interest are known in Panama. There appears to be no information available on present exploration activities for uranium. Panama has no specific legislation relating to nuclear energy. However, all mineral deposits belong to the state, except for salt and similar materials, and are governed by the mineral resources code. There appears to be only one remote possibility for uranium mineralization in Panama, namely, sandstone-type deposits. Marginal marine and fluvial sediments, such as host sandstone-type deposits elsewhere, are most abundant 1n the lower Cenozoic parts of the Azuero and possibly Bocas del Toro basins and are probably absent or poorly developed in the Darien and Central basin. Rocks with even moderate background uranium concentrations to be leached and deposited in such sediments are confined to the silicic and alkaline Intrusive rocks of the La Yeguada Formation 1n western Panama and possibly the Rio Guayabo stock in the Sierra de Maje of eastern Panama. Only the La Yeguada Formation is extensive enough and near enough to a potential sedimentary ore host to be important. Uranium concentrations have not been measured in this unit but its silicic composition, relatively young age (with respect to other volcanic rocks in Panama) and high ash content suggest that it may have relatively high Teachable uranium content. The best areas for exploration for La Yeguada-derived sandstone-type uranium deposits would be in the Pese formation between Santiago and Chitre in the Azuero basin. Possibly favourable sandstone type exploration ground

  11. National (dis)identification and ethnic and religious identity: a study among Turkish-Dutch muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Yildiz, Ali Aslan

    2007-10-01

    National (dis)identification is examined in three studies among Turkish-Dutch Muslim participants. In explaining national (dis)identification, the first study focuses on ethnic identity, the second on ethnic and religious identity, and the third on three dimensions of religious identity. Many participants show low commitment to the nation, and many indicate national disidentification. In addition, there is very strong ethnic and religious identification. Ethnic and Muslim identifications relate negatively to Dutch identification and, in Study 3, to stronger Dutch disidentification. Furthermore, perceived group rejection is associated with increased ethnic minority and religious identification but also with decreased national Dutch identification. In addition, in Studies 1 and 2 the effect of perceived rejection on Dutch identification is (partly) mediated by minority group identification. The findings are discussed in relation to social psychological thinking about group identification, dual identities, and the importance of religion for intergroup relations.

  12. National study on carless and special needs populations mobilizing your community for emergency evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The National Study on Carless and Special Needs Evacuation Planning was a multi-year study funded by the Federal Transit Administration : to research how state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), transit ...

  13. 2013–2014 National Roadside Study of alcohol and drug use by drivers: drug results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This was a nationally representative study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among drivers. : Drugs studied included 98 over-the-counter, prescription, and illegal substances. Drivers were randomly selected at : 60 sites (300 l...

  14. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  15. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  16. Inertial-fusion-reactor studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    We present results of our reactor studies for inertial-fusion energy production. Design studies of liquid-metal wall chambers have led to reactors that are remarkably simple in design, and that promise long life and low cost. Variants of the same basic design, called HYLIFE, can be used for electricity production, as a fissile-fuel factory, a dedicated tritium breeder, or hybrids of each

  17. Study of National Electric System equipment until 2000 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report by the German firm Lahmeyer International is about the historical development of the supply of Electric Power, description of the current system, previous studies, organization, power plants, hydroelectric plants and existing construction, transmission system, hydrological studies and water resources, operation of hydro thermal generation, medium-term demand, energy sources and generation in the medium term, list of thermal plants, evaluation of alternative equipment plans in Uruguay at a med dium term.

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    CCEN has invited proposals from international mining companies for the recovery of uranium from copper-bearing waters at the large Chuquicamata mine. As of mid-1977, it was reported that one proposal from all. S. company had been received. It has been estimated that production of 85 tonnes U/year might be realized here. Relatively little interest is shown in uranium by domestic (Chilean) companies because of the fear that the discovery of uranium might lead to nationalization of the properties. In spite of the possibilities mentioned above, there has been relatively little uranium discovered to date in Chile. In view of the relatively small size of these known deposits and until reconnaissance has taken a harder look at these possibilities, it would be prudent to place the potential of Chile in the 1,000-10,000 tonnes range

  19. Gender differences in poverty: a cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all

  20. A National Study on the Community College Presidency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of 52 U.S. community college presidents appointed to their positions between 1995 and 1997. Focuses on motivations to seek the presidency, perceptions upon taking office, and understanding of modern governance and transformation topics. Also queries presidents on the Carver Governance Model and the current movement to transform…

  1. Pathological Study of Boue Tumeurs pat the National Orthopaedic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombay in India respectivelyzrî Odetayo recorded 36 cases over six years earlier from this center which represented average annual occurrence of six per year for bone turnoursl. The yearly average in the present series was 15, which is quite high compared with the former study from the same center. This may be partly.

  2. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  3. Gender Differences in Poverty : A Cross-National Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all

  4. Currents of Trans/National Criticism in Indigenous Literary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Daniel Heath

    2011-01-01

    Recently, when preparing course materials for English graduate students on the practical skills and theoretical dimensions of teaching literature, the author surveyed the literature on the "state of the field" of literary studies in English (and the entire concept of a liberal arts education), ranging from high-profile monographs to various…

  5. 47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Universal Service Fund Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment § 36.622 National and study area... which made filings by the most recent filing date. (3) The calculation of a new national average to...

  6. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  7. English Learning Strategies of Various Nations: A Study in Military Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    How successful learners learn English has been one of the primary interest of scientists and researchers in recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to determine what language learning strategies the military personnel from different nations used while learning English. 56 subjects from 14 different nations deployed in three different military…

  8. Bioethics education of nursing curriculum in Korea: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Kang, Youngmi; Lee, Woon-Yong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the current profile of bioethics education in the nursing curriculum as perceived by nursing students and faculty in Korea. A convenience sampling method was used for recruiting 1223 undergraduate nursing students and 140 nursing faculty in Korea. Experience of Bioethics Education, Quality of Bioethics Education, and Demand for Bioethics Education Scales were developed. The Experience of Bioethics Education Scale showed that the nursing curriculum in Korea does not provide adequate bioethics education. The Quality of Bioethics Education Scale revealed that the topics of human nature and human rights were relatively well taught compared to other topics. The Demand for Bioethics Education Scale determined that the majority of the participants believed that bioethics education should be a major requirement in the nursing curriculum. The findings of this study suggest that bioethics should be systemically incorporated into nursing courses, clinical practice during the program, and during continuing education.

  9. National Waterways Study. Analysis of Environmental Aspects of Waterways Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Federal Water Quality Act. Hermatypic : Reef-building coral characterized by the presence of symbiotic algae within their endodermal tissue. Infauna...most such operations are lower than lethal levels and exist for times far shorter than lethal exposure times for most adults and larvae. Coral reef...Coelenterata, the corals have been the most extensively studied. Large con- centrations of suspended material and increased turbidity are usually

  10. A National Study of Wellbeing of Hospital Doctors in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Blanaid

    2016-01-01

    The working environment for hospital doctors in Ireland has undergone radical change in recent years with hospital posts becoming unattractive to doctors in training and to consultants. For young medical graduates, the tensions between training requirements and service demands have contributed to a ‘brain drain’ with over half leaving to work abroad after graduation. Many consultant posts are vacant or are filled on a temporary basis, impacting on the quality of patient care. This study se...

  11. Psychiatric Disorders among Prisoners: A National Study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, A; Khater, M; Gomaa, Z; Hussein, E; Hamdy, I

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders among prisoners and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of different mental and personality disorders. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 16 randomly selected prisons in Egypt. A stratified proportional random sample of 1350 adult prisoners was included in the study. Data were collected by a psychiatrist by direct interview with prisoners. The study questionnaire obtained information about socio-demographics, prisoner circumstances, medical history, psychological factors, legal history of the prisoner as well as the Arabic version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the significant factors associated with presence of psychiatric disorder. The overall point prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 22%, excluding substance abuse and alcohol intake. The independent predictors for psychiatric disorders were work in prison (adjusted odds ratio = 0.6), family visits (0.5), substance abuse outside prison (2.7), history of psychiatric disorders outside prison (2.0), and repeated admission to the prison (2.5). The prevalence of mood disorders and psychosis was 3.3% and 1.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of personality disorders was 13.6%. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among prisoners; the most common being personality and antisocial disorders. There is a need for psychiatric assessment of prisoners when first imprisoned and for subsequent regular monitoring and treatment.

  12. An empirical study to find important factors on building national brand: An Iranian tourism case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Hakimipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Building national brand plays an important role on today's economy to attract interested tourists in visiting various countries. There are different factors impacting national brand such as advertisement, natural attraction, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find the impact of ten most important factors on building brand. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 384 international tourists who visited Iran during the year of 2010 and it uses factor analysis to group important factors. The results extract four groups; the first factor includes three most important components including satellite advertisement programs, public awareness on economical power and public awareness on specialized symposium and conferences. The second factor includes three other important factors, which are public awareness on human right, advertisement programs through distribution brushers and internet advertisement. The third factor includes two variables, which are public awareness on education and access to educational services and introducing cultural heritage. Finally, the last factor includes introducing natural attraction and advertisement programs through distribution brushers.

  13. Tolerance of subcutaneously administered antibiotics: a French national prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubaud-Baudron, Claire; Forestier, Emmanuel; Fraisse, Thibaut; Gaillat, Jacques; de Wazières, Benoit; Pagani, Leonardo; Ingrand, Isabelle; Bernard, Louis; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Paccalin, Marc

    2017-01-08

    Although poorly documented, subcutaneous (SC) administration of antibiotics is common practice in France especially in Geriatrics Departments. The aim of this study was to determine the tolerance of such a practice. Prospective observational multicentre study. Sixty-six physicians accepted to participate from 50 French Infectious Diseases and Geriatrics Departments. From May to September 2014, patients treated at least one day with SC antibiotics could be included. Modalities of subcutaneous administration, occurrence of local and systemic adverse effects (AE) and clinical course were collected until the end of the treatment. Two hundred-nineteen patients (83.0 [19–104] yo) were included. Ceftriaxone (n = 163, 74.4%), and ertapenem (n = 30, 13.7%) were the most often prescribed antibiotics. The SC route was mainly used because of poor venous access (65.3%) and/or palliative care (32.4%). Fifty patients (22.8%) experienced at least one local AE that led to an increased hospital stay for two patients (4.0%) and a discontinuation of the SC infusion in six patients (12.0%). A binary logistic regression for multivariate analysis identified the class of antibiotic (p = 0.002) especially teicoplanin and the use of rigid catheter (p = 0.009) as factors independently associated with AE. In over 80% of cases, SC antibiotics were well tolerated and associated with clinical recovery. SC administration of antibiotics leads to frequent but local and mild AE. Use of non-rigid catheter appears to be protective against AE. As it appears to be a safe alternative to the intravenous route, more studies are needed regarding efficacy and pharmacokinetics.

  14. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Very little information is available to IAEA on the geology and uranium potential of Syria. In 1975 a contract was awarded to Huntings Geology and Geophysics Ltd by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources to carry out a study of the country's mineral resources with particular reference to phosphate uranium, chrome and industrial materials. The results of this survey are not known. Apart from the assumption of some possibility of uranium recovery as a by-product from phosphate production it is assumed that the Speculative Potential is likely to be less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  15. NATIONAL SEISMIC, RADAR AND SEISMOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Popov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the remote sensing which carried out in the LakeVostokarea are discussed in the paper. A.P. Kapitsa and O.G. Sorokhtin started the geophysical researches in this area in 1950s. Satellite altimetry data, which analyzed in 1990s yielded to the discovering of the LakeVostok. After that, PMGE and RAE started the systematic studying of this natural phenomenon by seismic and radio-echo sounding. Total, 318 seismic soundings and 5190 kmof the radio-echo profiles has been collected by 2008. Special precise measurements which carried out in the 5G-1 borehole vicinity are resulted in the ice thickness over Vostok Station is 3760±30 mby seismic and 3775±15 mby radio-echo sounding. Thus, the error of geophysical measurements is less than 0.3%. The Russian investigations are resulted in definition the border of the lake, the discovering of 56 subglacial water caves around the lake and compilation the maps including ice thickness, ice base and bedrock topography and the depth of the lake. Average depth of the LakeVostokis about 400 m; water volume is 6100 km3. After 2008, the remote sensing works have been concentrated to the studying of the bottom sediments by refraction seismic technique. The firsts result shown that the bottom sediments thickness varies from 400 to1200 m.

  16. Current tritium chemical studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.J.; Redman, J.D.; Strehlow, R.A.; Bell, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures of hydrogen isotopes in the Li-LiH-H 2 , Li-LiD-D 2 and Li-LiT-T 2 systems are being measured. The solubility of hydrogen in lithium was studied and the data are in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The Li-LiD-D 2 system is now being studied. The first experimental measurements of the equilibrium pressures of tritium between 700 and 1000 0 C as a function of the LiT concentration in the Li-LiT-T 2 system have also been completed. The permeation of tritium through clean metals and through metals under simulated steam generator conditions is being investigated. Measurements of tritium permeation through clean nickel at temperatures between 636 and 910 0 K were made using a mixed isotope technique. The tritium permeability, DK/sub s/', as a function of temperature was determined to be ln DK/sub s/' [cc(NTP).mm.min -1 .torr/sup -1/2/.cm -2 ] = -0.906 - 6360/T( 0 K). The measured permeation activation energy was 12.6 +- 0.4 kcal/mole. (MOW)

  17. A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Avalosse, Hervé; Vancorenland, Sigrid; Verniest, Rebekka; Callens, Michael; van Broeck, Nady; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Mierop, Adrien

    2015-10-01

    Emotional competence (EC; also called "emotional intelligence"), which refers to individual differences in the identification, understanding, expression, regulation, and use of one's emotions and those of others, has been found to be an important predictor of individuals' adaptation to their environment. Higher EC is associated with greater happiness, better mental health, more satisfying social and marital relationships, and greater occupational success. Whereas a considerable amount of research has documented the significance of EC, 1 domain has been crucially under investigated: the relationship between EC and physical health. We examined the relationship between EC and objective health indicators in 2 studies (N1 = 1,310; N2 = 9,616) conducted in collaboration with the largest Mutual Benefit Society in Belgium. These studies allowed us (a) to compare the predictive power of EC with other well-known predictors of health such as age, sex, Body Mass Index, education level, health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits), positive and negative affect, and social support; (b) to clarify the relative weight of the various EC dimensions in predicting health; and (c) to determine to what extent EC moderates the effect of already known predictors on health. Results show that EC is a significant predictor of health that has incremental predictive power over and above other predictors. Findings also show that high EC significantly attenuates (and sometimes compensates for) the impact of other risk factors. Therefore, we argue that EC deserves greater interest and attention from health professionals and governments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Kwang Suk; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Byung Woon; Choi, Yung Lok; Koh, Han Suk

    1994-12-01

    This study is composed mainly of the current status of international non-proliferation, the NPT extension, IAEA Status, the circumstances of nuclear export control system, and the Vienna convention and London convention. The recent circumstances of the NPT have been analyzed. We established counter measures and strategies on the NPT extension conference. After reviewing the international export control system of NSG members, we suggested the factors which should be involved in the nuclear export control system. Also, U.S. systems on retransferring were intensively reviewed. In connection with the challenges coped with by the IAEA, several agenda have been reviewed and analyzed: the financing status of the Agency; the program 93+2 for the strengthening of effectiveness and improving of efficiency in the safeguards system. In connection with the amendment work of the Vienna Convention, we studied the major contents of four proposals which were suggested. In the case of the London Convention, the causes of maritime pollution and the kinds of sea dumping material were investigated. 3 figs, 13 tabs, 66 refs. (Author)

  19. Epilepsy and occupational accidents in Brazil: a national statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Mariana dos Santos; Soliman, Lucas Alexandre Pedrollo; Pauli, Carla; Lin, Katia

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy may restrict the patient's daily life. It causes lower quality of life and increased risk for work-related accidents (WRA). The aim of this study is to analyze the implantation of the Epidemiologic and Technical Security System Nexus (ETSSN) and WRA patterns among patients with epilepsy. Data regarding WRA, between 1999 and 2008, on the historical database of WRA Infolog Statistical Yearbook from Brazilian Ministry of Social Security were reviewed. There was a significant increase of reported cases during the ten year period, mainly after the establishment of the ETSSN. The increased granted benefits evidenced the epidemiologic association between epilepsy and WRA. ETSSN possibly raised the registration of occupational accidents and granted benefits. However, the real number of WRA may remain underestimated due to informal economy and house workers' accidents which are usually not included in the official statistics in Brazil.

  20. National Study of Muscle Cramps in ALS in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Helen E; Joyce, Nanette C; Oskarsson, Björn

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe muscle cramps in an US sample of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Utilizing an anonymous web based questionnaire we queried ALS patients regarding the severity, frequency, time-course, treatment of muscle cramps and their relationship to pain. The survey had 282 respondents with 92% reporting that they had cramps. For 20% of the sample, cramps were stated to be the presenting ALS symptom. Cramp severity was rated at a mean of 5.2/10 and the mean cramp frequency was 5.3 cramps per day. Cramp intensity and frequency did not correlate with duration or severity of ALS. Pain as measured with the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain scales was not statistically different from the US general population. Cramp severity and frequency significantly and positively correlated with the PROMIS pain scales. Patients with more severe cramps were more likely to use prescription medications for their cramps compared to patients with milder symptoms. Treatments directed at cramps were tried by 57%. In conclusion, cramps are a common symptom in ALS and it does not correlate with disease duration or severity. The severity of cramps is on average moderate and many patients try treatments.

  1. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  2. Legal abortion services in Brazil--a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed methods study of 68 legal abortion services in Brazil. The services were analyzed in two stages. The first stage was a census, in which all the institutions were sent an electronic questionnaire about the organization of the legal abortion services. The second stage was conducted in a sample of 5 reference services, one for each region of the country. In this stage, a form was used to collect data about the women and the abortions in the medical records, and 82 interviews with health professionals were conducted. Thirty-seven of the services informed they performed legal abortions, and the services were inactive in 7 states. Police reports, forensic reports, and court orders were required by 14%, 8% and 8% of the services, respectively. Women who underwent abortions were predominantly aged 15-29, single and Catholic. Most abortions were performed until 14 weeks in the case of rape-related pregnancy, by means of manual vacuum aspiration. According to the health professionals, the main difficulties faced in the services are the low availability of physicians to perform abortions and the insufficient training of the staff. The data reveal a discrepancy between the legal provision and the reality of the services. The implementation of more services and the strengthening of the existing services available are necessary.

  3. Lumbar spine fusion surgery and stroke: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Laura; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk of stroke after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Study subjects were identified from a nationwide cohort of 1 million people from 2000 to 2005 and were divided into the lumbar spinal fusion group (n = 2,015), who received posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery, and the comparison group (n = 16,120) composed of age-, sex-, and propensity score-matched control subjects. The matching process was intended to adjust for demographics, comorbidities, and other immeasurable covariates to minimize selection bias. All subjects were followed up for 3 years for stroke, including hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed. The overall incidence rate of stroke in the cohort was 9.99 per 1,000 person-year. The lumbar spinal fusion group was less likely to have any stroke (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.83, p = 0.293), hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted HR = 0.74, p = 0.739) and ischemic stroke (adjusted HR = 0.81, p = 0.250) than the comparison group, but without significance. Three years post-operatively, patients who received lumbar spinal fusion had stroke incidence rates similar to those without surgery. Posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery is not associated with increased risks for any kind of stroke.

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Sweden, covers an area of approx. 450 000 square kilometers. It has a population of 8 millions. With few exceptions in the northern part the access can be regarded as good. A dense network of motorroads and railroad exists. The results obtained by the exploration works combined with other available geo-information permit a separation of two principal uranium provinces in Sweden. The first one is confined to sediments of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician which appears in Southern Sweden and along the border of the Caledonian mountain range in Central Sweden. The uranium occurrence are stratiform, of blackshale type which occurs in the Peltura zone of Upper Cambrian or they are associated to a phosphatite-bearing unit of Lower Ordovician overlying the Cambrian shale formation. The distribution of uranium in Upper Cambrian rocks is in general dependant on their lithology which itself is related to the paleography. This conditions explain relatively higher uranium content of the shale from Billigen.The potential resources of the province are estimated at about 1 million tonnes uranium. The second uranium province, called Arjeplog-Arvidsjaur, situated immediately south of the Arctic circle, comprises one deposit - Pleutajokk - and a group of more than twenty occurrences of similar characteristics and age (1 700 - 1 800 my.). The results of the past exploration have shown that uranium is present in different types of rocks. Because of the presence of uranium in many of the pegmatites the possibility of the formation of large low grade deposits should be tested. Favourable areas are those regions where the geological conditions are similar to the geology of the Grenville province in Canada or the Damara belt of SW-Africa. Special studies are recommended on this subject

  5. Prediction of drug abuse recurrence: a Swedish National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J

    2017-10-10

    Relapse from drug abuse (DA) is common, but has rarely been studied in general population samples using a wide range of objective predictors. Using nationwide registries, we ascertained 44 523 subjects first registered for DA between the ages of 15 and 40 in 1998 to 2004 and followed for 8 years. We predicted relapse in subjects defined as a second DA registration. We also predicted DA relapse in relative pairs concordant for DA but discordant for relapse. In multivariate regression analyses, the strongest predictors for relapse were prior criminal behavior, male sex, being on social welfare, low school achievement, prior alcoholism, and a high-risk father. A risk index trained from these analyses on random split-halves demonstrated a risk ratio of 1.11 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.10-1.11] per decile and an ROC value of 0.70 (0.69-0.71). Co-relative analyses indicated that a modest proportion of this association was causal, with the remainder arising from familial confounders. A developmental structural equation model revealed a complex interviewing of risk pathways to DA with three key mediational hubs: low educational attainment, early age at first registration, and being on social welfare. In a general population sample, using objective registry information, DA relapse is substantially predictable. However, the identified risk factors may not be valid targets for interventions because many index familial risk and may not impact causally on probability of relapse. Risk for DA relapse may reflect an inter-weaving, over developmental time, of genetic-temperamental vulnerability, indices of externalizing behaviors and social factors reflecting deprivation.

  6. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  7. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  9. Comprehensive study on nuclear weapons. Summary of a United Nations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In December 1988, by resolution 43/75N, the United Nations General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to carry out a comprehensive update of a 1980 study on nuclear weapons. The study was to take into account recent relevant studies, and consider the political, legal and security aspects of: (a) nuclear arsenals and pertinent technological developments; (b) doctrines concerning nuclear weapons; (c) efforts to reduce nuclear weapons; (d) physical, environmental, medical and other effects of the use of nuclear weapons and of nuclear testing; (e) efforts to achieve a comprehensive nuclear-test ban; (f) efforts to prevent the use of nuclear weapons and their horizontal and vertical proliferation; and (g) the question of verification of compliance with nuclear-arms limitation agreements. The Group's report is presented in nine chapters, eight of which are summarized here; chapter 9, entitled ''Conclusions'', is included in its entirety. In his foreword to the report, the Secretary-General observes that the study represents the most comprehensive review of the relevant developments in the field over the last decade and was carried out during a period of ''far-reaching changes in international relations'' and an ''unprecedented evolution in the relationship between East and West''. This period experienced for the first time the initiation of an effective process of reduction of nuclear weapon stockpiles

  10. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    There is no information on production of nuclear raw materials in Burma, although there are some uranium occurrences. Hunting Geophysics Ltd has done some aerial prospecting work in the area of Victoria Point in Southern Burma. All the data collected has been plotted on several maps and issued to various Burmese organizations, with a complete report. The follow-up ground exploration was done by a prospecting party headed by Dr Gjelsvik. The Hunting Geophysics' and Dr Gjelsvik reports are not available in the IAEA. The Raw Materials Division in the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Center commenced operations in 1955. The area of Mogok was selected by U Soo Win, the head of the Division, as most favourable for uranium exploration. The region is mountainous, with heavy forest cover. A ground gamma-ray survey was carried out in Mogok Mineral Belt by two geologists accompanied by two assistants, at a spacing of one km. This work showed monazite in all streams over an area of about 150 sq km and has given a detailed studies led to the discovery of some uraninite and pitchblende in the overburden of an old lode. Based, on these first discoveries the Government of Burma requested assistance from the IAEA and an expert was sent there for a period of one year. His field work was mainly limited in the Mogok Mineral Belt, however some reconnaissance field trips were made in other parts of the country. Dr D L Searle concluded that the Mogok area represents a zone of high temperature mineralization but a lower temperature form of uranium mineralization may have developed along the outer edges of the principal high grade zone. He recommended that the area between the Mogok scarp and the Shweli River be systematically traversed. Uranium bearing minerals in Burma are the following: monazite bearing beach sands near Amherst, Tenasserim; monazite placers from near Momeik, Northern Shan States; uraninte crystals from the gem-gravels around Mogok; a radioactive anomaly in syenite at

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease in Panama: Results From the PREFREC Study and National Mortality Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilais Moreno Velásquez

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: CKD poses a significant health problem for Panama. Health inequalities and an increase of cardiometabolic risk factors warrant robust epidemiological surveillance, improved diagnosis, and treatment. Further national studies aimed to address geographical disparities are necessary.

  12. John F. Kennedy National Historic Site General Management Plan support : transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report provides an overview of transportation and access issues related to the John F. Kennedy National Historic Site and the surrounding area in Brookline, MA. The study defines transportation-related goals for the site and provides support for...

  13. Tongass National Forest Transportation System Opportunity Study : Final Report for Hoonah and Wrangell Ranger Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Tongass National Forest (NF) is in Southeast Alaska, a region rich in natural and cultural resources, which is currently undergoing significant economic change. This study examines how the existing assets of the Tongass NF's transportation system can...

  14. Land Application of Wastewater Sludges: A National Science Foundation Student-Originated Studies Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Timothy J.; Barnard, Walther M.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes a student-originated studies project, funded by the National Science Foundation, on land application of wastewater sludges. Describes the students' proposal, research methods, and evaluation of the project. (DS)

  15. Impact of national context and culture on curriculum change: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies suggested national culture to be a potential barrier to curriculum reform in medical schools. In particular, Hofstede's cultural dimension 'uncertainty avoidance' had a significant negative relationship with the implementation rate of integrated curricula. Aims: However,

  16. The drumbeat of the nation? : a study of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation's news at eight

    OpenAIRE

    Orgeret, Kristin Skare

    1998-01-01

    The state owned media in Zimbabwe have frequently been described as the government s voicetube. This study explores the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation s News at Eight from democratic and nationbuilding perspectives. It studies how relations of ownership and control of the parastatal institution are established in the actual television text. The national News appears as a stronghold of consensual discourse, subordinating opposition politics to a national master narrative of tribute to statu...

  17. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled...

  18. The impact of nation branding campaigns on country image. Case Study: Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Anca-Georgiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a nation branding campaign can influence the image of a country and to highlight its positive or negative impact on industries such as tourism and on people’s perception. In order to accomplish this objective, Romania was taken as a case study. Five of the most important nation branding campaigns in Romania, after 1989, were examined in comparison, analyzing the same indicators. In the end, the paper shows that if nation branding campaigns do not follow a long-term strategy with all actors involved in the process, its impact in country image may be rather negative.

  19. Presentation skills amongst surgical trainees at a national conference: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Edward; Peacock, Oliver; Liyanage, Shehan; Elsey, Elizabeth; Lund, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The ability to deliver public presentations is important for doctors of all specialities. Despite this, there is little emphasis on training in presentation skills within medical curriculae. The aim of this paper was to establish the current standard of presentations being delivered by surgical trainees at a national conference and to confirm the need for further training. Design An observational study of 96 six-minute research presentations. Setting A national surgical conference ...

  20. The Danish National Prescription Registry in studies of a biological pharmaceutical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Henriksen, Lonny; Way, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus...... in high-risk children. OBJECTIVE: To assess the registration of palivizumab in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR) and to examine if palivizumab reimbursement data obtained from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority could serve as a supplement to data from the DNPR. METHODS: Registration...

  1. Ready for university? A cross national study on students' perceived preparedness for university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.P.W.A.; van der Meer, J.

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured before students commenced their study at a university in New

  2. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  3. Analytical Study of E-Learning Resources in National Open University of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Okunlaya, Rifqah Olufunmilayo Afolake; Alawiye, Mariam Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses e-learning resources in the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) using Abeokuta study center. Survey research method was adopted for this study. A questionnaire was designed and used to collect data for this study. A sample of 150 respondents was randomly selected from the final year students in the six schools of the…

  4. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...

  5. National Security in the Nuclear Age. A Conference for State Social Studies Coordinators on Pre-Collegiate National Security Education (Washington, DC, June 26-July 1, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, B. Thomas; And Others

    This conference report addresses education on national security and international relations in secondary school courses in the social studies. Main conclusions of the conference are: (1) Topics on national security should be added to the secondary school curriculum. (2) Current institutional and instructional settings are open to inclusion of…

  6. Local Management of National Cluster Policies: Comparative Case Studies of Japanese, German, and French Biotechnology Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okamuro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cluster policies have attracted increasing attention worldwide, but only a few studies have focused on their management by local cluster organizations. We investigate the relationship between national cluster policies and their management by local cluster organizations from a comparative perspective. For this purpose, we provide a detailed comparison of national cluster policies in Japan, Germany, and France as well as six prominent biotechnology clusters in these countries. Information on the focal clusters and on the management of cluster policies was obtained using semi-structured interviews with cluster managers. We find that national cluster policies considerably differ among these countries according to basic conditions of clusters and that the patterns of national cluster policy are closely related to those of local cluster management, despite some differences between clusters in the same country caused by various regional characteristics.

  7. The health-related, social, and economic consequences of parkinsonism: a controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism (AP) cause a significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the total disease burden at a national level. Thus, the goal of this study was to estimate the excess direct and indirect costs of PD and AP in a national...... sample. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2007), 13,400 PD and 647 AP patients were identified and compared with, respectively, 53,600 and 2,588 control cases randomly selected with respect to age, gender, civil status, and geographic location. Direct costs including...... frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, and medication from primary and secondary sectors were obtained from the Danish Ministry of Health, the Danish Medicines Agency, and the National Health Security. Indirect costs, which included labor supply and social transfer payments, were based...

  8. Study of US/EU National Innovation Policies Based on Nanotechnology Development, and Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Jung Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently US/EU governments are utilizing nanotechnology as a key catalyst to support national innovation policies with economic recovery goals. US/EU nano policies have been serving as a global model to various countries, including Korea. So the authors initially seek to understand US/EU national innovation policy interconnections, and then find the role of nanotechnology development within. To strengthen national policy coherence, nanotechnology development strategies are under evolution as an innovation catalyst for promoting commercialization. To strategically support nano commercialization, EHS (Environmental, Health, Safety and informatics are invested as priority fields to strengthen social acceptance and sustainability of nano enabled products. The current study explores US/EU national innovation policies including nano commercialization, EHS, and Informatics. Then obtained results are utilized to analyze weaknesses of Korean innovation systems of connecting creative economy and nanotechnology development policies. Then ongoing improvements are summarized focusing on EHS and informatics, which are currently prominent issues in international nanotechnology development.

  9. Seismic hazard studies for the high flux beam reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfield, E.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a calculation to determine the site specific seismic hazard appropriate for the deep soil site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is to be used in the risk assessment studies being conducted for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). The calculations use as input the seismic hazard defined for the bedrock outcrop by a study conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Variability in site soil properties were included in the calculations to obtain the seismic hazard at the ground surface and compare these results with those using the generic amplification factors from the LLNL study

  10. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Haynes, Brian; Wichgers, Joel M.; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified during the studies' first year.

  11. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgers, Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2013-01-01

    The National Aviation and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified during the studies' first phase.

  12. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  13. FINAL DRAFT WHITE PAPER: THE ETHICAL CHALLENGES OF RECRUITING MINOR ADOLESCENTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The federal government is designing the National Children's Study (NCS), a congressionally mandated longitudinal study that will examine the effects of environmental exposures among children, from before birth until age 21. The goal of the NCS is to improve thehealth and ...

  14. 75 FR 5333 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Section 10(d) Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review... and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas...

  15. 78 FR 56235 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or... Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and evaluate grant application(s) received in response... occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH to support broad-based research...

  16. 78 FR 24751 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or... and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and evaluate grant application(s) received... issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH to support broad...

  17. 76 FR 18220 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health...

  18. 76 FR 3908 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS); National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH...: (703) 684-5900, Fax: (703) 684-1403. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will... grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and...

  19. 77 FR 75633 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and... cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the...

  20. 77 FR 27776 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health...

  1. 78 FR 75922 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or... Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and evaluate grant application(s) received in response... occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH to support broad-based research...

  2. 75 FR 26266 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In...) Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and... cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the...

  3. National Assistive Technology Information & Program Referral Feasibility and Desirability Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Girish G.; Lopez-DeFede, Ana

    This final report presents results of a feasibility study and implementation plan concerning the establishment of a national assistive technology information and referral (ATI&R) network. The study explored the feasibility of establishing such a network from two perspectives: the current processes used to disseminate information about assistive…

  4. "Do Giraffes Ever Sit?": A Study of Visitor Perceptions at the National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Robert L.; Tymitz, Barbara L.

    This study explores why people come to the National Zoological Park, the value of their visit, what they learn, and how the overall experience of visiting the zoo affects them. The study was undertaken over six months. It is part of a series to evaluate how various bureaus of the Smithsonian Institutions influence the public through their diverse…

  5. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking

  6. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  7. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  8. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgers, Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present the final results describing the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study.

  9. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Burji District, Segan Area Zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashagre, Mersha; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2016-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants was conducted in Burji District, Segan Area Zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify and document wild edible plants and the associated ethnobotanical knowledge of the local people. Methods Relevant ethnobotanical data focused on wild edible plants were collected using guided field walk, semi-structured interview, and direct field observation. Informant consensus me...

  10. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S

    2008-01-01

    , living in a neighbourhood with low average education, and for men, living in a neighbourhood with a high rate of crime and a low degree of ethnic diversity, were associated with higher perceived stress. Perceived stress was also related to indicators of morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The group with high......AIMS: Stress is a growing public health problem, but there are only a few studies with national representative samples on the occurrence of stress. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress, measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, in Denmark, and to identify and characterize the group...... with high levels of stress by factors measured at both the individual and neighbourhood levels in a national representative sample of the Danish population. METHODS: The 10,022 participants in the National Health Interview Survey 2005 were asked about perceived stress and individual factors in a cross...

  11. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map.

  12. The Associations of Dyadic Coping and Relationship Satisfaction Vary between and within Nations: A 35-Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K.; Sorokowski, Piotr; Atkins, David C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bertoni, Anna; Bettache, Karim; Błażejewska, Marta; Bodenmann, Guy; Borders, Jessica; Bortolini, Tiago S.; Butovskaya, Marina; Castro, Felipe N.; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Cunha, Diana; David, Oana A.; DeLongis, Anita; Dileym, Fahd A.; Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra D. C.; Donato, Silvia; Dronova, Daria; Dural, Seda; Fisher, Maryanne; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Gulbetekin, Evrim; Hamamcıoğlu Akkaya, Aslıhan; Hansen, Karolina; Hattori, Wallisen T.; Hromatko, Ivana; Iafrate, Raffaella; James, Bawo O.; Jiang, Feng; Kimamo, Charles O.; King, David B.; Koç, Fırat; Laar, Amos; Lopes, Fívia De Araújo; Martinez, Rocio; Mesko, Norbert; Molodovskaya, Natalya; Moradi, Khadijeh; Motahari, Zahrasadat; Natividade, Jean C.; Ntayi, Joseph; Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd S. B.; Onyishi, Ike E.; Özener, Barış; Paluszak, Anna; Portugal, Alda; Relvas, Ana P.; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salkičević, Svjetlana; Sarmány-Schuller, Ivan; Stamkou, Eftychia; Stoyanova, Stanislava; Šukolová, Denisa; Sutresna, Nina; Tadinac, Meri; Teras, Andero; Tinoco Ponciano, Edna L.; Tripathi, Ritu; Tripathi, Nachiketa; Tripathi, Mamta; Vilchinsky, Noa; Xu, Feng; Yamamoto, Maria E.; Yoo, Gyesook

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Theories about how couples help each other to cope with stress, such as the systemic transactional model of dyadic coping, suggest that the cultural context in which couples live influences how their coping behavior affects their relationship satisfaction. In contrast to the theoretical assumptions, a recent meta-analysis provides evidence that neither culture, nor gender, influences the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction, at least based on their samples of couples living in North America and West Europe. Thus, it is an open questions whether the theoretical assumptions of cultural influences are false or whether cultural influences on couple behavior just occur in cultures outside of the Western world. Method: In order to examine the cultural influence, using a sample of married individuals (N = 7973) from 35 nations, we used multilevel modeling to test whether the positive association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies across nations and whether gender might moderate the association. Results: Results reveal that the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies between nations. In addition, results show that in some nations the association is higher for men and in other nations it is higher for women. Conclusions: Cultural and gender differences across the globe influence how couples' coping behavior affects relationship outcomes. This crucial finding indicates that couple relationship education programs and interventions need to be culturally adapted, as skill trainings such as dyadic coping lead to differential effects on relationship satisfaction based on the culture in which couples live. PMID:27551269

  13. The Associations of Dyadic Coping and Relationship Satisfaction Vary Between and Within Nations: A 35-Nation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER HILPERT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Theories about how couples help each other to cope with stress, such as the systemic transactional model of dyadic coping, suggest that the cultural context in which couples live influences how their coping behavior affects their relationship satisfaction. In contrast to the theoretical assumptions, a recent meta-analysis provides evidence that neither culture, nor gender, influences the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction, at least based on their samples of couples living in North America and West Europe. Thus, it is an open questions whether the theoretical assumptions of cultural influences are false or whether cultural influences on couple behavior just occur in cultures outside of the Western world. Method: In order to examine the cultural influence, using a sample of married individuals (N = 7,973 from 35 nations, we used multilevel modeling to test whether the positive association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies across nations and whether gender might moderate the association. Results: Results reveal that the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies between nations. In addition, results show that in some nations the association is higher for men and in other nations it is higher for women. Conclusions: Cultural and gender differences across the globe influence how couples’ coping behavior affects relationship outcomes. This crucial finding indicates that couple relationship education programs and interventions need to be culturally adapted, as skill trainings such as dyadic coping lead to differential effects on relationship satisfaction based on the culture in which couples live.

  14. STUDY ON THE WORDS AND MUSICAL PATTERNS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Filiz ONAL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthems are poetic verses sung in a melodic harmony expressing a nation’s feelings, enthusiasm, hopes, joy of coexistence and determination to survive. Thanks to anthems, people reflect their national values, historical background of their countries, and their way of thinking. In this direction national anthems have a unifying power creating a common ground for individuals that sustain continuity and the sense of belonging to a country. This study deals with the national anthems of the Middle Eastern countries where major conflicts have taken place for years in terms of music and lyrics. The random method was used to form the sample group. The sample group is composed of the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Some basic musical elements of the national anthems of the countries involved in the study have been investigated (tone, tempo, meter signatures and rhythm patterns. It has been found that four of them are composed in major tones, while two of them are composed in minor tones. All of these anthems are in 4/4 meter with walking pace tempo. As for the rhythm patterns; 3 different patterns are used in one anthem, while 4 different patterns are used in two, 5 different patterns in one, and 6 different patterns in two. The words of these anthems as literary verses focus on many topics, mainly soldiers, flags, and homelands as well as political developments, national heroes...

  15. Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on State Studies, 1993-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L

    2003-04-02

    The National Weatherization Assistance Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by state and local agencies throughout the United States, weatherizes homes for low-income residents in order to increase their energy efficiency and lower utility bills. Research staff members at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have performed two previous metaevaluations of this program (Berry, 1997; Schweitzer and Berry, 1999). Both of these earlier metaevaluations involved synthesizing the results from individual studies of state weatherization efforts completed during a several year period. This report is the third in a series of metaevaluations of state-level studies. It is built on the foundation developed by the previous two metaevaluations. The purpose of this report, like that of the two earlier ORNL metaevaluations, is to provide a current estimate of the average national energy savings per home weatherized for the Weatherization Assistance Program based on the relevant state-level studies. All three of the metaevaluations, including this one, were designed to be updates to the findings of a national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program, which examined a representative national sample of several thousand structures weatherized in 1989 (Brown, Berry, Balzer, and Faby 1993). Although the first and second metaevaluations used separate sets of state-level studies, completed during different time periods, there was little difference in their findings about the typical national energy savings per weatherized home for homes that heat with natural gas. Our initial analysis efforts for this report involved repeating the same procedures that had been used in the previous two reports. In particular, we collected and examined only the state-level evaluations that had become available between September of 1998 and August of 2002. Once again, we found little difference in the average energy savings estimates per weatherized home that were

  16. Racial Otherness and National Construction: a Report of the Studies on the Relationship Between Race and Nation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Villegas Vélez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates, through eight main areas, the publications that make the relations between racial otherness and the Nation in Colombia problematic. These areas are: 1 Pioneer Articles (1989-1994 which tende to reduce racial discourses to exclusively racist strategies, 2 Works focused on standardization practices, 3 Publications focused on the political and intellectual debates about these practices, 4 Research on the interactions between race and Nation in the nineteenth century, 5 Publications dealing with the link between discursive and territorial practices about population differences; 6 Research that has focused on the tension between the homogenization and differentiation project in national states, from a perspective attentive to the regional and local , 7 Works linking racial otherness and the past; 8 Finally, the article presents and outline of some unexplored investigative possibilities.

  17. Conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction: An exploratory study in 14 national groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khilji, Imran Ahmed; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Poon, Wai-Ching; Sundaram, Suresh; Ho, Lok Sang; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Han, Gyuseog; Bae, Jaechang; Demir, Meliksah; Achoui, Mustapha; Pang, Joyce S.; Jiang, Ding-Yu; Lamers, S.M.A.; Turan, Yücel; Lepshokova, Zarina Kh.; Panyusheva, Tatiana; Natalia, Amerkhanova; Asano, Ryosuke; Igarashi, Tasuku; Tsukamoto, Saori

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between 4 conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction in a sample of 2715 university students across 14 national groups. The 4 conceptions were self-transcendence, self-directed hedonism, conservation, and self-enhancement, which emerged from a principal

  18. Cooperative Work-Study Programs in Vocational Rehabilitation: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert

    1983-01-01

    Conducted a national survey of vocational rehabilitation agencies (N=42) to determine the present status of cooperative work study programs serving mentally retarded secondary students. Results documented a decrease both in formal programs and number of students served. (Author/JAC)

  19. Studying the Quality of Democracy: Two Cross-National Measures of Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…

  20. Childhood Problem Behaviors and Death by Midlife: The British National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Ferrie, Jane; Kivimaki, Mika

    2009-01-01

    The childhood behavior problem as assessed by teachers of over 11,000 boys and girls who were born in 1958 and were part of the British National Child Development Study is reviewed to determine a link between these behaviors and mortality by the age of 46. It is found that childhood behavior problem is linked to long-term mortality beyond…

  1. Increasing prevalence of coeliac disease in Denmark: a linkage study combining national registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dydensborg, Stine; Toftedal, Peter; Biaggi, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To determine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) in Danish children and adolescents and to describe trends over time. Methods:  All children with a CD diagnosis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) were included in the study. Data were validated...

  2. 77 FR 4048 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH) In... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses, as... occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and illness. It is...

  3. 76 FR 52330 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses, as... occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and illness. It is...

  4. 77 FR 51810 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses, as... occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and illness. It is...

  5. 78 FR 64504 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or..., Number 177, Pages 56235-56236. Contact Person for More Information: Price Connor, Ph.D., NIOSH Health...

  6. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  7. National priorities for the assessment of clinical conditions and medical technologies: report of a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lara, María Elena; Goodman, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    ... and Medical Technologies Report of a Pilot Study Maria Elena Lara and Clifford Goodman, editors Priority-Setting Group Council on Health Care Technology Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1990 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typese...

  8. National perinatal audit, a feasible initiative for the Netherlands!? A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diem, Mariet; De Reu, Paul; Eskes, Martine; Brouwers, Hens; Holleboom, Cas; Slagter-Roukema, Tineke; Merkus, Hans

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of a national perinatal audit organization. Design. Validation study. Setting. Three regions in the Netherlands. Population. 228 cases of perinatal mortality. Methods. Narratives of perinatal mortality cases were assessed by a panel of representatives of all

  9. Examining the Heterotypic Continuity of Aggression Using Teacher Reports: Results from a National Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the heterotypic continuity of aggression hypothesis (physical to indirect) using independent teacher reports of aggression drawn from a nationally representative sample of 749 Canadian girls and boys. Confirmatory factor analysis using an accelerated longitudinal design confirmed a two-factor model of physical and indirect…

  10. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  11. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  12. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated

  13. Students' Performance on Missing-Value Word Problems: A Cross-National Developmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ronghuan; Li, Xiaodong; Fernández, Ceneida; Fu, Xinchen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates Spanish and Chinese students' performance on both addition problems and proportion problems considering a cross-national perspective. The effect of number structure and nature of quantities was also considered. Nine hundred twenty-five 4th to 8th graders (453 Chinese, 472 Spanish) took a test which is composed of addition…

  14. Towards integrated river basin management: A case study of Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Sandram, S.; Mpofu, E.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, water is important in the conservation of wildlife. In this present study, we focus on the surface water systems and their role in wildlife conservation in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. Specifically, water from natural perennial rivers, i.e. Mwenezi, Runde and Save rivers,

  15. A National Study of Work-Family Balance and Job Satisfaction among Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    This national study sought to extend previous research on the work-family balance (WFB) ability of secondary school agriculture teachers. We utilized data from a simple random sample of agriculture teachers to explore the relationships between work and family characteristics, WFB ability, and job satisfaction. Work role characteristics of interest…

  16. National Rural Studies Committee. A Proceedings (4th, Reading, Pennsylvania, May 16-17, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Emery, Ed.; Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    The theme of this conference proceedings of the National Rural Studies Committee is "rural areas in an urbanized region." The presentations cover such issues as urbanization, rural land use, public policies, farmland preservation, environmental policy, natural resources, land management, land-grant university reform, cooperative…

  17. National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin, 1933, No. 10. Volume V: Special Survey Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Benjamin W.; Betts, Gilbert L.; Greenleaf, Walter J.; Waples, Douglas; Dearborn, Ned H.; Carney, Mabel; Alexander, Thomas

    1935-01-01

    The Seventy-first Congress authorized a survey of the education of teachers on a Nation-wide scope, conducted during the last 3 years. After the work of the survey was organized it was apparent that only a limited number of studies could be undertaken with the time and funds available. It was decided, therefore, to cooperate whenever possible with…

  18. Forest Service National Forest System perceptions of law enforcement and investigations: nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of the roles, responsibilities, and issues entailed in the jobs of U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service law enforcement and investigations (LEI) personnel. An e-mail survey was administered to the 537 Forest Service forest supervisors and district rangers (National Forest System [NFS] line...

  19. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study | Bhat | SAHARA-J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods: Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the ...

  20. Language of Advertising: A Study of Nigeria's Nation Newspaper and Newswatch Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a critical analysis of the language of advertisement in selected newspapers and magazines; from the aspect of graphology and lexis of "The Nation Newspaper" and "Newswatch Magazine" respectively. This work is based on the framework of stylistics. Through this study, it is discovered that the language of…

  1. A Classical Test Theory Analysis of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory National Study Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…

  2. Digital divide across borders : A cross-national study of adolescents’ use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of

  3. The study of the national context in support of planning geological disposal in Romania - 15232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Prisecary, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a risk management process was studied to assess the Romanian national context concerning the setting of a geological disposal of radioactive waste. A PESTEL analysis involving political, economical, social, technical, environmental and legal issues, has been performed to identify factors that could endanger the project. The analysis of a pessimistic scenario indicates the national context could delay the schedule of the siting and site licensing process by 17.5 years. The estimation of a maximum time of 38 years for this process was considered realistic since this value was met in the countries which were confronted with suspensions/reconsiderations of the siting process of a geological disposal facility

  4. The study design and characteristics of the Danish national health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Hesse, Ulrik; Davidsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The Danish National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark has carried out national representative health interview surveys among adult Danes in 1987, 1994, 2000 and 2005. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the design, including the response rates.......1% in 1994 to 51.5% in 2005. The decrease is particularly marked among the young. The mean interview length has increased from 33.3 minutes in 1987 to 50.2 minutes in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: The declining response rate in the surveys is a major concern and can pose problems in generalizing data from the surveys...

  5. Developing a national framework for safe drinking water--case study from Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Safe drinking water is one of the fundaments of society and experience has shown that a holistic national framework is needed for its effective provision. A national framework should include legal requirements on water protection, surveillance on drinking water quality and performance of the water supply system, and systematic preventive management. Iceland has implemented these requirements into legislation. This case study analyzes the success and challenges encountered in implementing the legislation and provide recommendations on the main shortcomings identified through the Icelandic experience. The results of the analysis show that the national framework for safe drinking water is mostly in place in Iceland. The shortcomings include the need for both improved guidance and control by the central government; and for improved surveillance of the water supply system and implementation of the water safety plan by the Local Competent Authorities. Communication to the public and between stakeholders is also insufficient. There is also a deficiency in the national framework regarding small water supply systems that needs to be addressed. Other elements are largely in place or on track. Most of the lessons learned are transferable to other European countries where the legal system around water safety is built on a common foundation from EU directives. The lessons can also provide valuable insights into how to develop a national framework elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. International and Domestic Challenges to Comprehensive National Cybersecurity: A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Kostyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While many countries and companies have fallen victim to cyber attacks over the past few years, including American companies such as Apple, Microsoft, and Facebook, Czech websites remained relatively safe until March 2013, when they were interrupted by a series of cyber attacks. Even though the origin of the attacks remains debatable, this case study demonstrates the importance of cooperation between nations in the nascent phase of the internet development and their more powerful allies. Domestic challenges that nations face in addressing cybersecurity in an effective and comprehensive manner include ambiguous legislation, recalcitrant officials, and a lack of both fiscal and human capital. To address these challenges, nations should cooperate with their more capable allies, such as the EU and NATO, create better cyber protective measures, train and hire qualified specialists in the public sector, and intensify private-public partnership. Until an international agenda on cyberspace is set, these nations with limited resources should cooperate with developed nations lest they risk more severe attacks in the future.

  7. A national study of the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lindqvist, Kent

    2012-03-01

    This article estimates the national prevalence rate of domestic violence in India and examines the demographic and socioeconomic status of the victims of domestic violence. The study used the Indian National Family Health Survey 3, a cross-sectional national survey of 124 385 ever-married women of reproductive age from all the 29 member states. χ(2) Analysis and logistic regression were used. Lifetime experiences of violence among respondents were as follows: emotional violence, 14%; less severe physical violence, 31%; severe physical violence, 10%; and sexual violence, 8%. Women of scheduled castes and Muslim religion were most often exposed to domestic violence. Women's poorer economic background, working status, and husband's controlling behavior emerged as strong predictors for domestic violence in India. Elimination of structural inequalities inherent in the indigenous oppressive institutions of religion, caste, and the traditional male hierarchy in society could prevent domestic violence.

  8. Discrimination and mental health-related service use in a national study of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael S; Chen, Juan; Gee, Gilbert C; Fabian, Cathryn G; Takeuchi, David T

    2010-12-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and use of mental health services among a national sample of Asian Americans. Our data came from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national survey of Asian Americans. Our sample included 600 Chinese, 508 Filipinos, 520 Vietnamese, and 467 other Asians (n=2095). We used logistic regression to examine the association between discrimination and formal and informal service use and the interactive effect of discrimination and English language proficiency. Perceived discrimination was associated with more use of informal services, but not with less use of formal services. Additionally, higher levels of perceived discrimination combined with lower English proficiency were associated with more use of informal services. The effect of perceived discrimination and language proficiency on service use indicates a need for more bilingual services and more collaborations between formal service systems and community resources.

  9. AHP 44: BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN AMDO - A CASE STUDY OF KHRI KA NATIONALITIES BOARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshe dpal rdo rje ཚེ་དཔལ་རྡོ་རྗེ། (Caihuan Duojie 才还多杰

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The state sponsored education of Tibetan children in Khri ka (Guide County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, China, using Khri ka Nationalities Boarding School as a case study, is described. School history, the government rationale for closing village-based Tibetan primary schools, and the nationalities boarding schools operating in Khri ka in 2015 are introduced. Detailed descriptions of teachers; students; instructional materials; classes; language use; rules; punishments; home visiting; communication between students, parents, and teachers; school reports to the local authorities; and official local supervision and evaluation of Khri ka Nationalities Boarding School are also provided. An overall evaluation of this school concludes the paper.

  10. Characteristics of a National Level Female Weightlifter Peaking for Competition: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Zourdos, Michael C; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Breuel, Kevin F; Stone, Michael H

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated physiological and performance changes of a national level 69kg female weightlifter following three competition phases over a 28-week training period. The athlete first trained for a regional championship (weeks 1-12), followed by a local competition (weeks 13-23) and the national championship (weeks 24-28). Body mass, vastus lateralis cross-sectional area, and unloaded and loaded squat jump performance were assessed weekly during each 4-week competition phase. Serum biomarkers, and dynamic mid-thigh pulls were assessed prior to and after each competition phase. Weightlifting performance goals were met for the regional championship (total=200kg) and the local competition (total=193kg), but not the national championship (total=196kg). She lost more body mass in preparation for nationals (-6.0kg) compared to regionals (-2.5kg) and the local competition (+2.2kg). Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area very likely decreased following nationals (precision=99%, effect size=2.08). Her testosterone:cortisol ratio likely increased (88%, 2.64), while interleukin-6 (79%, 2.47), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (81%, 3.59) likely decreased following nationals. Serum myostatin (99%, 1.95) and decorin (99%, 1.96) very likely decreased following the local competition. Unloaded squat jump height likely increased the week of regionals (89%, 0.95) and the local competition (99%, 1.83), whereas unloaded and loaded squat jump height possibly (69%, 0.99) and likely (82%, 1.52) decreased the week of nationals. Dynamic mid-thigh pull vertical displacement likely increased following regionals (93%, 0.84), and likely decreased following nationals (94%, 0.87). These findings indicate that biomarkers of stress, inflammation, and hypertrophy are related to changes in training volume-load; however, performance measures are needed to assess competition preparedness. Considering the reductions in muscle cross-sectional area corresponding with the large reductions in body

  11. The National Children's Study: a golden opportunity to advance the health of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth R

    2009-10-01

    With a $3 billion investment by the federal government, the National Children's Study (NCS) recently began recruitment. The NCS is a golden-and potentially missed-opportunity to study one of the most underrepresented populations in clinical research: pregnant women. As the nation's largest-ever study of children's health, the NCS will examine the effects of the environment on children from before birth to 21 years of age, with participants sampled primarily through women during pregnancy. Thus the NCS presents a rare opportunity to study the health of women during and after pregnancy, in addition to the health of their children. On both moral and policy grounds, we make the case for inclusion of women's health outcomes in the NCS.

  12. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; á Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Design Cohort study. Setting 1996–2002, Denmark. Participants All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was dra...

  13. South Fork Iowa River watershed selected for a national water-quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, M.L.; Kalkhoff, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying seven watersheds across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices (AMPs) affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape (soil type, topography, geology), and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The study approach is similar in each watershed so that we can compare and contrast the results and more accurately predict conditions in other agricultural settings.

  14. Systematic suicide risk assessment for patients with schizophrenia: a national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Jensen, Signe Olrik Wallenstein; Gradus, Jaimie; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Mainz, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Systematic suicide risk assessment is recommended for patients with schizophrenia; however, little is known about the implementation of suicide risk assessment in routine clinical practice. The study aimed to determine the use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge and predictors of suicide attempt among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. A one-year follow-up study was conducted of 9,745 patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from psychiatric wards and registered in a national population-based schizophrenia registry between 2005 and 2009. The proportion of patients receiving suicide risk assessment at discharge from a psychiatric ward increased from 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]=71%-74%) in 2005, when the national monitoring began, to 89% (CI=89%-90%) in 2009. Within one year after discharge, 1% of all registered patients had died by suicide and 8% had attempted suicide. One out of three patients who died by suicide had no documented suicide risk assessment before discharge. The use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge among patients with schizophrenia increased in Denmark between 2005 and 2009, in accordance with recommendations in national clinical guidelines and monitoring in a national clinical registry. Additional efforts are warranted to ensure a lower risk of suicidal behavior after hospital discharge.

  15. A Feasibility Study to Evaluate Wind Energy Potential on the Navajo Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Battiest

    2012-11-30

    The project, A Feasibility Study to Evaluate Wind Energy Potential on the Navajo Nation, is funded under a solicitation issued by the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program. Funding provided by the grant allowed the Navajo Nation to measure wind potential at two sites, one located within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation and the other off-reservation during the project period (September 5, 2005 - September 30, 2009). The recipient for the grant award is the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA). The grant allowed the Navajo Nation and NTUA manage the wind feasibility from initial site selection through the decision-making process to commit to a site for wind generation development. The grant activities help to develop human capacity at NTUA and help NTUA to engage in renewable energy generation activities, including not only wind but also solar and biomass. The final report also includes information about development activities regarding the sited included in the grant-funded feasibility study.

  16. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nienhueser, Ian [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. Cherokee Nation Enterprises Wind Energy Feasibility Study Final Report to U.S. DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol E. Wyatt

    2006-04-30

    CNE has conducted a feasibility study on the Chilocco property in north-central Oklahoma since the grant award on July 20, 2003. This study has concluded that there is sufficient wind for a wind farm and that with the Production Tax Credits and Green Tags, there will be sufficient energy to, not only cover the costs of the Nation’s energy needs, but to provide a profit. CNE has developed a wind energy team and is working independently and with industry partners to bring its renewable energy resources to the marketplace. We are continuing with the next phase in conducting avian, cultural and transmission studies, as well as continuing to measure the wind with the SoDAR unit. Cherokee Nation Enterprises, Inc. is a wholly-owned corporation under Cherokee Nation and has managed the Department of Energy grant award since July 20, 2003. In summary, we have determined there is sufficient wind for a wind farm at the Chilocco property where Cherokee Nation owns approximately 4,275 acres. The primary goal would be more of a savings in light of the electricity used by Cherokee Nation and its entities which totals an estimated eight million dollars per year. Cherokee Nation Enterprises (CNE), working independently and with industry partners, plans to bring its renewable energy resources into the marketplace through a well-documented understanding of our undeveloped resource. Our plan is to cultivate this resource in a way that will ensure the development and use for our energy will be in an environmentally and culturally acceptable form.

  18. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  19. Data Analytic Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using National Health Information Database Established by National Health Insurance Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ho Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS signed a memorandum of understanding with the Korean Diabetes Association to provide limited open access to its databases for investigating the past and current status of diabetes and its management. NHIS databases include the entire Korean population; therefore, it can be used as a population-based nationwide study for various diseases, including diabetes and its complications. This report presents how we established the analytic system of nation-wide population-based studies using the NHIS database as follows: the selection of database study population and its distribution and operational definition of diabetes and patients of currently ongoing collaboration projects.

  20. “American” Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo J. Hebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Udo J. Hebel examines the recent critical history of visual cultures in American Studies in his essay “‘American’ Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies,” focusing his analysis specifically on “political photography” and the concurrency of contexts that inform his reading of the history of US presidential images. This beautifully researched article, previously published in American Studies Today: New Research Agendas (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014, takes up questions related to “tensions” between disciplinary concerns and transdisciplinary potentialities for interpreting the representation of the political inside the framework of transnational American Studies.

  1. The UK Burden of Injury Study – a protocol. [National Research Register number: M0044160889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleney Judith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally and nationally large numbers of people are injured each year, yet there is little information on the impact of these injuries on people's lives, on society and on health and social care services. Measurement of the burden of injuries is needed at a global, national and regional level to be able to inform injured people of the likely duration of impairment; to guide policy makers in investing in preventative measures; to facilitate the evaluation and cost effectiveness of interventions and to contribute to international efforts to more accurately assess the global burden of injuries. Methods/Design A prospective, longitudinal multi-centre study of 1333 injured individuals, atttending Emergency Departments or admitted to hospital in four UK areas: Swansea, Surrey, Bristol and Nottingham. Specified quotas of patients with defined injuries covering the whole spectrum will be recruited. Participants (or a proxy will complete a baseline questionnaire regarding their injury and pre-injury quality of life. Follow up occurs at 1, 4, and 12 months post injury or until return to normal function within 12 months, with measures of health service utilisation, impairment, disability, and health related quality of life. National estimates of the burden of injuries will be calculated by extrapolation from the sample population to national and regional computerised hospital in-patient, emergency department and mortality data. Discussion This study will provide more detailed data on the national burden of injuries than has previously been available in any country and will contribute to international collaborative efforts to more accurately assess the global burden of injuries. The results will be used to advise policy makers on prioritisation of preventive measures, support the evaluation of interventions, and provide guidance on the likely impact and degree of impairment and disability following specific injuries.

  2. Predictors of PTSD 40 years after combat: Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida; Henn-Haase, Clare; Qian, Meng; Li, Meng; Horesh, Danny; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Williams, Christianna; Ho, Chia-Lin; Shalev, Arieh; Kulka, Richard; Marmar, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Few studies have longitudinally examined predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of US veterans. We examined predictors of warzone-related PTSD over a 25-year span using data from the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS). The NVVLS is a follow-up study of Vietnam theater veterans (N = 699) previously assessed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS), a large national-probability study conducted in the late 1980s. We examined the ability of 22 premilitary, warzone, and postmilitary variables to predict current warzone-related PTSD symptom severity and PTSD symptom change in male theater veterans participating in the NVVLS. Data included a self-report Health Questionnaire survey and a computer-assisted telephone Health Interview Survey. Primary outcomes were self-reported PTSD symptoms assessed by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL 5) and Mississippi PTSD Scale (M-PTSD). Predictors of current PTSD symptoms most robust in hierarchical multivariable models were African-American race, lower education level, negative homecoming reception, lower current social support, and greater past-year stress. PTSD symptoms remained largely stable over time, and symptom exacerbation was predicted by African-American race, lower education level, younger age at entry into Vietnam, greater combat exposure, lower current social support, and greater past-year stressors. Findings confirm the robustness of a select set of risk factors for warzone-related PTSD, establishing that these factors can predict PTSD symptom severity and symptom change up to 40 years postdeployment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pregnancy After Bariatric Surgery: National Survey of Obstetrician's Comfort, Knowledge, and Practice Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Mcelwain, Cora-Ann; Volckmann, Eric T; Schulkin, Jay; Stuebe, Alison M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to survey a nationally representative sample of obstetricians regarding comfort, knowledge, and practice patterns of caring for pregnant women after bariatric surgery. We conducted an online survey of US obstetricians and describe obstetrician's demographics, practice settings, and practice patterns. We assessed respondent's knowledge and recommended practices. We compared provider knowledge by years since completing residency, scope of practice (generalist or specialist), and practice setting (academic setting or other). Statistical significance was set at p bariatric surgery and 83% reported feeling "very comfortable" (48%) or "somewhat comfortable" (35%) providing care for this population. Most (74%) were aware of increased risk of small for gestational age after surgery. Only 13% were able to correctly identify all recommended nutritional labs and 20% reported that they "did not know" which labs are recommended. There were no differences in comfort, experience, knowledge, and practice patterns by physician characteristics and practice settings. While most obstetricians are aware of perinatal risks after bariatric surgery, a substantial percentage of obstetricians are unaware of recommended practices regarding nutrition and nutritional monitoring. As bariatric surgery becomes increasingly prevalent among reproductive age women, educational interventions to increase obstetricians' knowledge of optimal care of pregnant women after bariatric surgery are urgently needed.

  4. Gambling in the Mist of Economic Crisis: Results From Three National Prevalence Studies From Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Hayer, Tobias; Brosowski, Tim; Meyer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    In October 2008 all three major banks in Iceland went bankrupt with serious consequences for Icelandic society. The national currency lost more than half of its value and there was a sharp increase in household debts and prices for domestic goods. Very little is known about the potential effects of economic recessions on gambling participation and problem gambling. This study reports on the results of three national prevalence studies conducted before and after the economic collapse in Iceland. The same methodology and measures were used in all three studies to ensure their comparability and the studies included in total N = 8.249 participants. There was an increase in past year gambling participation which extended across most gambling types. Only participation on EGMs declined significantly after the economic collapse. Past year prevalence of problematic gambling increased but further examination revealed that this increase is most probably explained by an increase in card and internet gambling among young men. Moreover, those who experienced financial difficulties due to the economic recession were 52% more likely to have bought a lottery ticket during the recession compared to those who were not affected financially. Overall, the results indicate that serious national economic recessions have differential effects on gambling behavior.

  5. The relationship between suicide and Islam: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Chandia, Mahmood

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, suicide rates were low in Islamic countries. However, the process of modernization can erode the ties of the individual to society and lead to questioning of religion and weakening of faith. Therefore, a cross-national study with the null hypothesis that there will be no relationship between general population suicide rates and the percentage of adherents of Islam was undertaken. The correlation between general population suicide rates and the percentage of people in the general population adherent to Islam, whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality, was examined using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. There were significant negative correlations between general population suicide rate and the percentage of people adherent to Islam in males and females whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality. Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship and the direction of causality from this ecological study due to ecological fallacy. However, there is case to study further the impact of Islam on suicide by in-depth study of adherents Islam with and without suicidal ideation and behaviors. ‎

  6. Developing and Reflecting on a Black Disability Studies Pedagogy: Work from the National Black Disability Coalition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Dunhamn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection of writing has grown from the work of the National Black Disability Coalition, led by Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore. The Coalition met on June 7, 2013, in the historic Shiloh Baptist Church in Trenton, New Jersey to discuss the future of Black Disability Studies (BDS. Since that time, members of the Coalition have written an outline for a BDS course, presented at conferences, and developed strategies to incorporate BDS into the disciplines of Black Studies and Disability Studies. We have also reflected deeply on what the introduction of BDS will mean, both for Black Studies and for disability studies. Our writings in this collection are intended to mark the work of the National Black Disability Coalition thus far, but also to provide a platform from which further work in BDS can grow. By underscoring the development and potential of BDS, this article articulates the need for BDS within mainstream disability studies, and advocates for BDS not to be taken as a marginalized special-topic course, but rather to be engaged in every and at the heart of Disability Studies courses and pedagogies. Although we believe that BDS should be integrated into every Disability Studies course, we recognize that, like disability itself, it cannot simply be “added and stirred”; rather, the inclusion of BDS is a paradigm-shifting change. The pieces included in this collection are enactments of an ongoing conversation--a conversation that we hope the readers of Disability Studies Quarterly will join thoughtfully. The sections comprise statements from the leaders of the National Black Disability Coalition, Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore; reflective writings from three instructors and two students of Black Disability Studies; and a copy of the course outline.

  7. Prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study proposes that in addition to national health policies on preventing cardiometabolic risk factors, specific interventions should be considered according to the regional SES level.

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. Mark and recapture studies of two reef sparids in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Buxton

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A mark and recapture study of two reef sparids, Chrysoblephus laticeps and C. cristiceps, was done in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Fish were marked with plastic anchor tags and an intraperitoneal injection of oxytetracycline. All recaptures were taken within two kilometres of the tagging locality, suggesting that both species are resident in the area. Growth in length during the period at liberty was very variable and sometimes negative, but was comparable with published growth rates.

  10. The use of learning management platforms in school context - a national study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Neuza; Soares, Francisca; Matos, João Filipe; Santos, Madalena

    2008-01-01

    This report results from a national study carried out under the Project “Educational application of learning management platforms”, supported and funded by the Computers, Networks, and Internet in Schools department of the Portuguese Ministry of Education- General Directorate for Innovation and Educational Development. This report has been developed by the ICT Competence Centre of the Faculty of Sciences- University of Lisbon, during the school year 2007/2008.

  11. Introduction to Special Issue "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies....

  12. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    José GOMES DA SILVA; Maria NEIDE SOBRAL

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has...

  13. Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: a national population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahir, Caitriona

    2010-05-01

    Optimization of drug prescribing in older populations is a priority due to the significant clinical and economic costs of drug-related illness. This study aimed to: (i) estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in a national Irish older population using European specific explicit prescribing criteria; (ii) investigate the association between PIP, number of drug classes, gender and age and; (iii) establish the total cost of PIP.

  14. Workplace Harassment Patterning, Gender, and Utilization of Professional Services: Findings from a US National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Candice A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    This study constitutes the first national longitudinal survey to address the relationship between workplace harassment and service utilization. We examine how patterns of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment are linked to utilization of mental health, health, legal, spiritual, and work-related services, and whether and how gender influences these relationships. Data derive from a random digit dial telephone survey with a continental U.S. sample of employed adults. Eligibilit...

  15. Study of recovery and stability of derivatized gliphosate and AMPA in soil using national resins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Tomaz Alves de; Matta, Marcia Helena de Rizzo da; Montagner, Émerson; Abreu, Adley Bergson Gonçalves de

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we studied the recoveries of glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (GLY) and its major metabolite, (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil using national (Brazilian) ion-exchange resins, derivatization by a mixture of trifluoroacetic anhydride and trifluoroethanol and analyses by GC-MS. The quantification limits were 12 ng.g-1 for both compounds and the methodology showed a range of recuperation from 85 to 94% with coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 4.07 to ...

  16. Evaluation of the National Return of unwanted medicines (RUM) program in Australia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Spinks, Jean; Bettington, Emilie; Kelly, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The National Return of Unwanted Medicines (NatRUM) program in Australia is one of the few nationally coordinated, free-to-consumer schemes to dispose of unwanted medicines globally. This scheme has been in operation since 1996, however, little is known about public awareness of the scheme and its effectiveness in reducing unsafe disposal practices. The study objectives are to undertake a review of (1) the current use of the NatRUM scheme by consumers; and (11) to investigate disposal practices and beliefs of the general population. A two-stage, mixed-methods study will be undertaken. Stage One will include a nation-wide audit of a representative sample of unwanted medicine bins, collected by community pharmacies, for incineration. The audit will detail the type and amount of unwanted medicines collected and if they are subsidised on the national formulary (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme). Stage Two will include: (i) a large, representative, general population survey; and (ii) more detailed interviews with a sub-set of this sample, who take five or more medications. Results will quantitatively describe the awareness of the NatRUM scheme, disposal practices and the volume of unwanted medicines stored in the home. It will qualitatively describe beliefs and perceptions about storage and disposal practices. It is anticipated that this study will provide valuable insights about how Australians dispose of unwanted medicines, their awareness of the NatRUM scheme and how the scheme might be strengthened. Results will inform the Federal Department of Health and NatRUM Ltd. Board at a local level, as well as other countries who are yet to develop or implement coordinated disposal schemes. A number of challenges are expected, including ensuring the consistency of medicines terminology during the bin audit and recruiting a representative sample of Australians for the general population survey. Results of this study will be widely disseminated to support the translation of

  17. Impact of Facebook Usage on Undergraduate Students Performance in Irbid National University: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Altaany, Fawzi H.; Jassim, Firas A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the style of Facebook usage between undergraduate students and the impact on their academics performance. Also, this paper was evaluated in the view of student the using of Facebook. A questioner was design for collecting data from a sample of 480 undergraduate students in Irbid National University. The survey revealed that 77% of the students have an account on Facebook. One of the main findings is that there was a significant relationship between gend...

  18. National Energy Options for reducing CO2 emissions: Volume 2: Country studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.

    1994-03-01

    The results of studies carried out by participants in Annex 4: Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options of the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA-ETSAP) are reported. In IEA-ETSAP/Annex 4, eleven countries and one international organisation cooperated to identify cost-effective strategies for greenhouse gas emission reduction, focusing on technological options for CO 2 reduction. The studies reported on are all carried out as part of National Programmes of Work, primarily aiming to perform assessments for national bodies, but also providing the information upon which an agreed Common Programme of Work was founded. National priorities and interests prevented some participants from submitting their results to ECN Policy Studies, Operating Agent for IEA-ETSAP, within the adopted time schedule for processing in the common analyses. Covered in the latter are Belgium, Canada (the two provinces Quebec and Ontario), Italy (included in the comparative analysis only, not in the aggregate results), Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA. Several participants embarked on, or continued, cooperative projects with non-OECD member countries, employing the common ETSAP approach, methodologies and tools. Thus contributing to one of the Annex 4 objectives: to enhance the global coverage of consistent and comparable energy/environment studies. One example is reported here, describing the collaboration between Indonesia and the Energieforschungs Zentrum Juelich (KFA) in Germany. The country reports in this Volume 2 are written by the individual participants, in some cases edited and formatted by the Operating Agent, in most cases reproduced as delivered. Together with the numerical data on MARKAL model runs, these country reports form the indispensable backbone for the aggregate and comparative analyses performed, and the supporting country summaries in Volume 1

  19. Developing National Cancer Registration in Developing Countries- Case Study of the Nigerian National System of Cancer Registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elima E Jedy-Agba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic transition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has given rise to a concomitant increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases including cancers. Worldwide, cancer registries have been shown to be critical for the determination of cancer burden, conduct of research, and in the planning and implementation of cancer control measures. Cancer registration though vital is often neglected in SSA owing to competing demands for resources for healthcare.We report the implementation of a system for representative nation-wide cancer registration in Nigeria - the Nigerian National System of Cancer Registries (NSCR. The NSCR coordinates the activities of cancer registries in Nigeria, strengthens existing registries, establishes new registries, complies and analyses data, and makes these freely available to researchers and policy makers. We highlight the key challenges encountered in implementing this strategy and how they were overcome. This report serves as a guide for other low and middle income countries (LMIC wishing to expand cancer registration coverage in their countries and highlights the training, mentoring, scientific and logistic support, and advocacy that are crucial to sustaining cancer registration programs in LMIC

  20. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Larsen Penny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150. Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

  2. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-07-08

    Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

  3. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out.

  4. The U.S. National Security Council in Contemporary American International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Pavlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Established in accordance with the provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, the U.S. National Security Council is the main advisory body to the President of the United States tasked with helping the head of state to make the right decisions on matters related to national security. NSC system has been constantly evolving for some 70 years, and the NSC staff became a separate 'ministry' of a kind, allowing presidential administrations to focus ever-increasing control over American foreign policy in the White House. That is why serious attention is devoted to the National Security Council by American researches studying foreign policy decision-making. Here, a 'three-pronged consensus' exists: functioning and efficiency of the decision-making process is primarily a result of presidential actions; the President will make the best decision after becoming aware of the whole range of possible alternatives and assessing the consequences of each policy option; the position of the National Security Advisor, who is often one of the closest officials to the President and serves as a coordinator of the decision-making process, is considered to be one of the most notable in today's U.S. presidential administrations - and the most influential of those not being a subject to approval by the legislative branch of U.S. government. Any fundamental changes in the practice of U.S. foreign policy mechanism, as well as a decline of the White House influence on foreign policy are unlikely in the short term.

  5. Linking national and global population agendas: case studies from eight developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Walt, G

    1995-06-01

    This comparative study of the determinants of family planning policy initiation and implementation focuses on four pairs of countries: Zambia/Zimbabwe, Algeria/Tunisia, Pakistan/Bangladesh, and Philippines/Thailand. The conclusion is drawn that global efforts had an influence on national policy makers and on putting family planning issues on the policy agenda. Global impacts were affected by national economic and social conditions and the broader political and economic relations with Western countries. The absolute level of economic development was found to be unrelated to the timing of initiation of family planning on national policy agendas. Stronger national family planning programs occurred in countries where policy makers linked economic development at whatever level with the need to limit population growth. Pakistan and Thailand in the 1960s illustrated this commitment to family planning programs, and Zambia and Algeria illustrated the lack of connection between development and population growth at the policy level and the lack of family planning on the policy agenda. Affiliation with the West during the 1960s meant early initiation of family planning in Pakistan/Bangladesh and Philippines/Thailand. Stronger commitment to program implementation occurred only in Thailand during the 1970s and Zimbabwe during the 1980s. Commitment lessened in the Philippines and Pakistan. Program implementation and national support of family planning were viewed as also dependent upon domestic factors, such as sufficient resources. Algeria/Tunisia and Zambia/Zimbabwe were countries that promoted family planning only after national political ideology shifted and anti-imperialist sentiments subsided. The impact of the international Cairo conference on these countries was minimal in terms of policy change. Most of the countries however desired greater support from donors. Even objections from the Vatican and internal domestic pressures were insufficient to prevent countries such as

  6. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit alternative transportation feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Park Service Gateway National Recreation Area (GATE) was created to provide convenient access to outdoor recreation in the National Park System for residents and visitors to the New York City (NYC) area. The Volpe Center completed a numb...

  7. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Biogeographic Assessment Study Area Spatial Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial extent of digital products for Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Project, conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA)...

  8. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  9. A Comparative Study of the Proposed Models for the Components of the National Health Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Damanabi, Shahla; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: National Health Information System plays an important role in ensuring timely and reliable access to Health information, which is essential for strategic and operational decisions that improve health, quality and effectiveness of health care. In other words, using the National Health information system you can improve the quality of health data, information and knowledge used to support decision making at all levels and areas of the health sector. Since full identification of the components of this system – for better planning and management influential factors of performanceseems necessary, therefore, in this study different attitudes towards components of this system are explored comparatively. Methods: This is a descriptive and comparative kind of study. The society includes printed and electronic documents containing components of the national health information system in three parts: input, process and output. In this context, search for information using library resources and internet search were conducted, and data analysis was expressed using comparative tables and qualitative data. Results: The findings showed that there are three different perspectives presenting the components of national health information system Lippeveld and Sauerborn and Bodart model in 2000, Health Metrics Network (HMN) model from World Health Organization in 2008, and Gattini’s 2009 model. All three models outlined above in the input (resources and structure) require components of management and leadership, planning and design programs, supply of staff, software and hardware facilities and equipment. Plus, in the “process” section from three models, we pointed up the actions ensuring the quality of health information system, and in output section, except for Lippeveld Model, two other models consider information products and use and distribution of information as components of the national health information system. Conclusion: the results showed that all the

  10. A comparative study of the proposed models for the components of the national health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Damanabi, Shahla; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2014-04-01

    National Health Information System plays an important role in ensuring timely and reliable access to Health information, which is essential for strategic and operational decisions that improve health, quality and effectiveness of health care. In other words, using the National Health information system you can improve the quality of health data, information and knowledge used to support decision making at all levels and areas of the health sector. Since full identification of the components of this system - for better planning and management influential factors of performanceseems necessary, therefore, in this study different attitudes towards components of this system are explored comparatively. This is a descriptive and comparative kind of study. The society includes printed and electronic documents containing components of the national health information system in three parts: input, process and output. In this context, search for information using library resources and internet search were conducted, and data analysis was expressed using comparative tables and qualitative data. The findings showed that there are three different perspectives presenting the components of national health information system Lippeveld and Sauerborn and Bodart model in 2000, Health Metrics Network (HMN) model from World Health Organization in 2008, and Gattini's 2009 model. All three models outlined above in the input (resources and structure) require components of management and leadership, planning and design programs, supply of staff, software and hardware facilities and equipment. Plus, in the "process" section from three models, we pointed up the actions ensuring the quality of health information system, and in output section, except for Lippeveld Model, two other models consider information products and use and distribution of information as components of the national health information system. the results showed that all the three models have had a brief discussion about the

  11. National Rare Diseases Registry System of China and Related Cohort Studies: Vision and Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Liu, Shuang; Zhu, Chong; Gong, Mengchun; Zhu, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuyang

    2018-02-01

    Rare diseases are major challenges in healthcare and medical research and are the basis of national development strategies in many countries. However, inadequate definition of rare diseases and lags in orphan drug development in China hinder rare disease research. In response, the first National Rare Diseases Registry System of China (NRDRS) was established, and various cohort studies have been launched since 2016. More than 20 top academic institutions in China are currently participating in this joint effort to carry out nationwide registration of rare diseases. The primary objectives are to establish standardization for the registration platform, build biobanks of genomic data, and create partnerships for data sharing and research collaboration. Innovative informatics technologies have been implemented to develop the NRDRS, including employment of ontological and knowledge bases to render standardization and support standard of care. Development of informatics analysis tools will facilitate accurate and more efficient diagnoses for rare diseases. Long-term research collaboration is encouraged to create additional national rare disease networks for research translation and to benefit patients with rare diseases. The NRDRS of China and related cohort studies are anticipated to enlighten rare disease research significantly in China.

  12. The State of Leadership Education in Emergency Medical Services: A Multi-national Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, William Joseph

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how leadership is learned in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from a multi-national perspective by interviewing EMS providers from multiple nations working in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A phenomenological, qualitative methodology was developed and 19 EMS providers from multiple nations were interviewed in June 2013. Interview questions focused on how participants learned EMS leadership as an EMS student and throughout their careers as providers. Data were analyzed to identify themes, patterns, and codes to be used for final analysis to describe findings. Emergency Medical Services leadership is primarily learned from informal mentoring and on-the-job training in less than supportive environments. Participants described learning EMS leadership during their EMS education. A triangulation of EMS educational resources yielded limited results beyond being a leader of patient care. The only course that yielded results from triangulation was EMS Management. The need to develop EMS leadership courses was supported by the findings. Findings also supported the need to include leadership education as part of continuing medical education and training. Emergency Medical Services leadership education that prepares students for the complexities of the profession is needed. Likewise, the need for EMS leadership education and training to be part of continuing education is supported. Both are viewed as a way to advance the EMS profession. A need for further research on the topic of EMS leadership is recognized, and supported, with a call for action on suggested topics identified within the study.

  13. Factors predicting the outcomes of elderly hospitalized myasthenia gravis patients: a national database study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiamkao S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Somsak Tiamkao,1,2 Sineenard Pranboon,3 Kaewjai Thepsuthammarat,4 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth1,5,6 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2The Neuroscience Research and Development Group, 3Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital, 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, 5Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, 6Ambulatory Medicine Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG in elderly populations is increasing. This study aimed to evaluate predictors for treatment outcomes in elderly hospitalized MG patients using the national database. Methods: We collected data of elderly hospitalized MG patients from the National Health Security Office from October 2009 to September 2010. Predictors for treatment outcomes were examined. Results: During the study period, 1,948 identified MG patients were admitted to hospitals throughout Thailand. Of those, 441 patients (22.64% were aged ≥ 60 years. There were 66 patients (14.97% who had poor outcomes. There were only three significant factors in the final model. Presence of pneumonia, use of mechanical ventilators, and septicemia had adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval of 2.83 (1.03, 7.75, 5.33 (2.24, 12.72, and 4.47 (1.86, 10.75, respectively. Conclusion: Pneumonia, being on a mechanical ventilator, and septicemia were independent factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in elderly hospitalized MG patients according to national data. Keywords: pneumonia, ventilator, mortality, predictor 

  14. The Effect of Interactive Instruction in the Astro 101 Classroom: Report on a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Consiglio, D.; Schlingman, W. M.; Gonzaga, V.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a national research study designed to determine the effect of interactive learning strategies on students' conceptual learning in general education astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students at 31 institutions, (4-year and 2-year) around the country participated in the study. Our results show dramatic improvement in student learning with increased use of interactive learning strategies independent of institution type or class size, and after controlling for individual student characteristics. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all categories of students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and Award No. 0847170, a PAARE grant funding the California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  15. National study of the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among Danish women from 2004 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Maindal, Helle T; Kristensen, Jette K

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. We studied the prevalence of GDM from 2004 to 2012 in Danish women aged 15-49 years using registries with records of the diagnosis of GDM at delivery. METHODS: We conducted a national register-based study of 12......,538 women with a diagnosis of GDM during a pregnancy leading to a live birth in the period 2004-2012. The diagnosis of GDM was taken from the National Patient Registry and combined with the total number of births at the national level from Statistics Denmark. Prevalence estimates were reported as crude...... and age-standardized using Danish and international data for women aged 15-49 years. RESULTS: A total of 566,083 live births was registered in Denmark from 2004 to 2012. The age-standardized prevalence of GDM increased from 1.7% (1095/63,465) of the total births in 2004 to 2.9% (1721/56,894) of the total...

  16. A study on the equality and benefit of China's national health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shaoguo; Wang, Pei; Dong, Quanfang; Ren, Xing; Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-08-29

    This study is designed to evaluate whether the benefit which the residents received from the national health care system is equal in China. The perceived equality and benefit are used to measure the personal status of health care system, health status. This study examines variations in perceived equality and benefit of the national health care system between urban and rural residents from five cities of China and assessed their determinants. One thousand one hundred ninty eight residents were selected from a random survey among five nationally representative cities. The research characterizes perceptions into four population groupings based on a binary assessment of survey scores: high equality & high benefit; low equality & low benefit; high equality & low benefit; and low equality & high benefit. The distribution of the four groups above is 30.4%, 43.0%, 4.6% and 22.0%, respectively. Meanwhile, the type of health insurance, educational background, occupation, geographic regions, changes in health status and other factors have significant impacts on perceived equality and benefit derived from the health care system. The findings demonstrate wide variations in perceptions of equality and benefit between urban and rural residents and across population characteristics, leading to a perceived lack of fairness in benefits and accessibility. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that are targeted to eliminate perceived differences and promote greater equality in access to health care.

  17. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J L; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were...... of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of "major" malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures...... asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox...

  18. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National BirthCohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, L; Andersen, AM

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were...... of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of "major" malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures...... asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox...

  19. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  20. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  1. The Role of Indigenous Languages in National Development: A Case Study of Nigerian Linguistic Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ayodele Olaoye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous languages are indispensable cultural legacies without which all forms of human interactions can be carried out. National development is the development of individuals in a nation. Individuals can develop educationally, socially, politically, economically, and culturally through interaction with government agencies that disseminate policies through various indigenous languages. Development indices such as internal cohesion, integration, unity, economic wellbeing and citizens’ participation in governance are promoted through indigenous languages. Based on these assertions, the author studied the current linguistic situations in Nigeria and found that native languages play fundamental role on issues  such as democracy, technology, metalanguage and linguistic globalization .There are however some challenges in the optimum  utilization of these mother tongues. The major problems being orthographic inadequacy,the multiplicity of minority languages, linguistic desertification and deforestation and  language endangerment.The author then suggests a way forward.

  2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese Yi nationality: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem. There are little data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Yi ethnic group in China. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic features of overweight/obesity among Chinese Yi nationality. Methods A cross-sectional study, including 1255 subjects aged 20-75 years, was carried out in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province from 2007 to 2008. Overweight/overall obesity was defined by World Health Organization (WHO or the Working Group on Obesity in China. Results Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% and 2.9%, respectively, based on the WHO definition, while it was 21.0% and 7.4%, respectively, according to the Working Group on Obesity in China, which is similar to data reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (WHO criteria: 4.3% vs 1.7% p = 0.008; China criteria: 11.4% vs 3.7%, p p p Conclusions The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the Yi nationality is similar to that in Chinese adults 5 years ago. However, urban residents have a much higher prevalence of overweight/obesity than their rural counterparts. Lifestyle and diet patterns associated with socioeconomic status may explain the difference between urban and rural residents. The prevention of overweight/obesity among urban inhabitants deserves more attention in national health education programs.

  3. The discourse of tourism and national heritage: a constrastive study from a cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Magyar, Claudia Elena

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Filología Inglesa. Fecha de lectura: 20-11-2014 This thesis presents a research study in the field of online tourism promotion. It focuses on the national online promotion of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, in two different types of websites –institutional and commercial– from three countries, Great Britain, Spain and Romania. The study analyses the way each country pres...

  4. Prevalence and predictors of Video Game Addiction: A study based on a national sample of Gamers.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittek, Charlotte Thoresen; Finserås, Turi Reiten; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Hanss, Daniel; Griffiths, Mark D.; Molde, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Video gaming has become a popular leisure activity in many parts of the world, and an increasing number of empirical studies examine the small minority that appears to develop problems as a result of excessive gaming. This study investigated prevalence rates and predictors of video game addiction in a sample of gamers, randomly selected from the National Population Registry of Norway (N?=?3389). Results showed there were 1.4 % addicted gamers, 7.3 % problem gamers, 3.9 % engaged gamers, and 8...

  5. Elder mediation in theory and practice: study results from a national caregiver mediation demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Mediation is a process through which a third party facilitates discussion among disputing parties to help them identify interests and ideally reach an amicable solution. Elder mediation is a growing subspecialty to address conflicts involving older adults, primarily involving caregiving or finances. Mediation is theorized to empower participants but critics argue that it can exacerbate power imbalances among parties and coerce consensus. These contested claims are examined through study of a national caregiver mediation demonstration project. Study implications underscore the importance of gerontological social work expertise to ensure the empowerment of vulnerable older adults in mediation sessions.

  6. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES... use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War...

  7. 75 FR 70365 - Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA..., will help VA to assess the health of Gulf War veterans who were exposed to a variety of environmental...

  8. Oil-exporting status, quality of life, and fertility: a cross national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S R; Stokes, C S; Warland, R H

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that unless the rapid increase in income in the oil-exporting countries is accompanied by more equitable distribution of modern goods and services, the impact on health, literacy, and fertility is likely to be negligible. This study represents an initial attempt to examine the possible effects of the oil-exporting status of nations on their income, quality of life, and fertility. Data from 150 countries were used, and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was utilized instead of traditional measures of development. Some findings are: 1) the variable showing the strongest direct relationship to fertility was physical quality of life (p=-.756) which is consistent with the distributional hypothesis; 2) per capita gross national product (GNP) and oil-exporting status showed weaker paths to fertility and their signs were in opposite directions; 3) per capita GNP showed a moderate negative relationship to fertility (p=-.171) while oil-exporting status had a positive path of about the same size (p= .155), thus per capita income and oil-exporting status had only about 1/5 the net relationship to fertility as did physical quality of life; 4) the indirect relationship of income as channeled through PQLI was over twice as large as the measured direct relationship, so that the importance of per capita GNP for lower fertility is primarily through its influence on the physical quality of life within a nation; 5) oil-exporting status was associated with lower physical quality of life and the latter was strongly related to higher fertility; and 6) in the long run, the relationship between oil-exporting status and quality of life should be positive. If separate analyses are conducted, the division should be made along an oil-exporter/non-exporter dichotomy, rather than a more developed/less developed country categorization. It is concluded that nations with relatively high life expectancies high levels of literacy, and low levels of infant mortality

  9. WWC Review of the Report "National Charter School Study: 2013." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The study reviewed here examined the effect of charter schools on annual student achievement growth in reading and math in 25 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. The study primarily used data on students in grades 3-8, but additional elementary and high school grades were included for several states. The authors reported that…

  10. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political

  11. Reducing US cardiovascular disease burden and disparities through national and targeted dietary policies: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard

    2017-06-01

    % SSB tax. Neither the MMC nor the individual national economic policies would significantly reduce CVD socio-economic disparities. However, the SNAP-targeted intervention might potentially reduce CVD disparities between SNAP participants and SNAP-ineligible individuals, by approximately 8% (10 DPPs per 100,000 population. The combined policy approach might save more lives than any single policy studied (approximately 230,000 DPPs by 2030 while also significantly reducing disparities, by approximately 6% (7 DPPs per 100,000 population. Limitations include our effect estimates in the model; these estimates use interventional and prospective observational studies (not exclusively randomised controlled trials. They are thus imperfect and should be interpreted as the best available evidence. Another key limitation is that we considered only CVD outcomes; the policies we explored would undoubtedly have additional beneficial effects upon other diseases. Further, we did not model or compare the cost-effectiveness of each proposed policy.Fiscal strategies targeting diet might substantially reduce CVD burdens. A national 10% F&V subsidy would save by far the most lives, while a 30% F&V subsidy targeting SNAP participants would most reduce socio-economic disparities. A combined policy would have the greatest overall impact on both mortality and socio-economic disparities.

  12. Indicators of fetal growth and bipolar disorder: a Danish national register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgendahl, Bettina; Agerbo, Esben; Byrne, Majella

    2006-01-01

    contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk of bipolar disorder is associated with exposure to indicators of fetal growth.Method. A national population nested case-control study based on Danish longitudinal register databases was carried out. Conditional logistic regression was used......, controlling for potential confounding factors such as parental age at birth, socio-economic indicators and psychiatric history. We identified 196 cases, and each case was time-, age- and sex-matched with 25 normal population-based controls. All cases were between the ages of 12 and 26 years at the time......Background. Several studies have found an association between indicators of fetal growth and/or obstetric complications and schizophrenia but only a few studies have investigated the possible association between these factors and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the results of these studies have been...

  13. NATIONALISM INSIDE THE POEM OF “DIPONEGORO” BY CHAIRIL ANWAR A HISTORICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinayati Djojosuroto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the meaning of the elements of nationalism in the poem "Diponegoro" by Chairil Anwar and to reveal the relationship between the poetry of "Diponegoro" with the history of Diponegoro War (Java War in 1825 – 1830. The "Diponegoro" poem is one of the phenomenal works that, if the contents are reviewed, alive and exist in a fighting spirit, the spirit of nationalism. In this postmodern era, the poetry of ‘Prince Diponegoro’ by Chairil Anwar is still exist as poem which fights for its country. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with content analysis techniques. Conclusion: 1. Poetry "DIPONEGORO" is the poem with struggling spirit. In this case, it was the fight of Diponegoro against the Netherlands’ colonialism. His nationalism, his love and obedience, his loyalty for his country, had led Diponegoro onto resistance because he wanted to liberate his people, from the domination and the grip of foreign power, the Netherlands. 2. The poem of “Diponegoro” cannot be separated from the history of the past, the resistance of the people of Java against the Netherlands’ colonialism.

  14. Impact of national context and culture on curriculum change: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippes, Mariëlle; Driessen, Erik W; Majoor, Gerard D; Gijselaers, Wim H; Muijtjens, Arno M M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-08-01

    Earlier studies suggested national culture to be a potential barrier to curriculum reform in medical schools. In particular, Hofstede's cultural dimension 'uncertainty avoidance' had a significant negative relationship with the implementation rate of integrated curricula. However, some schools succeeded to adopt curriculum changes despite their country's strong uncertainty avoidance. This raised the question: 'How did those schools overcome the barrier of uncertainty avoidance?' Austria offered the combination of a high uncertainty avoidance score and integrated curricula in all its medical schools. Twenty-seven key change agents in four medical universities were interviewed and transcripts analysed using thematic cross-case analysis. Initially, strict national laws and limited autonomy of schools inhibited innovation and fostered an 'excuse culture': 'It's not our fault. It is the ministry's'. A new law increasing university autonomy stimulated reforms. However, just this law would have been insufficient as many faculty still sought to avoid change. A strong need for change, supportive and continuous leadership, and visionary change agents were also deemed essential. In societies with strong uncertainty avoidance strict legislation may enforce resistance to curriculum change. In those countries opposition by faculty can be overcome if national legislation encourages change, provided additional internal factors support the change process.

  15. The study on key performance indices in national nuclear R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Baek; Park, Nam Je; Park, Hong Jun; Chung, Bum Jin; Kim, Jeong Ha; Seo, Kyung Chun; Kim, Byung Mok

    2012-01-01

    Korean government has increased its investment of national research and development (R and D) recognizing that science and technology is a core element to bolster national economy and upgrade human life. In addition, measures have been developed to evaluate the R and D performance and contribution as they become critical and play pivotal roles to allocate national R and D budget in order to prevent the spillover effects. The nuclear technology development program is the backbone of the nuclear R and D programs in Korea. Since the nuclear R and D requires not only massive human resources and capitals but huge research equipment and facilities, the nuclear related science technology field is usually led by the government because of the high possibility of risk, failure or rewards, the necessity of huge budget, and the research spin off. The MEST (Ministry of Education and Science Technology) lays the groundwork for the advancement in nuclear R and D and the development of highly advanced technology by securing core technology. In addition, it also fosters world leading scientists with a creative research environment and an efficient R and D infrastructure. The main purpose of the study is to develop the logic model and design key performance indices for nuclear R and D program. The brief review of basic framework and contents for the performance evaluation system was explained in section 2. Based on the suggested evaluation framework, logic model and key performance indices are provided in section 3 and finally, concluding remarks are given in section 4

  16. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO 2 and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  17. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meirong [Dongguan University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan, Guangdong Province (China); Beijing Normal University, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing (China); Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany); Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao [Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO{sub 2} and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  18. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is

  19. Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients in the United States: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, Kenneth J; Bell, Sarah; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Repeck, Kaitlyn J; Robinson, Ian T; Eckard, Ashley R; Dasmunshi, Sudipta; Plattner, Brett W; Pearson, Jeffrey; Schaubel, Douglas E; Pisoni, Ronald L; Saran, Rajiv

    2018-02-08

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred form of hemodialysis vascular access, but maturation failures occur frequently, often resulting in prolonged catheter use. We sought to characterize AVF maturation in a national sample of prevalent hemodialysis patients in the United States. Nonconcurrent observational cohort study. Prevalent hemodialysis patients having had at least 1 new AVF placed during 2013, as identified using Medicare claims data in the US Renal Data System. Demographics, geographic location, dialysis vintage, comorbid conditions. Successful maturation following placement defined by subsequent use identified using monthly CROWNWeb data. AVF maturation rates were compared across strata of predictors. Patients were followed up until the earliest evidence of death, AVF maturation, or the end of 2014. In the study period, 45,087 new AVFs were placed in 39,820 prevalent hemodialysis patients. No evidence of use was identified for 36.2% of AVFs. Only 54.7% of AVFs were used within 4 months of placement, with maturation rates varying considerably across end-stage renal disease (ESRD) networks. Older age was associated with lower AVF maturation rates. Female sex, black race, some comorbid conditions (cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, needing assistance, or institutionalized status), dialysis vintage longer than 1 year, and catheter or arteriovenous graft use at ESRD incidence were also associated with lower rates of successful AVF maturation. In contrast, hypertension and prior AVF placement at ESRD incidence were associated with higher rates of successful AVF maturation. This study relies on administrative data, with monthly recording of access use. We identified numerous associations between AVF maturation and patient-level factors in a recent national sample of US hemodialysis patients. After accounting for these patient factors, we observed substantial differences in AVF maturation across some ESRD networks, indicating a

  20. National program of non conventional energy. Study about the hydroelectricity To small scale HePE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, Angela Ines

    1993-01-01

    In this document a synthesis of the main results of the Study is presented, about the Hydroelectricity to Small scale - HePE, it was ahead in the Andes University, for application of the National Commission of Energy and of the Institute of Nuclear Matters. During a semester of activities, it was looked for to identify the main action lines and institutional mechanisms required to achieve a bigger participation of the HePE in the national energy balance, either, in the supply to isolated or excluded areas that they don't have energy service or that they have a faulty or inefficient service, or like support to the interconnected electric system, This proposal of action lines and of administration outlines, it has been conceived in such a way that the HePE can be integrated in a National Program of Non Conventional Energy, in particular and in a National Energy Plan, in general. Their position is formulated starting from an analysis of the development state and historical evolution of the HePE, of the potential requirements of energy, and of the possibilities and limitations of these uses to small scales readiness of the resource of the knowledge and of the technology, and degree of financial, economic and environmental competitiveness. The first electric companies of the country, used small hydroelectric central for the presentation of the service in the regional and local environment, having a high participation of private capital. Later on, under the premise that the electricity should constitute a public service it was consolidating a centralized energy system. In consequence, as answer to the high index of growth of the demand of development country to the scale economies and the readiness of capital flows in the international market, it was opened the way to the realization of projects of great size and the indiscriminate use of fossil fuels, with the consequent decrease of the participation of the HePE in the energetic industry

  1. The relationship between drought and tourist arrivals: A case study of Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhumulani I. Mathivha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available National parks around the world have been recognised as important sources of nature experiences for both local and international visitors. In South Africa, national parks are similarly important recreational and nature tourism attractions. They offer visitors an unparalleled diversity of tourism opportunities, including game viewing, bush walks and exposure to culture and history. South African National Parks (SANParks, established in 1926, is one of the world’s leading conservation and scientific research bodies and a leading agent in maintaining the country’s indigenous natural environment. The study aims to analyse the correlation between drought and the number of tourist arrivals to the Kruger National Park (KNP. Rainfall data, as well as data on tourist arrivals at KNP for the period from 1963 to 2015 were obtained from the South African Weather Services (SAWS and SANParks, respectively. Rainfall data were used to determine the drought years at the KNP through computing the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI for various stations around the park. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used as a statistical measure of the strength of a linear relationship between drought and tourist arrivals. The results showed that KNP experienced both negative and positive tourist arrivals, although the former was the case, tourist arrivals showed an increasing trend. The correlation relationship showed that 19.36% of the drought years corresponded to a negative change in tourist arrivals to the park. The results obtained confirm that the tourism industry is a fragile industry which is prone to environmental, social and economic state of a region.

  2. Towards an understanding of the influence of national culture on organisational viability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awuzie Bankole O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Viability connotes a system’s ability to become ultra-stable through effective self-regulation of its internal processes and information processing among its subsystems. Applying this to an infrastructure delivery system (IDS context, this study proposes that an IDS can successfully deliver on client requirements only if they attain and maintain viability. Research into the influence of National Culture (NC on an IDS’s viability appears to be lacking; hence this study. Adopting a multi-case study, qualitative research design, this study explores three IDSs involved in the delivery of infrastructure projects in two different NC contexts; Nigeria and the United Kingdom. 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted across the cases to provide for an in-depth understanding of existing interactions between participants in these delivery systems: client/project sponsor; main contractor and sub-contractors and to understand the influence of the prevailing national culture on such interactions, if any. Findings indicate that NC in project delivery environments influence the ability of IDSs to attain viability, especially as it pertains to the sustenance of Team Quality Attributes (TWQ within the system. Based on these findings, it is expected that in modelling IDSs for viability, adequate consideration should be given to the prevailing NC by project managers and planners.

  3. Right To Health And Judicialization: A Study About Its Efficiency Of The National Judiciary Forum On Health

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Maria Barbosa Ramos; Isadora Moraes Diniz

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, the judicialization of health has become a problematic theme to the Judiciary. In this contexto, the National Justice Council to puts itself in the role of promoting a judicial public policy for defense and guarantee of health rights, by the National Judiciary Forum on Health institution. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the National Forum practice in offering solutions and alternatives to the health judicialization process. The research was carried out durin...

  4. U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2017-09-14

    BackgroundThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  5. First national study on patient exposure in radiographic procedure and references rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Karadjov, A.; Ingilizova, H.; Dimov, A.; Slavchev, A.; Gfirtner, H.; Buchakliev, Z.; Ganchev, M.; Lichev, A.; Kostova, E.

    2003-01-01

    The results are presented from the first national study of the patient exposure in some common radiographic procedures of lungs, pelvis, lumbar vertebrae, skull, venous urography and mammography.The aim of the study is to obtain information about the patient doses in different hospitals in the country and to develop new reference levels for such procedures. Air chamber with thermoluminescent detector, fixed on the patient skin during the radiographic procedure has been used for the study except for the mammographic procedures, where a standard phantom has been used. The national reference levels has been determines using the methodology adopted in the European Union. The determined national referent level for air chamber in thoracic radiography is 0.9 mGy, which is 3 times greater than the European Union (0.3 mGy). The main cause of the difference is the use of 'soft' technique with anode voltage under 100 kV for the thoracic procedures, unlike the practice in the European Union (120-140 kV). For the rest of the procedures the reference levels coincide with those in european Union countries, which are: 10 mGy for pelvis /AP/, 10 mGy for lumbar vertebrae /AP/ and 30 for lumbar vertebrae /Lat/, 5 mGy for skull /AP/PA/ and 3 mGy for skull /Lat/, 10 mGy for venous urography /AP/, and 1.3 mGy for mammography. It is recommended the old film-folio combinations to be replaced by ones with a sensitivity class 100 or higher. For the optimization of the thoracic radiography anode voltage above 100kV are recommended

  6. 78 FR 11661 - Request for Information: Main Study Design for the National Children's Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... exposures (with a broad definition of environment) and biological/genetic context. The NCS is not a study in..., hypertension, and diabetes Both public health impact (based on severity, as well as prevalence) on the overall... there is no universal and unambiguous definition of health, the NCS plans to employ investigation of a...

  7. Users Behavior in Selecting Cited Bibliographies-A Case Study of National Taiwan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This project analyzes the behavior of selecting cited bibliographies of college and graduate students in National Taiwan University when they are writing their term papers and graduate theses. After instruction, 33 subjects searched through the semester, doing 41 searches and finishing 40 papers. This research studies the overlaps between the bibliographies from online searching and the cited references of those subjects’ works. In addition, this project attempts to identify the sources of articles that are not retrieved by the Dialog system and the reasons why students did not cite relevant articles.[Article content in Chinese

  8. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death in a large national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Larsen, Pernille Stemann

    2013-01-01

    death. Information on lifting and relevant covariates was collected in interviews around week 16 of pregnancy. The majority of fetal losses (N=2032) happened before the scheduled interview, and exposure data were collected retrospectively from these women. We analyzed early miscarriage (=12 weeks), late......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and the risk of fetal death according to gestational age. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Among 71 500 occupationally active women, 2886 experienced a fetal...

  9. Treatment studies at the Process Waste Treatment Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.M.; Begovich, J.M.

    1991-03-01

    Precipitation and ion-exchange methods are being developed to decontaminate Oak Ridge National Laboratory process wastewaters containing small amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs while minimizing waste generation. Many potential processes have been examined in laboratory-scale screening tests. Based on these data, five process flowsheets were developed and are being evaluated under pilot- and full-scale operating conditions. Improvements in the existing treatment system based on this study have resulted in a 66 vol % reduction in waste generation. 19 refs., 26 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. Treatment studies at the Process Waste Treatment Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Begovich, J.M.

    1991-03-01

    Precipitation and ion-exchange methods are being developed to decontaminate Oak Ridge National Laboratory process wastewaters containing small amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs while minimizing waste generation. Many potential processes have been examined in laboratory-scale screening tests. Based on these data, five process flowsheets were developed and are being evaluated under pilot- and full-scale operating conditions. Improvements in the existing treatment system based on this study have resulted in a 66 vol % reduction in waste generation. 19 refs., 26 figs., 45 tabs

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory case studies on decommissioning of research reactors and a small nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.D.

    1998-12-01

    Approximately 200 contaminated surplus structures require decommissioning at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the last 10 years, 50 of these structures have undergone decommissioning. These facilities vary from experimental research reactors to process/research facilities contaminated with plutonium-enriched uranium, tritium, and high explosives. Three case studies are presented: (1) a filter building contaminated with transuranic radionuclides; (2) a historical water boiler that operated with a uranyl-nitrate solution; and (3) the ultra-high-temperature reactor experiment, which used enriched uranium as fuel.

  12. Convergence or Divergence between National and International View on Tangible Assets - Case Study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Muresan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A controversial subject at the present time is the issue of harmonization of accounting both at European level and globally. Although much has been made in bringing the accounting at a uniform level, this request it has not reached yet. A comparative study between the accounting treatment of fixed assets amounted to Romanian national regulations and in accordance with international rules, will bring out the best in show the similarities and differences between the regulations. The rules used for comparison will be OMFP 3055/2009, International Accounting Standard 16 – Tangible Assets and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 360.

  13. A scanning electron microscopic study of impala (Aepyceros melampus sperm from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Ackerman

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Since knowledge of sperm morphological characteristics can play an important role in semen evaluation and fertilisation, baseline data on sperm ultrastructure are required. Live spermatozoa were collected from the cauda epididymis from 64 impala rams in the Kruger National Park and 5082 spermatozoa from 40 of these impala were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The mean length of impala sperm was 59.23 @ 2.7 um. The morphology of normal sperm as well as the occurrence of abnormalities were documented. The morphology of impala sperm were compared with those of other mammals. New findings on appendages of the cytoplasmic droplet are described and interpreted.

  14. A scanning electron microscopic study of impala (Aepyceros melampus sperm from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Ackerman

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Since knowledge of sperm morphological characteristics can play an important role in semen evaluation and fertilisation, baseline data on sperm ultrastructure are required. Live spermatozoa were collected from the cauda epididymis from 64 impala rams in the Kruger National Park and 5082 spermatozoa from 40 of these impala were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The mean length of impala sperm was 59.23 @ 2.7 um. The morphology of normal sperm as well as the occurrence of abnormalities were documented. The morphology of impala sperm were compared with those of other mammals. New findings on appendages of the cytoplasmic droplet are described and interpreted.

  15. College Women’s Experiences With Rape Disclosure: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed. PMID:23651638

  16. Application for assistance to United Nations rotating fund for the study of natural resources, for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This memoranda is a United Nations petition about natural resources study which allow the uranium prospecting. These areas will be studied on sedentary, anomalous and crystal land as well as radiometric rises

  17. The Malta Childhood National Body Mass Index Study: A Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Aquilina, Samuel; Camilleri, Erin; Spiteri, Karl; Busuttil, Maria-Louisa; Sant'Angelo, Victoria F; Calleja, Neville

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that often commences in childhood. More than a quarter of Maltese children are overweight or obese. The present study was carried out to measure height and weight (and body mass index) for all school children in Malta to precisely quantify the extent of the problem. Schooling in Malta is provided by: free state schools, subsidized Roman Catholic church-run schools, and independent private schools. All were included. Physical education teachers were trained in measurements on identical stadiometers. Bespoke spreadsheets were created using World Health Organization cut-offs for underweight, overweight, and obesity. The present study included more than 46,027 children in more than 145 schools (ages 4.7-17 years). Less than 10% were unmeasured. Approximately 40% of school-aged children in Malta are overweight or obese. The proportion of obese was greater than that of overweight. Levels of overweight and obesity were significantly different: State>Church>Independent schools. Overall, and for both sexes and for school types, there was a trend for overweight and obesity to peak in years 5 to 8, then decline slightly. Overweight and obesity was secondary>primary schools, and boys>girls. The underweight group was small with no significant difference between the school types. The present study has confirmed high levels of overweight and obesity in Maltese children. It also provides proof of concept of scalability by demonstrating the feasibility of undertaking a relatively inexpensive study of an entire childhood population. The modus operandi (utilizing physical education teachers) could relatively easily be up scaled for any country.

  18. Epidemiology of injuries in the Spanish national futsal male team: a five-season retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Riaza, Luis; Herrero-Gonzalez, Helena; Lopez-Alcorocho, Juan M; Guillen-Garcia, Pedro; Fernandez-Jaen, Tomas F

    2016-01-01

    Futsal started being played in 1930 and the number of futsal players has increased all over the world ever since. Nonetheless, despite the fact that Spain is one of the most relevant national teams worldwide, information on the incidence of injuries and their anthropometric characteristics is sparse in this country. To analyse medical assistance provided to players in their prematch concentration camps with the Spanish national team over five seasons, from 2010-2011 to 2014-2015, and also to collect data regarding anthropometric characteristics. This is a retrospective and detailed study of injuries players suffered over these five seasons. All variables were registered on an Excel spreadsheet and later analysed statistically. 411 injuries were studied in total. The dominant somatotype was mesomorph and the injured pivots were both the most endomorphic and the most mesomorphic. The most injured body structure was the hamstring muscles, occurring due to training and intrinsic mechanisms, where fatigue was the most frequent diagnosis. Only a few complementary examinations were carried out and prematch withdrawal was rare. The skinfold test total sum was lower than that of the Spanish 11-a-side players or than that in the lower category futsal Spanish players. In various research studies analysing exclusively injuries occurring in matches, the most frequent injury is ligament injury by extrinsic mechanism. The body mass index was not a useful parameter when assessing players' appropriate weight. Most injuries occurred in training sessions, mostly by intrinsic mechanism; the highest percentage of traumatic injuries occurred in official matches.

  19. Bronchopulmonary infection-colonization patterns in Spanish cystic fibrosis patients: Results from a national multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios Caballero, Juan; Del Campo, Rosa; Royuela, Ana; Solé, Amparo; Máiz, Luis; Olveira, Casilda; Quintana-Gallego, Esther; de Gracia, Javier; Cobo, Marta; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Oliver, Antonio; Cantón, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Clinical and demographical knowledge on Spanish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is incomplete as no national registry exists. CF-microbiology has not been studied at national level. The results of the first Spanish multicenter study on CF microbiology are presented. 24 CF-Units for adult (n=12) and pediatric (n=12) patients from 17 hospitals provided sputa and clinical data from 15 consecutive patients. Cultures and susceptibility testing were performed. Colonization impact on pulmonary function was assessed. 341 patients [mean (SD) age 21 (11) years, 180≥18years, mean (SD) FEV1=68 (25)%] were included. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reported as chronic, intermittent or absent in 46%, 22% and 32% of patients, respectively. The annual prevalence was 62%. Positive P. aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures were significantly associated with lower FEV1 (pSpanish CF-population which has been clinically, demographically and microbiologically characterized will serve as a reference for future CF studies in Spain. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Affecting the Success of Conserving Biodiversity in National Parks: A Review of Case Studies from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Muhumuza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available National Parks are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation in Africa. Two approaches are commonly used to sustain biodiversity in National Parks. Past and current studies show that both approaches are generally ineffective in conserving biodiversity in National Parks in Africa. However, there are a handful of cases where these approaches have been successful at conserving biodiversity in National Parks. The question this paper attempts to answer is why in some cases these approaches have been successful and in other cases they have failed. A metadata analysis of 123 documents on case studies about conservation of biodiversity in National Parks in Africa was conducted. A series of search engines were used to find papers for review. Results showed that all factors responsible for both the success and failure of conserving biodiversity in National Parks in various contexts were socioeconomic and cultural in nature. The highest percentage in both successful case studies (66% and unsuccessful cases studies (55% was associated with the creation and management of the park. These results suggest that future conservation approaches in National Parks in Africa should place more emphasis on the human dimension of biodiversity conservation than purely scientific studies of species and habitats in National Parks.

  1. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Miles A., E-mail: miles.kirby@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Nagel, Corey L., E-mail: nagelc@ohsu.edu [Oregon Health and Science University, School of Nursing Portland Campus, 3455 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, SN-6S, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Rosa, Ghislaine, E-mail: ghislaine.rosa@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Iyakaremye, Laurien, E-mail: laurieniyakaremye1@gmail.com [DelAgua Health Rwanda Implementation, Ltd., 3rd Fl KG 19 Avenue, Kibagabaga Rd, Kigali (Rwanda); Zambrano, Laura Divens, E-mail: laura.zambrano@emory.edu [Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Clasen, Thomas F., E-mail: thomas.f.clasen@emory.edu [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    L) nationally and by province with 95% confidence intervals. - Highlights: • Nationally representative study of household drinking water quality in Rwanda • More than 75% of houses had detectable TTC contamination in their drinking water • Houses using surface compared to other sources had highest odds of TTC contamination • Houses not using piped or rain/bottle sources had increased odds of TTC contamination • Extreme rain, elevation and open waste dumping were risk factors of TTC contamination.

  2. The UAE healthy future study: a pilot for a prospective cohort study of 20,000 United Arab Emirates nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Abdishakur; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Al Ali, Abdulrahman; Al Saedi, Khaled; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Loney, Tom; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Wareth, Leila Abdel; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Hirsch, Benjamin; Al Anouti, Fatme; Yaaqoub, Jamila; Inman, Claire K; Al Hamiz, Aisha; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Alsharid, Teeb; Al Zaabi, Thekra; Al Maisary, Fatima; Galani, Divya; Sprosen, Tim; El Shahawy, Omar; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hayes, Richard; Sherman, Scott; Ali, Raghib

    2018-01-05

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events. As this was the first time a prospective cohort study was being planned in the UAE, a pilot study was conducted in 2015 with the primary aim of establishing the feasibility of conducting the study. Other objectives were to evaluate the implementation of the main study protocols, and to build adequate capacity to conduct advanced clinical laboratory analyses. Seven hundred sixty nine UAE nationals aged ≥18 years were invited to participate voluntarily in the pilot study. Participants signed an informed consent, completed a detailed questionnaire, provided random blood, urine, and mouthwash samples and were assessed for a series of clinical measures. All specimens were transported to the New York University Abu Dhabi laboratories where samples were processed and analyzed for routine chemistry and hematology. Plasma, serum, and a small whole blood sample for DNA extraction were aliquoted and stored at -80 °C for future analyses. Overall, 517 Emirati men and women agreed to participate (68% response rate). Of the total participants, 495 (95.0%), 430 (82.2%), and 492 (94.4%), completed the questionnaire, physical measurements, and provided biological samples, respectively. The pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of recruitment and completion of the study protocols for the first large-scale cohort study designed to identify emerging risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases in the region.

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease in Panama: Results From the PREFREC Study and National Mortality Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Velásquez, Ilais; Castro, Franz; Gómez, Beatriz; Cuero, César; Motta, Jorge

    2017-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Panama has yet to be described. We investigated the association between sociodemographic and cardiovascular exposures with CKD in 2 Panamanian provinces. Further, we analyzed national trends of CKD mortality from 2001 to 2014. Data were derived from Prevalencia de Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiovascular (PREFREC [Survey on Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease]), a cross-sectional study designed to analyze the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers of kidney function were measured in 3590 participants. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and/or albuminuria ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CKD were calculated using logistic regression. We calculated age-standardized CKD mortality rates in the country using the National Mortality Register. Annual percentage change and 95% CIs were estimated to evaluate the trends over time. The prevalence of CKD was 12% (reduced eGFR: 3.3%; albuminuria; 9.9%). CKD was associated with hypertension (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), age 60 years or older (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), and previous myocardial infarction (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7), whereas monthly family income was inversely associated with CKD (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) (adjusted). A sustained increase in the trend of CKD mortality was observed from 2001 to 2006, followed by a decreasing trend in subsequent years. Coclé province had the highest adjusted mortality rate. CKD poses a significant health problem for Panama. Health inequalities and an increase of cardiometabolic risk factors warrant robust epidemiological surveillance, improved diagnosis, and treatment. Further national studies aimed to address geographical disparities are necessary.

  4. Implementation of the Spanish National Enhanced Recovery Program (ERAS) in Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Royo, Pablo; Muñoz, José L; Duran, Manuel; Redondo, Elisabeth; Ramirez, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    The essence of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs is the multimodal approach, and many authors have demonstrated safety and feasibility in fast track bariatric surgery. According to this concept, a multidisciplinary ERAS program for bariatric surgery has been developed by the Spanish fast track group (ERAS Spain). The aim of this study was to analyze the initial implementation of this Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery. A multicentric prospective pilot study was performed, including 125 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery at 3 Spanish hospitals between January and June 2015, after the Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery. Compliance with the protocol, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, and readmission were evaluated. Bariatric techniques performed included 68 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (54.4%) and 57 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (45.6%) cases. All surgeries were laparoscopically performed with conversion in only 1 case (0.8%). Median postoperative pain evaluated by visual analogic scale 24 hours after surgery was 2 (range, 0 to 5). Postoperative nausea or vomiting appeared in 7 patients (5.6%). Complications appeared in 6 patients (4.8%). The reoperation rate was 4%. The mortality rate was 0.8%. The median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 2 to 10 d) and readmission rate was 2.4%. The compliance of all the items of the protocol was achieved in 78.4% of the patients. The Spanish National ERAS protocol is a safe issue with a high implementation rate. It can be recommended to establish this protocol to other institutions.

  5. Diagnostic studies on lithium-ion cells at Argonne National Laboratory: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Daniel P.

    2010-04-01

    High-power and high-energy lithium-ion cells are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. Cells ranging in capacity from 1 mAh to 1Ah, and containing a variety of electrodes and electrolytes, are examined to determine suitable material combinations that will meet and exceed the FCVT performance, cost, and safety targets. In this article, accelerated aging of 18650-type cells, and characterization of components harvested from these cells, is described. Several techniques that include electrochemical measurements, analytical electron microscopy, and x-ray spectroscopy were used to study the various cell components. Data from these studies were used to identify the most likely contributors to property degradation and determine mechanisms responsible for cell capacity fade and impedance rise.

  6. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  7. Fossils and fire: a study on the effects of fire on paleontological resources at Badlands National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Benton; James Reardon

    2006-01-01

    National Park Service policies stipulate that each park with vegetation capable of burning will prepare a fire management plan. Badlands National Park completed its fire management plan in 2004. Fossils are a principle resource of the park and the fire sensitivity of fossils is the focus of this study. The surface temperatures of fossil specimens and fire behavior...

  8. Effects of National Board Certified Teachers on Student Achievement and Behavioral Outcomes: Studies Conducted in Two States. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzeske, David; Park, So Jung; Liu, Feng; Borman, Trisha; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; West, Benjamin; Deng, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of classroom teachers who earn certification as a National Board Certified Teacher (NBCT) by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards on mathematics and reading achievement and behavioral outcomes (attendance and discipline referrals) for students in Grades 4 and 5. Two studies were…

  9. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture : A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially

  10. Shallow Water Habitat Mapping in Cape Cod National Seashore: A Post-Hurricane Sandy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, M.; Smith, T.; Legare, B.; Mittermayr, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy had a dramatic impact along coastal areas in proximity to landfall in late October 2012, and those impacts have been well-documented in terrestrial coastal settings. However, due to the lack of data on submerged marine habitats, similar subtidal impact studies have been limited. This study, one of four contemporaneous studies commissioned by the US National Park Service, developed maps of submerged shallow water marine habitats in and around Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. All four studies used similar methods of data collection, processing and analysis for the production of habitat maps. One of the motivations for the larger study conducted in the four coastal parks was to provide park managers with a baseline inventory of submerged marine habitats, against which to measure change after future storm events and other natural and anthropogenic phenomena. In this study data from a phase-measuring sidescan sonar, bottom grab samples, seismic reflection profiling, and sediment coring were all used to develop submerged marine habitat maps using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). Vessel-based acoustic surveys (n = 76) were conducted in extreme shallow water across four embayments from 2014-2016. Sidescan sonar imagery covering 83.37 km2 was collected, and within that area, 49.53 km2 of co-located bathymetric data were collected with a mean depth of 4.00 m. Bottom grab samples (n = 476) to sample macroinvertebrates and sediments (along with other water column and habitat data) were collected, and these data were used along with the geophysical and coring data to develop final habitat maps using the CMECS framework.

  11. Perceptions of dental students in Japanese national universities about studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, H; Ishida, Y; Hong, G; Nguyen, P T T

    2018-02-01

    Dental faculties in Japan have organised many short-term international exchange programs to enable their undergraduates to study abroad. However, not many students apply for those programs. In this present study, we attempted to clarify the factors that discourage undergraduate dental students from studying abroad. We administered a questionnaire survey to 512 undergraduate dental students in three national universities located in different areas in Japan. Although 61.7% of the participants expressed interest in studying abroad, only 19.1% of them had prior experiences of study abroad or plans to do so. Their main worries were about lack of sufficient language ability in academic fields. Comparing those who were interested in studying abroad with those who were not revealed significant differences regarding their concern about lack of language ability and lack of specialised knowledge in dentistry. Participants who did not want to study abroad indicated that they did not perceive a purpose in doing so and cited not having foreign friends as a problem. Household income was significantly correlated with concerns about overall expenses. Overall, language ability and academic knowledge appeared to be the two strongest factors affecting dental students' consideration of studying abroad. Dental schools in Japan can use the findings of this study to improve their undergraduate exchange programs in such a way as to stimulate greater interest amongst their students. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A study of Consistency in the Selection of Search Terms and Search Concepts: A Case Study in National Taiwan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the consistency in the selection of search terms and search contents of college and graduate students in National Taiwan University when they are using PsycLIT CD-ROM database. 31 students conducted pre-assigned searches, doing 59 searches generating 609 search terms. The study finds the consistency in selection of search terms of first level is 22.14% and second level is 35%. These results are similar with others’ researches. About the consistency in search concepts, no matter the overlaps of searched articles or judge relevant articles are lower than other researches. [Article content in Chinese

  13. Impacts of a national strategy to reduce population salt intake in England: serial cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Christopher; Laverty, Anthony A; Stylianou, Neophytos; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pape, Utz J

    2012-01-01

    The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003-2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (-0.175 grams per day per year, pprofessional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58-0.99). Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% pcooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3%) and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2%) were more likely to add salt at the table. The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Race and fall risk: data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Q; Huang, Jin; Varadhan, Ravi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    the objective of this study was to explore whether race-based difference in fall risk may be mediated by environmental and physical performance risk factors. using data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 7,609 community-dwelling participants in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), we evaluated whether racial differences in fall risk may be explained by physical performance level (measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery), mobility disability, physical activity level and likelihood of living alone. Multivariate Poisson regression and mediation models were used in analyses. in whites and blacks, the annual incidence of 'any fall' was 33.8 and 27.1%, respectively, and the annual incidence of 'recurrent falls' was 15.5 and 12.3%, respectively. Compared with whites, blacks had relative risks of 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6-0.8) and 0.6 (0.5-0.8) for sustaining any fall and recurrent falls, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Blacks had poorer performance on the SPPB (P risk factors collectively acted as suppressors and none of these factors accounted for the racial differences in fall risk observed. relative to whites, blacks were at 30 and 40% decreased risk of sustaining any fall and recurrent falls, respectively. This difference in risk remains unexplained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Monitoring and Predicting Wildfire Using Fire Indices and CIMP5 Data (Case study: Golestan National Park)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, S. J.; Salehnia, N.; Banezhad, B.; Bannayan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Fire occurrence in fields and forest, is quite high in Iran which has intensified recently and it may be due to climate changes. Golestan National Park, is the first national park in Iran which is registered in the list of UNESCO World Heritage as one of the 50 Earth ecological reserves. In 2014, a number of fire occurred in this park. In this study, attempt to monitor Angstrom and Nestrov indexes in order to forecast future fire in the study area. For this purpose, Atmosphere General Circulation model data; Miroc4h, in 0.562*0.562 scale in CIMP5, are used for fire occurred during 4 days in this area. Calculations show that these indicators provide suitable results in fire forecasting, generally. Angstrom index, decreases to 1 or lower almost in 3 fire, in the starting day or one day before; while critical index values is lower than 2. In recent days before first fire, Nestrov index increases above 10000, which is the critical value. It also increases to 25000 during the other fires. Nestrov index increases during the happening of 4 fire without any decrease. The results show that Angstrom index can forecast the day of starting fires better than Nestrov. Conclusively, the results showed that outputs of CIMP5 can be used in forecasting fire, well. It seems that the value index better not to be dependent on daily precipitation but on consecutive and continues precipitations during serial days.

  16. National variation in the composition of rheumatology multidisciplinary teams: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndosi, Mwidimi; Ferguson, Rachel; Backhouse, Michael R; Bearne, Lindsay; Ainsworth, Phillip; Roach, Alan; Dennison, Elaine; Cherry, Lindsey

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the composition of multidisciplinary teams (MDT) working within rheumatology departments across the UK. All rheumatology departments in the United Kingdom (UK) were invited to participate in a national electronic survey between February 2014 and April 2015 as a part of a national audit for the management of rheumatoid and early inflammatory arthritis commissioned by Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership. Rheumatology departments were asked to report their MDT composition; defined as a rheumatologist (consultant or specialist trainee), specialist nurse, occupational therapist physiotherapist, and podiatrist. The data were collected as Whole Time Equivalent (WTE) of each professional group at each department adjusted to 100,000 population. The data were grouped according to British Society for Rheumatology regions to study regional variations. The survey was completed by 164/167 departments (98% response rate). All departments reported an MDT comprising a rheumatologist (consultant or specialist trainee) and almost all included a specialist nurse but only 28 (17%) of the departments had MDTs comprising all the professional groups. There was a high degree of regional variation in the provision of Allied Health Professionals (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and podiatrists) in the UK. MDT care is recommended for the management of inflammatory arthritis, but few UK rheumatology departments have a full complement of healthcare professionals within their MDT. There is a high degree of regional variation in the composition and staffing levels of the rheumatology MDT across the UK; the impact of which warrants further investigation.

  17. Biscayne National Park study on reef fish community changes over time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reef fish assemblage structure was assessed in 20062007 (recent period) in Biscayne National Park, Florida, USA , and compared with data collected from 1977 to 1981...

  18. Kalaupapa National Historic Park Air Tour Management Plan planning and NEPA scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-03

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS), has initiated the development of an Air Tour Management Plan (ATMP) for Kalaupapa Historic Park pursuant to the National Parks Air Tour Management Act of ...

  19. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  20. Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wanderson Roberto da; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2017-01-01

    Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables "thoughts about dropping out of college," "medication use because of studies," "medication and supplements use for body change," "body mass index," "socioeconomic status," "age," and "performance in course" were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9-26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross-national invariance. We identified important aspects for investigating body weight

  1. Mammographic image reject rate analysis and cause – A National Maltese Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercieca, N.; Portelli, J.L.; Jadva-Patel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Mammography is used as a first-line investigation in the detection of breast cancer and imaging is required to be of optimal quality and achieved without adverse effects on the health of individuals. Repeated images come at a cost in terms of radiation dose, discomfort to clients and unnecessary financial burdens. No studies investigating mammography quality in Malta had been previously undertaken. Hence, this research aimed to investigate whether mammography is being performed at an acceptable level, through the investigation of reject rates. Quantitative methodology was used to collect data from eight participating mammography units, which were utilising screen film (SFM), computed radiography (CR) and direct digital mammography (DDM). Data relating to the total number of images performed, rejects and causes was prospectively collected over two weeks, resulting in a sample of 2291 images. All units were also asked to answer a questionnaire which provided other data that could be used for analysis. The national mammography reject rate was found to be 2.62%; within the 3% acceptable range. Individual rates' analysis revealed unacceptably high or low reject rates in some units. Positioning was the main reject cause. No significant difference in rejection was found between different types of mammography units or radiographers' experience. Alternatively, radiographers' qualifications, employment conditions and use of rejection criteria were proven to affect reject rates. Whilst on a national level, images are being rejected at an acceptable rate, individual units revealed suboptimal rates; at the cost of extra radiation, added discomfort and financial burden. - Highlights: • The national reject rate complied with the European Guidelines. • Reject rates in different units were found to vary. • Positioning was the commonest cause for repeats. • The equipment used and radiographers' experience did not affect reject rates. • Qualifications

  2. Quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease and neurodegenerative dementia: A nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekani, Farid; Bali, Vishal; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-01-01

    The disability inherent to Parkinson's disease and dementia would suggest poor health-related quality of life for patients with these neurodegenerative conditions; however, the extent of disability from a nationally representative data has not been previously available. This study examined factors associated with the health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia using nationally representative samples. The study used data from 2002 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative survey of households in the United States. The quality of life of patients was captured based on Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Component Summary (MCS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Multivariate regression models were used to compare PCS, MCS, ADL and IADL across the two neurodegenerative conditions after controlling for various sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The weighted study population included 0.80 million (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.75-0.85) patients; those with Parkinson's disease accounted for 40.23% and remaining 59.77% were diagnosed with dementia. Mean age of the study population was 74.32 years (Standard Deviation, SD = 11.36). Most of the Parkinson's patients were male (57.70%), whereas most of the dementia patients were females (58.10%). The unadjusted mean PCS was 33.66 and 35.31 in Parkinson's and dementia patients, respectively (P disease were less likely to seek help for IADL than neurodegenerative dementia (Odds Ratio, OR = 0.68, P = 0.02). Various other individual, biological and environmental factors were also associated with quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and neurodegenerative dementia. This study found that patients with Parkinson's disease had lower PCS and were less likely to seek help for IADL when compared to the patients with neurodegenerative dementia. Knowledge of these factors can be

  3. Breast cancer : patterns of care, second cancers and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer in Europe and North America and poses an important health care problem. Over the last decades extensive literature has been compiled on the effectiveness of various diagnostic and treatment strategies, which has resulted in broad consensus on the most

  4. Breast cancer: patterns of care, second cancers and genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schaapveld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer in Europe and North America and poses an important health care problem. Over the last decades extensive literature has been compiled on the effectiveness of various diagnostic and treatment strategies, which has resulted in broad consensus on the most appropriate diagnostic and treatment strategies, laid down in clinical guidelines. The first chapters of this thesis assess breast cancer treatment in the North- Netherlands. Zie: Summary

  5. Patterns of care in the management of seminoma stage I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Carla Y; Horwich, Alan; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    -orchidectomy strategies in seminoma stage I patients has led to debates about whether the three strategies are equally effective and safe. The differences in interpretation of the data as well as the debates are likely to result in differences in treatment after orchidectomy in seminoma stage I patient management...

  6. Patterns of care for dysphagic patients with degenerative neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonies, B C

    2000-01-01

    Several of the most common neurodegenerative conditions associated with dysphagia are Parkinsons's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, postpolio syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The best clinical practices for treating dysphagic patients with these common conditions are discussed in relation to medication, surgery, diagnosis, and clinical management. Best practice patterns are explained as they relate to the following concepts of care, including comprehension and cognition; interaction with caregivers; dependence-independence during therapy; matching treatment plans to changes in physiology; and establishing realistic expectations including consideration of personal, cultural, and family needs for continuance or termination of care.

  7. The 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP): A Visual Arts Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Arts Assessment was administered to selected 8th grade students throughout the nation, and in 2009 the results from that administration were publicly reported. In the spring of 2010, building on the format and structure of the 2008 national assessment, the researcher administered a…

  8. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  9. Obstetric conditions and risk of first admission with schizophrenia: A Danish national register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Majella; Agerbo, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    A range of complications of pregnancy, abnormal fetal growth and development, and complications of delivery have been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies have been able to adjust for a broad range of potential confounding factors. A national population nested case......-control study based on Danish longitudinal registers was conducted to investigate the risk of schizophrenia associated with exposure to a range of obstetric events. The sample included 1039 first admissions to, or contacts with Danish psychiatric services with an ICD-8 or ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia...... and 24, 826 individually matched controls. Adjusting for the other obstetric factors, family psychiatric history, and socio-economic and demographic factors, risk of schizophrenia was associated with maternal non-attendance at antenatal appointments (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 2.08, 95% CI: 1.0, 4...

  10. Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2009-01-01

    -49 with no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted rate ratios for all first time deep venous thrombosis, portal thrombosis, thrombosis of caval vein, thrombosis of renal vein, unspecified deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism during the study period. RESULTS: 10......OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of venous thrombosis in current users of different types of hormonal contraception, focusing on regimen, oestrogen dose, type of progestogen, and route of administration. DESIGN: National cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1995-2005. PARTICIPANTS: Danish women aged 15.......4 million woman years were recorded, 3.3 million woman years in receipt of oral contraceptives. In total, 4213 venous thrombotic events were observed, 2045 in current users of oral contraceptives. The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 10 000 woman years in non-users of oral contraceptives was 3...

  11. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy......., length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  12. On-site laboratory support of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory remedial investigation/feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, J.L.E.; Brooksbank, R.D.; Dillener, J.L.; Jeskie, T.R.

    1992-10-01

    In 1987, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) was begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL had established a number of waste area groupings (WAGs), each of which was to be studied and characterized separately. Although the nature and extent of contamination at the WAGs vary widely, samples from each WAG might be radiologically and/or chemically contaminated. To comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations regarding the shipment of hazardous and radioactive materials, all samples are screened for radioactivity before shipment to independent laboratories for further analysis. In 1989 a Close Support Laboratory (CSL) was established at the RI/FS Field Operations Facility at ORNL. The CSL began as a screening facility and has evolved into a laboratory where high-quality analytical results on a number of different parameters are usually available within 24 hours of sampling. CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, volatile organic analysis (VOA), and wet chemistry

  13. Infertility and preterm delivery, birthweight, and Caesarean section: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    , longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy....... RESULTS: A TTP >1 year was associated with an increased risk of all outcomes studied, including preterm birth [odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) among primiparas and 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) among multiparas]. Odds ratios for preterm remained elevated after adjustment for covariates....... Among couples with a TTP >1 year, infertility treatment was associated with added risk only among multiparas. CONCLUSION: Infertile women are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes even if they conceive without treatment. With >10% of babies born to infertile couples, it is important to consider...

  14. Genocide Studies and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Contemporary Case of the French National Railways (SNCF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Federman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Genocide studies considers the accountability various of perpetrators, as well as the needs mass atrocity creates. The inclusion of market actors, however, remains marginalized. This article considers factors perpetuating this marginalization and its costs, arguing for greater inclusion of market actors in genocide-related discussions. Relegating the importance of these actors makes the field, not their role, tangential. To examine this intersection of business and genocide, this article introduces a contemporary conflict involving the United States and France over the French National Railways (SNCF and its role in the transport of deportees towards death camps during World War II. The lengthy, vitriolic conflict suggests the need for better discursive spaces to explore the complex role of market actors. Developing the intersection of genocide studies and corporate social responsibility in scholarship and increasing the participation of businesses in post-conflict work can help do this work.

  15. The prevalence of workaholism: a survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Workaholism has become an increasingly popular area for empirical study. However, most studies examining the prevalence of workaholism have used non-representative samples and measures with poorly defined cut-off scores. To overcome these methodological limitations, a nationally representative survey among employees in Norway (N = 1,124 was conducted. Questions relating to gender, age, marital status, caretaker responsibility for children, percentage of full-time equivalent, and educational level were asked. Workaholism was assessed by the use of a psychometrically validated instrument (i.e., Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Personality was assessed using the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. Results showed that the prevalence of workaholism was 8.3% (95% CI  = 6.7-9.9%. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism was negatively related to age and positively related to the personality dimensions agreeableness, neuroticism, and intellect/imagination. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  16. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José GOMES DA SILVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has a qualitative approach and a descriptive and documentary procedure, through the comparative study method. The sources were laws, resolutions, regulations, decrees, regulatory guidelines, official informs, official communications and technical reports. So, on the whole, we ascertained that these policies seek an educational quality, aligned by the market logic, with constitutive elements of the recommendations of international organisations, and they are directed to the technological development and economic growth, thus legitimizing the hegemonic discourse of globalization.

  17. Body image trends among Icelandic adolescents: a cross-sectional national study from 1997 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in body image among Icelandic adolescents from 1997 to 2010. Data from five cross-sectional surveys conducted among national samples of 9th and 10th graders in Iceland using five time points (1997, 2000, 2006, 2009, and 2010) were compared to examine changes in body image. In total, 32,397 adolescents participated in the study. Body image among 14-15-year-old adolescents in Iceland improved significantly over the 13-year period. Girls reported more negative body image than boys at all time points. However, the positive change in body image from 1997 to 2010 was more pronounced for girls than boys, resulting in a narrower gap between the genders. The current results are encouraging and indicate that in an age of increased overweight and obesity, the body image of Icelandic adolescents is becoming more positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Obstetric conditions and risk of first admission with schizophrenia: A Danish national register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Majella; Agerbo, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    -control study based on Danish longitudinal registers was conducted to investigate the risk of schizophrenia associated with exposure to a range of obstetric events. The sample included 1039 first admissions to, or contacts with Danish psychiatric services with an ICD-8 or ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia......A range of complications of pregnancy, abnormal fetal growth and development, and complications of delivery have been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies have been able to adjust for a broad range of potential confounding factors. A national population nested case...... and 24, 826 individually matched controls. Adjusting for the other obstetric factors, family psychiatric history, and socio-economic and demographic factors, risk of schizophrenia was associated with maternal non-attendance at antenatal appointments (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 2.08, 95% CI: 1.0, 4...

  19. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, J C; Carneiro, F M; Borges, P P; Machado, K B; Huszar, V L M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI). The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility.

  20. Hydrologic characteristics of the Agua Fria National Monument, central Arizona, determined from the reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions in the newly created Agua Fria National Monument were characterized on the basis of existing hydrologic and geologic information, and streamflow data collected in May 2002. The study results are intended to support the Bureau of Land Management's future water-resource management responsibilities, including quantification of a Federal reserved water right within the monument. This report presents the study results, identifies data deficiencies, and describes specific approaches for consideration in future studies. Within the Agua Fria National Monument, the Agua Fria River flows generally from north to south, traversing almost the entire 23-mile length of the monument. Streamflow has been measured continuously at a site near the northern boundary of the monument since 1940. Streamflow statistics for this site, and streamflow measurements from other sites along the Agua Fria River, indicate that the river is perennial in the northern part of the monument but generally is intermittent in downstream reaches. The principal controls on streamflow along the river within the monument appear to be geology, the occurrence and distribution of alluvium, inflow at the northern boundary and from tributary canyons, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. At present, (2004) there is no consistent surface-water quality monitoring program being implemented for the monument. Ground-water recharge within the monument likely results from surface-water losses and direct infiltration of precipitation. Wells are most numerous in the Cordes Junction and Black Canyon City areas. Only eight wells are within the monument. Ground-water quality data for wells in the monument area consist of specific-conductance values and fluoride concentrations. During the study, ground-water quality data were available for only one well within the monument. No ground-water monitoring program is currently in place for the monument or surrounding areas.

  1. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Cohort study. 1996-2002, Denmark. All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was drawn from national registers. Spontaneous abortion, that is, fetal death within the first 22 weeks of pregnancy, was the outcome of interest. The authors estimated HRs of spontaneous abortion using Cox regression analysis with gestational age as the underlying time scale. Women with abortion when compared with women with >12 years of education (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.34)). The HR estimates for the four lowest income quintiles were all increased (HRs between 1.09 and 1.15) as compared with the upper quintile but did not differ considerably from each other. In general, no statistically significant association was found between labour market attachment and the risk of spontaneous abortion; however, the group of women on disability pension had an increased HR of spontaneous abortion when compared with women who were employed (HR 1.32 (95% CI 0.82 to 2.13)). Educational level and income were inversely associated with the risk of spontaneous abortion. As these factors most likely are non-causally related to spontaneous abortion, the findings indicate that factors related to social position, probably of the environmental and behavioural type, may affect spontaneous abortion risk. The study highlights the need for studies addressing such exposures in order to prevent spontaneous abortions.

  2. The Prevalence and Use of Walking Loops in Neighborhood Parks: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Han, Bing; Evenson, Kelly R.; Nagel, Catherine; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Harnik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that the design of streets and sidewalks can influence physical activity among residents. Park features also influence park use and park-based physical activity. Although individuals can walk on streets and sidewalks, walking loops in parks offer a setting to walk in nature and to avoid interruptions from traffic. Objectives: Here we describe the use of walking loops in parks and compare the number of park users and their physical activity in urban neighborhood parks with and without walking loops. Methods: We analyzed data from the National Study of Neighborhood Parks in which a representative sample of neighborhood parks (n = 174) from 25 U.S. cities with > 100,000 population were observed systematically to document facilities and park users by age group and sex. We compared the number of people and their physical activity in parks with and without walking loops, controlling for multiple factors, including park size, facilities, and population density. Results: Overall, compared with parks without walking loops, on average during an hourly observation, parks with walking loops had 80% more users (95% CI: 42, 139%), and levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 90% higher (95% CI: 49, 145%). The additional park use and park-based physical activity occurred not only on the walking loops but throughout the park. Conclusions: Walking loops may be a promising means of increasing population level physical activity. Further studies are needed to confirm a causal relationship. Citation: Cohen DA, Han B, Evenson KR, Nagel C, McKenzie TL, Marsh T, Williamson S, Harnik P. 2017. The prevalence and use of walking loops in neighborhood parks: a national study. Environ Health Perspect 125:170–174; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP293 PMID:27517530

  3. Sport for Development and Global Public Health Issues: A Case Study of National Sports Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Banda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport is widely recognised for the contribution it can make to international development goals. More specifically, the value of sport as a tool for development gained its impetus through the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The institutionalized relationship between sport and development has mainly focussed on sport-for-development (SfD non-governmental organisations (NGOs. This study proposed to examine the response of National Sports Associations (NSAs towards the multisectoral approach for HIV/AIDS prevention in Zambia. The study draws on lessons learnt from how NSAs within a resource-scarce or low-income country responded to a health pandemic. While public health was previously a state and health sector preserve, the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic influenced not only the way that a pandemic is managed but also other public health issues. A case study approach was adopted comprising of three National Sports Associations (NSAs as units of analysis. The study utilised semi-structured interviews, documentary analysis and field observations to gain perspectives on how each NSA mainstreamed and implemented work-based health programmes. Using governance and policy network theories, the paper discusses each NSAs’ role in the governance and implementation of a multisectoral approach to a health pandemic. The findings identified lack of engagement of sports agencies at strategic decision-making level, marginalisation of sport by other sectors, and variations in implementation patterns among sports agencies. Further findings indicate that lack of resources among government sport agencies or departments limited their involvement with other state or non-state actors in strategic level meetings or health policy networks. Resource-scarce conditions placed limitations on the political steer of state actors while non-state actors with foreign resources attracted collaboration from other public health policy networks.

  4. Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Pancreatitis After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Sumant; Berzin, Tyler M; Sejpal, Divyesh V; Pleskow, Douglas K; Chuttani, Ram; Sawhney, Mandeep S; Trindade, Arvind J

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on the safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during pregnancy, only data from observational series (approximately 350 cases) have been published. We aimed to evaluate the safety of ERCP in pregnant women by evaluating a large nationwide database. We performed a retrospective matched-cohort study, collecting data from the National Inpatient Sample from 2008 through 2009. We compared data from pregnant women who underwent ERCP (n = 907) with those from nonpregnant women who underwent ERCP (controls, n = 2721). Complications related to ERCP were measured against the matched controls. Obstetric and fetal complications were measured against the national average of all obstetric admissions. ERCP-associated complications of perforation, infection, and bleeding were infrequent in both cohorts (P > .05). Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) occurred in 12% of pregnant women and in 5% of controls (P Pregnancy is an independent risk factor for PEP; PEP and PEP among pregnant women are each more prevalent in community hospitals than teaching centers. Proper precautions therefore should be considered for pregnant women undergoing ERCP, including transfer to a tertiary care center if appropriate. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived social stigma and attitudes towards seeking therapy in training: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiuni, Malena; Jones, Fergal W; Camic, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Given the potential value of undergoing psychological therapy when training as a therapist, it is important to understand what influences students' decisions regarding seeking therapy. The study examined the relationship between clinical psychology students' perception of the social stigma attached to receiving therapy and their attitudes toward seeking therapy. Students from Argentina (n = 121), England (n = 211), and the United States (n = 130) completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived social stigma, attitudes, and other variables associated with therapy-seeking. The results revealed significant cross-national differences, with Argentinean students showing the lowest levels of perceived social stigma for receiving therapy, followed by English and Americans. English students showed relatively less positive attitudes toward seeking therapy than their Argentinean and American counterparts. Social stigma predicted students' attitudes toward seeking therapy among English and American but not Argentinean students. The relationship between perceived social stigma and attitudes was moderated by nationality. Implications for training are discussed, including English and American clinical psychology courses encouraging their students to reflect on the effect of perceived social stigma on their decision-making.

  6. Mental health correlates of past homelessness in the National Comorbidity Study Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative epidemiologic survey, the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, to investigate the association of mental health and substance use disorders, along with other factors, with past homelessness. Approximately 5% of the 5,251 adults reported having been homelessness. Multivariate analysis showed the strongest independent risk factors for past homelessness were past receipt of welfare payments (odds ratio [OR]=5.7), incarceration for 27 or more days (OR=3.9), exposure to personal violence (OR=2.7), lifetime substance use disorder (OR=2.4), and Black race (OR=2.1). Several non-substance use psychiatric disorders were also significantly, if less strongly (OR 1.4 to 1.6), associated with past homelessness. Past homelessness is associated with a broad array of sociodemographic, economic, and mental health problems. While the association of both substance use and psychiatric disorders with past homelessness was quite strong, non-substance use psychiatric disorders was not as strong an independent risk factor as substance abuse disorders.

  7. A case study for evaluating ecological risks at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.; Brewer, R.; Morris, R.; VanHorn, R.

    1994-01-01

    A case study was conducted as a component of the development of guidance for ecological risk assessment at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a large facility in southeastern Idaho, encompassing expanses of sagebrush-steppe that harbor numerous wildlife species. Nuclear research and waste disposal activities have resulted in releases of radionuclides at various sites. Due to the size and number of potentially contaminated areas, a cost-effective method was needed to evaluate ecological risks and to identify data needs for remedial investigations. Screening-level assessment approaches were developed to evaluate data collected from previous site investigations. Above-background concentrations of radionuclides and other contaminants in media were compared to risk-based criteria, which were derived from sources such as recent publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Site-specific risks to plants and wildlife were estimated for contaminants exceeding criteria. Dose rates derived using various estimation methods were compared to reference doses for wildlife obtained from IAEA, NCRP, and other publications

  8. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the adult Russian population (NATION study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivan; Shestakova, Marina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Simon, Dominique; Pakhomov, Iakov; Galstyan, Gagik

    2016-05-01

    To estimate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Russian adults. NATION is a national, epidemiological, cross-sectional study, conducted in Russia. In adults (aged 20-79 years), recruitment was stratified by age, sex, geographic region and settlement type to obtain a representative sample. Recruitment was in public areas with high numbers of people. T2DM was diagnosed by glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (diabetes: HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48mmol/mol]; pre-diabetes: HbA1c ≥5.7 to diabetic. T2DM prevalence increased with age (up to 70 years) and was higher among females than males (6.1% vs. 4.7%, pdiabetes and T2DM tended to increase with increasing body mass index. T2DM prevalence was higher in rural versus urban populations (6.7% vs. 5.0%, pdiabetes, T2DM prevalence was 5.4%, and 54% of subjects with diabetes were previously undiagnosed. These results may help to develop a new T2DM predictive, preventative and management programme in Russia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Kathryn E W; Brückner, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Nonheterosexual adolescents are vulnerable to health risks including addiction, bullying, and familial abuse. We examined whether they also suffer disproportionate school and criminal-justice sanctions. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents who were in grades 7 through 12 in 1994-1995. Data from the 1994-1995 survey and the 2001-2002 follow-up were analyzed. Three measures were used to assess nonheterosexuality: same-sex attraction, same-sex romantic relationships, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) self-identification. Six outcomes were assessed: school expulsion; police stops; juvenile arrest; juvenile conviction; adult arrest; and adult conviction. Multivariate analyses controlled for adolescents' sociodemographics and behaviors, including illegal conduct. Nonheterosexuality consistently predicted a higher risk for sanctions. For example, in multivariate analyses, nonheterosexual adolescents had greater odds of being stopped by the police (odds ratio: 1.38 [P punishments that are not explained by greater engagement in illegal or transgressive behaviors. Understanding and addressing these disparities might reduce school expulsions, arrests, and incarceration and their dire social and health consequences.

  10. Scenario planning based on geomatics: a case study in Zijin mountain national forest park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyang; He, Yanjie; Xu, Guangcai; Wu, Wenhao; Wang, Baozhong

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of forest tourism, it is crucial to coordinate the conflicting goals of a forest park by making a scientific plan. It is difficult to determine the complex relationship by means of traditional laboratory and field experiments on the scale of landscape. Zijin Mountain national forest park is taken as a case study area, while RS and GIS software ERDAS 8.7, ArcGis 9.0 are chosen as the spatial platforms of doing scenario planning. Three different periods remote sensing data in the years of 2000 (IKNOS), 2002(SPOT5), 2004 ( QuickBird ) are gathered, then supervised classification, neighborhood analysis are being done before three scenarios of national park in ten years are built based on Cellular Automation Model (CAM). Three spatial pattern index of mean patch area, shape index, patch density of each scenario are calculated by using the spatial pattern analysis program of Fragstats 3.3. After comparison of the three scenarios from two aspects of landscape spatial pattern and protection goals, an optimized planning is made and compared with the land classes in 2002. In the end of the paper, some problems concerned with the scenario making are discussed.

  11. Economic crisis and communicable disease control in Europe: a scoping study among national experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Boika; Suhrcke, Marc; Tsolova, Svetla; Suk, Jonathan E; Desai, Monica; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hunter, Paul; Senek, Michaela; Semenza, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of the current global economic crisis on the spread and control of communicable diseases remain uncertain. This study aimed to explore experts' views about the impact of the current crisis and measures that have been undertaken by governments to mitigate an alleged adverse effect of the crisis on communicable diseases. An online survey was conducted during November 2009-February 2010 among experts from national agencies for communicable disease control from European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries. There were few specific national policies and programmes aimed at mitigating the impact of the economic crisis. Prevention services were deemed particularly susceptible to budget cuts (68%) as a result of the economic crisis compared to primary care (28%), according to survey respondents. Services targeted at vulnerable and hard-to-reach population groups were perceived to be at particular risk of deterioration (67%) in contrast to travel medicine (11%), according to respondents. There is a need for sustainability of financial resources, public health workforce and infrastructures to ensure that the services and programmes for the surveillance and control of the spread of communicable disease are maintained and developed. There is also a need to explore and foster better linkage in data on socioeconomic circumstances and communicable disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kastaun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%. Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the “real-world” effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: “Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten” aims to provide such nationally representative data. Methods/Design In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves. This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-cigarettes. Per wave, about 500–600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (<12 months since quitting. This sample will answer detailed questions about smoking behaviour, quit attempts, exposure to health professionals’ advice on quitting, and use of cessation aids. Six-month follow-up data will be collected by telephone. Discussion The DEBRA study will be an important source of data for tobacco control policies, health strategies, and future research. The methodology is closely aligned to the STS, which will allow comparisons with data from England, a country with one of the lowest smoking prevalence rates in Europe (18%. Trial registration This study has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 on 25th November 2016.

  13. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA): a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastaun, Sabrina; Brown, Jamie; Brose, Leonie S; Ratschen, Elena; Raupach, Tobias; Nowak, Dennis; Cholmakow-Bodechtel, Constanze; Shahab, Lion; West, Robert; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-05-02

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%). Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the "real-world" effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: "Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten") aims to provide such nationally representative data. In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves). This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-)cigarettes. Per wave, about 500-600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (smoking behaviour, quit attempts, exposure to health professionals' advice on quitting, and use of cessation aids. Six-month follow-up data will be collected by telephone. The DEBRA study will be an important source of data for tobacco control policies, health strategies, and future research. The methodology is closely aligned to the STS, which will allow comparisons with data from England, a country with one of the lowest smoking prevalence rates in Europe (18%). This study has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 ) on 25th November 2016.

  14. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  15. A national surveillance project on chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K; Ronksley, Paul E; Tangri, Navdeep; Singer, Alexander; Grill, Allan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Queenan, John A; Lindeman, Cliff; Soos, Boglarka; Freiheit, Elizabeth; Tuot, Delphine; Mangin, Dee; Drummond, Neil

    2017-08-04

    Effective chronic disease care is dependent on well-organised quality improvement (QI) strategies that monitor processes of care and outcomes for optimal care delivery. Although healthcare is provincially/territorially structured in Canada, there are national networks such as the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) as important facilitators for national QI-based studies to improve chronic disease care. The goal of our study is to improve the understanding of how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are managed in primary care and the variation across practices and provinces and territories to drive improvements in care delivery. The CPCSSN database contains anonymised health information from the electronic medical records for patients of participating primary care practices (PCPs) across Canada (n=1200). The dataset includes information on patient sociodemographics, medications, laboratory results and comorbidities. Leveraging validated algorithms, case definitions and guidelines will help define CKD and the related processes of care, and these enable us to: (1) determine prevalent CKD burden; (2) ascertain the current practice pattern on risk identification and management of CKD and (3) study variation in care indicators (eg, achievement of blood pressure and proteinuria targets) and referral pattern for specialist kidney care. The process of care outcomes will be stratified across patients' demographics as well as provider and regional (provincial/territorial) characteristics. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 will be presented as age-sex standardised prevalence estimates stratified by province and as weighted averages for population rates with 95% CIs using census data. For each PCP, age-sex standardised prevalence will be calculated and compared with expected standardised prevalence estimates. The process-based outcomes will be defined using established methods. The CPCSSN is committed to high ethical standards when dealing with

  16. Using antidepressants and the risk of stroke recurrence: report from a national representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Pei-Chun; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2015-06-05

    Evidence about the association between antidepressants and the risk of stroke recurrence was scanty. This study evaluated the risk of stroke recurrence according to using antidepressants in patients with stroke from a national representative cohort. This cohort study followed 16770 patients aged > =20 years who had an incident stroke from 2000 to 2009 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Records of each antidepressant prescription were obtained during follow-up. The types of antidepressants were categorized by Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system: tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and other antidepressants. The main outcome was a recurrent stroke during the follow-up period. The time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was used in the analyses. During 63715 person-years of follow-up, we documented 3769 events for stroke recurrence. Antidepressants use was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95 % confidence interval [C.I.], 1.24-1.62), especially for ischemic stroke (HR, 1.48; 95 % C.I., 1.28-1.70), but not for hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.22; 95 % C.I., 0.86-1.73). The increased risk of stoke recurrence was found for TCAs use only (HR, 1.41; 95 % C.I., 1.14-1.74), SSRIs use only (HR, 1.31; 95 % C.I.,1.00-1.73),use of other types of antidepressants only(HR, 1.46; 95 % C.I.,1.15-1.84), or use of multiple types of antidepressants (HR, 1.84; 95 % C.I.,1.04-3.25). We demonstrated that use of antidepressants was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence, especially in ischemic stroke among Taiwanese. Further studies are warranted to confirm the possible underlying mechanisms of these findings.

  17. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Chung; Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Laura; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2015-10-12

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439) who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124) who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years) was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity.

  18. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  19. Urbanicity matters in self-reported child maltreatment prevalence: Findings from a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Salhi, Carmel; Griffith, John L; Molnar, Beth E

    2018-05-01

    Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation. Using nationally representative data from waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the prevalence of six maltreatment outcomes was estimated for rural, minor urban, and major urban areas (N = 14,322). Multivariable logistic models were estimated identifying if risk associated with urbanicity persisted after adjusting for other risk factors. Interactions between urbanicity and main effects were explored. Prevalence estimates of any CM, poly-victimization, supervision neglect, and physical abuse were significantly higher in major urban areas. Those from major urban areas were more likely to report any maltreatment and supervision neglect even after adjusting for child and family risk factors. The association between race/ethnicity, welfare receipt, low parental educational attainment, and disability status and CM were modified by urbanicity. Significant differences in the prevalence and correlates of CM exist between urban and rural areas. Future research and policy should use self-reported prevalence, in conjunction with official reports, to inform child maltreatment prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Importance of the Study of Cognitive Performance Enhancement for U.S. National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malish, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability. Because of its legacy of research into therapeutic agents to enhance human-machine interplay, the aerospace medical community represents a front-running candidate to perform this work. Notably, there are strong signals emanating from gambling, academic, and video-gaming enterprises that already-developed stimulants and other agents provide cognitive benefits. These agents should be studied not only for reasons of national security, but also because cognitive enhancement may be a necessary step in the evolution of humankind. To illustrate these points, this article will assert that: 1) the need to preserve and enhance physical and cognitive health will become more and more important over the next century; 2) aeromedical specialists are in a position to take the lead in the endeavor to enhance cognition; 3) signals of enhancement of the type useful to both military and medical efforts exist aplenty in today's society; and 4) the aeromedical community should approach human enhancement research deliberately but carefully.Malish RG. The importance of the study of cognitive performance enhancement for U.S. national security. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):773-778.

  1. Analysis of reporting quality for oral presentations of observational studies at 19thNational Surgical Congress: Proposal for a national evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbahçeci, Mustafa; Başak, Fatih; Acar, Aylin; Şişik, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    To compare the quality of oral presentations presented at the 19 th National Surgical Congress with a national evaluation system with respect to the applicability of systems, and consistency between systems and reviewers. Fifty randomly selected observational studies, which were blinded for author and institute information, were evaluated by using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies (STROBE), Timmer Score, and National Evaluation System by two reviewers. Abstract scores, evaluation periods, and compatibility between reviewers were compared for each evaluation system. Abstract scores by three different evaluation systems were regarded as the main outcome. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank and Friedman tests for comparison of scores and times, kappa analysis for compatibility between reviewers, and Spearman correlation for analysis of reviewers based on pairs of evaluation systems were used. There was no significant difference between abstract scores for each system (p>0.05). A significant difference for evaluation period of reviewers was detected for each system (pEvaluation System was regarded as acceptable (κ=0.394 and κ=0.354, respectively). Assessment of reviewers for pairs of evaluation systems revealed that scores increased in the same direction with each other significantly (pEvaluation System is an appropriate method for evaluation of conference abstracts due to the consistent results between the referees similarly with the current international evaluation systems and ease of applicability with regard to evaluation period.

  2. Attitudes of nursing staff towards involvement in medical end-of-life decisions: a national survey study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.; Francke, A.L.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Bilsen, J.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nursing staff attitudes towards involvement and role in end-of-life decisions (ELD) and the relationships with sociodemographic and work-related characteristics. Methods: Survey study among nationally representative Dutch research sample consisting of care professionals.

  3. Attitudes of nursing staff towards involvement in medical end-of-life decisions: A national survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.; Francke, A.L.; de Veer, A.J.E.; Bilsen, J.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nursing staff attitudes towards involvement and role in end-of-life decisions (ELDs) and the relationships with sociodemographic and work-related characteristics. Methods: Survey study among nationally representative Dutch research sample consisting of care professionals.

  4. Programs and Practices that Retain Students from the First to Second Year: Results from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter findings from a nationally representative longitudinal study offer insights into how the experiences students have during their first college year affect their intention to be retained at their initial college for the second year.

  5. Second meeting of the Scientific Societies for the feasibility study of implantation of a synchrotron radiation national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Feasibility study for the implantation of a national laboratory of synchrotron radiation in Brazil is discussed by several Brazilian Scientific Societies. Problems related with cost, personnel training and machine uses are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Long-range plan for buried transuranic waste studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, J.O.

    1985-12-01

    This document presents a plan to perform detailed studies of alternatives considered for the long-term management of buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The studies will provide the technical basis for DOE to make a decision on the future management of that waste. Although the waste is currently being handled in an acceptable manner, new solutions are continually being researched to improve management techniques. Three alternatives are being considered: (a) leave the waste as is; (b) improve in situ confinement of the waste; and (c) retrieve, process, and certify the waste for disposal at a federal repository. Fourteen studies are described in this plan for Alternatives 2 and 3. The leave-as-is alternative involves continuing present procedures for managing the buried waste. An ongoing environmental surveillance program, a low-level-waste stabilization program, and enhanced subsurface migration studies begun in FY-1984 at the INEL will provide data for the decision-making process for the INEL buried TRU waste. These ongoing studies for the leave-as-is alternative are summarized in this plan in limited detail. The improved-confinement alternative involves leaving the waste in place, but providing additional protection against wind, water penetration, erosion, and plant and animal intrusion. Several studies proposed under this alternative will examine special techniques to immobilize or encapsulate the buried waste. An in situ grouting study was implemented at the INEL starting in FY-1985 and will be completed at the end of FY-1986 with the grouting of a simulated INEL buried TRU waste trench. Studies of the third alternative will investigate improved retrieval, processing, and certification techniques. New equipment, such as industrial manipulators and excavating machinery, will be tested in the retrieval studies. Processing and certification studies will examine rapidly changing or new technologies

  7. On an epistemological choice: Gypsy Studies as a Slovenian nation-building discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Podvršič

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysing Slovenian sociological production of knowledge about the Romani people, the article problematises the question of epistemological choice in studying social reality. These studies can serve as a case study in examining the complex yet systematised relationship between the changes in social reality and the academic discourse. As an object of inquiry, the Romani people have been introduced in the Slovenian academic discourse after Slovenia’s independence and particularly during the period of the accession to the European Union, when Romani people have been granted the status of an ethnic minority. The prevailing studies, which are primarily based in cultural studies, call, together with minority law, for an improvement of the situation of Romani communities, starting with ending discrimination. However, the discourse on the Romani people as an underprivileged minority cannot reflect on the presuppositions of its own practice. Hence, by identifying the normative discourse of the nation-state with the analytical discourse, and by approaching ethnic groups as givens, it works against the very position that it tries to defend; by unknowingly supporting neoliberal policies, it contributes to the reproduction of the existent relations of inequality.

  8. Analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that by obtention the exposure-response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Meneses, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Pathway methodology, developed in the frame of Extern E project for estimating of the external costs or externalities of the energy use, has as one of their main steps the health impact evaluation. This evaluation is carried out through exposure-response functions. In previous estimates of the external costs of power generation in Cuba, functions obtained in international studies were used. The main objective of this work was to carry out a summarized critical analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that, according the exposed methodology, consider the main aspects specialized with views to the possible preliminary proposal of functions exposure-response (FER) based own in epidemiologic evidences. In agreement with the analysis, the results show that the great majority of the studies are not useful for the FER establishment, at least in their present form. A minority studies exists that contributes limited evidence and their reanalysis could increase their contribution to the propose purpose. Finally the main problems found in the studies are enumerated revision object

  9. A Cross-National Study of Secondary Science Classroom Environments in Australia and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard

    2010-08-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) crossvalidate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of classroom environment; and 3) investigate associations between students’ attitudes to science and their perceptions of classroom environment. The sample consisted of 1,161 students (594 students from 18 classes in Indonesia and 567 students from 18 classes in Australia). Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation supported the validity of a revised structure for the WIHIC. Two-way MANOVA revealed some differences between countries and between sexes in students’ perceptions of their classroom environments. Simple correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed generally positive associations between the classroom environment and student attitudes to science in both countries.

  10. Reverse Mortgage Participation in the United States: Evidence from a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the most recent wave of a nationally representative dataset to examine the factors associated with elderly homeowners’ decision to obtain reverse mortgage loans. The findings of this study suggest that very few homeowners participated in the reverse mortgage market, and homeowners younger than 67 were less likely to have reverse mortgage loans. However, homeowners who were risk averse, and homeowners in the two highest quartiles of net worth were more likely to have reverse mortgage loans. Further analyses reveal that among the reverse mortgage participants, homeowners with long-term care insurance coverage were less likely to have reverse mortgage loans. Implications for financial economists, financial planners, policy-makers, and scholars of retirement economics are included.

  11. [Medico-legal study on crashes of fighter planes of the National People's Army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignitz, Eberhard; Kopetz, Bernd; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    In the years 1974 to 1990, 39 pilots died in 34 crashes of fighter planes of the National People's Army; 32 victims were examined forensically. For the present study all autopsy protocols and examination reports available in the German Federal Military Archives in Freiburg could be evaluated. Both officer cadets and experienced pilots of high military ranks were among the victims. The majority of the crashes (24 out of 34) was caused by human failure. Health problems or the use of alcohol and medications did not play a role in the aircraft accidents. All killed pilots were identified. The injury patterns after fatal ejection are different from the patterns seen after impact with a plane. Such patterns of findings are meaningful in the reconstruction of unknown sequences of events leading to the accidents and for the assessment of the pilots' capacity to act at the moment of the incident

  12. A national study of the psychological impact of bank robbery with a randomized control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    of bank employees exposed to robbery (response rate: 73.6 %). Several related factors were also investigated including prior traumatic exposure, anxiety, and general traumatic symptoms. The results were compared to a randomized control group of bank employees never exposed to robbery (N= 303......Despite, numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research on the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is limited. We studied the prevalence of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) (N = 458) and the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (n = 378) in a Danish national questionnaire survey...... but surprisingly significantly higher than the follow-up robbery group. The results are discussed in relation to existing research and the effect of other factors such as prior traumatic exposure. In conclusion bank robberies are a traumatizing event for the employees, especially when disregarding avoidance...

  13. The causes of homelessness in later life: findings from a 3-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Maureen; Byrne, Kathleen; Fu, Ruby; Lipmann, Bryan; Mirabelli, Frances; Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Ryan, Maureen; Shea, Robert; Watt, Hope; Warnes, Anthony M

    2005-05-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the causes of homelessness among newly homeless older people in selected urban areas of the United States, England, and Australia. Interviews were conducted in each country with > or =122 older people who had become homeless during the last 2 years. Information was also collected from the subjects' key workers about the circumstances and problems that contributed to homelessness. Two-thirds of the subjects had never been homeless before. Antecedent causes were the accommodation was sold or needed repair, rent arrears, death of a close relative, relationship breakdown, and disputes with other tenants and neighbors. Contributory factors were physical and mental health problems, alcohol abuse, and gambling problems. Most subjects became homeless through a combination of personal problems and incapacities, welfare policy gaps, and service delivery deficiencies. Whereas there are nation-specific variations, across the three countries, the principal causes and their interactions are similar.

  14. Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of venous thrombosis in current users of different types of hormonal contraception, focusing on regimen, oestrogen dose, type of progestogen, and route of administration. DESIGN: National cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1995-2005. PARTICIPANTS: Danish women aged 15.......4 million woman years were recorded, 3.3 million woman years in receipt of oral contraceptives. In total, 4213 venous thrombotic events were observed, 2045 in current users of oral contraceptives. The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 10 000 woman years in non-users of oral contraceptives was 3.......01 and in current users was 6.29. Compared with non-users of combined oral contraceptives the rate ratio of venous thrombembolism in current users decreased with duration of use (4 years 2.76, 2.53 to 3.02; P

  15. A Framework for Description and Measurement of National Scientific Wealth with a Case Study on Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable development in science, innovation, and technology requires a balanced distribution of scientific wealth in sub-country regions. This paper addresses the issue of geographical distribution of scientific wealth and its goal is to offer a framework to describe and measure the share of provinces in national scientific wealth. Our proposed model divides the indicators of scientific wealth into two groups, production and the use of scientific wealth. To evaluate this model, the scientific wealth of Iran was studied using recorded data on IRANDOC databases. Rich, average, and poor provinces were identified and the results showed that 70% of the scientific wealth belongs to 20% of the provinces. The findings can facilitate planning for a sustainable science and technology policy.

  16. Elevated serum inflammatory markers and preeclampsia: Results from a large national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Brandie D; Tang, Gong; Ness, Roberta B

    2015-01-01

    -alpha, TNF-beta, TNF-receptor, IL-1beta IL-1alpha IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-18, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF), and RANTES. We examined associations between inflammatory markers dichotomized by the limit of detection......OBJECTIVES: As inflammation has been associated with preeclampsia in cross-sectional analyses, we examined the relationship between inflammatory markers and preeclampsia in early pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 409 preeclamptic women and 297 normotensive controls...... with primiparous singleton pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort at a median gestation of 16 weeks. Preeclampsia was defined by blood pressure ⩾140/90mmHg and proteinuria ⩾3g/24h. Inflammatory markers included interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-4, IL-4 receptor, IL-5, IL-12, IL-2, TNF...

  17. A Descriptive Study of Pediatric Injury Patterns from the National Automotive Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, C; Jolly, BT

    1998-01-01

    This study describes information from the National Automotive Sampling System for injury mechanisms in the pediatric age group (age 0–16). The total number of pediatric cases in the NASS database for this three year sampling period is 2141(weighted 591,084). No restraint use was identified in 23–43% of the children. For age < 1yr, 60% of patients suffer a facial injury. Head injuries make up only 10% of the total injuries, but are severe. For those age 1–4 yrs abdominal injuries and lower extremity injuries begin to appear. For those age 5–10 yrs, the predominant change over younger occupants is the proportion of spinal injuries. By age 11–16, injuries to the spine, upper extremities, and lower extremities outnumber injuries to the face and head. However, in this population, the greatest proportions of AIS 3–5 injuries still occur to the head and abdomen.

  18. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment

  19. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring--a Danish National cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M

    2014-01-01

    Cohort. POPULATION: A cohort of 60,386 singleton children with full information on mother's occupational status, exposure to psychosocial job strain and all covariates during pregnancy. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of congenital malformations as a function of job......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory...

  20. Study on the Contribution of Nuclear and RI Technology to the National Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and radio-isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. For the nuclear power generation technology, the economic effect of both power plant construction and operation was evaluated. On the other hand, the economic effect of the RI utilization on the national economy was evaluated for RI technology. Firstly, the total economic value addition from nuclear power generation(both construction and operation) was estimated as 1.4% of Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in 2000. Among them, 1.2% was from nuclear power plant operation and the rest was from construction. On the other hand, the economic value addition from RI technology has continuously increased. Its share of GDP increased from 0.30% in 1980 to 0.58 in 2000